A HISTORY OF THEATRE

PART I
Ancient Theatre - Roots Introduction
When the first human being dropped out of a tree or woke up in Eden, looked around and saw another human being, at that moment theatre was born. The urge to communicate to others, to share an experience and to stimulate a reaction in others, all these basic urges lie at the heart of theatre. Humans tried to bring order and gain empowerment over their lives and their environment in the face of a seemingly chaotic universe filled with awesome powers. By taking on the appearance of other beings and forces, by moving their movements and sounding their sounds, the human could understand another being by becoming one. This process of becoming another being gave them a sense of power and a belief that they understood the being they became. Gradually groups of people banded together into tribes. Tribes coalesced into peoples. Slowly, and with great difficulty, they came to understand agriculture and husbandry. They discovered the possibilities of shaping and manipulating wood, rock and metals. They come to know fire and how it could change mud into pottery and sand into glass. Finally, they discovered the secrets of a heat so great that lumps of metallic rock could be transformed into metals. With metal, heat, and a great deal of effort, all sorts of useful and beautiful things could be made, swords, ploughshares and statues. With this knowledge and these skills, peoples became nations and began to build cities and establish what we now call civilizations. As civilizations come into being it became necessary for the rulers and priests to communicate to their people. Kings need to share their dreams of conquest and desires for prosperity and order with their subjects. Priests need to stimulate their flocks to obedience and worship the awesome power of their gods. Theatre provides the obvious means to accomplish these goals. It is only with the rise of a small, aggressive, independent minded people, known as the Greeks, that theatre is taken out of the hands of priests and kings and given to the people. For the first time in human history, theatre is given a place of its own and a function to serve the whole society. Four great playwrights use that place and fill that function so well that their works continue to work their magic through succeeding civilizations down to the present day.

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The theatre might have been lost in the mists of time and distance were it not for one other passionate people, the Romans. After the decline in prosperity and influence of Greece, the Macedonion General Alexander plants theaters and Greek plays from India to Spain. The breakup of Alexander's empire leaves Rome to pick up the pieces. Rome carries Greek ideas and Greek theatre from Africa to England and from Spain to Germany. The Romans plant theatre so widely and so deeply in the territory they conquer, that it is able to survive the long Dark Ages of social disintegration and economic dissolution. In the Middle Ages, the theatre remerges under the protection of the Church, gradually moving out on its own. Finally, theatre will rise again in all its many forms with the rise of humanism. It will again escape the hands of kings and priests and belong to the people. CHAPTER ONE..................................Before the Ionians [sample chapter - ChapOne] CHAPTER TWO..................................The Greeks Theatre Is Born In Athens - Chapter Two CHAPTER THREE................................The Hellenistic World Through Alexander, Theatre Spreads Throughout The Known World - chap3 CHAPTER FOUR.................................The Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation - chap4 CHAPTER FIVE.................................After The Fall The Dark Ages and Why They Aren't So Dark chap5 CHAPTER SIX..................................Into The Middle Ages chap6

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CHAPTER ONE
Before the Ionians
Introduction
When the first truly human trait appeared, the need and the urge to communicate something beyond pointing to an object, we learned to show and tell. Human communication grew on the development of symbols, something that conveys more meaning than just a sign. With a growing repertoire of symbols, visual and spoken, we moved down the path of being human.

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Long before the first appearance of the human activity we call theatre, there was the development of theatrical elements. These elements seem to be central to the human experience. The primary theatrical element is difficult to describe, but it involves the awareness of a power beyond the visible world and the invoking, embodying and manipulating of that power. For convenience we can call this element "magic." The other elements are easy to understand. Everyone, regardless of the society they grow up in, plays at being someone else, seeks out and wears costumes, loves masks and disguises, practices and does special gestures, movements and dance. Everyone enjoys activities that make use of these elements, especially when they are done with a group. As human history emerged from the mists of pre-recorded history and into recorded time we find any number of places where theatrical elements are coming together and becoming more sophisticated and organized. While there are undoubtedly many occasions when these come together among the common people, at their celebrations and festivals, written records deal only with those that involve rulers and priests. The most extensive records we know of at this time come to us from Egypt. While these ancient civilizations left extensive records, written and drawn in great detail, other Mediterranean societies were developing, flourishing and changing. These other societies left very little in the way of written records, but their characteristics, gods, heroes and myths came down to the Greeks who would develop the theatre we know. The Tap Root: Play PLAY IS MORE THAN " SHOW AND TELL" As a number of people have said, play is older than culture and whatever else theatre may be, it is certainly a play activity. Play brings order out of chaos. There is nothing ordinary or "real" about play. It is a voluntary and conscious stepping outside chaotic and uncertain real life into a very special world of order with rules all its own. Although play doesn't put food on the table or a roof over your head it does seem to be a human necessity. In some way play makes real life meaningful. Through play a society expresses and affirms its identity, values, ideals and ways of doing things because all play means something. In this way play contributes to the well-being of the society or the group. It establishes and reaffirms the identity of the society. In this way it is essential and more important to the group than food, shelter or survival. Play can only be understood as a totality with its own rules, its own time and space. Every kind of play has its own playing field and a definite beginning and end to the play activity. Inside the activity there is a very special and absolute order which creates a limited perfection. To be able to play, the players must play by the rules and this creates tension. In play the courage, tenacity, resources, and, above all, the player's sense of fairness are tested to the limits. After the game is over those who have been players are a community. This sense of community, based on the feelings of shared experience, being apart together in an exceptional situation, binds the group together. It makes the magic of the experience last long after the play activity is over. Permanent social groupings are dependent on such play activities to keep alive the specialness of the group and the meanings central to it.

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Playing isn't just "pretend" but an exciting, absorbing, rapturous and intense involvement in something meaningful and satisfying. Players believe in their play. That is the basic law of play. It requires unquestioning belief. In playing, the laws and customs of everyday life don't count. The players are different than they are in real life, and they do things differently. The differentness of the player is obvious in "dressing up," masks and disguises. A disguised or masked individual plays another part. They become another being. Often this being is more terrible or more beautiful, and more powerful, than any human could be. The player uses their imagination, makes an image and identifies with that image. Something invisible takes form. Playing involves actions. The meaning of the play can be found in the acting out of the intentions and interactions of the players within the rules of the game. The actions make a complete and meaningful pattern. When the pattern is complete, the activity is over. Magic A human being experiences the real world as a chaotic and confusing place. There are powerful forces at work every where. Sun, wind, storm, tides, volcanoes, earthquakes, all the forces of nature happen without visible cause. Plants, animals and human beings are born, grow and die, without visible cause. Edible plants, animals to hunt, appear and disappear with no discernible cause. In order to survive, humans had to learn about cause and effect where that was possible. They also had to come up with some way of dealing with all the forces which seemed to have no visible cause. One way of dealing with these mysterious forces was through play. Wherever these forces came from, they were not "here" in this real world, but, through play, they could be imagined, made into an image and brought into the play world. If you wanted a herd of antelope to come near enough to be hunted you could disguise yourself as an antelope, move like an antelope, become an antelope. By becoming an antelope the player could come to understand the forces that moved the antelope and work to bring that quarry near. In becoming another being, the player had to temporarily give up their own identity, their own personhood which existed outside the play, and permit themselves to be taken over. The player is "seized," by the force or the spirit of the being they had to become. Other players believe that the force has appeared among them. They witness the force acting upon themselves and upon other beings. They have witnessed power and they have made magic together. In this way the playing has served the group and the society. They will carry their knowledge and confidence into the real world and the real hunt. More Than Hunting Most of what we know about early societies is about hunting and gathering food. Not only do we have cave paintings and hunting tools from thousands of years ago, we also have a few societies in New Guinea, South America and Australia where we can see people who are still engaged in these activities. We can also see the play activities, the rites and rituals, which these societies perform in relation to acquiring food. There are other human concerns of these early people and their behavior in relation to these is more difficult to understand. Fertility of the plants, the animals and humans is one of the major concerns. We know that there are any number of rites and rituals relating to fertility. The number of studies done and books written on this subject fill whole libraries.

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We can visit the Hopi or Zuni Indians in Arizona and witness the Kachina dances, but our society is so different from theirs that we can understand very little of the real meaning in these performances. We cannot witness these, we can only see them. To truly be a witness requires that we also be a player, and that we know the rules and understand the real meaning of what we see and hear. Rites and rituals relating to human fertility are even farther from our understanding. Today we know too much about the technical details of cause and effect to understand the point of view of people thousands of years ago. We have found thousands of "fertility" statues and dolls which were made at different times and in different places all over the world. We know nothing of what they meant or how they related to the societies that produced them. It is generally agreed that they have some relation to what is generally called the "Mother" religion, but we know nothing of the rites and rituals which these numerous societies performed. Being human ourselves, we can imagine they were concerned with invoking forces and powers to ensure that the women of that society gave birth to many healthy babies and that the health and well being of all the members of the society was promoted and protected. Other rites and rituals dealt with the mystery of death. We find this much easier to understand because we still have our own rites and rituals concerning death. The Hero One of the interesting aspects of early rituals dealing with death leads down through thousands of years and into recorded history. It also directly affects the development of theatre. This aspect concerns the notion of what we have come to call the hero. There have been any number of books and articles written on the subject of the hero. This, alone, tells us the subject is regarded as important. There are, however, a few things that can be said as a starting point. A hero is defined by the society in which it occurs. The gender of a hero is determined by the characteristics the society wants to embody. It is only later that we begin to use the term "heroine" to identify a female hero and often "heroine" is used simply to identify the female with whom the hero is involved. Consequently, it will be less confusing if the term hero is understood to apply to a female, a male, a god or any other creature who embodies the characteristics which a particular society regards as important and central to their value system. The characteristics which define a hero come from two sources. First, the hero is the central figure in the action. As we noted earlier, the player who becomes the dominant force, or embodies the particular power which is central to the play action, is the key to understanding the meaning of the action. No doubt, in prehistory, the member of society who played this hero role was the high priest or shaman. Naturally the spiritual leader of a society was more likely to be in closer touch with the invisible world than someone else. Later, when society was more highly organized, the ruler (King, Pharaoh, whatever the title) would be the hero of those activities which concerned governing, ruling, and even military matters. The second source of the hero is related to the death rituals referred to above. When the individual who died was considered by the society to have been a particularly admirable person; someone who had lived a life that exemplified the best traits of the society; or, someone who had done deeds that greatly benefited the society; that person would be remembered as a hero. That individual would become the central character in play activities in

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which that person's deeds were reproduced. This would provide an understanding of why and how those deeds were important. Sometimes that person would be the central figure in activities that dealt with new challenges that faced the society. In these the character of the hero would provide insights into how society might deal with such challenges. Quite distinct from these two sources of the hero was the development of the comic hero. This figure appeared in other rituals concerning social manners, mores and common matters of the community. There were two kinds of comic hero. The most popular one was the "bad guy" who got his just deserts. This kind would embody the society's view of those characteristics which were unpopular and unacceptable behavior. These heroes would engage in actions rejected by the society and would meet with terrible and funny consequences. The other comic hero was the typical citizen who encountered the typical range of misfortune and disaster and made the typical mistakes in everything they did. This comic hero always managed to bounce back from every catastrophe and, usually by good luck rather than skill, come out on top at the end. We know almost nothing of the historical development of the comic heroes and their actions. When we reach historical times and recorded events, they appear fully developed in many cultures. We will meet they later under the name of farces in Ancient Greece and Etrusca. What is most relevant about heroes, comic and serious, is how they embody the primary concerns of the society in which they appear. When these concerns are shared by other societies in other times and places, these heroes will be used again. The TIMELINE for pre-history: ca. 9,000 BCE the earliest evidence of the city of Catal Huyuk ca. 6,250 to 5,000 BCE the city of Catal Huyuk flourishes 8,350 - 7,350 BCE the city of Jericho flourishes 7,000 BCE early copper 6,000 BCE first known pottery and woolen textiles 5,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE sophisticated copper work [traditional date of creation for Creationists falls in here] 4,000 BCE Bronze casting and first use of plough 3,500 BCE Megalith tombs in British Isles, Brittany, Iberian peninsula invention of wheel, plough and sail (Near East) 3100 BCE pictograph writing 3000 BCE development of major cities in Near East Historical Times The Rise of The Highly Organized Societies Cities And Dynastic Rulers

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The emergence of the first civilizations marks a new phase of world history. They arose almost simultaneously in four different areas of the world, apparently unconnected with each other. Two of these areas, the Indus valley on the Indian subcontinent and the Yellow River in China, are not directly relevant here since they had no known connection with, or influence on, the development of theatre in the west. The other two, in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valleys and the valley of the Nile, are relevant. These cradles of civilization and the many societies that grew up in and around them directly affected the rise of theatre and the society that gave it birth. The characteristic feature of these civilizations was the city. Interestingly enough, the earliest cities we know anything about (Jericho in Palestine and Catal Huyuk on the Anatolian plain of Turkey) are not located in either of these cradles of civilization. These two cities are relics of civilizations we know very little about and are useful here only as reference points in time which reveal human society in command of metal working, highly organized, with wide spread commerce and a social organization capable of building extensive cities. It is only after the development of writing that we are able to discover details about Egypt and the Middle East, as well as other societies that rose and fell throughout these centers and around the Mediterranean. The city became an increasingly dominant social form of organizing people. A city meant a complex division of labor, a literate priesthood to keep track of things, monumental public buildings, political and religious hierarchies, a divine kingship and some sort of an empire to supply the needs of the city. There are two important thing we know about these societies: first, none of them developed theatre; second, as time passed all of them developed the full range of theatrical elements needed for the birth of theatre. Knowing something about the societies in which theatre does not develop enables us to better understand what theatre is and how it relates to those other societies in which it does appear. The most obvious characteristic of these civilizations, that seems to preclude the development of theatre, is religion. If the ruler is descended from the gods and only the priesthood is literate then these two segments of the society have a monopoly on direct access to the supernatural powers and to communication with them. In order to maintain their power and authority they will tend to be ruthless and their gods will demand strict obedience and great sacrifice from the rest of the population. The municipal buildings will be primarily temples and residences of the king and the priesthood. These highly structured societies use rituals to demonstrate and confirm the power of the king and priests to the population. They develop elaborate costumes, use masks and make-up, carry symbols of authority ("props"), appear in, and in front of, spectacular architecture and decorations (scenery), engage in complex rites and rituals (plots) involving significant actions that reveal the awesomeness of their power. Memphite Sacred Drama ca. 3100 BCE Memphite Drama (Coronation Festival Play) We can learn something of what these religious and political rituals were like from some "dramatic" texts, especially the Egyptian writings, including the so-called " Memphite Creation Play."*

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The text contains a "presenter"'s narrative and a libretto, or sequence of dialog, of a sacred drama. The drama opens with a fight, combat or "contest", between two Egyptian gods, Horus and Set, followed by Horus' accession to the Kingship of the Upper and Lower Egypt, which is followed by the death and resurrection of another god, Osiris. The drama is followed in the text by a hymn to the prime god of the city Memphis, Ptah. This text was apparently used at the annual festival on the first day of spring. The festival celebrated the seasonal cycle of death and rebirth (death in winter and rebirth in spring). It put special emphasis on the death and resurrection of Osiris and on the coronation of the king as the symbol of the regenerated community. The king was identified with the god Horus and was descended from him. At another Egyptian city, Edfu, the festival drama was known as the "New Year of Horus". Both dramas featured combat between two teams. The combat between Horus and Set is the typical ritual combat between all of the opposites: the old year and the new, summer and winter, life and death, rain and drought, etc. The death and rebirth of Osiris reinstates the king for another year. The plot or pattern of action is typical of many sacred dramas and can be useful here as a plot outline to compare with later real plays. ACT ONE: COMBAT There is a fight between Horus and Set. The Holy Family of the Nine Great Gods persuades Geb, the god of the earth, to stop the fight. Geb makes Set king of Upper Egypt and Horus king of Lower Egypt. ACT TWO: UNIFICATION AND CORONATION Geb resents Set and makes his own son, Horus, king of both, uniting the two Egypts. The king is coronated as the embodiment of Horus and "sole inheritor" of the united land. ACT THREE: DEATH AND REBIRTH Set attacks Osiris and he lies in the reeds, by the water's edge, on the point of death. His wife, Isis, son Horus and Nephthys rescue him and bring him back to life. ACT FOUR: THE KING IS INSTALLED IN A NEWLY CONSTRUCTED PALACE This involves a procession to the new palace and the installation of the king. ACT FIVE: THE DISSENSIONS IN THE LAND ARE RESOLVED AND ORDER IS ESTABLISHED Set is reconciled with Horus. All strife ceases. Continued prosperity is established. Everybody apparently shakes hands and makes up. the last line is "...wipe away the tear from every face..."* ACT SIX: PROCESSION INTO THE CITY The text of this is lost but it seems to praise the city and confirm the rule of the king over the city. EPILOG: A HYMN TO PTAH A hymn of praise to the patron god of the city of Memphis. It emphasizes the connections between the gods and between the gods and the king. It praises the city as being the special care of Ptah. Societies progress and ca. 2500 BCE there is evidence of early copper culture in the Mediterranean islands. At the same time (about six hundred years after the Memphis play) there is another similar theatrical activity, the Abydos Passion Play. This play is obviously

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performed for a very long time, because ca. 1868 BCE, we hear about an actor, I-Kher-nefret, who plays the leading role in Abydos. Wrapup By this point in time we have all the theatrical elements needed to create real theatre. The plot which centers on conflict and ends with a resolution of all major conflicts, dialog, characters, thought, scenery, props, masks or make-up and architecture for a public assembly. We also have well organized societies with large populations, good prosperity and large buildings. The only thing missing is a desire on the part of the society for theatrical activities apart from their political and religious dramas. This is a situation which will reccur much later, in Medieval times. The Mediterranean World That The Ionions Came Into The Mediterranean world was a busy place with all sorts of folks coming and going. People (ethnic and linguistic groups) were constantly moving into the built up parts, settled in unoccupied places, fighting each other, conquering or being conquered, taking captives for slaves or being enslaved and generally keeping the whole eastern end of the Mediterranean humming. Meanwhile there were adventurous merchant types who sailed all over the Sea, and probably ventured out into the Atlantic, buying goods in one place and selling them in others. A recent shipwreck found off the coast of Turkey dates from around 4000 BCE and was filled with goods imported from around the coast from Egypt to Greece. Changing copper into bronze by adding a little tin had greatly improved the metals market by 3000 BCE. and a small multinational area blossomed in and around the Mediterranean sea. Trade came from as far away as India. One of the societies central to this vigorous trade was the Minoans.

The Minoans Beginning about 3000 BCE In the eastern end of the Mediterranean a civilization began to develop centered on the island of Crete. It's only recently that we've found out enough about these people, the Minoans, to learn something of their place in the development of the later cultures of Greece. The mountainous island of Crete lies at the southern edge of the Aegean Islands, a chain of islands linking Greece with the Turkish mainland. South of Crete there is nothing but sea until you reach the African coast. At this point in time, when most sailing vessels hugged the coast, Crete was fairly remote from Egypt, the nearest civilized power. Neolithic ancestors of the Minoans arrived by sea and became a great seafaring people with Crete as the center of their empire. Their civilization was rich and powerful. Even Egypt

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regarded them as visiting foreigners (rather than vassal states) to the Egyptian court. This is at a time when Egypt has a tendency to conquer any prosperous civilization it could reach. The Minoans developed their own form of writing, were renowned all over the Mediterranean for their craftsmanship in pottery, all kinds of metal work, carpentry, weaving and all varieties of manufactured goods. They exported perfume, olive oil and grain. They were famous as a center of worship of the Mother goddess and for their athletic bull dancing. The symbol of the bull, the strange athletic activity of bull-leaping and the myth of the monster bull in the palace maze, all may owe something to the prevalence of earthquakes in the area. One of the most prominent archeologists on Crete, Sir Arthur Evans, describes the sound of an earthquake he experienced there as being like the muffled roar of an angry bull*. Of the more than ninety cities on Crete, the capital, Knossos was the most beautiful and extensive. Even the plumbing was exceptional. A number of aspects of the Minoan culture would be transmitted down to the Greeks. The Minoan version of the Mother goddess seems to have migrated to Greece Two familiar myths of the Greeks tell of this civilization. The first concerns the king of the Greek gods, Zeus, who was supposedly born on Crete's Mount Ida and had his tomb there on Mount Juktas. Zeus, in the shape of a bull, pursued the beautiful girl, Europa, and carried her on his back to Crete. There he seduced her and she gave birth to three sons, one of whom, Minos, became the king of Crete. The second legend concerns the Greek hero Theseus. Athens sent seven youths and seven maidens as tribute to King Minos every nine years. These were given to the monster, part bull, part man, which King Minos kept in the labyrinth of his palace. One year Theseus chose to go as one of the youths. Ariadne, daughter of Minos, fell in love with Theseus and gave him a ball of thread to unravel as he went into the labyrinth. He killed the monster and fled with the girl. Later plays of the classical Greek period include stories of Theseus and his later wife, Phaedra. These myths and many of the splendid products of the Minoan culture made their way to Greece by way of another obscure group of people, the Mycenaeans.

The Mycenaeans
Mycenae 1600-1100 BCE Direct Predecessors And Source Of Heroes And Plots
Outside Athens there is evidence of an early fortified town that dates back to at least 2000 BCE. Other Mycenaean towns are even older. Between 2000 and 1700 BCE the mainland of Greece was invaded by waves of the first Greek-speaking peoples. They came, apparently, from Anatolia and conquered Troy at the same time, settling there about 1950 BCE. These immigrants came under the influence of the Minoans of Crete. Mycenae reveals a fascinating mixture of the civilized and the barbaric in its culture. Their architecture was far from sophisticated. Some of their metalwork seems to come from the Caucasus or the northern steppes. The horse-drawn chariots come from western Asia and there are remains of trade goods, such as amber beads, from the Baltic. The more sophisticated goods found in their graves came from Crete, especially gold and bronze jewelry, weapons and armor.

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especially the Norse. The glory that was Crete at the height of its powers was gone as * ca. The Mycenaean seem to have brought their own gods with them. Much later the Greeks would attribute this kind of event to Poseiden the "earth-shaker". 1450 BCE marks the end of Minoan civilization. Oral tradition rested in a special class who were trained from early youth to memorize very long passages of history. Thera was some miles due north of Crete and was the religious center of the worship of the Mother goddess. as did many other cultures. demigods and the humans they interacted with. their history and escapades is much too involved and lengthy to go into here. Most of the buildings on Crete were destroyed by this event although the main palace at Knossos survived to be burned at a later date. The accuracy of these accounts. their king. This left a power vacuum in the Aegean sea and the Mycenaeans rapidly moved in to fill it. What we know about this culture comes from archeological study and the later Greek writings when the main body of their oral traditions were written down. There are records from Crete under the Mycenaean rule that tell a great deal about the economy and commerce of these people. in fact. is fantastically accurate. women engaged in weaving and supplies brought in for the manufacture of perfumed oil. There are lists of the king's possessions. and recover all of the archeological material we know of today. It is a marvelous story all its own. as it leads to the theatre works of the Greeks. particularly the Irish. these stories which led men to search in the right places.We have no written record of Mycenae but they had. and the multitude of other gods. Zeus.com . Everything we know about the people and events of the Mycenaean period come from later writings in classical Greece. The Mycenaean society resembled the despotic kingdoms of the Near East much more than it did the later Greek city-states. and earliest. dig. The first. These Bards would recite or sing passages at special events and for the entertainment of the king and the people. legends and tales of heroes. Rooms. It is from this society that we first hear of the gods of Mount Olympus. shield and armor have been found in places and dated to times that match exactly the stories. Somewhere between 1500 and 1450 BCE there was a cataclysmic volcanic eruption and accompanying earthquakes which almost completely obliterated the island of Thera sending clouds of volcanic ash into the atmosphere to circle the globe for years. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The pantheon of gods. We do know that there were two massive natural disasters that completely changed the cultures of Minoa and Mycaena. The Mycenaeans seem to have been in a close trading relationship with Crete and apparently worshiped the Cretan Mother goddess. directly affected the Minoans. The faithfulness of the bards is uncanny. we need to know that the story begins here. furniture. and the Scandanavian. but. The Minoan civilization limped along for another few hundred years but mainly in the hands of new immigrants and invaders. We know a great deal about the work and tradition of the Bard from other cultures: the Celts. It was. a strong oral tradition. five hundred to a thousand years after the people lived and events transpired.pdffactory.

There are several factors we do know about which must have contributed to their decline. Theseus.they produced a large number of offspring . wife of the Mycenaean Menelaeus (brother of Agamemnon) may or may not have actually occurred. mentioned above in relation to the Minos Bull monster. The abduction of Helen. she ruled earth . Suddenly. Agamemnon. son of Gaea. It is very unclear what happened to wipe out this culture that had taken over the rich trade of the Minoans and enlarged it. it had grown fat and led a confederacy to rival the Mycenaeans. There are a number of legends about this family. shows up as the starting point of the great Aeschylean trilogy.primeval state of confusion and shapelessness GE or GAEA . we find all the great heroes. The Atlantic storm track. it was probably a useful pretext to launch a war of plunder on a city renowned for its gold. nourishes all life.com . receives all in death. the Trojan War Others dealt with Kings and events from an earlier period. The stony. However it began. which had previously brought satisfactory rainfall to Eastern Greece. he ruled heaven.Greek Mythology of Gods and original creation .pdffactory. if this wasn't enough. rules with her. the royal houses and the mighty and tragic events that make up the body of Greek legend and form the basis for almost all the great Greek tragedies. a really rugged group of barbarians know as the Dorians. mother of numerous offspring First Generation of Gods: URANUS. too. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. who emerged from Chaos. mountainous land of Greece had never been an agricultural bread basket. heaven. In the Aegean the weather took a turn for the impossible. Troy. This no doubt led to an even greater economic depression. the Oresteia. There is a suspiciously similar story from an earlier date in Canaanite literature. for example. on the crossroads of trade from the north and trade from the east. Oedipus and his relatives come to us from this period. become king of Athens on the death of his father Aegeus. The major players of the Trojan war who ruled the various parts of Mycenae provide a number of plots and characters. Placed. on the northwestern coast of Turkey. the Trojan War debilitated the victors as well as destroying Troy At roughly the same time a strange bunch known simply as the Sea Peoples invaded the Syrian coast and cut off much of the Mycenaean trade with Asia.the most important were the TITANS. There was extensive trade between them. as it was. And. The leader of the Greek host. had moved in to fill the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Hittite kingdom. First was the Trojan War which definitely seems to have taken place. Many of these are to be found in the stories about the greatest Mycenaean event. If so.CHAOS . began overrunning Greece from the north around 1150 BCE The natural event which may have precipitated these migrations was a change in the weather. but it had sufficient rain and good growing weather for millennia to provide for a rising population. also Greek speaking.mother earth. around 1200 BCE there was a drop in world temperature and the weather pattern changed over Europe. although we are not quite sure when. these were exceptionally strong and personified natural forces. OCEANUS (a river encircling earth) RHEA (agriculture) CRONUS (cyclical agricultural time) IAPETUS (volcanoes) PROMETHEUS fore-thinker ATLAS strength Here.

The entire Aegean plunges into a Dark Age.1100 . 1100 to 1000 BCE The Ionian Greeks migrate south and west.1100 BCE Final destruction of Mycenae and the appearance of early city-states ruled by kings accompanies the Dorian move down through Greece into the Peloponnese At the end of the Bronze Age a bunch of barbarous peoples overrun the Mycenaean and Hittite civilizations. Whatever the case.moved north and began to inundate the Hungarian plain.c. who start migrations into Asia Minor between 1100 and 1000 BCE Somehow the history and the oral tradition of the Mycenaeans survive through the bards. recognizable as ancient Greek. Homer composes the world's two greatest epics about the Trojan War. The Mediterranean storm track bumped up against the mountain spine of Greece and dropped all its moisture on the western slopes. The Phonecians spread throughout Mediterranean. sometime around 800 and 700 BCE. to Ionia. Usually they deal with that part of the legendary past that the people want to remember and want as a model for society now. The works are obviously Ionian and infinitely superior in literary value to anything else that survives from the whole period. and both the Dorians and the Ionians really take it to heart as their own. 900 BCE Dorian Greek migrations to Aegean islands and Asia Minor Homer All of which leads to a rather misty character called Homer. The main area of Myceanae went into a severe drought. Briefly. along with all of the Aegean. Greek Mythology of Gods . Of course. The drought would last for almost a hundred years and the Mycenaeans disappeared without a trace. They concern the doings of the culture's heroes from early times. c. Migrations increase and we finally see the appearance of the really bright wing of the Greek speaking people. The art of writing has been lost among the Greeks and when writing reemerges it is a diffrent form.1200 BCE there is a big change in the weather invasions of "Sea Peoples" into Mediterranean disruption of tin trade and a switch from bronze to IRON beginning of Jewish Religion collapse of Hittite Empire Mycenean civilization collapses c. Epics are long narrative poems written in a dignified style about really important and majestic themes. or there really may have been such a man. He was said to be blind. let's recap the timeline of current events: ca. Macedonia and Turkey. the weather in eastern Greece. the Iliad and the Odyssey. Misty because no one is really sure that there was such a person.pdffactory. they include a lot about the influence of the gods. probably in Smyrna or Chios. Western literature begins with Homer.com . The people who will be known as the Etruscans arrive in Italy. The Mycenaean refugees escaped over seas.800 BCE DARK AGE Finally. It may be that there were a number of writers.the Second Generation The Titan children of Uranus rebel and depose him from power and begin to run things themselves headed by CRONUS and RHEA who produce more children: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the Aegean and Asia Minor returns to normal rainfall. He lived on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor. it is in Greek. After all. the Ionians.

childbirth The Iliad This epic deals with events personalities and gods on the Greek side involved in forty-seven days in the tenth year of the Trojan War. Poseidon the sea. In the "Judgement of Paris" the golden apple award PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. defensive war. Briefly . fertility ATHENA wisdom. their sons Paris and Hector. Not wanting to play favorites. Priam's son-in-law Aeneas. who the gods are.pdffactory. his wife Andromache. TROY (Ilium) . horses HEPHAESTUS fire. god of thieves. etc. They weren't too happy working together. and finally. archery." after Mount Olympus where they supposedly dwell. Zeus and his generation win and reorganize running the universe. and all take an interest in earth. The ACHAEANS (Greeks) . messenger of gods. Sarpedon and Glaucus from Lycia. then there were the contingent from other Greek societies Diomedes. Oceanus who has been neutral Prometheus who sided with Zeus (and who approves intelligence and opposes force and brings fire to mankind. Priam's daughter Cassandra.Ruled by King Priam.) The victors divide up the universe. Nestor. Of the twelve leaders.HESTIA (fire of the hearth) HADES (underworld) DEMETER (grain and agriculture) POSEIDON (sea and horses) HERA (patron of marriage) ZEUS (intelligence. music. from Crete. and what has happened to start the war and for the past ten years. Ajax (a terrific fighter but short on brains) from Salamis. his brother. between intelligence and brute strength. They each have particular spheres of power. Achilles friends Antilochus and Patroclus. The other prominent leaders were Menelaus. Zeus made Paris of Troy the judge. his cousin. The allies of Troy in this war were Pandarus. He was regarded as the best general. medicine ARTEMIS hunting. King of Sparta and husband of the abducted Helen (the one blamed for the whole thing). It is necessary to be familiar with who the characters are. a sort of United Nations force from all over Greece. sky and storms). These are: Atlas who is assigned to hold up the heavens. smith of gods ARES offensive war APHRODITE love beauty.This group was more complicated since it was made up of leaders and heroes from a number of places. Zeus gets the sky. moon. Achilles (the one with the vulnerable heel) the greatest hero. agriculture POSEIDON sea. APPOLO sun. his wife Hecuba. The Twelve Olympians ZEUS king of gods HERA patron of marriage HESTIA domestic life DEMETER grain. Greek Mythology of Gods the Third Generation Another rebellion led by Zeus results in a battle between Titans and Gods. Idomeneus. At a wedding party there is a beauty contest for the most beautiful of three goddesses.The Trojan War As usual the trouble begins with the gods. All that is a bit much to cover here.com . accompanied by his friends and relations. These were the main players on the Trojan side. The result is that Cronus is banished along with all but three of the Titans. This newest group is called the "Olympian gods. but reluctantly agreed to let Agamemnon (King of Mycenae) lead the coalition. from Thessaly. prophecy. son of the King of Argos. Odysseus King of Ithaca (more about him later as the hero of the Odyssey). their infant son Astyanax. Hades the underworld. HERMES cunning. but since the Greek period is based on the doings of many of these episodes we will take a quick look at the major players. a priestess of Apollo and a prophetess. Each goddess offered him bribes. wild animals. son of the King of Pylos.

Thetis (Achilles' mother and a sea nymph) The gods pulling for Troy were: Aphrodite (on the side of Paris). That night the warriors hiding inside sneak out. And he was about to have some terrific troubles. Achilles's mother doesn't want to send her boy to war because she knew he was going to die there. But the wind kept blowing the wrong way. The epic of the Odyssey covers forty-one days in the tenth year of Odysseus' wanderings as he tries to sail home. By now the war had reached Olympus. The girl had to be returned but Agamemnon took Achilles' girl as a replacement. Meanwhile. what with each side praying for help the other gods began to take sides. comes up with the idea of the wooden horse. There followed a series of meddling and interference by the gods. Hephaestus. so we will leave the story here. Poseidon (because they were sea people). was the most beautiful woman around. now one way. This went on for nine years and nobody gained an inch. the clever one. The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. The soothsayer Calchas figured out that the only way to fix the wind was to sacrifice Iphigenia. open the gates and the city is doomed. Briefly it goes like this: Achilles dies by a poison arrow shot into his heel. the battle began and all the heroes did their best for home and glory. Hera and Athene. Ares (always sided with her). Now everyone knew that Helen (currently married to Menelaus). This made Achilles mad and he stayed in his tent and sulked. Ambition won out she had been sacrificed. He began to help the Trojans and spread disease among the Greeks. daughter of Agamemnon. The wind changed and they were off to Troy. The gods on the side of the Greeks were: Athena and Hera (because they lost the beauty contest). Apollo. After the sack of the city the booty is divided and the survivors sail home. Artemis (sided with her brother). because he was caught between Hera and Thetis). The husband goes off on a trip to Crete and Paris hops a ship with the fair Helen and sails home to Troy. There were spectacular fights between heroes from both sides and one by one they die. It was either kill her or his reputation and ambition to conquer Troy. The Odyssey Homer doesn't tell the rest of the story of the Trojan War.com . Left as a gift. When Menelaus gets home and finds his wife missing the call goes out for a war party. As a father he wasn't too happy about this. Ajax goes crazy and commits suicide and Paris is killed. back at the palace in Ithaca. Zeus (sometimes. Not everyone answers the draft call right away. The bribe he took was the promise that he should have the most beautiful woman in the world. Odysseus faithful wife Penelope is having trouble with a hundred suitors who want her and the kingdom.goes to Aphrodite. Agamemnon had made off with a priest's daughter and that made Apollo mad. Odysseus doesn't want to leave his wife and son to fight for a cheating woman. But both heroes are tracked down and join the war party. Very little of the material from this epic turns up in Greek plays. but as Commander in Chief he didn't see much choice. now the other.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This does not sit well with the other two contestants. all the men who had tried to win her had taken a great oath. the Trojans take it into the city. The ships landed. They swore they would fight for the man who became her husband if he had any problems because of his marriage. Everybody met on the coast at Aulis where a thousand ships waited to carry the host of Greek warriors over the sea. Odysseus. Then the gods began to fight too. Aphrodite takes Paris to visit the happy couple. In fact. so she puts him in women's clothes.

musicians. In Homer the action is most important and the hero is the one who does an action. There are very few solid facts about this activity. the Peloponnese and in Magna Graecia. 800 BCE through ca. pie-in-the face. Keep in mind that comedy here is slap stick. Later comedies will make great use PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This seems to be part mime. in other words all over the Greek peninsula. slip on a banana peel type stuff. This shows us a pool of trained and talented people who will be available for theatre when it occurs. There are a number of references to the Megaran farces and mimes and to the masks and other peculiarities that were common in a burlesque form of drama found in Megara. He shows us acrobats.the major character representing the whole society but with a definite character and point of view CONTEST (agon) between representatives of the two parties or principles which begins with a quarrel. may include a trial and ends in the complete defeat of the bad guy.The Last Pieces ENTERTAINERS Homer gives us a marvelous look at a full range of entertainers as he proceeds through his epics. they seem to be professional performers. Character is everything and the action or plot takes second place. dancers. It seemed to be found all over. As we move through the years between Homer's writings and the rise of Athens as a center of Greek culture we spend the time ca. part farce. singers and story tellers. They do this for their livelihood. 600 BCE with increasing kinds of entertainment. goes on to a fight. More importantly.binds the community to the winner A BIG CELEBRATION (Komos) . PATTERN OF ANCIENT COMIC PLAY: PROLOGUE which gives the exposition telling what you need to know ENTRANCE OF CHORUS (Parodos) . The Megaran farces were made fun of later as really dull and obvious. Comedy is the opposite. but it obviously existed. The characters are societies stock buffoons.(Parabasis) a break dividing the first part from last part in which the players talk to the audience (like a stand-up comedian) SACRIFICE AND FEAST . was what is best described as "vulgar comedy".com .usually lots of dancing and singing EXODUS .pdffactory. part burlesque. There seem to be performers of all kinds and all skills in the society he knows. being performed for celebrations.even the audience shares the feast A FESTIVAL PROCESSION AND MARRIAGE . It could best be compared to the clown acts at the circus. market days and who knows what.everybody leaves We also know that somewhere in the background. especially the IMPOSTER.

The Dorian Megaran may have been better suited to local yokels in the kind of humor it used. the only thing lacking is a society that wants and needs theatre. the pattern of great municipal architecture for the assembly of the people. American Heritage. even lowly comedy hiding in the background. masks and scenery. there are performers. chopped up. the music and dance to embellish the work. death. New York. 1961). The discussion of the Memphite Creation Play is drawn from Theodore H. 1962. NOTES: The description of the characteristics of play are drawn from: Johan Huizinga. burned and otherwise disposed of to get rid of the evil. buried. hung. all these are beaten. who will appear as big burly strong men disguised as women because they are afraid of getting hurt. Narrative by Leonard Cottrell. Narrative by Leonard Cottrell. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Lost Worlds. 1962. Thespis. 1955). Gaster. good times and life are brought in to take their place.pdffactory. Homo Ludens (Boston: The Beacon Press.com . anti-social behavior. the spectacular elements of costume. this time of a sort of street theatre in the whole of Greece. but it will feed into the mainstream later and blend with comedy from many parts of Greece to give rise to the comedy of the Golden Age of Greece. For this reason the chorus is as active a character as the other characters. legends and heroes. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Lost Worlds. good and evil. New York. the old king and the new. American Heritage. The life of the society goes on while individual human lives come and go. The basic action is part of Fertility Rituals but it puts the emphasis on society rather than on the king or leader.such "heroes" as Herakles (Hercules) and Achilles. The contest is a battle between two opposites. Now that the elements are here. Health. It is not a witness but a participant. page 261. next Chapter Two or return to PART I Introduction PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Lost Worlds. wealth. (New York. disease. again. Afterword All the pieces are available now: the source of great plots in all the magnificent myths. performers with all the entertainment skills. Famine. That is the next great movement of human history. summer and winter. The fertility theme of death and resurrection emphasizes the renewal of the Spirit of Life. Here. Doubleday.

There the Ionians* begin to develop the culture which will later come to be the glory of Greece. where the rains still fall. Later they continue south. The Dorians* keep to the westerns side of the Greek mountains where there is rainfall. It has no navigable rivers. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The whole place is the opposite of the fertile Nile and Tigris and Euphrates river valleys where the weather is basically dependable and irrigation of crops is easy. in an area we now call Ionia*.pdffactory.com . water is available primarily from springs and good crop land for grain is slim to none. There are mountains. The Ionians* move east to Ionia* where they settle on the islands and the Aegean coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey). The Classical Greek period ends with the Peloponnesian War* in which the dominant city-states challenge each other for supreme leadership of Greece and her colonies and the whole Greek society begins to fall apart.back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TWO The Greeks Theatre Is Born In Athens Introduction We begin with a continuation of the migrations of various people. a large number of Greeks leave the mainland. and the drought comes. this Ionian* culture spreads back to those who had remained on the mainland. lots of rock and a rocky sea coast all the way around. The Aeolians* migrate to east Asia Minor. A Society Forms *The mainland of Greece has never been a particularly good agricultural land. There are just too many people for the dwindling food supply. The sixth century (the 500's BCE) sees the blossoming of arts all over the Greek world and. a lot of the Ionians* pack up and move out. stony ground. Once the weather improves and their society develops. into the islands of Crete* and Rhodes* and the southern part of the Asia Minor* coast. the world's first democracy. and finally. There it finds a happy home. By 1100 they have gone looking for a better life. This marks the beginning of the Classical period which includes the work of all the famous Greek playwrights whose whork is extant. especially in Athens. When the Dorians move into Greece. in Athens. and spread south into the Peloponnese*. the founding of a theatre festival. The fifth century (the 400's BCE) opens with the first Persian* invasion of Greece and the appearance of the first tragic writer who's work survives to the present. the development of laws and constitutions. When the 100 years drought of 1200 BCE hits the eastern side of the mountains and the aggressive Dorians* start migrating down the western side of Greece. They take to the sea over a period of years and spread out over the eastern islands of the Aegean and the coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey).

So. pioneering lot. walled towns they grow olive trees and grape vines. geometry. the Ionians look for mechanisms to explain natural phenomena. They turn merchants and take to the sea for a living.the Greeks begin to establish better relations with each other 800 BCE in Italy height of Etruscan* power [see next chapter] c. Rather than gods.800 . little water and a Rigid social structure based on the need to need to find other ways to make a build and maintain vast irrigation systems. abundant crops to feed a large city Undependable physical environment population. These intrepid merchants turn their boats into floating supermarkets. reservoirs * The Ionians* have a new view of the world which rejects the mumbo-jumbo of the gods being responsible for everything in the world. islands of Crete* and Rhodes*.500 .700 BCE Homer* [possibly in Ionia] composes the Iliad* and Odyssey* * Things aren't much better in Ionia. and biology. As they pick up all that foreign knowledge they make more practical use of it than the people they got it from. astronomy. In small. write. enough astronomy to meet immediate They went in for a sort of practical needs (like helping the priests republican city-state system where make magic predictions) a small number of wealthy men ruled by mutual consent. The Ionians' view of things couldn't have been more different.c. This idea comes from PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They find islands and coastlines with narrow strips of land. backed by mountains that block the way inland. in which only the priests are permitted to Had rejected kings and royal read. living besides farming. peddling their olive oil and wine for other trade goods. but these people are a hardy. They begin to travel all over their eastern part of the Mediterranean trading and selling as they go.com .800-c. demigods. they felt. happened quite recently. Astronomy serves them as an aid to navigation and they use the north star for an accurate navigational fix. Corinth* and Argos* spread through southern Peloponnese*. loosely (king descended from god and possessed of organized with a wide range of magical powers) gods. The Ionians* immediately discover two great empires in their neighborhood. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IONIAN* BABYLONIAN* AND EGYPTIAN* small towns scattered over islands large cities and coast Theocratic No theocratic tradition. hard-headed and practical. and Halicarnassus* on coast of Asia Minor* c. study and descendents long ago and had a practice mathematics and astronomy free wheeling social structure little need for scientific or technological where anyone could better experiments: themselves if they could only find a way. supernatural a simple mythical explanation of Creation beings. with poor land. not very interested in Creation Dependable physical environment with which happened long ago. all not related to leaders which.ARCHAIC PERIOD by 900 BCE DORIANS* centered in Sparta*. mathematics to measure the volume of water mathematics. they settle down to make the best of a bad bargain. etc.pdffactory. the Babylonian and the Egyptian. enough geometry to measure land and build Very interested in finding out pyramids everything possible about the real world.

Thales* of Miletus*. They view the world as something you could observe. and they use this notion of everything having an opposite in many ways. To have successful commerce you have to be able to count on things people agree to. greatest on Sicily* and southern Italy DORIANS* centered in Sparta*. 750 to 550 . The older theocracies of Egypt and Babylonia. Ionia from Smyrna* south to Halicarnassus*. understand and make practical use of. Gradually all this knowledge and commerce is shared with the Ionians* in Greece and their city-states began to flourish there. coast of France and Spain. [One of the most famous and influential earlier legal codes is that of Hammurabi* of Babylonia* (around 1700s BCE). political decisions are made by the group. expand and develop it and use it as a basic instrument for measuring everything. hot and cold. IONIANS* . They do not see the world as something mystical or magical and understood only by priests. They put their observations and deductions about nature together with the notion of a world filled with opposites. as well as even earlier civilizations. wet and dry. Their geometry and astronomy enable them to produce the first maps to aid them in their voyages.] A good legal system is the only way a society can bring order out of chaos. and have some legal remedy if you don't get what you thought you're due. *Panhellenic(all Greeks) games begin to be referred to.pdffactory. and end up with a legal system that embodies all their compromises.the first great natural philosopher. The most prominent are the Delian* and the Olympian* . This realistic view of nature combines with their ideas about political and economic structures. The Ionians aren't about to let anyone tell them what their laws should be. Athens* and cities of Asia Minor with colonies from Black Sea to Africa. One of the most useful and important things the Ionians do is to develop their own laws and legal codes.com .Attica. they argue these views out publicly to arrive at community decisions. south to Nubia* and west to the Atlantic. established their laws from the top down. From about 750 to 550 they found colonies from the Black Sea to Sicily* and trade in everything from silk to salt. In their settlements. This combination produces a society that will provide the dominant intellectual structure in Western civilization. They find the members of this group often have opposite points of view. so they discuss it. So. As the Ionians* develop their ideas they also extend their trading and expand it all over the Mediterranean. they start building a legal system. argue about it.Age of colonization by city-states DORIANS*: Sparta* and Corinth*. They begin an intense and ongoing study of nature that will continue for hundreds of years. etc. LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD 776 BCE is the traditional date of first Olympic game. all centered on the rest of the Greek islands. They take geometry. There are also: the Isthmian* and the Pythian*. Their main occupation as traders may have helped them realize the importance of compromise. Corinth* and Argos* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Euboea. as far north as the Russian steppes. They notice that nature is made up of opposites. So.

but in a different way than we do. Instead. they have a lot in common besides their language and their center in Greece. they are exercises full of ethical and religious meaning. So if we want to understand the birth of theatre we need to understand the Greek notion of contest.com . We find it well developed in Homer's* account of contests in the Iliad*. they have many gods and almost everything has a god concerned and connected with it.center of the Peloponnese*. the games.] The greatest of the early contests is the Olympic games. but the two that stand out are the Spartans* (primarily Dorians* who live in the Peloponnese*) and the Athenians* (Ionians* who have Athens* as their headquarters). (and later theatres) are places of assembly for everyone. coast of Asia Minor north of Ionia* On the Greek mainland and around the Aegean* Sea there are five basic Greek dialects that identify the five different Greek speaking peoples who settled the area. and they participate as a community in a cultural experience. They each have distinctive social characteristics. Their entire social structure is related to their gods but not dominated by them. contest is agon*. No matter how diverse the Greeks. The Olympic games* will continue. after two thousand years (or more) of monotheistic (one god) experience. testing and perfecting the mind and the body as one unified whole. The events which take place in these buildings.north west Greece including Delphi* and Olympia* on the north west Peloponnese AEOLIANS* .NORTH-WEST GREEKS .Thessaly* and Boeotia* ARCADIANS* . To them every kind of a contest is equally important. Education of the whole public and not just the privileged few. held at Olympia*. These buildings are thought of as serving the whole society. One of the primary things is their religion and how they relate to it. There these quadrennial (every fourth year) games are held in his honor.D. a city on the river Alpheus in the far wester part of the Peloponneus. the island of Lesbos*. [In Greek. This "religion" is very difficult for us to understand. Our word "athletics" comes from the Greek word athlos which means "contest". without interruption.pdffactory. festivals (and later the performances) are not regarded as recreation. The concept behind the Greek notion of contest involves training. into the fourth century A. The stadiums. that is. The Greek notion of amicable competition is the way in which individuals are able to prove their societal worth. gymnasiums. We call them "pantheistic". One of the easiest ways to begin to understand this is to look at how important contests are to them. The Greek Notion Of Contest We think of theatre as something quite different from a boxing match or a pentathlon. Everyone has a part to play in all these contests. These events are essentially public education. Before that it is told in song and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They take their gods very seriously. necessary and central to who they are. The Greeks don't. The Greeks love to spend their public money on building. It is the chief site of the cult of Zeus*. The concept goes far back in the Greek heritage.

meaning harsh or severe laws). the Super Bowl. When the time of the Olympics* approaches. The second is the Isthmian* games (a biennial event. they send heralds out to every town and through the countryside to announce it.coinage introduced The economic situation continues to improve. streams of silver. theatre will be a vital part of these festival contests.546 BCE Thales* of Miltetus. The public buildings at Olympia* and at Delphi* (for the Pythian* games. Athenian citizens regularly receive dividends from the mine. centered in Cornith* and held in honor of Poseidon*). One of the oldest is on the island of Delos* (the Delian* games. near Cape Sunion*. 753 BCE . These festivals and their games are vitally important to the Greeks. Soon.Hesiod* writes the Theogony (story of the creation and gods) Meanwhile Things Progress By 700 BCE the entire peninsula of Attica is organized under Athens*s as a city-state. and enjoy the fairground atmosphere. If any of the city-states are fighting each other (as they usually are) a general truce is proclaimed so that every eligible man can compete and attend and people can travel to attend. Souvenirs. but.Draco's* code of law in Athens c. we need several other societal elements that are still developing.700 BCE .636 . about the hero Heracles* (the Romans will call him Hercules* ) who is thought to be the founder of sports and the first "athlete". These centers of worship and culture could be thought of as shrines of sports pilgrimage as well as other forms of worship. Wimbledon. It is Mardi Gras. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Athenian citystate. all wrapped up together. before we go deeper into this. prospers from the fabulous silver mines at Laurium*. the World Series. Consequently. They are finally into coming up with legal codes (not just a few laws) and the first code of laws in Athens is in 621 BCE.600 BCE . Visitors from all over Greece and the Greek Mediterranean come as performers or spectators to worship and witness spectacles and parades. local goods and foreign products are hawked all over the area around the sacred precincts.pdffactory. In the southern tip of Attica. By about 600 BCE the Greeks have invented gold and silver coinage and introduce it throughout their mercantile range. The other Greek cities think pretty much as Athens does. in honor of Apollo* on his sacred island). Sparta* puts a different emphasis on the contest because they are a militaristic bunch who don't think the mind is too important. Slightly smaller but still important festival sports complexes are almost as busy in two other locations. all Greeks regard physical training as a very important part of the education of all the people.story. which includes all of Attica*. Draco's Code* (from which we get the term "Draconian". in myth and legend. founder of Ionian school of natural philosophy 621 BCE .c. c. a quadrennial event at Delphi in honor of Apollo*) are the most extensive and elaborate.com . that the mind is as important as the body. and Easter in Rome. worked by slaves.Rome* founded c. flows from Mount Laurion into the Athenian economy.

This opposition is followed by divinely inspired madness and the destruction of his enemies. doctors. Dionysian Mysteries* . They are the ones who create theatre and who set the cultural pattern for Western Civilization. everywhere in Greece. They certainly involved long training. He is reluctantly accepted by the Olympian gods and he is permitted to join them on Mount Olympus.is known for bringing the cult of the vine (and therefore. After this his divinity is acknowledged everywhere. a Phonecian prince who founded Thebes*. This acceptance includes a myth in which he is the son of Zeus and a mortal. Corinth. There is already a stable currency and soon there are banks. They involve exclusively women. from these colonies. retailers. The cult of Dionysus* reportedly comes to the Greeks from the east. Many philosophers. They are a very well-kept secret and so we know very little about them. musicians. strong opposition. and will come.) a metropolis. These places will be on the major touring circuit when we get theatre rolling. Semele*. we are only concerned here with the Ionian* Athenians*. Magna Graecia* (the Greek colonies in Italy* and Sicily*) is among the most prosperous. make up the Hellenic world. poets and playwrights come. the gift od wine) to all the ancient world.The period that establishes the character of Athens includes the worship of the Eleusinian Mysteries at great temple at Eleusis.* in particular. After this stay she went forth to spread the knowledge of agriculture over the world.By the end of the seventh century the Greek colonies are booming.These are established in relation to the worship of Dionysus and are widespread. While there are a number of strong Greek city-states (particularly Corinth* . The mysteries are famous through the Greek (and later Graeco-Roman) world.pdffactory. becomes a major "mother city" (meaning that she has colonies. THE GOD DIONYSUS* . Corinth* has a unique geographical position on the Greek isthmus and is famous for its shipbuilding and shipping. The raw materials stream back to Greece and make it possible for more and more people in Greece to turn from farming to manufacturing. SIXTH CENTURY . wholesalers. Sparta* and Thebes* from among the almost fifteen hundred self-governing states) which. warehouses and factories. Slowly but surely a working capitalistic system develops. supposedly. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It dealt with the death and resurrection theme. and some kind of revelation which probably included a dramatization. a small town near Athens and countryside festivals in honor of Dionysus. Persephone*. It involved a combination of poetry and ritual. the daughter of Cadmus*. Lydia. across Thrace and into Greece. there is. together.are supposedly established by Demeter* in a small Attic town (Eleusis*) on the west coast where she had stayed during her search for her kidnaped daughter. the Red Sea. It may have exerted some influence on the rise of theatre. He is said to have traveled through India. The Mystery Religions Eleusinian Mysteries* .concerned the poet-musician Orpheus* and became attached to the Dionysus* cult. When he arrives. the land of the Amazons. Orphic Religion*. The whole story of his parentage seems to be tacked on after the fact to legitimize his important place in Greek worship.com .

There is a basic belief that every citizen should play some direct part in the governing of the state. The real criteria for being a citizen is being free from the need to work so that they can devote themselves totally to the welfare of the community. Silenus* a horse demon of the Ionian woodlands. inspired by music of tambourine and flute. but suppositions. Maenads* (literally "madwomen") female followers of Dionysus. self-governing community begins to take off.pdffactory. They always danced with great abandon. are those which relate to his place as patron of the theatre. The senior archon is head of this citizen state. Men are prohibited from even watching this and peeping Toms are torn apart. in a divine state of ecstasy and madness don't even know what they have done. women and children. The rest are slaves. tenants and small shop owners against the oppression of these big land barons. and a pine cone on top.com . the leader of the satyrs and foster father of Dionysus*. assumptions and mostly intelligent guess work. In the sixth century the distinctive Athenian character becomes established. foreigners. A citizen is an allround man. wore ivy wreaths and carried the thyrsus*. makes constitutional and economic reforms 527 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and those who work for a living. 594 . the opposition against him. His main symbol is: Thyrsus* a staff wound with vine leaves. big-bellied drunkard riding a donkey Satyrs* demons of the woodlands with horses' tails. The women. tutors and a grammar school until the age of fourteen. This idea of a selfregulating. old. Unfortunately some of them are not facts. legs.Solon*. Citizens make up perhaps one percent of the total population. The wealthy can afford additional training in the private schools. He is shown as a fat. The best source of Dionysus*' story is Euripides*' play The Bacchae*. and the way in which the women of the town are inspired to run to the hilltops for worship and revel. There is no vocational schooling and trades are learned through apprenticeship. possessed by the spirit of the god. A class struggle began that would turn into a social revolution. a community that acts together to govern itself. educated by private schooling. Public affairs are regarded as the business of all the citizens. ivy. This is based on a belief in the rule of law. Athenian lawgiver. A "citizen" is any property owner who does not work for someone else and is born a Greek of the city-state. Manners are to be learned at home. where we are shown Dionysus*' return to the city of his mother. The Athenian Polis The term polis* refers to the city-state and its people. The Greek ideal of the virtues of community life and dedication to the service of the polis don't bring them any benefits. At this time Athens* is ruled by five archons* who are elected annually by lot from among the citizens. loose and flowing hair. The legal system concerned mainly of feudal landlord laws designed to protect the land owners.The vital facts about this strange god. snub-nosed. which interest us here. DIONYSUS* is associated with a number of attendants and symbols. In Attica there is a rising protest from poor farmers. Only citizens are allowed to vote and hold public office.

and organized by. The very name "Solon" would come to mean "lawgiver". He does not. rural towns all over Greece in December. the Council of Four Hundred. feasting and games. This provid some equal representation for each of the four tribes of free Ionian* citizens.com . do much to change the political institutions. 560s to CULTURAL GROWTH IN ATHENS .At this time. But the foundations of democracy are being laid. This is a real milestone in economic growth. He establishes the first religious Panathenaic games* and brings the annual festivals of Dionysus* to Athens.534 BCE the first contest in tragedy with traveling players . * 546 BCE Persian conquest of Greek Asia Minor This sudden influx of talent and local interest in both Dionysus and theatre may have had a boost from events to the east. He adds one element. c. He turned Athens into the spiritual center of the Attic* communes. however. Originally this was an agricultural fertility festival with great displays of a phallus image. This is held in. When play contests are introduced in the sixth century the plays are mainly comedies. drinking. He passed a series of laws which reduced the power of the landlords and set up a system in which the poor can get protection from the rich. we do know that Solon* has seen the actor Thespis* on his travels because he writes about the experience. Thespis* apparently has a terrific reputation and he is the one Pisistratus* chooses to launch the drama contest in Athens.pdffactory. in 594 BCE. He also comes up with a scheme to develop manufacturing. In 546 BCE the Persians* move in on the Ionian settlements in Asia Minor* and conquer Lydia which includes all the cultural centers of Ionia*. There aren't enough craftsmen in Athens to do this so Solon offered full citizenship to foreign craftsmen if they would immigrate. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. More sweeping changes would be left for a later leader. Later the prize winning plays from the City's earlier years are put on here and new playwrights try out their work before submitting it to the City of Dionysia*. a man named Solon* is elected archon and given extraordinary powers to revise the legal code. At any rate.Athenian society under tyrants Pisistratus* 530s brings annual festival to Dionysus from Eleuthrae (a town northwest) into Athens [NOTE: Eleutheria are "festivals of freedom" Eleutherios means "the deliverer"] 566 institutes religious Panathenaic* (all Athenian) festival of games The Birth Of Theatre The birth of the theatre is finally here with the arrival on the scene in 560 BCE of the tyrant (a self-appointed despot who claimed to rule in the people's interest) Pisistratus* who launched the cultural revolution.Thespis Dionysian* FestivalsThe Rural Dionysia* . It's likely that a number of the artists and artisans take up the promise of full citizenship offered earlier by Solon* and move into Athens* and Attica.The oldest kind of festival. It is in connection with these Dionysian* festivals that the first public contest for a tragic play is set up in Athens.

Originally the seats are free. After the death of Aeschylus* they change the rules and anyone can do a revival of his plays.The Lenae* . handles the directing. THE FESTIVAL ITSELF .Early on.After the plays are chosen a "choregus*" (a wealthy backer) is assigned by lot to each poet.Originally the competition is only for the playwright of a tragedy. This is really too much and the quality of the production suffer. For the week of the festival all trade is suspended. if Thespis* is running around acting. He is always regarded as the "first" actor. THE AUDIENCE . These are performances by the dithyrambic choruses. and five actors and a chorus for each comedy. One or two days are devoted to the poetry contests.WHEN .The festival lasts five or six days (we don't know which). HOW CHOSEN . games and merry-making. The prizes are symbolic and the honor of being in a contest and winning a prize are regarded as very important.com . Athens is normally full of visitors from all over the Mediterranean. the actors are also assigned in the same way.Everyone is expected to come to the show. and still later there is a special theatre fund to pay for anyone who can't afford the fee. Later in the day a comic playwright's comedy is performed. trains the chorus and acts in his own play. The State pays for the chorus and actors. designs his own set. which means PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The first day features a big parade. There are three actors and a chorus provided for each tragedy. The contest is similar in all respects to the City of Dionysia* except that it's a more local affair since it occurrs during that part of the year when travel by sea is chancy so there aren't many out-of-towners around. The City of Dionysia* . at this time. Three days are devoted to the plays. When they institute prizes for actors. Later there are prizes for the best comedy and. It's originally all comedy. There is a small jury who decide the winners of each contest category. In the beginning the playwright writes his own music. Very soon trained acting specialists take over training the chorus and doing the acting. for the best actor. it is unlikely he is the only one doing it.It's a spring festival in March-April. The choregus* pays for everything else. These will be entered in the competition. Comedy is added to this festival early in the fifth century. Prisoners are released from jail to attend. then a very small charge is made. The audiences at this festival are cosmopolitan.pdffactory. If the plays are successful at this festival they are usually done in other productions in the local theatres around Greece and the colonies. after the middle of the century. Consequently. very solemn and then sports. government offices closed and even the law courts shut down. WHAT . HOW PRODUCED .The summer before a festival the magistrate in charge of the festivals choose three plays from all those that have been submitted.A winter festival in January-February. Actors* A note here on ACTORS*: It should be obvious. CONTESTS . Each day one tragic playwright's trilogy and satyr play are done in the morning. It occurrs after the winter storms are over when ships can begin sailing regularly. There are prizes for the poets and for the choruses. works out his own dances. only tragedies and satyr plays are done and they all have to be original plays that have never before been performed at this festival.

since we know that they are paid.he's the first one we have a record of. They also provided a variety of expressions to express the major emotions of the particular character. cut and decoration would differ between the sexes. something on the order of a superdome crowd. What he did took vocal and physical training. Remember these costumes are designed to be seen by a very large bunch of people. The actual costumes worn are the basic Greek garments that everybody wore: the chiton* (a loose flowing garment that covered the body from neck to ankles. The audience sai sall over the sloping hillside of the Acropolis looking down on the seventy-eight foot diameter orchestra* (the playing area). the himation* (a long cloak worn over the right shoulder which covered the chiton). There is no scenic background or stage house at this time. although the material. these "actors" are associated with the religious end of it too. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. doing their acting thing all over the Mediterranean. These ran the range from gods. dark colors for grief or mourning.pdffactory. about the first theatre building* used in this historic festival. * Costumes When it comes to costumes we know a good deal more from vase paintings. Both men and women wore these basic garments.com . that sort of thing. Behind the orchestra the audience can see a temple of Dionysus*. These are in gorgeous colors and highly decorated according to the symbolic values needed for a particular character. The height varies with the importance of the character. the Greeks remodeled and built over earlier structures. these masks could easily have provided a slight megaphone to help the actor get his voice across to the crowd. That means that they are sort of above any political squabbles. there will soon be wooden seats put up for the audience as time goes by. descriptions and other visual evidence. They travel widely. it seems logical to say that there are now professional actors. But we have a pretty good idea what it is like. However. The chorus does not wear these. It is just southeast of the Acropolis*. and the clamus* (a short cloak worn over the left shoulder). The Theatre Building We know very little. old men through mature and young men to a variety of women. The major characters wear special boots to make them taller (cothurnus*) and more god-like. Each mask* told the audience a great deal about the character (and enabled one actor to play several different roles. statues. so they have diplomatic immunity. There may have been as many as thirty kinds of tragic masks eventually. From this point on there will be more of these "actors" and. and they are frequently used as diplomatic envoys between Greek states that are fighting each other. color. In the center of the orchestra is the small altar to the god (thymele*). One other point about actors in Greece: as soon as the festival started. Purple wll be for kings and queens. Like everyone else. The masks no doubt come down into the theatre from various religious celebrations where they are widely used. but could be belted up and bloused to be shorter). Sometimes the chiton* will be padded and they often have sleeves which the ones worn by the men in the audience did not (they thought sleeves are degenerate and effeminate). Made of cork or linen or wood. directly. The leading characters also wear massive headdresses (onkos*) that tower over the mask* they wear. providing he didn't have to be on stage with himself).

Democracy replaces the rule of tyrant Cleisthenes' democratic constitution. he fails to hold a city. After a while any citizen will be eligible for public office and they are all expected. a magistrate. fate and destiny against a character's best efforts. at some time. He extends citizenship to a bunch of men who have been excluded before. Most major offices have to be rotated. offered some prayers. Aeschylus* Starts The Classical Period PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. moderation. a tax collector or a member of the council. and an individual's relation to themselves. 508 BCE. of whatever kind. people's relation to each other. is representative of the ten tribes with no economic requirement. It is now just a high executive committee that reports to the Assembly. but by the time of Pericles. No important question is overlooked. Fortunately not everyone comes regularly. which now just draws up agendas. Between this time and the time of Pericles* (in 443) the system blossoms. It grows and flourishes. In the theatre all ideas are presented and contested for approval or dismissal. Membership in the Council. There is a ban on re-election until others have a chance. as a general in the war with Sparta. A lot more people get first hand experience in government. The Assembly itself has twenty to thirty thousand members and becomes the legislature. With democracy comes the explosion in theatre. to serve. outdoors on the slope across from the Acropolis. All office holders. Even the ten generals are elected each year from the entire citizenry. At dawn they kill a pig (to sacrifice to Zeus). He throws out the old power groups and divides the Athenians into ten tribes. but there are usually two to three thousand assembled. It is easy to see why they come to respect a really skilled speaker and study to improve their speaking abilities. because this job changes (by lot) every day and the council meets three hundred days every year. right against wrong. self-control) against hubris* (overweening pride and ambition). the gods relations to people.Back To Politics By the end of the sixth century Cleisthenes* is running Athens. There is less attention paid to the economic class they come from.com . The old Council loses the power to run things and the Assembly gets that job. heard the agenda (set up by the council) and started in arguing. A man might find himself picked to be a juror. The Assembly meets four times a month. This doubles the size of the electorate. virtues against vices. Sophrosyne* (prudence. Somewhere around 508-7 BCE he redoes the whole political system and the first full fledged democracy is born. Election to public offices is by a sort of lottery system. This doesn't necessarily provide for the best public defense. The historian Thucydides* is exiled. If he is on the council he can also find himself presiding. In the early stages office holders needed to be independently wealthy so that they could have the leisure time to devote to public affairs. There is a water clock to limit each speaker but it's always a rowdy shouting match. The arguments are put in the form of a contest (an agon*).pdffactory. when. wages are made available so that poorer people can also serve. If the assembly is the seat of political argument and the games are the home of physical contests. the theatre is the glue that holds the whole society together. are now responsible to the Assembly.

He loses that one but wins the following year (484 BCE) in the dramatic contest. (Suppliants*. After his brother dies at Marathon* Aeschylus enters the next year's competition for the best elegy on the fallen heroes. These challenges to the fledgling democracy are severe and economically costly. By that time (480 BCE) the Persians are led by Xerxes* (486-465 BCE). 490 BCE. Since there are almost constant wars of one kind and another going on there is no real reason to cover them here. deserted countryside with no buildings. losing to Sophocles* in 468 BCE. The Persian* invasions at this time are just such an exception. The Persian armies comes around by land through Thrace and Macedonia and by sea across the Aegean. Darius I* (528-486 BCE) starts the ball rolling. The scene building is primarily a dressing room but the playwrights must have kept pushing for more. c. Persians*. Aeschylus makes clever use of the fact that the first play begins at sunrise and other playwrights follow his lead. No doubt Aeschylus makes use of the drop of some seven feet at the back of the orchestra to great effect in the ending of Prometheus* when the titan sinks into the abyss. He fights at Salamis and probably other battles in the Persian wars. From this point on the Confederacy develops into an Empire. In 477 BCE The Confederacy of Delos* is founded by the Athenians to cope with all aggression. daylight and the sun. in which the Greeks are led by Themistocles*. After 465 BCE a scenic wall is put up and we find all the playwrights making inventive use of the new possibilities. His last victory is with The Orestia* in 458 BCE. Aeschylus* (525-455 BCE) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Meanwhile Aeschylus* has become a playwright (and an actor as well). By 479 BCE the Persians* are on the run and the Greeks have retaken the first parts of their Asia Minor* colonies. In Aeschylus'* early plays. There are often references to the dawning of the day at the very beginning of the first play of a trilogy. but winning the following year. 472 BCE. He runs over to Sicily and produces a revival of his play The Persians* . The next big fight is a naval battle at Salamis*. The Persians* have been threatening and overrunning Greek colonies in Asia Minor* for fifty years. Prometheus Bound*. Lighting is. The exceptions are those conflicts which seriously affected the society and the theatre. 470 BCE) the setting (like the theatre space) is in open. of course. MORE ON THE CHANGING THEATRE BUILDING The theatre building is changing during Aeschylus' time. By 472 BCE he is back in Athens winning a first prize. For the next twelve years he seems to be traveling all over the Greek colonies and sometimes fighting. and in which Aeschylus* also taks part. This time the Persians* intend to snuff out the annoying Greeks on their home turf.com . He continues to enter. However. They do their civic duty and it's worth it. The battles and the victories at Marathon* (490 BCE in which Aeschylus* takes part) and at Thermopylae* (480 BCE) will ring down through history. The assembly has to face the need for Athenians to give up their dividends from the silver mine at Laurium* to pay for the ships needed at Salamis*.The fifth century opens with clouds of war on the horizon. The wooden seats which have been arranged to follow the curve of the orchestra collapsed in 499 BCE and stone seating in the auditorium is built. c. Now they are knocking on the doors of Greece. c. We can see the changes in the theatre structure through the settings for the plays.pdffactory.

not real people. later. one of the things that happens is that the chorus no longer functions as a major character. or slaves. But we need to remember that the chorus is a vital character even after it ceases to be the hero. His tomb became an object of public veneration. In the extant play we have (keeping in mind that it is probably the middle play in a trilogy on the theme) shows Prometheus* suffering.pdffactory. Aeschylus* is buried by the citizens of Gela in a civic monument. 484 BCE Aeschylus* wins contest . because he won't tell Zeus what he wants to know. but what is at stake is always clear to the audience. The Seven Against Thebes* 468 BCE The Suppliants* 463 BCE Prometheus* c. Later Aristotle will talk about the hero as someone "better" than we are. The hero Prometheus and his antagonist Zeus* both are kinds of hubris.470 BCE The Oresteia*. In this sense the hero is a way of running some ideas about leadership qualities up the flag pole to see who salutes them. he fought in the Battle of Marathon* and. He is also supposed to have served in the Battle of Plataea* After his defeat by Sophocles. scenery and costume. The most obvious idea that shows up as a hero is hubris*. elaborated the use of dance. His trilogies all dealt with a connected theme.EXTANT PLAYS: 472 BCE Aeschylus wins a first prize . plays with ethical content. a model for good or an example of the bad. a hero. When it is said that the chorus became less important.com . witnesses to the action in the character of the citizens. in the battle of Salamis*.The Persians* 472 BCE 458 BCE Aeschylus last victory. is to see through the language and the stories to the essential contests and the heroes that engaged in those conflicts.Reputed to have written 90 plays . The conflicts are cast in the form of old myths and legends.Regarded as author of the most lofty and vigorous style. While there he wrote more tragedy and is highly honored. He died in an accident when an eagle dropped a tortoise on his head. chained to a rock. The character of the hero is important as a focal point for the concerns of the polis. removed in time and space. A hero* is the embodiment of the society's ideals. or whatever the group of people affected by the action are. reduced the importance of the chorus . PERSONAL LIFE: Of noble birth.First to become famous throughout the Greek world Innovator: added second actor (and may have added the third).First playwright who's work survives . Our problem. and becomes instead. Zeus keeps torturing him in a vain effort to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. only full trilogy Agamemnon* The Libation Bearers* Eumenides* 458 BCE Heroes Of The Greeks The Greeks have a very strong sense of the attributes that made up what a person should be. It is said he has been told by an oracle that "A heavenly missile shall slay thee"*. The Greeks started with two actors and so the earliest plays deal with only two characters on stage talking in any one scene. as it is in the Suppliants*. but very simple in dramatic structure. We need to remember that at this stage Greek heroes are ideas. Noted for his heroic and grand characters. purifying primitive aspects of religion. he retired to Gela* on the southwest coast of Sicily. In the earliest plays the hero can be the chorus. Heroes are always shown in conflict with all the forces that made it so difficult to be what they should be. what went to make up the character of a hero. The plot concerned the actions of the protagonist and the forces opposing these actions are handled by the antagonist. They called the first character the protagonist* and the second one the antagonist* because the play is seen as a contest or agon*. a contemporary of the poet Pindar*.

Oedipus at Colonus* 401 BCE Ichneutae* has also been recovered] By the time we get to Sophocles* we are entering the Golden Age of Greece. The sad remains that will survive to be rediscovered two thousand years later will touch off an artistic renaissance in Europe. died 406-5 BCE) PERSONAL LIFE . He increased the chorus from twelve to fifteen members. Athens is becoming confident. a little smug and definitely self-centered. tamed and given a new job in the new society. 130 plays are attributed to him.find out the secret he needs to know. His first victory (468 BCE) comes while the war with Persia is still going on but peace is finally settled in 448 BCE. under the obligation a son owes his father. He is responsible for introducing the cult of Asclepius* (a Greek demigod of healing) to Athens. Because of the success of Antigone he is elected strategos (one of the ten Athenian officials elected every year to serve as military commanders). He is supposed to have introduced the third actor (although other writers claim Aeschylus* did this).pdffactory. He is required. what do you do with a matter that does not allow for compromise? Either you tell or you don't. The political ideas show up in the problem set by the crime of Orestes*. the trilogy Orestia *. His musical and literary talents are evident in his youth. In the last play the Furies are bargained with. Another range of ideas show up in Aeschylus* last play. Since the whole Greek system is based on arguing differences out to arrive at workable compromises. From the Parthenon* (447-438 BCE) to the Erechtheum* (421-406 BCE) the greatest. to avenge Agamemnon* 's murder by killing her. He is supposed to have introduced scene painting (but again others claim Aeschylus* did this). most sublime architecture in the western world is built. athletic. Art. The left over remnants of the "mother religion" show up in the character of the chorus in the end of the middle play and the last play. As we move into what will be known as the Age of Pericles*. The Greek society can't afford to have this primitive force around. He marrys twice and has three sons. sculpture. Here there are religious and political ideas at play. After his death he will be honored with a hero cult of his own. The important question being contested is what ideals are worth suffering for. everything is changing for the better.413 BCE Electra* c. The Furies (Eumenidies*) are the embodiment of revenge for the spilling of a mother's blood. sense of irony and made each play of a trilogy an organic unit. His father is apparently the owner of a prosperous manufacturing business. The new society can take it to court. there isn't any compromise available. With military success. Sophocles* And The Changing Theatre Sophocles* (born 500-494. He won first or second prize 24 times. SOPHOCLES* EXTANT PLAYS: Philoctetes* 409 BCE Ajax* 442 BCE Oedipus the King (Rex)* 420s BCE Antigone* 441 BCE Trachiniae* c. In the last play we see Athena* setting up the jury system to replace personal revenge.413 BCE [a large part of a satyr play. He is handsome. economic prosperity and a growing empire. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. All his life he is known for his charm and his piety. He is a friend and acquaintance of all the great figures of his time. He played the lead in his early plays but he has a weak voice and soon retired from acting. His first play (Triptolemus*) is staged about 468 BCE and won first prize.com .His family is well-to-do. witty and popular. Known for his tragic world view. music are reaching their height. The city of Athens goes on a building boom.

These are used by the audience and by the chorus. They ring down though the ages. He played the lead in his early plays but he has a weak voice and soon retired from acting. Between the wings there may have been a low stage and behind that a proscenium* with columns. In 499 BCE the contest* for tragic actors is instituted and they begin to get some of the glory that had gone only to the playwright. (killed the monster Sphinx*. If there is one thing Sophocles* is noted for it is the humanity of his characters.The Actor Finally. a hero cult of his own. sense of irony and made each play of a trilogy an organic unit. He is supposed to have introduced scene painting (but again others claim Aeschylus* did this). 130 plays are attributed to him. There is a long front wall and projecting wings (paraskenia* ) extending well beyond the diameter of the orchestra. Aeschylus* is credited by the later Roman author. with this period. There is also a rolling platform (ekkuklema*) that can carry furniture or dead bodies out of the scene house and onto the stage. These are cranes that can lower and raise gods. c. Eventually they will become sculptured gates. Vitruvius*.com . By 425 BCE the scene house receives a stone foundation which shows it has grown higher and wider. rescued the city of Thebes. He increased the chorus from twelve to fifteen members. Scenery becomes a regular part of the show with painted panels on prisim-like three-sided periaktoi* that can be turned to change the scene. with inventing scene painting. As the playwrights gradually quit acting in their own plays and the demand for more trained actors increase. The Heroes* Change Too Making use of all this scenery tends to take the plays out of the abstract austerity of Aeschylus* and into a more human environment. He is supposed to have introduced the third actor (although other writers claim Aeschylus* did this). It must have happened in that part of their careers that overlapped (probably around the 450s BCE). married the widowed queen Jocasta and ruled wisely while raising PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He won first or second prize 24 times. The theme of "blindness" leaps out from the Oedipus* story and is the key to the hero's character. but Aristotle claims Sophocles* did it. As a man who has done all the right things. So many plays of the period make use of these doors that they are probably a permanent architectural feature of the front of the scene house. is built and rebuilt in an ever grander manner.486 BCE. chariots and what not from the upper regions down onto the stage area. the actor is coming into his (and it is only for men) own. While Sophocles* is most closely associated with Pericles* and the Golden Age of Greece we can see in the changing Greek characters in his plays the real-life tragedies that are beginning to befall Athens.pdffactory. They are both given credit for a number of innovations. His first play (Triptolemus*) is staged about 468 BCE and won first prize. The upper story has "machines" (mechane*) on it. It is likely that the front wall has three doors for entrances and exits. of course.contest for comedy instituted Architecture And Scenery *The theatre. Where the extending wings nearly meet the lines of seats in the auditorium it creates two passageways (parados*). Oedipus* and Antigone* are almost household words even today. Known for his tragic world view. it becomes a profession.

Is he that much better as a playwright? Certainly his contemporaries didn't think so. uneasiness and fear that his contemporary audiences felt in a world where all their values and beliefs are slipping away. The theatre. We have more of Euripides*' plays than we have of Aeschylus* and Sophocles* combined. The conflicts in the play mirror the very real conflicts in Greece. The wars with Sparta* are under way and a lot of stupid mistakes have been made by Athens*. the hero Antigone*. Prodicus*. His own society may not have wanted to give him prizes but later times and people did. in so doing. His characters are fascinating psychological studies. Why? He is said to have written the same number as Aeschylus* and only two thirds as many as Sophocles*. His plays have survived because they will be copied and transported to every corner of the world touched by Greek culture. The Peloponnesian War* is going on in fits and starts and the silver mine at Laurium* is petering out. At the same time Socrates* is developing his search for the truth by asking questions. Today we regard him as the "realist" among the Greeks. She is determined to observe the religious rites of burial for her dead brother and. They see and speak as the polis* in weighing the truth of what they witness. In 442 BCE when he is winning his first victory Sophocles* is getting Antigone* ready for the next festival. perhaps a disciple of the philosophers Anaxagoras*.pdffactory. Here is a conflict of heroic proportions that must have struck a sympathetic chord in every member of the audience. even if it is a religious act?". The Athenian democracy is tottering and it is no wonder that Euripides* is gloomy. so it can't be the quantity. He gets down to the nitty gritty in people's souls. Protagoras* and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Nor is it unlikely that the atrocities committed by Athenians on sacred ground at religious sites have nothing to do with the play about Oedipus' daughter. The story comes from legend but the dilemma is contemporary. He is twice married and the father of three sons. is asking questions like "should Antigone be allowed to practice a basic religious act. His choruses are truly "witnesses". Euripides* And The Crumbling State When Euripides* makes his debut in 455 BCE Aeschylus* dies in Sicily*. comes into direct conflict with Creon* who is trying to keep a statesman-like grip on things in his city.com . Somehow he touched the core of the malaise. And certainly powerful emotions is what Euripides is best at. "Should a mere slip of a girl be permitted to violate a state edict. even if it threatens the peace and stability of the state?" or from Creon's point of view. That can be a powerful emotional chord. too. He is at least an acquaintance.two sons and two daughters) he is blind to the cause of the terrible plague which has descended on his city and his part in it. Euripides* -born 480 (or 485-4) dies 406 BCE Euripides* is the last of the three great tragic writers. It is unlikely to be a sheer coincidence that at the time Oedipus Rex* is appearing at the festival a terrible plague is sweeping Athens. PERSONAL LIFE: He is born at Salamis about the time of the Battle of Salamis* to respectable parents who own property on the island of Salamis. They are performed and read and saved when other manuscripts vanish in turbulent times. These are trying times for Greek society and we see the reflection in the plays.

The heroic. Her virtues of loyalty and strength are discounted by Jason as so much trash. The Craftsman Of Theatrical Means The elaborate theatre spectacle now available serves Euripides* well and he sends on kings in rags and a king's daughter in common clothes. she is the embodiment of all those who suffer the injustices of the world.contest for tragic actors instituted 422 BCE Euripides* first victory. Euripides* is the debunker of his day. Idealism is on the way out and expediency is the order of the day. . . He writes approximately 90 plays. . . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. . . An occasional irrelevant chant is the best they add to the play. He makes full use of the machinery of the theatre and comes to be known as the playwright who depends on the "deus ex machina*". There is a good deal of criticism concerning his views on women. he shows women out of control in many of his plays. .415 BCE Medea* . . . During Greek times. 455 BCE Euripides* first festival and the year Aeschylus* dies 449 BCE. but. As a hero. 411 BCE Helen* . . gives him two sons. . . the Trojan women*. . . . . . . He also needs to explain things before the main action starts and his prologues* are distinctive. the truth of legends. .c. 408 BCE Hecuba*. 421 BCE Mad Hercules*. 455 BCE The Changing Hero* When Euripides* is in full flower there is skepticism in the Greek air. Her revenge is cruel and massive. He made his debut in 455 BCE His first victory is 442 BCE. Perhaps the most familiar character is Medea*.Socrates* . 412 BCE Suppliants* . . Not only that. . . questioning the wisdom of the past. the sorceress who helps Jason steal the Golden Fleece by killing her own brother. .405 BCE Iphigenia at Aulis* 406 BCE Cyclops* (a satyr play)c. . in the grand sense. . . 431 BCE Electra* . . 415 BCE Children of Hercules* 427 BCE Rhesus* (doubtful). . . his work is not as popular as the two giants who preceded him.425 BCE Phoenician Women* . is replaced by the common place. 438 BCE Ion* . Peloponnesian* war begins EURIPIDES* EXTANT PLAYS .421 BCE Andromache* . no resources beyond her own cunning and determination. Heracles*. . and then finds out he intends to dump her for a princess who can help his career. Many of his heroes are studies in madness and in extremities: Electra*. the value of the gods. . He is a socratic playwright. . . 428 BCE Alcestis* . . but he expects to get total custody and take their two sons away with him. . . . . Andromache*.pdffactory. The Sophist* movement (in philosophy) influences him deeply. . His choruses dwindle in importance to mere observers. . She flees with him. . . In later periods his work is much more popular that theirs. She has no country. Madness is a rather mild term for this lady's passions. . . . He spends his last year and a half in Macedonia* (at the court of the king) where he dies.422 BCE Trojan Women* . Apparently he wants to remove restrictions on women. His plays are regarded as the most modern of the Greeks. He is the most controversial of the ancient playwrights.com . . Hecuba*. . His work reveals a preoccupation with internal corruption and destruction of his characters' souls rather than in outward action. Modern critics have found him the most psychological of the Greeks in his treatment of his characters. Medea* is not simply a woman scorned. 424 BCE Iphigenia In Taurica* 414 BCE Bacchae* . . . no protector. . .413 BCE Orestes* . . . .[dates approximate] Hippolytus* .

The appalling ending when the mother comes in with head of her son on a pike. A bunch of performers. dear to our hearts. Things like sex and religion and politics are always good for a laugh. produced after the author's death. includes a scene of the god making the buildings shake. Keep in mind that it is only the really important things that make up the ideas in good comedy. is having his first victory. or so. dressed up in masks and costumes. little Aristophanes* is three years old. This is a ritual that can best be described as a Greek version of a cross between a Mickey Mouse parade and "Hee Haw" with dirty songs (remember it is a fertility ritual). When comedy began its association with Dionysus there wan't much shape to the thing. Laughs Best We will spend a little longer here and catch up on comedy. dressing up as women to spy on the revels. The comic plays have been part of the contest in the big festival* for forty-one years. add some satire on current events. It has become a lot more than the humble popular farce we examined at the end of the last chapter.because the "god from the machine" ends many of his plays. sing. If something isn't important. Euripides*. Perhaps this is a key to the playwright's intentions. and we end Greek tragedy with the Bacchae*. They dance. whose early play Prometheus* dealt with a god as the hero. we care about that. central to our society. it's not likely to show up in our comedies. Aristophanes* . as all kinds of animals: horses (a particular favorite of Dionysus). Take personal dignity. The Bacchae*. which is the whole point of the thing. this time of comedy. The same social period sees a man who takes a very different view of disaster. flying away in a magical chariot drawn by dragons.com . for example. Which leads us to the last great Greek dramatic writer.pdffactory. who are willing to stoop to any lengths. Other theatrical means are evident in his plays. frogs. There is also the craven and insatiable curiosity of the men. If we don't care about it we won't find a joke about it very funny. The theme of helplessness and the loss of meaning about responsibility appeals to an audience caught in the clutches of forces beyond their ability to understand or deal with. and generally make whoophee. It is interesting that we began this look at Greek tragic writers with Aeschylus*. (thinking it a wild animal she has killed) is only surpassed in horror by her slow realization of what has really happened. He may be telling us that you never know who you are talking to. All this time comedy* has been developing from dozens of comic traditions. Think about it. It is true that the god seems surprisingly human and casually parades throughout the play disguised as a human. and gradually evolve what we know as Old Comedy*. a sensational play of religious frenzy.He Who Laughs Last. years before comic actors* can compete for the prizes. which also features a god as a major character. For a man who is reported to have little use for gods it is hard to understand what Euripides is up to with this last play. When our last tragic writer. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. As the rural festivals grow they tack on the farces and mimes. that's why we laugh when a guy who's trying so hard to be dignified slips on a banana peel. Medea* exits in just such a machine. It is really big in the colonies. It starts with a comus*. There is an interesting emphasis on the helplessness of the people who get caught up in the "divine madness". crack jokes with the audience. birds. etc. It will be another hundred and ten.

their torsos padded to the shape of a barrel. They fit a lot of what is going on now. It is not a form that is easy to turn into a written script.com .The best writers seem to come from Italy and Sicily*. Who is the greatest tragic poet? Is it Aeschylus* or Sophocles*. This is surprising when you consider how badly these two people are treated in his last two plays. He must have been a member of aristocratic society since he appears in Plato*'s Symposium on friendly terms with Socrates* and Agathon*.DATES EXTANT PLAYS . He runs Euripides* a close second in the text survival game. Try to visualize the show.born c. A distorted caricature. Apparently he disliked handling the production details of his productions and often has them produced by his friends. or what is happening in the country when the show aired. the Simpsons. It's obvious that the quality of the writing and the logic of the way the pieces are put together keep improving because we still enjoy Aristophanes* and we can see what he is up to. Anyway. Take his play. ready and able to engage in the slapstick burlesque that would put Roger Rabbit. a prominent (obviously fake) phallus. or Bugs Bunny to shame. It's rather like trying to read a written copy of "Saturday Night Live". a short. waist length cloak. That means. most of these are written during the Peloponnesian* War. you can't even follow the jokes. well ahead of Aeschylus* and Sophocles*. In this case the contest is supposedly going to be about literary merit. and if you don't know the people that are being referred to. Very little is known of his life beyond the name of three of his sons. as we mentioned with Euripides* . there are a number of copies floating around and a number of productions mounted in other cities and other colonies. The jokes are there but the dances and songs are missing. Aristophanes* writes approximately 40 plays.DATES The Acharnians* 425 BCE Lysistrata* 411 BCE The Birds* 414 BCE Peace* 421 BCE The Clouds* 423 BCE Plutus* 388 BCE Ecclesiazusae* 392 BCE Thesmophoriazusuae* 411 BCE The Frogs* 405 BCE The Wasps* 422 BCE The Knights* 424 BCE Take The Frogs* for instance Aristophanes must have been one of the best comic writers because we have eleven of his plays still with us. In contemporary productions it is easy to rewrite most of his references to people and events. He is noted for his biting satire. who are into farce in a big way and have just passed their height as a power in Italy. 445 BCE. dies c. His last two plays are produced by his son. we don't have any other examples of Old Comedy. Aristophanes* . This time the idea is bring back a great tragic poet from among host of the dead. The chorus are got up as Frogs and the five main actors with tights on their legs. The Frogs*. so it's likely they picked up a few things from the Etruscans. and a funny character mask. He is the only writer of Old Comedy whose plays are extant.pdffactory. or Euripides* (he just died the year before)? The real contest PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. A comedy always centers on a contest (an agon*). 385 BCE PERSONAL LIFE: He is born into a wealthy family and starts his career at the early age of eighteen. other than the plays of Aristophanes*. A comedy always starts off with a "happy idea". His first production is 427 BCE EXTANT PLAYS .

(Episode*) When Dionysus* knocks on the door the doorkeeper takes him for Herakles* and sends for guards to arrest him (he left owing money). So. A contest about values is just the thing. of course). After all. After all. Herakles* once made it and got back OK. as seen in the tragic works of these guys. and the only place to look for dead poets is in Hades*. so that one has to walk the long way around. When they both get to Hades. the boatman who runs the ferry across the river. but he is too cheap to pay for his slave. and theatre is his personal domain. [You may notice that gods have no special powers to avoid discomfort. Now we get one of those strange parts in the middle (this is the Second Parados*). with his slave. Dionysus*. More fun and games with the grouchy Charon*. it's about over and Athens will surrender to Sparta* next year. slapstick. of course. the god decides to disguise himself as the big guy. entrance of the chorus) from the Frogs (who live in the river. who do you send on a dangerous mission to the Underworld (Hades) to get the word that will save humanity? Herakles*.pdffactory. He makes his slave deck out as Herakles* with his club and lion skin. Trade has been cut to the bone and the food supply from the colonies isn't getting through. The leaders aren't leading. is most needed in Athens* in 405 BCE? Remember the Peloponnesian war*? Well. After all this totally unhelpful help. The lion-skin and club (Herakles*' symbols of who he is) look pretty silly on the mincing Dionysus*. They are pretty rough on visitors at the gate to Hades. There are lots of jokes from Herakles* about how the easiest way to get to the land of the dead is suicide in various forms. all the best poets are dead. as we get to the river Styx* (that circles Hades). there are more fun and games. songs and dances ( first Parados*.is over values. You have to pay him and Dionysus* does. Which set of values. Now. this quest is supposed to be for the best tragic poet. There are a series of gags where Dionysus* disguises himself as his slave to avoid getting hurt. and.com . the people aren't following. as the audience knows. We have burlesque. to ask the big man for advice. They change back and forth every time Herakles* is either welcomed or threatened. hymns. by their different routes. the Arnold Schwarzenegger of his day. The hero in this case is the god of the festival. Finally the guards can't tell who's the god and who's the slave so they whip them both and Dionysus* gets hurt anyway. Finally the Frogs tell Dionysus* how to get in to the palace of Hades. How do you get to Hades? That's easy. They are almost indistinguishable from people by this time. Songs. Dionysus* hides in the audience to avoid harsh treatment. Only this is a comedy and Dionysus is an effeminate god and a scaredy-cat. general fun and games with topical remarks to the audience. The old ideals that made the country great have failed and there don't seem to be any easy solutions. * The Frogs* starts off with a hero setting off on his quest (Prologue). off Dionysus* goes. sexy dancing. the slaves have revolted in the silver mines and the silver and money are running out anyway. It must have been a lot like Moscow in 1991.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It's about as bad as it can get. and when music starts playing.

This is far and away the funniest play for contemporary audiences. Afterword All of which brings us to the end of the Classical Greek period and into a time of confusion and change. New York. the contest which is proposed. until they stop this war business. The most useful work on the Greek theatre building is Allardyce Nicoll..pdffactory. The same pattern shows up in all Aristophanes' plays.Now there is another strange part in the middle (this time the Parabasis*) where the chorus attacks the politicians and praises the people and pokes fun at various local celebrities who are there in the audience. next chap3 or return to PART I Introduction PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Brace and Co. 3rd ed. Little. Boston. Euripides* and Aeschylus* are the contestants. 5. Nagler. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Ancient Greece. It's written six years earlier than The Frogs*. and the Athenians in particular. the contest. p. NOTES: Based on: James Burke. 1946. The happy idea. pages 14-16.. American Heritage Publishing Co. op cit. "The Way We Are". Dionysus* still can't decide and he asks for advice on how to save the city. For the Greeks. Everybody is invited to a farewell dinner and we get peace. 1965. They each try to see which is the weightier playwright by putting lines from their plays on a giant scale. Eventually the cast gets to the agon*. The Day The Universe Changed. theatre as well as society is slipping rapidly down hill. All these embedded in hilarious songs. One of the most popular Aristophanic comedies in current theatre is Lysistrata*. dances and spouting off to the audience. The women of all sides in the war get together and decide the only way to stop the fighting is for them to deny the men any sexual relations whatsoever. The Development of the Theatre. and the real social. and another Episode*. New York. when there is still some chance of ending the war. 1985.com . Brown and Company. Harcourt. political and religious satire and comment underneath. More fun and games and the scales keep coming down for Aeschylus* (obviously the ancient values are the ones the playwright is pushing).. reconciliation and a triumphal Exodos*. Finally Aeschylus* is picked to come back and save tragedy (and hopefully going back to the first playwright's vigorous ideals will save the Athenians).

no longer centered in Athens. And.back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER THREE The Hellenistic World Through Alexander*. There are two hereditary kings who fill in for ceremonial duties and. not only the Greek world but also Greek theatre and culture. The Spartans* insist that Athens adopt their system (an Oligarchy*) with five supreme magistrates running things (including the secret police). A number of developments have been going on to the west of Greece. The terms of surrender include dissolving the Athenian* empire. teachers. by default and conquest. cultural guidelines and technological and scientific practices. but new playwrights are not making enough of a mark to have their works saved for posterity. [It sounds a good bit like the Russian Communist Party governmental apparatus. For the first two hundred years of the rise of Rome these Romans are busy looking to Athens and Greece for literature. they have to have a new form of government. over on the Italian penninsula. Soon the Romans will inherit. The In Between Times The surrender of Athens* to Sparta* in 404 BCE marks the end of the first real democracy. Theatre Spreads Throughout The Known World Introduction We are now going into the brief Late Classical period which ends with Alexander the Great conquering the known world and spreading Greek culture and Greek theatre from India to Spain. one acts as commander-in-chief of the army. just before it fell apart.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. losing her navy. experts.pdffactory. We are now looking at a politically and socially changing world where theatre activities are spreading all over. To the east of Greece the Persians have built up an enormous stretch of territory that runs from the eastern edge of the Mediterranean clear over to India. Attica* is to become an "ally" of Sparta. tearing down the city walls and amnesty for all those anti-democratic citizens who fled the city during the war (the ones who are regarded as traitors). The Spartans figure these guys will take over running Attica (the Athenian-led Greek alliance). a council of twenty-eight elders to back them up and an assembly to provide a rubber stamp approval.com . his conquests will be divided among his generals and another society will rise to prominence in Italy. This is followed rapidly by the Hellenistic age in which Greek culture. This is part of the territory Alexander* will conquer. That means they will have to do exactly as they're told. dominates the Mediterranean and is gradually taken up by the Romans. With the death of this great conquorer. At this point it is necessary to take a step back and look at the larger Mediterranean world. in wartime.

The most exciting thing in theatre is that. The only exciting thing in the eastern end of the Mediterranean is the intellectual life of Athens*. Corinth*. They hold a witch-hunt. we are now into a period of nothing much going on that will really count. Despite this title for the craft guild. barbaric people to the north) are beginning to stir. Young Plato* (427-347 BCE). He has always been critical of everything and everybody so he makes a perfect fall guy. The city-states of Greece keep switching sides. Now it is the democrats turn. With the troubled times the actors band together to protect their interests. no doubt having seen how successful the Greek theatres are. The theatre is finally separated entirely from the cult and becomes completely secularized. Keep in mind that things are also beginning to shape up further west. They happily execute a whole bunch of democratic leaders and set out to run the place. but don't get very far with it. and building city walls to prevent that sort of thing happening again. you just let the condemned commit suicide).pdffactory. The jury (of 501 citizens) finds him guilty and he drinks the hemlock (a favorite execution method of the Greeks. 386 BCE. Athens* and Sparta*. This doesn't matter now. known as the Thirty Tyrants*. just down the coast. Most of the people responsible are already dead so they settle for poor old Socrates* (probably the greatest philosopher ever).revival of older tragedies Society Marches On There is plenty going on around the Mediterranean. who had studied with Socrates*. going nowhere. but don't move yet. The Macedonians* (a rough. They form the first ever theatrical union (it is called a guild) the "Craftsmen of Dionysus*". all try to lead but no one wants to follow. took over. the Cult of Dionysus* is becoming less popular and others arise to compete.The new governing body. around central Italy*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Thebes* .com . There are growing restrictions on freedom and this is the downfall of Old Comedy which could only survive in a real democracy. though. in societal change. looking for somebody to blame for the mess they are in. is beginning to teach and develop the Socratic methods that will shape the western world's thinking. But some democrats in exile work up a coup. They can't quite get all of Sicily because the Carthaginians* have moved into the western end and can't be budged. with the decline of tragedy. Over in Sicily* the Greek city-state of Syracuse* is putting together a nice little empire over most of of the island of Sicily* and the toe of the boot of Italy (the Magna Graeca area). The Romans* are rebuilding Rome* after the Gallic invasion (387 BCE) from the north. but philosophy and thinking in general are taking off like a sky rocket. Theatre may be reduced to revivals of the great dead playwrights. The tyrants are turned out within a year and the old constitution restored. the actors* become more important. The Persians* pick up a few scraps from the late war. (according to Aristotle*) throw their emphasis on rhetoric instead of civic affairs. but it will later on. Tragedy seems to be written by literary hacks who. The Etruscan* actors are staging the first theatrical performances in Rome (the southern edge of their territory and a market town for dealing with the Greeks across the southern border). Theatrically Speaking Theatrically speaking.

As time goes by.com . It works like a charm and he starts south through some of the Greek city states. However. called logic. So Phillip goes looking for a really good tutor for his boy. Phillip* is not too good on this persuasion business. This is great for Greek military reputation but useless to the Greek states. when there was such a great need for soldiers that the state have been forced to hire men who fought for money. The result is that the dilligent workers stay away and the unfit and disinterested show up just for the money. Plato* is writing down everything he learned from Socrates* and launching out with his own views. He comes back with Aristotle*. So Phillip decides he'll get the Greeks together under his leadership and go knock the socks off the Persians. That covers a lot of territory. well. the wisest man in Greece. the son) is thirteen. You take two things that you do know and that leads you to an PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He has picked up the best of the Greek idea of close-ranked spearmen. After Plato* dies in 347 BCE. and added two wings of calvary to sweep in from each side. His father. Phillip figures that the boy needs to become versed in the ways of the Greeks. really. Phillip* has to have a really good army of his own and a very persuasive way with the Greeks. Now this is a stroke of genius because Aristotle* had just come up with this new way of thinking things through. It really goes back to Thales * and that geometry business the Ionians had picked up and tinkered with. it gradually became a curse. Alexander And Logical Thinking Which brings us to Alexander* (356-323 BCE). In order to do this. was a crafty. There is a big stink when the Persians murder their hired Greek generals and the common Greek soldiers have a long. too. He (Phillip) had noticed that the Greeks just couldn't get along with each other and the Persians kept trying to take more territory every time an opportunity arose. when he (Alexander. bitter march home. everything. He spends about twenty years in Plato*'s school. A young student named Aristotle* (384322 BCE) shows up and really takes to this philosophy stuff. The Persians* hire on ten thousand of these Greek mercenaries. Aristotle* leaves town for Asia Minor and the island of Lesbos*. It's simple. Phillip* has trained his son to fight and ride and. Phillip II*. The world famous Greek patriotism and pride in their state is pretty much gone. While it's true that the democracy has been reinstated it isn't working according to plan. The introduction of payment for citizens to attend the assembly is a good idea. The Greek soldier of fortune is being trained in the school of hard knocks. Since the Peloponnesian war*. one of that rough Macedonian* lot to the north of Greece. lots of swordsmen in armor. picking up everything there is to learn. he's planned for this. battle-hardened warrior with an eye to taking things over. After all. but nobody had ever worked it out clearly before. added longer spears. After the war the best of these look for further military employment elsewhere and they get it. the military has become a caste of hired help. filled in behind with archers to shoot over their heads.At home in Athens*. who are none too keen on foreign wars.pdffactory. Back on the home front this philosophy business is really taking off. The point is to enable the poorer citizens the time away from their work to attend. the general level of government is down. philosophy is the study of. The army end of it Phillip* can handle. Persuading the Greeks is another matter. the really competent citizens give up in disgust and stay home. People came from all over to study with him and learn from him.

After three years with Aristotle*. He is ready for his excellent Asian adventure.com . There is one Athenian* faction. The seeds that are the notions of democracy. and C equals B. He now is a seasoned commander-inchief and acknowledged leader of Greece and all lands up to the Danube. Then he has to make a flying trip north to take care of a bunch of barbarians on the Danube* who are making inroads on Macedonia*. Alexander (age 16) goes off to war beside his father to learn his trade of being a king. After all that terrific Greek education. Alexander* becomes a renaissance Greek hero (despite being Macedonian). He will send back specimens of plants and rocks to Aristotle* from all of his later travels. After he settles that matter he has to rush over and take care of the Illyrians* in Albania. Greek theatre. Aristotle* has opened his own school (335 BCE) and begins to write on everything. but nobody takes them seriously. under Phillip*. Everybody (except Sparta*) thinks this is a great idea. Phillip* lets Alexander* do the persuading. north over the Khyber Pass into Afganistan. at the age of twenty. south to the Arabian and Red Seas and west into Egypt*. The Thebans* led this revolt so he massacres them. A peace settlement is simple. While he is off doing this. The invasion of Persia* is postponed while the (now) General Alexander* lays down the law in Greece. of a world that can be understood and turned to the use of people rather than mystically known through priests and gods. Meanwhile. recognize Phillip* as the general of all Greece in a war against Persia. led by Demosthenes. and that Greek speciality. Phillip* dies at the hands of one of Alexander's bodyguards and Alexander* is now king of this Greek-Macedonian coallition. All the states get to keep their own governments. of theatre as a reflection of society. some will not. This so appalls the rest of the Greeks that his troubles are over. if something hot melts ice and the sun melts ice. Alexander also learns a great deal about the natural world. east beyond the Indus river in India. The death of Phillip* throws the federation of Greeks into dissension and the whole thing almost comes apart. it doesn't take long to bring all the states to heel. Alexander will spread Greek culture and with it. Alexander also learns to love the works of Homer*. If A equals B. After some interesting palace intrigue. Since he has the world's best professional army to tackle the job with. of logic. geography. then A equals C. then the sun is hot.pdffactory. Unfortunately for us. of course. in more practical terms. Or. with himself at the head. All in all. Some will grow. Everybody is happy and the army marches off to free the Greek colonies from Persian* oppression.answer to a third thing you don't know. Why We Bother With Alexander* In April 334 BCE when Alexander* marches his armies out of Greece the creative spark started by the Ionians* takes a giant leap forward. and he does. his writings on theatre are only PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. back in Athens. who thinks this will be the end of democracy. He changes the western world forever and starts parts of the eastern world on new and different paths. of course. all these are scattered in the soils of other lands and other cultures. including theatre. Two years later Phillip* and Alexander* have defeated the various Greek states including Athens* and the time has come for the persuading business. So Aristotle* teaches Alexander* to think logically. Phillip* puts together a Greek federation. the Greeks revolt again and he comes back to teach them a lesson they won't forget.

Theatre uses human being in action. 3. Aristotle's* Poetics* IMITATION Theatre is a form of poetry.. It imitates mental impressions and is an idealization not a direct copy of life. Having said all this. Aristotle* proceeds with his main aim which is to identify the essential characteristics (those characteristics which make it what it is and not something else) of the thing (tragedy). Tragedy imitates humans who are better than we are or the same as we are. learning. This makes it more real than real life because it imitates the universal. Plato*. [Many people will differ with Aristotle. What is ridiculous is ugly and involves faults or acts that do not cause pain to anyone. The function of the poet is to imitate universal aspects of life that have been impressed on his mind by observing life. 4. whose faults are ridiculous.. beauty and harmony. etc. in the mind of god.com .lecture notes. All arts (poetry. So the Poetics* is a document describing the essential characteristics of theatre in general and tragedy in particular.the media they employ. rhythm and harmony 2. but rather that there are real models out there for what is done in art. art is an imitation of an imitation.the manner of imitation..their purpose or function.. for example). (For Plato*.) Now this "imitation" business doesn't mean that it is "fake". Aristotle pays lip service to the "imitation" idea in theatre and calls what is done in all the arts "imitation". art. Theatre provides pleasure of play. We need to keep Plato's notion in mind because other society's will take it up later (they'll call it Neo-Platonism*). This kind of activity is his speciality (he does it for biology.pdffactory. SIX ELEMENTS OF TRAGEDY in the order of their importance: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.] He has been asked by his students to come up with something that fits his view of the world which is different from his teacher. also narration and speeches of characters. Theatre uses language. He tells us something of tragedy but little of comedy. Theatre imitates human beings in action Comedy imitates humans who are less than we are. but everyone will take what he said into account. But what he does write on theatre will become the bible and the basis for theatre criticism down to the present day. acting out the action. Poetry is a mode of imitation (mimesis*)....the objects they imitate . Poetry is an act of creation. It includes a value system which tells the criteria needed to distinguish really good tragedy from less good tragedy. Plato's view of the world regards everything in the world we live in as an "imitation*" of an ideal that exists somewhere on another plane.. music.) differ from each other in: 1.

spectacle . must be complex (not simple) 2. Parados. episode.thought . 4. scenery.includes the word choice. is true to life.discovery (anagnorisis*) a change from ignorance to knowledge. exodos IDEAL TRAGIC PLOT 1. so we can grasp the whole.character . movement.com . values and attitudes expressed through the characters and the actions.suffering (caused by something character has done) DIVISIONS OF PLOT . all acts and words are probable and necessary.fits the functions of that character. is true to type. stasimon. must pass from happiness to misery 2. not too short or too long.plot* (action) must have a beginning. UNITY OF ACTION* .music .the ideas. dance.includes everything visual. the natural limit provides a change in the hero's fortunes with proper causation. costume.pdffactory.1. sentence structure. masks PARTS OF THE PLOT 1. love to hate. should be better than we are. must not be too good 3. 6. must arouse pity and fear IDEAL TRAGIC CHARACTER 1. is consistent and unified throughout the play. everything relating to the language and form of the the words to be spoken and sung. (not there in simple plot) 3.Prologue. 3.includes the sound of the spoken language as well as the songs and accompanying music to be played. The best kind also arouses pity and fear*.reversal (peripety*) a change that occurs when the opposite of what was intended turns out. 2. middle and end.organically unified in which all parts are necessary and in perfect order with one central theme. 5.diction . or vice versa. downfall of character must not be caused by baseness PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. (not there in simple plot) 2.

which goes to show you that his plays traveled widely. 342-291 BCE) whose only surviving works are a play. miser. although the characters are stock types. They are all found in Egypt. All that fun and games about insulting people in the audience and making strong political statements gets drastically reduced.] Menander*'s subjects are the politics of the family.com . MENANDER* . That means it is a look at the private affairs of the leisure-class Greeks. must be a leader and of a famous house (represent his society) Menander*. The Grouch* (Dyskolos*). phisophical and social things are going on. daughters. Apparently there are at least 40 authors (the leading ones are foreign.pdffactory. The New Comedy* And Hellenistic* Theatre Middle Comedy . while parts of three other plays turned up earlier in this century. Now it's all merchants. The major stock characters are: the parasite. This theatrical change reflects the change in Athenian* life. and a number of fragments. The one playwright we know something about is Menander* of Athens (ca. The chorus and the Parabasis part dwindle away. twins. sons. loyal slave. slaves and courtesans.the contest for comic actors is instituted New Comedy This genre is essentially a comedy of manners. but we know next to nothing about it. downfall must be due to some character flaw or error in judgement 5. which involves pleasures of food.finds the revival of older comedies a going concern* 329-312 BCE. Gone are the grand old days when everyone was concerned with noble ideas and civic affairs. by the visual evidence. most of them are foreigners. Both the characters and the plot are more realistic. that the appearance of the comic characters gradually becomes more human and less like cartoons. sex and courtesans. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Old Comedy seems to have come to an end with Aristophanes*and the fall of Athenian democracy of that time.4. knavish slave. foundling. There apparently is something known as Middle Comedy* that comes in between the Old and the New Comedy. bold adventurer. courtesan.(he wrote over 100 plays) The Greek New Comedy flourishes during the fourth and third centuries BCE. so we will wait (a couple centuries) until these turn up to look at the new domestic hero and the characteristic plot. The only extant works are two plays by Aristophanes* that really belong to this transitional period. boor.400-338 BCE While these military. 339 BCE. The plays always have a happy ending after five acts of difficulties. The actions of the plays are becoming domestic and the way the characters go about things must be getting more realistic. The characters are fathers. professional writers) and over 600 titles. We also see. These guys write somewhere around 1400 plays. [The play isn't discovered until the 1950's. We know about seventy writers. mothers. Almost everything we know about Menander* comes to us from the Romans* who so enjoyed his plays that they imitated at least 9 of them in Latin. mainly lovers. The plays beging to throw their emphasis in the situation. again. the performance and writing of theatre falls on comedy.

two to three stories. wealth and power. The Egyptian one under General Ptolemy* will last until the death of Cleopatra*. The seats stop at a half-circle (instead of extending slightly past) which makes the orchestra a semicicrle. This will become the cultural center of the universe for scholars. They are also building libraries and stuffing them full of the writing of the historians. boasting the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. virtue and inner peace.money and the middle class. This doesn't matter very much because the new plays don't use the orchestra. It included a college of learned men engaging in research. Archimedes*. recording and some teaching. These will continue on into the Roman world as dominant ideas. it is terrific for theatre as a business. and bigger. This means there are lots of copies of the great writers' works scattered in these libraries from Spain* to India and especially in Alexandria* (332 BCE) in Egypt*. accepting whatever happens.com . The two big ideas are becoming the mainstays of the Hellenistic philosophy. Stoicism*. Here Ptolemy* carries out Aristotle's ideas of the systematic organization of knowledge. Some of the big men on campus include: Euclid*. trying to free oneself from caring about external circumstances and material things. enduring pain and suffering with resignation. The three doors are standard architectural features. Epicureanism* is into: mental calm and tranquility. All over Greece and the Greek colonies they are building new theatres and remodeling old ones. complete supression of emotions . and this is where the action is. Stoicism* [actually this is sort of like Buddhism] is into: believing everything is predestined. The gods have been argued out of existence (at least in affairs of the state) and business is the only business of the day. belief that the highest good is pleasure (which is mental calm). it's not surprising). We need a momentary digression here to look at one of the many cities Alexander* founded and named for himself. getting rid of afear of the gods and death by developing knowledge of nature and science (atomic theory). One or two are used for regular theatre presentations now. The new and rebuilt theatre buildings are not that much different from the old ones. While this is bad for the theatre as an art. anyway. physical pleasures shloud be enjoyed in moderation and one should avoid marriage. There are a number of these theatres still in good enough shape to put on shows in them and they still show these basic features. The scene house gets more so. The medical school is equally famous. and trying to develop reason. politics. the Alexandria* in Egypt. They are terrific in mathematical and geographic work (considering Alexander's* considerable travels. with room on each end for another entrance (making five entrances in all). Eratothenes* (who measured the size of the earth to within fifty miles of its true diameter) and a number of others engaged in things like cataloguing and mapping stars. There is definitely a raised stage. with plenty of room for decoration and scenery. philosophers and the dramatists. striving for self-sufficiency. and Epicureanism*. The Hellenistic Period (323-30 BCE) Moving To Rome* By Way Of Alexandria* When Alexander* dies in 323 BCE his empire is split up among his generals. He sets up a museum (meaning a place that was in the service of the Muses) which becomes the first university in the world.

Rome* is beginning to be where the action is. the Romans* are busy getting rid of the Etruscans* (they finish this job by 295 BCE).greatest anatomist and developing the science of drugs. In the Eastern end. the Serapeum*. These gods include Serapis* (that is Osiris* plus Apis*. The idea of immortality becomes a growing and increasingly important one that reaches far beyond Egypt. ruled by a king. This really makes finding a particular spot in a manuscript a lot easier. but there are a couple of mileposts that will help us understand this new power rising in Italy. they have a council of elders (senatus) made up of the nobility (patricians*) picked by the king. * Ptolemy* also creates the great library*. especially the Sun god Mithras* of the Persians*. especially in southern Italy* and Sicily*. There is a tribal PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It is always extend the trade. putting out copies of the scholars' works and selling books. For the first time in the world's history a standard of professional knowledge is set up. Keep in mind that a "book" is really a long roll of sheepskin. The library* attracts a terrific crowd of students. One of the scholars. consolidate the markets and keep the peace so business can boom. In the 200's BCE Buddhist missionaries come from India and there is a colony of Indian traders in the city. It combines a state library and a state publishing industry. Many copyists worked making duplicates of all the popular and useful works. Isis* (who is equal to Hathor*. devoted to a trinity of gods. The library* works as a university press. and Horus*. develops a system for breaking up the long works into "books" or volumes that can be put on separate rolls. Plutarch* and Livy* wrote all about the rise of Rome. With this outlook in mind. Keep in mind that there is Greek theatre all over. Callimachus*. Somewhere around 509 BCE they get rid of the king business and start a republic This is something like the Spartans have (there was a rumor that the Romans were really Spartans but that sounds fishy). the cow-moon goddess). The forum* is pretty much the center of their world.com . Anyway. [This will have a real impact on the much later rise of Christianity]. It literally means "outside the door" but as the tribe grows into a nation it comes to mean both "market place" and "Meeting place". It doesn't have much power at this stage but it gets to pick the next ruler when the old one dies. The Carthaginians* are getting to be the big power in the western Mediterranean. The library* is encyclopedic and every unknown book brought to Egypt* is copied for the collection. The men of this society seem to require deities with an outlook at least as big as Alexander's* empire. So this Latin tribe starts out with a small patch of land just southwest of Rome*. But first they have to get some peace and some organization. Nothing much is going on in Greece* where the states keep fighting each other. We don't need to go into too much here.* Rome While all this is going on in the Greek-dominated Hellenistic world. Alexandria* becomes a factory of religious ideas. Almost every other god is identified in one way or another with one of these three aspects of the one god. the sacred bull). Ptolemy* sets up a religious center. This pretty much tells us who these people are. It has the largest Jewish population in the world. Since we have good records from the Romans* we know tons of things about how they got started and kept on going. The arrangement and cataloging of the accumulation is systematically worked out. They've gone to school with the Etruscans* and with the Greeks (remember they sent some senators to study Solon's* laws?).pdffactory. entrepreneurs and administrators of conglomerates. they're a bunch of businessmen.

and even vote. The other two main cultures (Etruscan and Roman. And. So we have to shift gears here and try to understand why the Romans are as they are. When we leave the Romans. one tribe would become the Romans]. Now we begin to encounter the differences that cultures make as we move to Rome*. and the uncivilized Latin tribes [from among these. that southern part of Italy and most of Sicily*) and finally busting up the Carthaginians*. At this transition time we need to take a step back in time and examine how things developed in the Italian area. For them. almost beyond recognition. Back then. theatre is just entertainment. The Etruscan* Connection So far it has been easy to follow the development of theatre because we were dealing with one culture. the Greeks. The Romans are surrounded by a raft of uncivilized tribes. but they change it. and consequently. that will follow. there's no stopping the Roman citizens. They preside over the rise of Christianity and the biggest. Now there is a popular army. Just keep in mind that the society they build. it takes a while to get the system up and running. Most of their energies are devoted to extending and defending their borders. and make the kind of society they do. to someone whose job it is to protect the plebes* against the powers that be).) each had strong traits quite different from the Greeks. One of the key differences seems to be that Romans are eternal warriors. and fighting the barbarians. The Greeks are important for what they did. as in this case. They give a little more power to the people and let them elect a tribune* (now here's a word that's confusing because it refers both to a military commander and. We will have to spend much more time on things that don't seem to relate to theatre at all. the Ionian Greeks. Well.pdffactory. Italy was a hodge podge of cultures. form the basis for all western societies. As a result they regard almost everbody. By the end of the Macedonian Wars* (214-148 BCE) they'are pretty much ready to start becoming a world power. How They Got To Be Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation This cultural difference between the Greeks and the Romans brings up a real problem. its values and its structure. a citizen assembly and a senate and a growing body of laws. most of them barbarians. one tribune leads to another. But. longest running empire in the west. These traits will make a world of difference in the development of theatre.com . The Greeks we know about. The main peoples were the Etruscans. except the Greeks. and then beating up on the Greeks* (275 BCE) in Magna Graecia* (you remember.assembly of all citizens (patricians and plebeians* or common people) who gets to witness. The very idea of "barbarians" is a new one because the Greeks dealt mainly with other civilized states. what with fighting the Gauls. as barbarians. we will leave civilization and organized society behind for a very long time. the Romans for how they did it. ITALIAN TIMELINE FROM 1000 BCE PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. all the western theatre. on some things. About 471 BCE things take a turn for the one-step-better in running things. once there's the smell of liberty and freedom in the air.

Everything they did depended on omens and signs read by their priest-kings. lock. The Romans are appalled at the equality Etruscan women enjoyed. These Tuscany* tribes came to be known as the Etruscans*.com . stock and barrel. Another quite different range of characteristics will be picked up by the Romans. draining swamps. a new non-Latin tribe was emerging as a dominant force in the area of Tuscany*. both because we know very little about these people who established a vibrant civilization over much of Italy. The Etruscans* were great city planners and architects. and because what we do know about them is fragmentary and strange. spreading north and south of this cultural center.pdffactory. They had a body of laws and a passion for divination. Mysterious they are. They were hard. luxurious living and loose moral codes. sexual freedom. Waves of invaders poured down into southern Europe. but they will adopt the rest of the blood and sex attitudes. on the western coast of Italy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Phoenicians* were pushed westward out of Asia Minor and established a great colony at Carthage* on the North African coast and in Spain* and waves of iron using Indo-European Latin tribes invaded Italy from the north. there were only scattered bronze age cultures on the Italian peninsula. It was a time of ferment all over the Mediterranean. between the Mycenae bunch and the dawn of classical Greece.ca. They seem to have many characteristics of Asia Minor* peoples and may have migrated from Anatolia* across the northern edge of the Adriatic. The Romans really latch on to this architectural and engineering business and will become known as a society of builders. The last invading tribe settled in the Alban hills around what would become Rome*. The part of Italy they dominated came to be called Etruia*. 750-600 BCE height of Etruscan power The Etruscans* We need to examine with the mysterious Etruscans* first because they seem to have contributed the most to the Roman character. They came up with the arch and a grid layout for their cities. digging tunnels through hills. The Etruscans* owed much of their civilization to the Greek influence they encountered on their southern borders. They were engineers. Before they established a going society in northern Italy. This was back in the dark age of Greece. war-like and determined. There is an old and dubious story that they were the survivors of the fall of Troy. 1000 BCE semi-barbarian tribes in Italy [ King David rules in Judea ] ca. Many of their talents and characteristics will be adopted by the later Romans. Meanwhile. They had terrific gladiator battles for every occasion (especially their funeral games). The Etruscans were really crazy about blood and sex. The Etruscans were especially crazy about the works of Homer*. The Romans will ditch the king business but adopt this divination business. diverting rivers and becoming expert miners and metal producers. They gradually pushed the local Latin tribes further back into the hills and forests. 800-750 BCE Etruscans become an organized presence in Italy ca.

Other aspects of their religion differed from the Greeks.com . (a spirit which protects an individual all through life). They did. There are really two different forms of worship among the Romans. making the ritual offerings to the lares* (spirits of the land) and penates* (spirits of stored food). harvest. The mundus shaft was covered with a great stone ("the stone of souls") which was raised on special days. storms.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The notion of the "center" of town was enormously significant for the Etruscans. The high priest of the household is the paterfamilias (father of the family). Faunus* (woodlands). He has the power of life and death. was identical with the Greek Hermes who conducted the souls of the dead to the underworld. the navel of the universe. especially apples). who hovered endlessly and had to be propitiated. OLD ROMAN GODS Before they became Romans. They survive down into the middle ages and may be found even today in Italian villages. The Romans would adopt this rigidity in doing rituals correctly. the guardian spirits of the home. In founding a new city the Etruscans* followed specific religious rites. and budding time. He is guardian of the family.pdffactory. Silvanus* (timber lots and boundary stones). hearth. the Latin tribe had their own gods of the woodland. The names of these gods might change but they always remained at the heart of Roman religion.Greek mythology is found throughout their art and may have influenced their religion as well. for example. that of the household and that of the state. Robigus* (brought blight to crops). Pomona* (orchards. for depositing the first fruits and on the three days the dead were allowed to mingle with the living. Many of these minor gods and spirits left a rich legacy in their names: Genius* . Both make use of the lessons from the Etruscans concerning omens. auspicious signs and rituals. all of these they carried with them throughout their long history. Pales* (guarded shepherds). beginning with a shaft in the center (this was supposed to lead directly to the underworld) called mundus (as were the heavens). If anything went wrong the whole thing had to be done over from the beginning. They foster gaiety and good living and are invoked especially when the family sits together at a meal. Their god Turms*. Stone representations of the omphalion can be found all over and were regarded as sacred by many cultures. There were rites for everything and these had to be accurately done in every detail. his word is law and through him the gods work. however. (We might note that the Greeks did none of this. clear skies. They were extremely rigid in their religious views. There were many ghosts of the dead (remnants of the beliefs of the Etruscans) Manes*. believe in the importance of the idea of the omphalion. Many magic spells and incantations survive into republican times.

but unlike the Greeks they are ruled by priest-kings. and the same range of theatrical farces. Rimini and Ravenna and Spina on the Adriatic*. For two hundred years the Etruscans*.] The circular view and its divisions reflects their view of the universe. and found their Roman Republic. They took to Greek theatre in a big way and did a lot of their own variations of farces. Having picked up a good deal from the Greeks on how to organize a successful society. The ideal is much like the Spartan*. thrifty. On the mainland of Italy Etruia* expands and builds cities at Bologna. Changes In Power In Italy* In 753 BCE the Etruscans* are busy founding the town of Rome*. This division is then subdivided into many wedges of the circle. first written code of Roman Law THE ROMAN CHARACTER . It is a natural place for a town and they lay it out in their usual methodical fashion over the well known seven hills. He is stoic. dance. The Etruscan variations will be adopted by Rome. cautious and simple in their tastes.494 BCE tribunate established c.C.500-c. 753 BCE founding of Rome* 616 to 510 BCE Rome ruled by Etruscan Tarquins* The Romans Finally Become Romans After two hundred years of learning the ways of civilization under the Etruscans*. D.350 BCE warfare against neighbors c. 509 BCE Romans throw out Tarquins and found the Roman Republic c. Each segment of the heavens has its own meaning and diviners search the heavens carefully for omens.pdffactory. the Roman citizen-soldier. dividing the city into quarters. 451 BCE Twelve Tables. we found in early Greece*. The Etruscans* were crazy about music. the Romans finally get the hang of it and begin to put their unique talents for organization and administration to work. These Romans are hard and unyeilding. For years the Etruscans* have met and traded with the Greeks at the banks of the Tiber river which marks the southern boundary of Etruia. The word temple comes from the Etruscans and originally meant that part of the heavens in which omens are found. in 509 BCE they throw out the last of the Etruscan* Kings along with the whole notion of kingship.The city is planned in a circle with two main thoroughfares which intersect at the mundus shaft. Greeks* and Carthaginians* rival each other in commerce and piracy throughout the Mediterranean. etc. hard- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They are. like the Greeks. [This city plan can be seen in Washington. The Etruscans* govern the Latin tribes and the town of Rome* where they rule from 616 BCE to 510 BCE as the dynasty of Tarquins.com .Roman society depends upon the Roman character for its meaning and stability. a loose confederation of city-states. The Romans love the temple idea and build them everywhere and for every possible purpose. mimes.

protectress of the woods and huntsmen. too.Early on she is connected with Janus. His former place as god of war is remembered in a small temple in the Forum where the temple gates were thrown open in times of war and closed in peace.In matters military the Romans pick up the best of the Greek models and all of the military skills and equipment developed by the Etruscans. DIANA* . These are the old virtues. remembered with veneration but seldom followed by later generations. which is kept burning continually. The paterfamilias view of society enables the Romans to look on conquered lands as a Roman family. Their conquered subjects are treated as children who might.As goddess of the hearth flame. the thunderer.) a conscious acceptance of burdens. They also take over the Etruscan emblems. This citizen-soldier is also the paterfamilias* (father of the family) and has the power of life and death over his wife and children. but not in religion. grow up to be Roman citizens. These are tended only by maidens called vestal virgins* who offer special prayers in honor of that hearth. The real Roman religion is military conquest. Ritual offerings are made in each household and each tribe has its own public hearth. if properly managed and taught. The Vestal virgins are sacrosanct and have a mysterious power as long as they remain virgins. She will remain a power unchanged throughout the ages of Rome. RELIGION . He is present in every household and even after he has been replaced as chief god he is always invoked before all others at the beginning of any enterprise. Morality turns up in the notion of paterfamilias and in philosophical views (like the Stoic and Epicurean which the Romans take to eagerly).headed. The sacred flame PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. even when they have forgotten their names.com . she is the symbol of communal life. remains unchanged through the course of Roman history. They accumulate gods indiscriminately and take care to honor them all. Her power is over the cycles of the moon and women. The attributes of the Greek Artemis* will also become hers. continuity of the family and its welfare.The Romans sometimes address their prayers to an unknown deity "whether god or goddess".pdffactory. There is no real moral code involved. Romans are trained to a sense of duty (pietas and gravitas. Gradually she becomes the goddess of fertility. That about sums up the Roman religion. self-disciplined with a flint-like character. the axe and the bundle of sticks [fasces*] which symbolize the leader's absolute authority. Vesta. THE MILITARY . MAJOR OLD ROMAN GODS JANUS* . At various times he is the sun. First to fall are their neighbors. but always he is the god of beginnings and of doorways. In Rome a round temple shaped like the ancient hut houses the sacred flame of the state. The Roman religion (from religare meaning to bind) is a contract between men and divinities to gain favor. VESTA* . She evolves from a woodland spirit.The chief god of these early days is JANUS. With these skills and equipment they begin their conquest of their part of the world. the sky. demanding absolute loyalty and obedience.

From beginning to end. More Changes In Power In Italy* The Roman conquest of Veii in 396 BCE marks the beginning of the decline of Etruscan* power in Italy. A temple to Concord is built at the northwest corner of the Forum as a perpetual reminder of the new relationship between the aristocracy and the people. Almost all entertainments are performed in the guise of an effort to entertain the gods. a senate. and a popular assembly. scenic entertainments are introduced in 364 BCE to disarm the wrath of the gods when a two year long pestilence is raging. They beat the Romans soundly.pdffactory. sack Rome and leave it a smoking ruin. Meanwhile expansion was taking place. The Romans (along with the rest of the Italians) have a big set back when the barbarian Gauls swept down out of the north. The fierce Gauls will threaten the Romans off and on until Rome finally falls. After a time nearly every day is devoted to a local feast to some god and festivals and games are provided for the more prominent ones. victories and gods' special days. the Republic manages to survive for about three hundred years and remains a glowing memory in the minds of the Romans through the fall of Rome. This break-through leads to a series of laws limiting the privileges of the aristocracy. It is a significant experience the Romans never forget. It delays the development of Roman society and because of this experience. As the Romans grow in territory they also became experienced in their system of governing PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Gaulish invaders force the Romans to develop their military tactics and skills and harden their views of military control. into Italy in the 390's.While the Roman Republic is less democratic than the society the Ionians had put together. the nature of the Roman Republic will change in the period of recovery. ENTERTAINMENT APPEARS According to Livy* (in his history). As the Roman society progresses.continues to burn long after Christian times and is extinguished only in 382 CE. It also provides a model for many later societies looking for alternatives to Kings and Princes. Eventually there are so many holidays that it interfers with the normal affairs of business and government. it has some of the standards the western world will look to for models for over a thousand years. The essential elements of a working democracy are finally hammered out by the middle of the first century BCE. It centers on two consular magistrates. Somewhere around 367 BCE the clash between the plebs (the common citizens) and the aristocracy (rich land owners) is resolved and a new law requires one of the consuls be chosen from the plebs. 396 BCE conquest of Veii against Etruscans 390 BCE invasion of Italy by Gauls. it adds celebrations called festivals for every religious occasion: funerals. Rome is destroyed and occupied 316 BCE subjection of Latin tribes around Rome 250 BCE Eturia absorbed by Rome THE REPUBLIC .com . By 250 BCE Eturia is part of the Roman political system and they now are ready to pick up the pieces of Alexander's disintegrating empire.

he will hurl himself into battle. The policy is very successful. In order to take on this leadership role. They take the Greek theatre. The general in command will sometimes offer himself as a devotion. a religious leader in communion with the gods. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. imitate them and spread theatre over all the territory they. The devotion then becomes a shaman. are gradually rebuilt in the Roman mold and spread abroad as the Roman Empire grows. Each conqured territory becomes a Roman colony with a Roman garrison to keep the peace and see that Roman laws are obeyed. DIVINE MISSIONARIES The gods fight on the side of the Romans. adaptors. myths. As we noted earlier. Gold and treasure from the Samnites pave the way for further conquest. in their turn. If he dies in battle there are no further ceremonies and he will be remembered with gratitude. He is never again permitted to participate in religious ceremonies and becomes a nonperson. If he survives. For this. With prayers and magical rites to induce the gods to visit the enemy with fear and death. bringing peace and order. Its empire stretches along north Africa through the Pillars of Hercules (straits of Gibraltar) and Spain. Spain and all foreign trading posts fall to Rome. Many people begin to enjoy some of the rights of Roman citizenship. Carthage dominates the western Mediterranean from the African coast. produce them. Settlements are made whereby a few people have some independence and others are incorporated into the Roman system. Every western society from Roman times on will see itself as a true Roman state embracing every territory in its paternal rule of law and conferring the benefits of culture and rule. organizers and administrators. providing the state with wealth and goods from the conquered lands. The Romans are great imitators. and. the theatre.pdffactory. those mysterious Etruscans* have vanished into the hills and rocks of Italy. The Romans believe they are serving a divine purpose and regard war as a religious vocation. possessed of superhuman powers. rThe Greek colonies in southern Italy were next but they prove more difficult.conquered lands. a willing sacrifice. All this may seem very esoteric and obscure but the overall pattern will become the model for western societies down into our own century. and the Mediterranean becomes a Roman lake. they will. they feel the need of more cultural polish. After the defeat of Carthage. The site where the image is buried is now a sacred spot. will conquer. plays and practice. most of all. by the end of the Macedonian Wars* (214-148 BCE) Rome is pretty much ready to start becoming a world power. They are next on the list for Roman conquest and the Punic wars (against Carthage) begin (264-241 BCE and 218201 BCE). turn to Greece and all things Greek. Afterword By the time we are concerned with Rome and the Romans. So it is that the Romans subdue the Samnites across eastern and southern Italy. Consider how familiar it is: the notion that the society is an obedient family led by stern but caring paternal leaders. and that society has a divine mission to spread its rule to other lands. All of which brings us back to the progress of theatre from Greece to Rome by way of Alexandria. The literature.com . Sardinia and Sicily. of course. an image of him is buried seven feet deep and a guilt offering is made.

out in the provinces. regular plays are widely done. All this theatrical activity leads to a wide range of technical innovation in architecture. These all add Roman elements. next chap4 or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER FOUR The Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation Introduction As Rome changes from a republic into an empire. run by the exclusive senate club. a forum for cultural ideas. wll be found in libraries and book collections throughout the empire. will ensure that the glory of Greek theatre and its Roman imitations survive. These will provide the foundations for cultural enrichment and the rise of a Renaissance theatre a thousand years later. whose writings. but it doesn't do much for theatre literature. G. At the height of the Roman Empire there are many theatre buildings. They completely miss the Greek idea of theatre as a contest. and the living tradition of hardy performers. all these.pdffactory. The ones in Rome are mostly devoted to terrifically extravagant shows that are supposed to entertain the masses. The old aristocracy of three hundred senators tightens their hold on the government so that it becomes an oligarchy. numerous theater buildings. as we can see in the plays of Plautus*. especially the Nazis and Mussolini's "Fascist" regime. The theatrical heritage they get from the Greeks continues to be performed in Latin. Latin documents.NOTE: I am indebted to H. imitations and adaptations of Greek comedy and tragedy. together with those of Horace. Roman Culture Blossoms During the Punic Wars several significant things are happening in Rome.com . through Roman translations. Terence* and Seneca*. scenery and all visual elements. The conquests are bringing in uncounted wealth and the increase in the trade business booms. Instead. the Romans turn their theatre into entertainment on a grand scale. Roman cultural attitudes are revealed in their ideas of theatre. Its' importance in the generation and transmission of ideas can't be overstated. But. The number of slaves increases with each PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Wells' The Outline of History for calling my attention to the importance and influence of Ptolemy and his work in establishing the cultural center of the western world in Alexandria. The Roman Fasces would be picked up by later civilizations.

put up for festivals and then dismantled. traders and slave-tutors pours into Rome bringing dazzling vistas of a superior culture and new horizons of the mind.110 BCE DATES BCE c. some merry.c. a building boom takes off. some solemn. The rising population demands more entertainment and amusement. ROMAN LEADERS DURING ERA OF SENATE SUPREMACY c. The twelve Salii dance in processions through the city. There have been chariot races and gladiator battles and festivals. all to the accompaniment of trumpet blasts.265-217 237-183 234-149 185-129 163-133 153-121 LEADER Gaius Flaminius Cato the Elder Tiberius Gracchus Gaius Gracchus EVENTS Punic Wars with Carthage Dalmatia is Romanized Province of Asia goes to Rome social reforms and African wars Scipio Africanus Major Macedonian wars and Asian foothold Scipio Africanus Minor Third Punic war Carthage destroyed PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. swelling the restless mob. The vestal flame is rededicated. The paved road. The Aqua Appia which carries water is improved. increased trade and traffic and the rising importance of Rome. the new year opens in March with days of ceremonies. Romans take to playwriting and production as the number and variety of festivals swells. Thousands of books from captured libraries. processions and celebrations.pdffactory. For example. With all this wealth. But they are all played in temporary playing spaces. This is a typical event.275 . stopping at all the temples and shrines and feasting every night. all the cheap slave labor. Greek artists. Small landowners are forced off their land and flock to the city. New temples are constructed to include the statues brought from looted Greek Syracuse. There is a great clanging as the sacred shields were removed from the temple of Mars. The city sees no need for permanent playhouses. The Roman view of theatre is totally different from the Greek originators. the Appian Way.com . teachers. Greek philosophy and Hellenistic culture attract rich youth who go to Athens to study. Adaptations of Greek plays appear. but now the number and length increases. Greek ideas are imported along with treasure. Greek influence from the conquered colonies in Italy and Sicily is evident all over Rome.conquest and the rich estates grow with all this free labor. which had been begun in 312 BCE is extended and other roads built. Throughout the year every month brings festivals.

requiring unrestrained merrymaking. Ludi Megalenes* . These performances begin in 173 BCE In April there are celebrations for Tellus. Liberalia in honor of the ancient god Liber.in honor of Jupiter.the Plebeian Games are held in November under the direction of plebeian officials.com . thereby celebrating human relationship with the gods. March. In Greece the great plays had been written by prominent citizens to explore ideas of consequence to the society. The state religion has no desire or need for a contest and there is no attempt to provide playwrights or actors with prizes. introduce theatre into their festivals to provide entertainment for the Roman mobs.The Games of the Great Mother (Cybele) are held in April under the direction of patrician officials.The Games of Apollo are held in July under the direction of the city official. the first staging of plays is about 200 BCE. These are started in 204 BCE and plays are staged ten years later. victories.pdffactory. Not all Ludi include theatre as a regular part of their festivities. mother of Earth. Ludi Apollinares. In Rome plays are written by slaves and emancipated slaves to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Theatre is strictly a commercial entertainment for the populace. bringer of fruitfulness. Ceres (bringer of fruitfulness). April also includes festivals for Tellus (mother of earth). The Greeks had introduced theatre into their religious festivals as part of a whole range of contests.HOW ROMAN THEATRE DIFFERS FROM GREEK As the Romans begin to write and produce plays on a regular basis the differences between the two cultures become strikingly obvious. in honor of various gods. LUDI. These contests were religious in that they were designed to reveal the best in human endeavor. The year begins in March. Jupiter (broaching the first wine) and at the end comes The Floria* . and of course. are held in September and run by patrician officials. dedications. and for Ceres. votives. Ludi Romani . Plays are presented beginning in 240 BCE. These begin in 212 BCE and include plays almost from the beginning.The Festival of Flowers which originates later and only includes mimes. Saturnalia comes in December . with a very different sense of the religious. Beginning in 214 BCE there are four days of performances.THE FESTIVALS IN ROME There are Ludi for every occasion: funerals. Ludi Plebei. Introduced in 220 BCE. but the major ones do. The Romans.

MARS* . The producer buys plays or writee them himself with the intention of making a profit from them. able to excel in rhetorical and oratorical skills. technicians and managers are artifices scaenici (scenic artists). which he then supplements with his own funds. Roman actors are usually slaves and have no standing in a society in which. remote from the lives of the ordinary person. that is. Greek actors were honored by the state. regarded as the greatest Roman comic actor. JUNO* . from theatrical companies run by a dominus gregis. The best known of these is Quintus Roscius* (c. it is similar to other skilled craft guilds. Actors. The profession is definitely upwardly mobile. MINERVA* . The guild never has the stature or social standing of its Greek counterpart. ready made. A friend of Cicero.) Roman theatre is partially subsidized in this fashion by the state. Many of the Greek gods are simply appropriated into the Roman pantheon and given Roman names.Originally Menerva. or theatrical producer. she takes over the functions of the Greek Athena. Their origins are often minor. The Greek productions were paid for by the state and produced for the special event.Originally the god of ripening grain. but the basic fee is never enough for the elaborate show the magistrates have in mind. In Rome each festival is run by a magistrate who gets a government grant. deprived of certain political rights) who have a repertoire of plays ready. employed as ambassadors and revered as members of a religious guild. such a social rise is rare. they are not even citizens.Originally Uni. They are spectacular and powerful. The magistrate is out to further his own political ambitions and theatrical producers are careful not to offend any member of a politically influential family. or be accompanied by musicians. The producer is usually a free man with a company of slave (and occasionally free) actors (infames. he is honored by Sulla with the gold ring of the equestrian rank.produce an income and build a productive career. Actors are skilled entertainers. An actor who is highly skilled might be able to buy his freedom and become a producer himself. The guild is vaguely religious. However. (hardly the climate for controversial subject matter. at least in aspirations. Rather. The producer might also act in his own productions and the names which come down to us tend to be those of actor-managers. she comes to Rome with Jupiter and becomes Hera*. he becomes the god of war Ares*. by and large. They might also be musicians.com . 126-62 BCE). They may have been reproduced at other events or recreated in the colonies but the individual way in which a production was put together seems to have been the same. GREAT OLD ROMAN GODS AND THE GREEK CONNECTION These gods hold the destiny of the state. associated with the goddess Minerva who is in charge of skills. dance and pantomime. writers. Eventually there is a theatrical guild for theatre people.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Festivals hire their plays.

He is rigid.com . The others serve as mere adornments for his throne and derive their power from his.pdffactory. but he remains only a name.Originally a god of fresh water. Her powers are the generative force of the universe. he has his own peculiar nature that is essentially Roman. He can be found in various forms: Jupiter Lapis . protector of the state and people. in one sense. Finally he becomes Jupiter Optimus Maximus* the best and greatest of all gods.Brought back by veterans of eastern campaigns. He is.Originally a goddess of flowers she takes Aphrodite's* functions and becomes far greater.thunder He gradually takes on characteristics of the Etruscan Tinia* (sky god) and the Greek Zeus*. in charge of fecundity and presiding over the destiny of Rome. the archetypal image of the paterfamilias ruling over the family of Romans. near the end of the First Punic War. The earliest theatrical writer we know anything of is Livius Adronicus*. She is served by Greek women speaking Greek. MERCURY* . It is he who presides over tribal loyalties and oaths.The ancient Roman goddess of agriculture takes on all the attributes of the Greek Demeter*.Originally he was the god of oak forests.hurling lightning Jupiter Tonans . Although he is made up of attributes from many gods. Roman Theatre Begins It is here.From the Greek Hermes*.as a stone or meteorite Jupiter Pluvius . VENUS* .He doesn't even change his name. that we find the first Roman theatre productions.APOLLO* . He forms the center of the state religion and the pontiffs of his temple on the Capitoline have their colleges and there they guard the divine law. concerned with law and morality. the only god of the Romans. supreme legislator of their destinies. remote. She is often called "greater" than Jupiter because she creates all things.bringer of rain Jupiter Fulminator . and maintainer of peace. He translates Greek comedy and tragedy for production in the festivals PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. BACCHUS* . thunder and rain. CERES* . he takes over from Poseidon*. NEPTUNE* . GREATEST ROMAN GOD JUPITER* . justice and truth. Dionysus*.

it is apparently adapted from the New Comedy of Menander. if successful. We can find direct counterparts today. Later authors change the setting of the plays to Rome (fabula togata) and base their costumes on the Roman dress. By the end of the Second Punic War. red is reserved for slaves (no doubt from the Gauls and Celts). This problem of developing a literary style for emerging languages will become even more important in later periods and languages. black shows youth. Totally unlike the Old Greek comedy. although it is difficult to be sure whether those used in comedy are the same as those which will soon come to be used in the farces. Gone is any any concern with the well being of the state and its citizens. like Livius Andronicus*. we know he is also an actor. * The fabula Atellana is ther local name for the Atellan farce and mime. Those for the stereotyped characters are highly exaggerated. usually of linen. young men wear purple. but by the the first century BCE they take over and begin to be written down. and courtesans (hired female companions) wear yellow. complete with scenery. parasites (the clever man who lives off others) wear grey. The comedies of Menander* are also widely translated and produced. The costumes in the works of both Plautus and Terence* are short garments loosely based on Greek clothes for those comedies remained set in Greece (fabula palliata). however. These tragedies are produced with a short farce provided as an intermission piece and often as an afterword or epilogue. director. The color of the hair reveals information too: white tells of old age. The masks* are another informative visual element. It is with Roman comedy that we come to familiar ground. we find domestic comedy concerned with sons who chafe at the tyranny of the paterfamilias. Masks for female characters and young men tend to be more natural. we have Plautus*. costumes and masks. These masks and the characters they represent are worth more than a passing note. They are made in one piece. but simply knowing that these are being done doesn't tell us very much about the plays themselves. greatly loved by the populace. The Latin language is just beginning to establish literary standards and guidelines. The colors of the costumes tell the nature of the characters: old men wear white. These are minor forms early on. deceptions and hilarious confusions. and here we find a theatre artist in full bloom. including hair. Plays are written to be sold. and. sexual romps. but the emphasis is purely Roman. The productions are professionally mounted. covering the whole head. He is the first playwright whose plays we have copies of and. There are typical masks for the standard characters. Playwrighting becomes so prevalent that a College of Playwrights is founded [see below]. and manager of a successful theatre troupe.com .pdffactory. We know of several other playwrights of this period who turn the tragedies of Euripides* into Latin productions.but none of his work survives. The characters are prehistoric comic types and in Rome they take on the basic forms in which they will appear down to the present day. Instead. It is quite a challenge to turn a highly developed literary form in one language into a successful version in a different language. Farce will continue to be the most popular form of theatre for the next thousand (or more) years. on any television sitcom. they become part of the theatre companies' repertoire. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

Some times there are five doorways with the extreme right and left leading to other streets. A Temple of Minerva is built to house the meetings of the poets. He will be called the "Father of Latin Poetry". director and producer.(glutton) Artful woman . actor.Dossennus The Heroine (Immorata) Comic Slaves . He writes both comedies and tragedies. with other types of entertainment.pdffactory.Pappus Braggart Warrior . Quintus 239-169 BCE Roman poet and playwright. After he is freed he teaches school and translates Homer into Latin. Lucius* c. We have only numerous fragments and 30 titles of his works. We have extensive fragments of his work. Ennius. In 240 BCE he produces the first Latin adaptations of a Greek comedy and a Greek tragedy.Maccus Female Slave -saucy maid Bucco Old Hag Cook .The Mother-in-law Miles Glorious and Cicirrus The Wife Pendant (Learned Man) . Only fragments of his work survive and even the titles are somewhat dubious.Young hero Parasite -(flatterer) Testy Old Man . In 207 BCE the College of Playwrights* is founded mainly in honor of Andronicus. It is also possible that he starts the practice of "contamination". He becomes a dramatist. Gnaeus c. Despite his wealthy acquaintances he remaines poor and shares a house with another poet Caecilius. He is regarded as the first to write national Roman tragedy as contrasted with adaptations of the Greek subjects. There are usually three doorways up stage leading to three different houses or two houses and a street. He is best known for an epic poem The Annals PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These are put on as part of the games celebrating the end of the First Punic War.275 BCE .com . 284-204 BCE He is a Greek slave from Tarentum.c. He comes from southern Italy and is brought to Rome by Cato the Elder. Roman Writers c.? to 201 BCE His dramatic career runs from 235 BCE until his death.110 BCE During The Era Of Senate Supremacy Livius Adronicus. adapting from the Greek comedy by combining two or more plays. The plays all take place in the street of a city. He is regarded as the founder of Roman literary drama. This street location will last as a comic setting into the Renaissance.Carissa The scenery used on these temporary stages is less well known. Naevius. This grows into the College of Poets*. that scenic design makes real progress. It is not until later. His chief claim to fame is an epic The Punic War.

c.c. He is credited with at least 20 tragedies. songs. His work is entirely adapted from the Greek New Comedy. Twenty-one plays survive. He bases his comedies on the Greek New Comedy of the fourth and third centuries BCE His work reveals the transformation of Latin literature by the Greeks Plautus*' plays are set in some Greek city. 186 BCE Cistellaria c. He is ranked with or above Plautus* and Terence*. Writer of Roman comedy. The plays have complicated plots. often in Athens. and. two comedies and two dramas on Roman subjects. 194 BCE Pseudolus 191 BCE AMPHITRYON c. he makes a living from his plays. Asinaria] Caecilius Statius born c. His influence (together with that of Terence*) extends down through modern times either by direct imitation of particular plays or adaptations of his dramatic techniques. puns and topical allusions. mainly Menander. strongly marked characters. 204 BCE THE SAVAGE SLAVE (Truculentus) Stichus 200 BCE THE LOT-DRAWERS (Casina) Rudens [DUBIOUS: Mercator. apparently based on the works of Euripides. The setting is vague and the characters. Polybius . revelry. although usually with Greek names. 205 BCE THE HAUNTED HOUSE (Mostellaria) early 2nd century BCE TWO SISTERS NAMED BACCHIS(Bacchides) THE POT OF GOLD(Aulularia) c.239(-19) BCE. Titus Maccius Plautus (c. We know very little about him other than he is an actor. lots of love-making.125 BCE . producer and dramatist.historian PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. died 168 BCE. although most of them suffer from some missing lines and puzzling constructions. PLAUTUS PLAYS: THE CAPTIVES (Captivi) late 3rd century BCE THE TWIN MENAECHMI (Menaechmi) late 3rd century BCE THE BRAGGART WARRIOR (Miles Gloriosus) c. trickery.205. Think of the Marx brothers and you will have a good grip on Plautus.pdffactory. 250-184 BCE) is born in Umbria. are distinctly Roman in outlook. Probably this living comes from the income of his troupe of actors (grex). We don't know how many plays Plautus* wrote and produced but over 130 are attributed to him.and translations from Greek. debauchery. with forty known play titles and three hundred fragments surviving.com .

The extant plays of TERENCE* are: THE EUNUCH (Eunuchus) 161 BCE THE WOMAN OF ANDROS (Andria) 166 BCE PHORMIO 161 BCE THE SELF-TORMENTOR THE BROTHERS (Adelphi) 160 BCE (Heauton Timorumenos) 163 BCE THE MOTHER-IN-LAW (Hecyra) 160 BCE Lucilius* . 110 BCE . Mime companies play anywhere and everywhere. A nephew of Ennius and fried of Accius.130 BCE . Rome turns its military attention to the Eastern end of the Mediterranean. Still a republic in name. In the next century Decimus Laberius will put the mime into a literary form. 400 fragments of his work survive. By the time he has his first play produced we are in a new era of entertainment. These are short comic pieces used as tragedy intermission and afterpiece replacements for farces.satirist Ten years before Plautus* dies. but when they appear in Rome they seem quite different.220 . Revolution is side-stepped only by the murder of opposing PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.He is regarded by Cicero as the greatest tragic writer. MIME Mimesare a well known Greek form. Plays are becoming more literary and another theatrical form is becoming popular. Rome And The Civil Wars ca. We first hear of them in 212 BCE in Rome.27 BCE After the wars with Carthage are over. drainage canals and paved roads spread out in networks linking major communities throughout Italy. Terence* is born. Marcus . His plays are based on the Greek works of Menander* and Apollodorus*. The political climate is changing as well. and he will become noted for producing unusual versions of myths. he is probably a member of the literary circle which includes Terence*. mimes are the mainstay of the festival Floria. By 173 BCE. Rome increases its manufacturing and raw materials pours in from all over the growing empire. Publius Terentius Afer ca. use no masks and have elements of indecency.185-159 BCE known as TERENCE is born in Carthage and taken to Rome as the slave of a senator where he is later freed. the government rests in the hands of fewer and fewer senators. aqueducts. He will be regarded as the master of Latin comedy.102 BCE . The mimes use much the same buffoon characters as the comedy and farce but they are improvised. This makee it a Roman favorite. But Rome has yet to build a single permanent theatre.Pacuvius. especially as regards literary style.com .180 BCE .pdffactory. Public works expand and great stone bridges. on stage. They include women. in aristocrats homes and in the street. in amphitheaters and circuses.

27 BCE DATES BCE c. One of the by products of Cato's success is the final destruction of the city Carthage which had dared to resume a trading empire. decency. THE TRIUMPHANT PARADE AS ENTERTAINMENT Scipio's* relatives have a series of military victories over Syria and other eastern powers. There is a bitter power struggle over a period of years and when the dust finally clears. Scipio* Africanus. dictatorship of Sulla PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Cato has won and the cultural views of Scipio* go down in defeat along with his power and influence.110 BCE .115-53 73-71 106-48 67-62 Pompey* Pompey subjugates Syria LEADER Marius Sulla Sulla Sulla Crassus* slave revolt led by Spartacus EVENTS barbarian Cimbri and Teutones repulsed in north social war in Italy. sobriety and courage.pdffactory. ROMAN LEADERS DURING THE CIVIL WARS c. the Rose Bowl Parade and Macy's all in one. thousands of pounds of silver and gold and captive slaves without number. Opposition concerns opposing view points on morals and philosophy as well as questions of power. Scipio grants a number of countries in Greece complete independence for their help in defeating the Macedonians. Cato*. over a thousand ivory tusks. Cato is furious. The Roman view has become one of total despotism and rule with an iron hand.155-86 138-78 86 82 c. plowed under and salt is sown in the soil. As usual. on the other hand. The power struggle between Scipio and Cato reveals some significant insights into the social forces at work. THE STRUGGLES FOR POWER Cato* bides his time and then gets the Senate to demand an accounting of all this captured wealth. leader in Rome. is cultured. This is a huge procession and parade. Their libraries are sacked and scattered. It looks as though Greek culture will be blended into the Roman world in peace and harmony. There is little left of Roman virtus. he feels the only good foreigner is a dead foreigner (or a slave) and that "decadent" Greek culture is ruining basic Roman values. Obviously Cato becomes a hero to the poor. The city is razed. For example. a lot like Mardi Gras. after a significant victory.com .leaders. takes Athens. a great admirer of Greek culture and learning. advocating the 'old virtues' and taxing the rich. a "triumph" is held. bringing great wealth home to Rome. "Virtue" has become bloodthirsty and destructive. It includes hundreds of captured standards. not a single book survives. becomes a puritanical power.* It is the most dazzling triumph seen in Rome (up to this time).

The Senate treats reformers as they had the city of Carthage. As usual. He manages to bring the two contenders together. slaughtering countless numbers. leading finally to the collapse of the republic. along with himself. Caesar) Caesar Crassus Caesar Julius Caesar Caesar Caesar Caesar Mark Anthony (Anthony. is willing to give and civil war threatens again. Again it is successful military leaders who leads Rome down the path to dictatorship. Corruption flourishs and Rome is a city for sale. leads a slave revolt of over ninety thousand desperate men. a Thracian gladiator. This time it is a follower of Sulla named Pompey*. He expects more than the current leader of Rome. The two conflicting parties turn Rome into a private battle ground. first triumvirate formed conquers Gaul and seven legions lost crosses Rubicon made dictator defeats Pompey campaigns in Egypt. ROMAN WRITERS AND THEIR WORKS DURING THE CIVIL WARS PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . After more power struggles have taken place (including the aborted Cataline* conspiracy) the bickering is resolved by a clever. Pompey. the military leader who accomplishes the job will rise to political prominence. Further power battles follow. Crassus*. defeated founds principate and takes the name "Augustus" Various Roman patricians attempt land reform to break up the vast holdings of the rich and provide land for small farmers and discharged or retired soldiers. successful general named Caesar*. The end comes only when Sulla abruptly retires to his estates in 79 BCE leaving a power vacuum. The foreign slaves bring social unrest in the clash of cultures and in 73 BCE Spartacus*. to form a triple alliance and the First Triumvirate is established. Asia Minor. total annihilation. Africa and Spain assassinated second triumvirate formed Battle of Philippi. Marius* is a farmer's son who despised the Senate.pdffactory. Sulla* is a patrician in favor of all senatorial privileges.82-30 43 42 63-CE14 31 27 (Crassus. Anthony and Cleopatra. Lepidus) Octavian (Agustus) Augustus Octavian Octavian. Brutus dies battle of Actium.60 58-51 53 49 100-44 48 48-45 44 c. A reign of terror grips Rome under Sulla's dictatorship. It takes the defeat of several Roman armies ranging over central and southern Italy to bring the uprising to an end. The attempts usually end with hired mobs attacking the reformers in the streets and leaving them beaten to death. The expansion of the empire and influx of slaves brings other problems as well.

of which only fragments and titles survive.15 BCE .historian History of Rome Propertius* c. statesman. Lucretius* 98 .history of his conquests A NOTE ON SLAVES AND SLAVERY: So far the term "slave" has been used in its ancient historical meaning (as encountered in the bible.86 BCE . and usually is. We have more than forty titles and numerous fragments of those based on Greek models.poet Aeneid Livy* 59 BCE .44 BCE . Marcus Terentius* 116-27 BCE Roman scholar and poet.55 BCE .110 BCE .CE 17 poet Caesar* .c.writes mimes. He also writes Roman comedy. clever and saucy. Decimus Laberius* d. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.27 BCE Accius. Varro.CE 17 . He is a contemporary of Cicero and member of the equestrian class. Pomponius. These slaves are parceled out among the leaders of the conquerors.pdffactory. stock characters and six books of "Pseudo-tragedies" (apparently to teach Cynic philosophy in play form). turned into a slave. Cicero* 106 .43 BCE . 43 BCE .historian Catullus* c. He also writes two Roman history ']plays and a poetics and a work on dramaturgy. for example).com . He will be reputed to have raised the farce to the level of literature. earlier Roman writers. Anyone captured in armed conflict can. discussions of character portrayal.poet Vergil* 70 BCE .c.poet. definitions of genres. Originally a slave. His works on Plautus* establish the authenticity of the twenty-one plays we have and identify nineteen others which are lost. 84 BCE .100 BCE . These include works on Roman theatrical history. Lucius* 170-c.c.CE 17 . he is educated in Rome and begins his career about 140 BCE. orator. He writes extensively on drama and influences later scholars. Lucius* (writes around 89 BCE) Only fragments survive.50 BCE . His works are colloquial.34 BCE .54 BCE . Sallust* c. The term "slave" needs to be understood as it relates to these societies.poet Ovid* 43 BCE .philosopher. His works are lost.84 BCE Writer of tragedies and reputed to be one of the foremost playwrights.

trained. Essentially it is a dramatic performance involving dancing and acting stories. and is a favorite primarily of the upper classes. but now it is beginning to be seen more often. but later barbarian invasions short-circuts the problem before it is solved by the Romans. Socially Roman women are far freer than their Greek counterparts and are often heard from in politics and business. Rome now is a city of a million teeming people. dear when there are only a few). Most go to work the land (farmers). again for recitation only. A Latin-speaking school of rhetoric is started in 95 BCE to help the aspiring statesmen learn argument as well as style of delivery through gesture and diction. to create a labor class within the society. The dancer wore masks which were changed on stage to portray each new character. Tragedy becomes more and more a literary endeavor and new ones are no longer written for production. Cicero* stands out as the ultimate orator of the period and his prose becomes the model for over a thousand years. The story is sung by a chorus. The skilled. The new literary form of satire* becomes more popular. For us. When the normal supply of captured peoples begins to dry up. At this point it becomes necessary either to undertake raids into other lands for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves. Aristocratic Roman tastes becomes increasingly literary and the most distinctive Roman art of oratory becomes the favorite mode of Roman self-expression. it sounds similar to modern interpretative dance. This category includes the actors. 84 BCE) tragedy is written to be declaimed at private parties and only older works are still performed. musicians and playwrights. or.com . and other hard labor.pdffactory. Every urban society requires the labor of a large under class to supply the raw material for manufacturing and consumption. The rich land-owning senators get first choice and the rest are sold (cheap when there are a lot of them. Literature really takes off as the darling of the aristocrats. Until the empire reachs its ultimate size there is no shortage of captured combatants to be enslaved. These make up the bulk of Spartacus' rebellion.In Rome. a real crisis developes. PANTOMIME There is increasing use of a kind of theatrical performance called pantomime* which has been around since the third century BCE It hasn't been very popular before. It dates from 22 BCE as a significant theatrical form. After Accius* (d. The stories can be serious or comic (more often serious) and are mainly drawn from tragedies and mythology. power the ships. These are usually freed after a short time or earn enough to enable them to buy their freedom. Greek cultural influence prospers and Epicurian philosophy is the rage. They represent additional wealth for the owners and the state. It is only later that a distinct shortage begins to occur. Rome tends to take the first option. It is usually done with only one dancer although sometimes with several. Culture Flourishes Amid The Turmoil Despite the power struggles and bloodshed the city flourishes. talented and literate captives are used according to their capacities and talents. The Theatre Building PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. work in the mines. most captured slaves are claimed as booty of the state.

We know a great deal about the Roman theatre building thanks to the survival of Vitruvius*' work on Roman architecture (De Architectura 15 BCE). already scattered through much of this territory. Originally these curtains are lowered into a slot in the orchestra floor. For the first time a curtain is provided to divide the stage from the house. But theatre seems to have been a different matter.000 and 8. that raise objections from the reactionary members of the senate. It is difficult for us to understand the reluctance of the Romans to commit themselves to this construction. film. The Roman Empire Begins It's a little strange to suddenly refer to the "empire" since it has been sneaking in for some time. The stage (pulpitum) itself is about five feet higher than the orchestra floor. In 13 BCE the theatre of Balbus* and in 11 BCE the theatre of Marcellus* are built. Crassus* and Pompey*.com . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Greek theatres. are remodeled. This also changes the entrance-way used by Greek choruses (Parados) into a covered passage (vomitorium) which is used by the audience as well as performers. a leader of Roman legions in the three major divisions of the Roman empire. Sound engineering provides that the stage house acts as an acoustical shell and various large vessels are included in the back of the auditorium to resonate with a range of sounds and amplify them. The building is a complete architectural whole which reduces the orchestra to a semi-circle. and usually is. familiar from stage. It is 60 BCE. at stage level. one is finally started in Rome. newly part of the First Triumvirate. constructed on level ground. the construction of a permanent theatre is permitted only by designating it a "temple". TV. that construction takes place. These stages varies between 20 and 40 feet deep and 100 to more than 300 feet wide. with seating between 15. made up of Caesar*. In some buildings water-cooled air is circulated through the house. Care is taken to protect the players and the stage is roofed.pdffactory. It is thanks to Pompey*. now Iraq) a power struggle begins between the two remaining leaders. The wings which enclose the ends of the stage also has doors.As part of the building boom the first permanent theatre in Rome is finally built. Rather than trying to find a suitable hillside. The first Roman theatre is built in Pompeii in 75 BCE and now. Whatever the reason. The size of these theatres vary. which regularly appear as part of the tragedy productions. providing air-conditioning to combat the hot Italian weather. The enterprise is sufficiently successful to encourage the construction of two other theatres in the city. the time of the First Triumvirate. Perhaps it is the immorality of the mimes. The "temple" is discretely housed above the auditorium (cavea). The dedication in 52 BCE launched a variety of shows. The stage house (scaena) is the same height as the rear wall of the auditorium. Roman architects design a building which can be. but later (after 100 CE) other means are devised. in 55 BCE. story and poetry. As time goes by at least 125 permanent theatres are built throughout the empire from Asia Minor through North Africa into Europe.000. Venus Vicrix*. can see and appreciate the shows. we are now into that time. However. The architecture of the Roman theatres differs significantly from the Greek and Hellenistic models. apparently so that the goddess. allowing for elaborate scenes to be revealed. When Crassus dies in a terrible Roman defeat in Parthia (over in Persia by the Euphrates. between five and seven doors. They have no problem in funding huge amphitheaters and the Circus Maximus for chariot racing and gladiator battles. The audience is also protected from the sun and rain by awnings. Each is a general. The stage has a decorated front (really the back wall) which includes. and including a small obligatory temple shrine to some god.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Octavius* his heir. Caesar* puts Cleopatra on the throne (and dallies there long enough to father a child). Just so no one will forget the relationship. who figure this will please Caesar. The second triumvirate is set up in 43 BCE with Lepidus*. Well aware of the problems of changing leadership. so now he is a god. Now Egypt is the granary for Rome and unrest in area. The political conflict comes to a head when Julius Caesar* brings his legions south from Gaul and crosses the Rubicon. He tries to ramrod a revolt against Octavius* in Sicily but his army betrays him and he gets mandatory retirement. Marc Anthony* rallies Rome and with Octavius* (Caesar's heir) they set up against the conspirators. The Brief Course of Julius Caesar This brings us to Caesar's* famous sojourn in Egypt. the empire is here.com . He seizes the treasury in Rome and Pompey* runs off to his own power base in Spain and North Africa. This time he is named dictator for life and given the rights of a king. just won't do. and with them the republican cause. Caesar's* pet general. Negotiating who gets the power comes first. republican-minded bloc and sixty brave souls get together to arrange the usual Roman solution: assassination. Octavius* and Marc Anthony* dividing the empire between them. he is made dictator for a ten year term. the conspirators. coins with his image are struck and generally speaking he's king of the mountain. he names his grand nephew. Only Romans can kill other Romans. Statues of him are put up. (the river marking the division between Cisalpine Gaul and Italy). reforms in commerce and complete reform of the calendar (we still use it today. He returns home in 45 BCE to Rome and receives a series of triumphs. Poor Lepidus* has been forced into playing second fiddle in the triumvirate. Caesar* follows. It doesn't. Julius Caesar* throws himself into government in a big way. Things are by no means settled in the leadership scramble. Sardinia and Corsica. Julius Caesar* is deified. Cassius and Brutus. Taking time to zip off and put down another revolt. So much for the republic. moves on to put down revolts in Syria and North Africa. the pursuit of the assassins does not take first place.pdffactory. They plan to assassinate the rich land owners in order to come up with the cash to fill the empty treasury. Out in the boondocks of Asia Minor. Eventually Octavius* and Marc Anthony* rout and kill him. Pompey* (the younger) seems to think he should have a piece of the pie and takes Sicily. The ultimate victor. Despite the impression given in fictionalized accounts. Two years after he dies. which provides the food supply.For the first time there are major bloody battles involving one set of Roman Legions fighting another. he returns for more honors and triumphs. There are land reforms. Octavius* has his name changed to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus*. This is a real power play since nobody is supposed to bring their troops home to Rome. land for veterans. die. He finds Egypt a political mess. defeats Pompey*'s troops and Pompey* himself is killed by the Egyptians. So here we are at the Ides of March 44 BCE and the assassination gang led by Cassius* and Brutus* do the deed on the senate steps. with slight modifications). The Republican Revolt This move toward kingship really alarms the liberal.

pdffactory.the only extant complete treatise on dramatic criticism and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but no new theatre literature. Octavius* declares war on him and at Actium* (31 BCE) Anthony* and the Egyptian navy are defeated. In the second century of the Roman Peace we find two other theatrically useful writers. including a catalog of comic and tragic masks. opens the era. Cicero*. They will keep up this charade throughout the course of the empire. Basically there are three areas of activity which are of interest to us in this period: first. This work will influence playwrights for the next seventeen centuries. good government. epigrammatists and biographers flourish under the sway of peace and order. of course. The power struggle is over and Octavius* rates a three-day triumph in Rome.Since his uncle has been made a god. Julius Pollux writes on the physical aspects of the Greek theatre. Let's consider society first. is credited with much of his stable progress in good government. Even later. The most renowned works of Roman writers are clustered in this early part of the Pax Romana*. especially. Satires. Livia. followed fast by Vergil* with his Aeneid and Ovid*'s poetry. Octavius* is declared "son of a god" (divi filius) in 36 BCE Marc Anthony* gets sidetracked in the Egyptian portion of the empire. great Latin literature.Ars Poetica Quintus Horatius* Flaccus is born in 65 BCE and dies 8 BCE A Roman lyric and satiric poet and author of Odes. but they do set a tone for public attitudes and governmental treatment of citizens and slaves alike. historians. The Golden Age Of Roman Culture Finally we come to the Golden Age of Rome. These do not repress the extravagant tastes and behavior of the wealthy senators. It is a time of peace. Horace . third. the entertainment side of theatre takes off and there are scenic developments galore. tells in great detail how the theatres are built. activities and literature. The old paterfamilias* control of women is long gone and women are much more seen and heard from in politics and business. Viturvius' work on architecture. second. It begins with Octavius* and immediately he starts reforms while setting an example in his own life of a return to republican austerity. The Glory of Roman Literature Poets. orators. Social Changes Begin Under Augustus Augustus institutes a series of reform legislation to restore republican virtues and improve morals. Livy*'s History of Rome and the biographies of Plutarch* offer much of the information we have. the beginning of the Pax Romana which will last almost two hundred years.com . Roman culture. concerning the theatre of Roman times. including theatre buildings. Epistles and. Ars Poetica* . as we have mentioned. Horace* writes his work on dramatic theory and criticism. In particular. You will notice that everybody is still pretending that the power comes from the senate. satirists. The pair flee to Egypt and commit suicide. Epodes. Augustus' wife. spread over the whole empire. In 27 BCE he is given the title of Augustus* (worshipful) and the post of tribune for life. We will look at the last important theatrical writer a little later in his proper context. statesman as well as author. the society changes with peace and good government. It is Cleopatra*.

The main emphasis is put on: a play must have five acts the chorus must function as a character the work must have "proportion" the author must use "good sense" in choice of subject. except a minor functionary. It is preferable to take the plot from traditional stories. [There are two other authors. central heating and water-cooled air conditioning. the pattern established in Rome will be exported from England to North Africa. is considered. The deus ex machina. The discovery of concrete enables the Romans to expand their use of the Etruscan arch.pdffactory. The city is rebuilt and we can see the emergence of an efficient. as they erect extensive PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. if they had survived. should occur off stage and be reported. or solution of the action by the intervention of a god should be avoided. the piece should promote "pleasure and profit" by joining the instructive and the agreeable. Society Back in the arena of societal affairs. There should be no fourth speaking part in any scene. and strict traffic laws. character and dialog great "decorum" must be used in what is shown and what is said The specific details of what constitutes "decorum" includes: Actions that would not seem credible when shown on stage.theory. Varro and Lucilius. whose works might eclipse that of Horace. and to achieve new uses for the dome. Public apartment blocks where the ill-paid working class live (insula) fill the byways of the city. public (as well as private) latrines. There are miles of aqueducts bringing fresh water. and from Asia Minor to Spain. sewer systems. rather than political connections. healthy and socially productive urban environment that will not be equaled (or even approached) for another two thousand years. Unbelievable or impossible things should be avoided. Beyond these formal attributes it is significant that Horace (unlike the Greeks) insists that dramatic poems should be tender and affecting and tragedy should not attempt to provide an amusing or captivating show. City planning becomes a reality and as the Romans build throughout the empire. except when clearly logical. the vault. Posts are filled by competent people who must pass tests for their abilities. such as killings and transformations. police and fire brigades. Specifically a writer should look to Greek models. a formidable bureaucracy is established to run the increasingly complex business of the empire.] Generally speaking there is little in this work beyond the purely formal dictates for writers.com . For the first time merit. The invention of new stories is regarded as unlikely to succeed.

museums. these roads are constantly maintained. Under the Republic there is a special PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. temples by the dozens. Baths are monuments to the notion that many forms of leisure can be put together under a single roof. gambling rooms and even lodging for the overnight guest. of course. as well as shops and restaurants cater to the rich and poor alike. reading rooms and debating halls. Holiday Inns and cruise ships. the baths. a tepid bath and a cold one. The empire's postriders can move twice that fast. gymnasiums and massage rooms beckon to the active visitor. a hot bath.public buildings: forums. Resting rooms. The Public Baths The public building most typical of Roman society may well be the public baths. In some there are a cluster of rooms set discretely apart for prostitutes. amphitheaters. with food and entertainment. Communication and commerce flourish by means of the road system and the harbors. wrestling rooms. They become the center of Roman social life. a steam room. courtyards.com . are available. They house. This is the person assigned to be head of the state religion. It gives a sense of democracy to free men and citizens of all degrees. There are gardens. A feeling of belonging to the same great Roman community (communitas) holds the empire together. All these. every thirty miles. and promenades for quiet relaxation and leisurely discussion. harbors. Later in the empire some of the baths will occupy as much as thirty-three acres. A masterpiece of engineering. An ancient Roman would recognize the descendents of these baths in our large hotels. Roman Roads In the next two centuries a major Roman highway system will run from the edge of Scotland to the Red Sea. but Augustus's son-in-law Agrippa builds the first of the free baths and soon there are hundreds all over the empire. Many of the roads and bridges are still in use today. libraries. Their speed and efficiency will not be matched until the advent of railroads. There you can get a rubdown with oil.pdffactory. These fascinating places have been around for a long time as the primary place in which to spend leisure time. Here they mingle and share the good life. cut a political or economic deal. Even remote towns and villages on the borders of the empire will have their baths. and generally enjoy the good life. Architects and engineers have come into their own. from the Rhone river to Armenia. from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to the Tigris and the Euphrates. There are posthouses every ten miles and lodging. For the intellectual there are art galleries. Religion There has always been a position in Roman government called Pontifex maximus*. Swimming pools. lecture halls (even theatrical literature recited). Julius Caesar* once traveled eight hundred miles in eight days over these roads. bridges and ever increasing roads. The public bath is much more than a sign and symbol of Roman affluence. But the bathing part is only the beginning. They have not been accessible to everyone.

on the Palatine (another of the hills) he moves all the sacred books to a vault there.CE 180 REIGNS CE LEADER 27BCE-14 c. These pontiffs* establish all the rituals that the Romans are so fond of. This religious post has been of little interest for us up to now but as we move into the Christian era it will have interesting complications.27 BCE . superintends all the public religious ceremonies and draws up the calendar of festivities. In 12 BCE Augustus* becomes Pontifex maximus*.4 BCE 14-47 c. Roman Leaders During The Empire c. empire extended to Danube. There they examine the augurs* (the guys who look for and interpret signs they find in various places). There is a college of pontiffs who preserves the sacred books.29 37-41 41-54 54-68 69-79 Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Caligula Claudius Nero Vespasian Jerusalem captured by Titus 79 destruction of Pompeii 43 conquest of Britain fire in Rome 70 79-81 81-96 96-98 98-117 pushes imperial boundaries to Persian 117 Gulf and Caspian Sea largest extent of Empire Hadrian abandons east of Euphrates codification of laws revolt in Judaea Antoninus 117-138 131 131-35 138-161 161-180 Tiberius crucifixion of Christ Augustus EVENTS Golden Age in Arts. The second deals with the reading of omens. Apollo. The first college has guardianship of the divine law and the calendar. The number of pontiffs and of augurs vary from period to period and the number of colleges increase as time goes by. The temple on the Capitoline* (one of the hills) is the focus of the State religion. PAX ROMANA birth of Christ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The priests have a good deal of power in the state.com . The Pontifex has a collection of pontiffs* (priests) under his control.pdffactory.residence for the holder of this office. have their priestly colleges and pronounce their verdicts. When he builds a new temple to his favorite.

For that event a special lake was dug and over six thousand oarsmen and marines were involved. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In 46 BCE. Costumes and Props Gladiator battles and animal fights become more theatrical. Amphitheaters are occasionally flooded for such events but the biggest show take place on a lake.com . The range of theatrical events run the gamut from short. through increasingly popular mimes. there are nineteen thousand participants. the sea fight. Mock hunts are dramatized for human versus animal battles and for the reverse.pdffactory. gladiatorial battles and animal fights are being challenged by the most spectacular battle entertainment. at sword point and with hot irons. Keep in mind that these sea battles include ships. Participants are costumed and even the weapons are selected for visual effect as well as their more deadly attributes. of course. simple farces. There are elaborate costumes for the participants. Sea Battles Chariot races. animals hunting down people. In 56 BCE. to spill their blood for entertainment. to the newer forms involving showy battles. Participants are selected for their visual appeal as well as their fighting skill. The celebration runs for three days and three nights. many costumed guards and managers can be seen driving the fighters on. tragedies. As the empire progresses these shows become more elaborate and condemned criminals and slaves are actively killed as part of the battle.Pius Marcus Aurelius 165 plague depopulates Rome 166 beginning of defensive wars It's Variety Time In The Theatre In 17 BCE magnificent secular games are held to celebrate the first ten years of Augustus*' rule. celebrating the completion of a water conduit. but the spectacle doesn't stop there. Dwarfs and women are included along with diverse ethnic types. Julius Caesar* gave the first one on record. The popularity of theatrical battles increase as the occurrence of real battles decrease. increasingly elaborate pantomimes.

4 BCE . [NOTE.c. (2nd century) of Samosata (in Syria) . Seneca* c. ensuring that the audience will not wander down the street to another show. including all varieties of sexual acts as part of the public entertainment. cakes and other edible goodies to the crowd between the shows (we will call it intermission).] The Roman Peace 27 BCE . Author of 12 books on principles of rhetoric. from Spain.satarist Martial* c.c. Marcus Fabius from CE 63 he taught oratory in Rome.CE 65 . CE62 . for example) and thousands of objects (props) to fill and decorate the stage.epigrammatist Plutarch* CE46 .CE66 . CE60 . CE55 . Regarded as the most important Roman writer of Tragedy in his day. Elaborate displays are the order of the day and each show must outdo the one before.philosopher and dramatist Petronius* c. he was in disgrace under Tiberius but prominent under Caligula and Claudius. Plays boast a multitude of animals (six hundred mules in a train. CE113 .historian Juvenal* c.CE 120 . Lucian.Pantomimes as well as other forms of entertainment make use of people as scenery.satirist Quintilian*. "Circuses" includes all forms of entertainment offered in theatres and amphitheaters as well as the Circus Maximus (designed primarily for chariot races).pdffactory.writer and administrator PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Shows in these public buildings often run continuously all day. CE20 . Entertainment of the crowd is regarded as the right of the Roman populace.c. CE118 .We are now moving from dates BCE to CE and for convenience all dates that are CE will be written without that designation. The "bread" part comes with competition among theatre producers.biographer Tacitus* c.satirist Pliny the Younger* c. CE40 .CE 180 Roman Writers And Their Works During The Early Empire Pomponius. Bread and Circuses The time of "bread and circuses"* is here.c. Coated with gold or used as human torches. whole education of a Roman and methods used in best schools.com . slaves and criminals die for decoration. Despite attempts at moral reform the mimes are becoming more obscene. In order to keep the crowds in one particular building. CE140 . Secundus* (wrote in first century CE) a few fragments survive.CE 104 . Only dates referring back to BCE will have a designation. the management will often throw bread.

The theory goes that Seneca writes these to try to teach Nero how to behave. that Seneca* closes out the range of classic theatre. it doesn't work.After Augustus* dies there are some real ups and downs in the government business. Machinery for elaborate displays improve and cranes. Stoic Philosophy in Seneca Later generations will not be aware of the nonperformance nature of Seneca's plays. Consequently his works are intended to be recited at dinner parties and in the intellectual halls of the public baths.Marcus Aurelius* 121 CE . One of the few good things associated with Nero* is his tutor and pet writer Seneca* . Scenery Vitruvius* tells of a variety of ways in which the stage is decorated for different theatrical events. Nero* may be just another in a long line of moral degenerates but Seneca* has strong Stoic* ethics and a talent for communicating. These may be royal palaces (for tragedies) or private homes. If he does. Seneca* needs a little more explanation. complete with windows and balconies (for comedies). caverns. curtains and even pyrotechnic effects are employed.180 CE emperor and author of Meditations Vitruvius* (dates and full name uncertain) Author of the extant work On Architecture which includes much information on Roman theatre building. In the same year Nero*. Most of what he writes are philosophical treatises about Stoic* morality. who has a passion for performing. mountains and all sorts of rustic locations. rather than as a practicing playwright. singing in Naples. His plays are often considered as instructive of the Stoic values. Mimes and satyric pieces require trees.pdffactory. Tiberius* doesn't do too badly (although he is in power during the crucifixion of Christ*. Seneca* writes for the intellectual and political elite. Nine of his tragedies survive to become the primary models for Renaissance writers. Having said at the outset of this period that there is no new theatre literature. Socrates*). The front of the upstage area (scaenae frons*) is elaborately decorated to define the kind of building involved in the plays. As part of Nero*'s purge of a conspiracy against him. which doesn't have much impact at that time) but Caligula* is a real crazy. Nero* does not fiddle while Rome burns. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. By the time he begins writing tragedies it is no longer the fashion to write these for performance. He isn't even in town when it happens. he orders Seneca to commit suicide. the first ruler to declare himself a god (remember that Augustus* was only the son of a god). The Silver Age of Latin Literature The Last Playwright .com . he does (not unlike the earlier Greek. As a good Roman Stoic. Even though it makes a terrific image. Theatre has become an entertainment mill and anyone with pretensions to creating literature has to take into account the market they are writing for. makes his public debut. wagons. The old three-sided Greek periaktoi* are elaborately painted and rotate to show a change in place. So it is strictly as a writer. But in 64 Rome does burn and the new Christian* sect makes a good scapegoat. Claudius* manages to get the ship of state back on an even keel (despite a terrible stammer) but Nero* starts rocking it again.

Rhetoric is to speaking. for example. dialogues. repulsive. Instead. "if you want to see real passion. line-for-line exchanges of dialogue in Seneca's plays.c. His father was a rhetorician. He is called to be the tutor of Nero* and is probably responsible for the "new Golden Age" of Nero's early rule. Later.CE 65 . He assumes his audience knows the Greek originals and will have them in mind when they hear his version. His choruses are obviously not designed for singing and dancing. Instead. She seems to say to us. The Greek concern with examining relations between gods and man. on the other hand. and it is in the area of speaking that Seneca* really shines. ambition. Rhetoric makes the monstrous inhumanity of the characters bearable. he sets up an emotional atmosphere. Furens. gives us a woman who comes from a long line of passionate women.Seneca Seneca. Remember that rhetoric business that the Romans are so crazy about? Well. It concerns only Medea's passion for revenge against Jason*. After much grief with Nero he retires to his estates but Nero sends word that he should end his life and so he does. The Trojan Women Central to each of his plays is a grand and consuming passion. elaborate. the original Greek model has the nurse goad Phaedra on to extremes. The Stoic lesson which is clear in these plays concerns the terrible effects of yielding to a particular passion (lust.pdffactory. Phaedra. vengeance). He needs it because he lives through one of the stickiest times in the Roman Empire. This means that he doesn't bother explaining the situation at the opening of a play. Seneca*'s characters are only demonstrations of the potentialities of human passion. what opera is to music. He writes extensively in a variety of forms. letters. watch me. His political life is as prominent as his literary career. the doctrine of how unimportant things like wealth. PLAYS: Agamemnon. Seneca* is the all-time master of rhetoric. The Phoenician Women. treatises and scientific discussions. and. he shows us the terrific voltage of which humanity is capable. or man and man are of no interest to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. His plays are rich with rhetoric and sensationalism and illustrate Stoicism. Medea.author of the only extant Roman tragedies. Seneca has no interest in doing that. or even funny. finally.com . 4 BCE . Verbal brilliance and theatrical power enable his work to becomw a model of tragedy for the Renaissance. Seneca* models his plays mainly on those of Euripides. Seneca*. Hercules. Oedipus. Lucius Annaeus . in true Stoic fashion. health and attachment to the family are. Without rhetoric the descriptions of butchery and ghoulishness would be sickening. Seneca becomes fascinated by Stoic philosophy and sticks to it throughout his life." Seneca*s treatment of Medea* is not concerned with injustices imposed on women or foreigners. In the Phaedra* story. The elegant. Hercules on Oeta. Aristotle* said that tragedy should show men like us or greater than we are. gemlike paradoxes and sentiments can be seen in the back and forth. The Stoic* goal (interestingly similar to Buddhism) is to banish passions and achieve apatheia (a release from emotion or excitement). just speaking. the English Renaissance and French Neoclassic playwrights will really take to this passion stuff. His works also include philosophical prose. Additional Stoic* teachings can be found: the notion that a King is not the master but the servant of his people. Thyestes. life should be lived according to nature.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. By the end of the century there are Greaco-Roman merchants in China*. Vesuvius erupts in 79 burying the city of Pompeii* and two other towns. like Seneca*. By the end of Marcus Aurelius*' reign. One language. one currency. They have little civilizing effect on their acquisitions in the east where older civilizations are simply incorporated into the empire. One of Hadrian's less appealing acts is his devastation of Judea. The Spread Of Roman Culture Rulers continue to rule with greater or lesser success but the efficient bureaucracy enables the empire to run fairly smoothly. All over the empire provincial laws are operative so long as they don't conflict with Roman law. Rome becomes a melting pot. The empire grows to its largest extent under Trajan*. Roman citizenship is awarded for a variety of services to Rome and the full protection of Roman law is being extended to more and more people. the lack of a common faith and a common purpose makes the population restless and there is an influx and spread of oriental religions. By 180 BCE. Soldiers serve in all the different provinces and are rotated with some regularity.* for example.com . The number of freed men begin to outnumber the free born. The army is recruited from all over the empire. The Jews create an annoyance and in 70 the Romans sack and raze Jerusalem. is the second greatest city in the empire. one culture emanating from Rome. After one more ruler of little concern we end this period with Marcus Aurelius* a leader of considerable accomplishment. Soldiers rise by merit and veterans serve as reservists. * The End of an Era Under the Roman peace* the Romans become civilizers of Europe and Britain. Many of the Roman Legion headquarters had temples of Mithra*.* All over the empire large numbers of non-Latin peoples are becoming Romans. and those who rise economically form a special group. They will become more powerful as time passes. Alexandria. But. spreading their assimilated knowledge and ways of doing things from Scotland to the Sahara. one giant trading network.Seneca*. This extreme of character passion will prove fascinating and useful for later generations of playwrights. There are minor uprisings. By and large the only fighting is on the frontiers. By 100. The Romans learn from the Greeks and other eastern cultures. He. What is of real interest to us is that Trajan* restricts the monies spent on gladiator shows and revives the theatre. to put down one of the perennial revolts. from Portugal to the borders of Persia. all transform diverse cultures and heritages into a sprawling Roman society. His successor is Hadrian* who builds the famous wall across the narrowest part of England to hold back the barbarian celts and picts to the north.pdffactory. The only exception to this general rotation is the Praetorian* Guard who are stationed in Rome. This helps spread knowledge of different cultures from one place to another. the empire begins to decline and all the different provinces will have to build on what they have learned. we can learn much of his civilization from his Meditations*. A philosopher and writer. is a Stoic. His other accomplishment of note is his revision and codification of Roman law. one third of Rome's population are slaves. There are occasional disruptions of nature. providing later generations with enormous archeological finds.

ROMAN LEADERS DURING THE MILITARY EMPIRE Beginning of Barbarian Invasions CE 180 . from the death of Marcus Aurelius* in 180 to the next intelligent leader in 284. German and Samaritan barbarians break through along the Danube and sweep into Italy around the head of the Adriatic Sea. These hundred years.284 CE Tertullian* c.Christian apologist PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Gallienus*.com .* The Military Empire CE 180 .pdffactory. 230 . Goths. Civil war breaks out from time to time.250-305 general persecution of Christians pacification of Gaul In 212 citizenship granted to all free inhabitants of empire EVENTS ROMAN WRITERS IN AGE OF MILITARY EMPERORS AND BARBARIAN INVASIONS 180 .284 REIGNS CE 180-192 193-211 211-218 218-222 222-235 235-270 270-275 276-282 LEADER Commodus Septimius Severus Caracalla Elagabalus Alexander Severus Maximinus. Gallus*. Gordian Decius*.250-265 plague rages throughout Valerian*. Franks and Persians overrun frontiers and there is a vast increase in the power of the military which leads to total militarization of the state. robber bands roam the countryside. empire c. He imposes ruinous taxes to support the military and starts serious inflation.there is a great movement of Northern European (Goths) and Asiatic peoples toward the borders of the empire. c.c. trade stagnates and a police state is established. is a time of adventurers and usurpers. CE 160 . Philip*. The reign of Septimus Servius * (193-211) wipes out the Praetorian Guard* (the former power to make and break rulers) and power moves to the mass army. Claudius II* Aurelian Probus III.284 The slow and painful decline of the Roman empire need not be covered here in much detail but there are a few personages and events that may contribute to a better understanding of how society and theatre will change and survive.

Christian historian Golden Age of Africa Since the time of Cleopatra. With things going from bad to worse on the european continent.a favorite cult of Romans. After the Crucifixion. the more they flourish.Bull Persia .* the Romans have been improving the granary of Egypt. It isn't until Saul* of Tarsus. They are kept apart and efforts are often made to ban them. but the more they are attacked.pdffactory. a Roman citizen who speaks Greek. He provides much of the information we have today on the physical aspects of the Greek theatre.which seems very similar to the Stoic* philosohic view. Alexandria* benefit from having the Mediterranean between them and the mess back in Europe.contributes Mithra* . recently in the heart of London.Buddhism . promises life after death. He may have been influenced by Mithraism.] Mazda* . The great library* and schools attract scholars from all over the empire. Africa and its primary city. Ten years after the Crucifixion there are Christians in Rome. takes up the doctrine and becomes Paul*.Julius Pollux* writes c.son of Osiris. Christianity will become colored by a number of Roman religious practices. an encyclopedia containing a chapter on physical aspects of Greek theatre including a catalog of comic and tragic masks. trade and agriculture flourish. Spreading techniques of water conservation and building miles of irrigation systems. but he builds a theological system of belief and develops a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. CE 180-190.c. Osiris* sun god who is torn apart and revived by Isis Horus* . a 10 book Greek dictionary. [Mithraic* temples have been found in all regions of the Roman empire. or of Serapis Serapis* . They pave the way for Christianity. a group called Nazarenes* (followers of Christ) begin to spread their doctrine in Judea and Syria. It is called Onomastikon Eusebius of Caesarea* CE 260 .god of light India . They tend to address matters of life and death in terms of the individual and not the state.contributes Isis* who promises immortality and celebrates the individual. Culture.com . Egypt . they bring civilization as well as agriculture to the desert. 340 . The Christians Begin To Emerge It is time to take a look at that growing group of members of Roman society who come under the heading of Christians. Theatre benefits from all the learning going around when Julius Pollux (writing between 180-190) puts together a terrific Greek encyclopedia. Strange Gods And Cults From Afar These are exotic and complex religions which can not be assimilated into the Roman pantheon.sun god .

who have moved south from Sweden into the Russian plains. Provincial leaders come from the provinces as do their armies. The Persians. an arab chieftain with a Christian wife). In the east the Goths (Russian types) sail across the Black Sea and attack the Roman outposts on the southern shore. Elagabalus* is more excessive. They proceed to move across Gaul.creed. There are no settled creeds and wide local variations [some of which survive to this day]. he is also Pontifex maximus* (head of the state religion. We will return to the Christians as their activities seen relevant to the progress of society and of the theatre.pdffactory. the history of Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries is largely a record of disputing views on the nature of Christianity. over the Pyrenees into Spain and head for North Africa. especially into Christianity from the popular and wide spread Mithraic* Cult and the cult of Serapis-Isis-Horus*.com . Vandals (a Germanic tribe) and Franks (Germanic freemen) all break through the Roman borders along the Rhine. Meanwhile back in Rome. despite the fact that almost constant civil wars are going on. From here on out. The frontiers of the empire begin to cave in. The governor of the province of Gaul sets up his own empire (284) and rules Gaul. make inroads on the borders further south. It is a time of rapid turnover of emperors. remember?). public entertainment is at its height. establish a strong state. Local loyalties grow stronger as the central government grows weaker. He throws a huge celebration in 248 to celebrate the 1000 years* since the traditional founding date of Rome. He is a persuasive and articulate advocate for his views. The Goths. The practical methods of popular religions of this time provide head-shaving for priests and characteristic garments of the Egyptian priests. The Alexandrine cult of Serapis-Isis-Horus* contributes even more to the still fluid Christian belief: the personality of Horus* (at once the son of the god Serapis. With all these additions and variations. the identification of Mary* with Isis and her elevation to quasi-divine. He is followed by a ruler who makes Nero and Caligula look like good citizens. When he dies (under the reign of Nero*). The first two centuries of Christianity are very obscure. The civil wars continue. This clever device makes them liable to taxes. the "blood" imagery. who have also been gaining strength. especially "washed in the blood" from its mysteries in which the Mithraist actually bathed in the blood of a sacrificial bull to be "born again". During these centuries there seem to be a lot of exchanges of ideas. Things now begin to go from worse to just plain awful. things go from bad to worse. he can impose this really non-Roman religion on the state. He is a hereditary priest of Baal* and since. Spain and England for ten PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Excesses of Rome The tax problem leads Caracalla* (211-218) to grant Roman citizenship to all free persons in the empire. and identical with him). Decius* organizes the first official persecution of Christians* which just happens to coincide with a really bad outbreak of the plague. he leaves an active belief that strikes at the political essentials of the imperial system. as ruler. extravagant and debauched than any Roman ruler. the emperors continue to make whoopee. By the time of Philip* (an interesting guy. Mithraic worship contributes the notion of Sun-day as the day of worship (rather than the Jewish Sabbath). The plague rages for fifteen years throughout the empire (250-265) but the persecution of Christians continues through 305. The Alamanni (eastern Germans).

His hope is that Rome can use Christianity to consolidate the empire. Egypt and Asia Minor. and this threatens Roman law and order. His successor. in light of the military pressure. Aurelian* begins withdrawal of Roman legions along the Rhine. but manages to retake Gaul. He puts down revolts and defeats the Persians. Unfortunately. he proceeds to die of the plague. all meetings of Christians are forbidden and they are deprived of all rights. It begins with Diocletian* coming to the helm in 284. He also continues Christian* persecutions. ends the persecutions and puts out an edict of toleration. That's not legal. adds two deputy co-emperors and successors (called Caesars) to handle the military.pdffactory. There are further revolts on the frontiers but Claudius II* stems the Goths in Serbia. His successor Galerius* continues the persecutions in the East. Eventually there are six augusti claiming the title. However there are two other guys fighting for the top job. Syria. Zorasterism and Manicheism The Persian empire has been getting stronger and better organized as the Roman one is crumbling. Having tidied things up he retires.* The Empire Becomes Permanently Divided PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. most of Asia Minor and Egypt. He leaves the last ruler a brief period of peace. He is a take-charge type and begins drastic reforms immediately by firmly dividing the unmanageable empire into East and West. * The End of the Beginning of the End The last part of this period shows some signs of bringing a little order out of chaos.com . and. All copies of Christian scriptures and churches are destroyed.years. the Persians attempt to use Zorasterism* to consolidate their realm. Other break-aways include Syria. The legions in the West proclaim young Constantine* emperor. The Late Period To The Fall Of The Empire The last segment of the Roman empire is punctuated by a few brilliant leaders and a significant reorganization of society. He appoints a co-emperor (Maximian*) in the west and moves his Eastern capital to Nicomedia. a Mesopotanian prophet. gives Maximian equal power. Persia. Combining Zoroastrian and Christian elements. founded by Mani*. it rapidly becomes an international religion from the Atlantic to China. the succession in the West is up for grabs. Galerius* does name him Caesar in the West. In the West. Both religions have some competition from the new Manicheism*. In an effort to stop this imperial slide into chaos. Valerian* divides the rule of the empire and puts his son in control of the western portion. Constantius Chlorus* (father of Constantine* the Great) does not. his son Gallienus* takes control of the whole empire again. Diocletian* reorganizes everything. He attacks the Christians in what is now known as the "Great Persecution" and issues a rapid series of edicts to root out the offending religion. After he is captured by Persians. but. Religious persecution continues because Christian* conversions are spreading the practice of refusing state religious rites. when he dies in 306. Finally the group thins out and it's time to try something. Taking a cue from the Romans.

prisoners in jails are not to be harshly treated. He claims to have seen a vision in the form of a cross in the sky and heard a command that he go into battle under that sign. into Thessaly. Alaric* dies. Constantine* can't claim divinity. This means that almost no worker or peasant can work at something different than his father did.pdffactory. slave families must be kept together. He sets a stamp on many areas of society that will last for millennia.* Constantine* And The Empire Is Reunited In 312 he makes his move. down the coast of Greece. Social Laws Constantine* seems to be exceptionally humane. even laws of religion. By this time the Cult of Mithras* is the religion of choice of soldiers. under Alaric* (the all powerful). As a nominal Christian. He is tolerant of all and encourages pagan festivals. Constantine* throws him out and reunites the empire in 324. neither of which is up to coping. be conducted with clear lines of command and be clearly defined. but he can surround himself with a divine aura.*. But he is insistent that religious conduct and rituals. not religion and does not impose any religion on the empire. Christianity does permit him to claim to be "ordained by God to oversee whatever is external to the Church". children are not to be abandoned. through Athens* and down the Peloponneus. branding on the face is abolished. buys him off and they make a truce. masters can't abuse slaves. and his victory is now coupled with Christianity in the eyes of the West. crucifixion and gladiatorial displays are condemned. One of the more significant edicts of Constantine* binds people to their work. Honorius*. Unfortunately one of the Roman legions breaks the truce in 410 and Alaric* moves into Rome. goes along with this Christian tolerance for a while but then resumes persecuting them. This is the beginning of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Arcadius*. Administration Imperial control over the lives of the people is tightened through taxation. He issues a number of edicts providing: slaves have the right to attain freedom. which is a mildly successful solution. move south and west.com . of whatever religion. Licinius*. he wins. The Eastern ruler. children are not to be abused. the Eastern emperor. The barbarian horde of Huns. This notion sets a precedent that will cause terrific power struggles between future popes and emperors down through the ages. He's especially fond of Apollo* and Mithra*. He does. He plays umpire when there are disputes because he believes the emperor has both the right and the duty to lay down laws. At the same time Constantine* sets up the papacy's claim to temporal power by giving the rights and duties of magistrates to all the Christian bishops in the empire. But Constantine* figures he needs the best help available to win the throne. Constantine* is incredibly active in his efforts to establish and maintain peace and order. peasants are protected when they fall into debt. In 324 he calls the first ecumenical council of the Christian church and instructs the bickering Christian groups to get their act together. tries to buy him off.When Theodosius* dies in 395 the Empire is again divided between two emperors. In 400 Alaric* attacks Rome. Religion The interesting thing is that Constantine* is interested in power. emperor in the west. sacks it and sweeps it clean. Fortunately for Italy.

belief. Hungary and southern Russia) press against their Roman borders. tries to establish a pagan church. not to mention all the rites and rituals. The Visigoths in Transylvania (they are Teutonic and Christian) push on their border. known later as the Apostate. the language and laws are Roman. Age of Major Barbarian Invasions Begins Around 375 the barbarians start moving again from the east and set up a domino effect. Theatre Is Still With Us - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. As we move into the fifth century the building of new synagogues is forbidden and Jews and Samaritans are expelled from public service. The city is largely populated by Romans. but soon it takes on all the culture of the Greeks as well. Julian* (361).com .pdffactory. Huns move west from central Asia and push against all the tribes in their path and by 378 they are marching against the Imperial army. There is apparently enough pagan support around to enable him to make a brave try. He helps to stamp a distinctly authoritative character on Catholic Christianity. This confusion and arguing will continue to be the primary feature of Christianity for years. So much for social mobility. The besieged Goths (Rumania. the capital immediately becomes Constantinople*. Despite the original name of New Rome. Changing Center of Power One of the most significant acts Constantine undertakes is the establishment of a new capital. are bones of contentions among the various factions and sects that made up the far flung Christian churches. The remarkable religious tolerance of Greece and Rome is gone forever. surrounded by all the high ecclesiastical officials. but not all the various Christian groups agree on it. New Rome is formally founded with all the pagan ceremonies attributed to Romulus*'s founding of the original Rome*. In 330. He makes heresy a crime (which settles the Trinity business) and paganism becomes a crime. Almost every aspect of doctrine. creed. The Roman leadership drifts on through more emperors until we get to Theodosius* (379) when the Church really gets militant. The United Roman Empire Has Problems After Constantine's* death in 337 there are a series of ineffectual emperors who manage to hold things together. From here on out we have the church militant. It is obvious that the real leverage of power is over there in the East and not in Rome. The crossroads of commerce between Asia and the West is apparently in an old Greek fishing port of Byzantium.serfdom which will come to replace slavery as a way of ensuring cheap labor with total control by the land owner. There is Christian vandalism of the temples of Jews and Samaritans (which have been protected by Roman law until now). nobility and craftsmen. but non-Christian religions are having a harder time bucking the growing authority wielded by the church. The Christian Conflict The doctrine of the Trinity is formulated. These are punctuated by occasional relevant rulers. The new capital drains the old one of soldiers.

com . in various forms. The church is vehemently anti-theatre.The theatrically interesting thing about Theodosius* is his wife Theodora*. Vandals move into Spain 410 sack of Rome by Visigoths* under Alaric 378 Visigoths kill Valens at battle of Andrianople EVENTS PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.476 284-305 Diocletian* In 286 he divides empire and makes Maximian* ruler in the West (he'll rule there 286-305). She is an actress. Roman Leaders During The Late Period Imperial Divisions and Fall of Western Empire CE 284 .pdffactory. Theatre. In 293 Diocletian establishes a tetarchy with two augusti and two caesars (one East and one West). 306-337 Constantine* 312 defeats Maximian 313 edict of Milan* proclaims toleration of Christianity 324 Constantine becomes sole ruler of reunited empire 325 Council of Nicaea* 330 founding of new Rome (Constantinople) REIGNS 337-350 337-361 361-363 363-364 364-378 364-378 375-383 375-392 379-395 (in WEST) 4074-9 395-423 425-455 429 452 455 Honorius* Valentinian III* Vandals* overrun Africa Attila's Huns* turn away from Rome on intercession of Pope Leo I Vandals sack Rome LEADER Constans* Constantius II* Julian* Jovian* Valentinian* Valens* Gratian* Valentinian II* Theodosius empire redivided at death of Theodosius Franks* invade Gaul. carries on despite the persecution. an attitude which seems to stem from the early days of Christianity when theatre was used to make fun of the new sect. apparently in mime. Christians really resent being made fun of and try to kill the messenger.

St. there have been two 'cities' in human society. The important thing about these reactions is the mind set they will give to the western world for the next thousand years. This really appeals to the Christians. Under Augustine* and Jerome* ecclesiastical Latin takes shape. complex system of civilization as they know it. he champions orthodoxy against his former belief and other heresies. carousing and enjoying the theatre.pdffactory. The City of God* and Confessions*. A practicing Manichaean* (see above). They figure that all the mess of daily life is only a shadow of the truth. mixes them up with the Scriptures. If we don't understand their ideas. Pull in your head and tough it out. That can easily be fixed by having the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. definitely including that Satanic practice called theatre). He writes it all out in The City of God*. His influence throughout the Christian world is second only to St. is about to come to a sudden and really dark end. Paul*'s.com . The new Platonists (Neoplatonists) find Plato's* ideas really soothing for people persecuted by the state and liable to suffering. The soul will one day return to the ideal world from which it came. Suffering will pass and only the soul is real. The current disaster of the fall of Rome can be blamed on the Church's being the servant of a pagan secular authority. He is apparently a terrific speaker and an indefatigable writer. In his major works. Jerome* has translated the Scriptures into Latin in 405 and his version becomes the accepted one in the West. Plato was very picky about distinguishing appearance from reality and opinion from knowledge. For him the real world around him was only a shadow of reality and only the product of opinion. There are two men in the rich and prosperous city of Carthage* who have very different reactions to the imminent demise of the world as they know it. The real world was only a series of shadows on the screen of your mind. unadulterated ideas you had in your mind of all the things you observed. That means that the state is Satan's city (Babylon*. So Augustine* takes these Neoplatonist* ideas. one is God's. he has a spiritual crisis and turns Christian in 387. Augustine*). Plato*. What makes this particular fellow so fascinating is the influence he has on the next thousand years or so. In this case the turtle shell in question is a current craze in Christian thinking derived from that old pagan. we will never be able to make sense of western civilization's Dark and Middle Ages. God's city (Jerusalem*) is the church. the other is Satan's. over in Africa. His story claims that ever since that unfortunate incident in the Garden of Eden. He leads a riotous youth.455-476 476 (Puppet Emperors) Romulus Augustulus last of the Emperors in the West is deposed Two Reactions To Disaster When the Carthaginians. Augustine's* reaction to impending doom is rather like that of the turtle. hear about the sack of Rome in 410 they realize that the whole huge. He goes back to the rich city of Carthage and rapidly rises to become bishop in 395. and comes up with a complete set of rules for living and a systematic structure for Christian society. Real knowledge could only be found in the pure. St Augustine Reaction One: There is a fascinating fellow in Carthage* named Aurelius Augustinus* (354430) (later to be St.

He can see the good public life of the Empire going down for good. grammar. who are crossing from Gibraltar to wipe out Carthage. Buddha* comes to mind. Martianus CapellaReaction Two .) or sin. You can escape the ugly realities of the Vandals. St.state obey the moral authority of the Church. Augustine*'s City ideas. God as the source of all reality means that moral evil (a turning away from eternal things. establishes the first Christian monastery (c. The first section includes the primary subjects of rhetoric. The beginnings of the Christian monastic* movement appears in Egypt in the third century but it doesn't really get organized until the fourth century when an obscure guy. He introduces the concept of a "religious order" which means that there are extremely specific rules for every detail of the monk's life. He divides the work into into two sections. So. St. The Eastern Church is doing much the same thing in the East under St. Usually monasticism includes religious vows and following some fixed organized rule of living. 315).pdffactory. Fragmentation is already under way and the future seems to lie in tiny states and cities that will have to make do on their own. His reaction is pragmatic. What with monasticism* having started in Africa and being well under way by this time (410). Martianus* can see the ranks of other barbarians pushing in on the diminishing empire in the West. He figures that these Romans will need some condensed Roman knowledge to help then survive. Pachomius*. and argument. in nine volumes. It is not until about 500 that the first permanent working adaptation of monastic* rule gets going in Rome under a better known guy. leaving the sinking ship of state for a life of contemplation can only be for the best.No one is sure when he was born or died but Martianus Capella* flourishss between 400 and 439 in the same affluent Carthage in Africa. Roman rule in Africa is crumbling. If anything Roman can survive it will be in a very different kind of world. the Church as the mystical body of Christ and letting God control human will. but the Christians have plenty of Jewish examples to follow. This order spreads rapidly through Egypt and Abyssinia and by 410 (where we are at the moment) there are at least 7. MonasticismThe idea of withdrawing from the world to contemplate spiritual things has been around everywhere. So salvation depends on the primacy of faith. The watch word for the coming Dark Ages is: understanding comes only through belief. Which brings us to the monastic orders and monasticism*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. so take to the monasteries! The world (according to Augustine*) isn't worth the study. is due to man's free will. teach them Latin and put together the legislation necessary to hold everything together. it seems to be the perfect kind of place to implement St. the instruction earlier Imperial Rome used to win over barbarian tribes with oratory.000 Pachomian* monks. Martianus* sets to work and produces a Readers Digest version of the imperial school curriculum. Augustine's* ideas would have had less effect if there hadn't already been a system in place with which to implement them. He is a Carthaginian proconsul who sees the Vandals taking the Spanish peninsula in 409 and getting a treaty with Rome to make it legal in 411. Basil*. Compared with Augustine* there is very little we know about Martianus* . Benedict*. Belief is more important than earthly knowledge. The bishop of Alexandria takes monasticism to Rome in 340.com .

The second section includes the more advanced subjects that were needed as the Empire grew, practical subjects for the daily organization of more sophisticated life. These include music, geometry, arithmetic and astronomy. Taken together these subjects are known as the seven liberal arts*, and Martianus* nine books include an encyclopedic anthology of everything relating to them. For the next six centuries Martianus Capella's* Satyricon: De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologie will be the standard reference for education.

The Empire Falls In The West
One interesting occurence is taking place in a rather out-of-the-way spot up north. Around 432, an escaped slave-turned-Christian, who will come to be known as St. Patrick*, converts the Irish. These hardy Celts already have a pretty good democratic society up and running. The Irish escape the barbarian invasions and are able to keep a very productive society going throughout the coming Dark Ages, exporting trained and educated monks to Europe along with trade goods. They will contribute rather extensively to opening monasteries across northern Europe. * Meanwhile, back on the coast of North Africa, we know that Martianus* is through flourishing by 439 because that is the year when the Vandals take Carthage and the West is completely overrun by barbarians. The Saxons take Britain, the Visigoths establish their own kingdom in Gaul, and, as the Vandals push on into North Africa, the Sueves move into Spain. The Franks surge into Gaul and tussle with the Visigoths. Piracy is rampant in the Mediterranean. Over in the East they are hanging tough and switching the imperial administration into Greek.

Attila* the Hun - And The Fall Of The West
Attila* leads that barbaric bunch known as the Huns in devastating northern Italy (in 452) but his troops are suffering from disease. When Pope Leo bargains with him, Attila* spares Rome. The Huns are not the only ones knocking at the gates of Rome. In 455 the Vandals are camped outside the gates and the Pope again buys them off. The Pope and Rome have run out of buying power and, when there's nothing left to buy them off with, the third group, the Suevians*, finally sack Rome in 472. Odoacer* leads the Huns in sacking Rome one last time in 476. Rome ends as it began with a man named Romulus. In the end it is Romulus Augustulus* who is deposed from the throne of the last Roman emperor in the West. This date (of 476) is the traditional end of the Roman Empire in the West, but the sacking and pillaging goes on.

Afterword
The Eastern Empire will continue to exist, increasingly eastern, for over nine hundred years. It comes to be called the Byzantine* Empire from its center in the city of Byzamtium, sometimes called Constantinople. We will refer to it whenever it seems appropriate. Since it becomes increasingly isolated from the west, it also becomes increasingly irrelevant to the continuation of western civilization. That being the case, we will be looking primarily at the west. In the West, things are very messy. Some places escape the rampaging barbarians and continue on in the Roman villa tradition for many years. Cut off from other surviving nooks and crannies, these areas gradually sink into decay and disarray. Entertainers are stranded all

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over the now-defunct Empire. No doubt they make do as best they can, gradually becoming traveling entertainers. As can be seen from the map of theatre sites, these entertainers are widely scattered indeed.

Notes: The "triumph" can be seen in Hollywood's versions of Cleopatra movies. This notion of a "thousand year" rule of a country will haunt western civilization, culminating in the Nazi' notion of a "Thousand Year Reich". This section is drawn from James Burke's The Day The Universe Changed, both the book and the television series. Burke has brilliantly and succinctly pointed out one of the most significant turning points in western civilization. It would be a disservice to his ideas to merely quote him. I have tried to be faithful to the flow of his ideas while casting them in the middle of our particular historical pursuit.

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CHAPTER FIVE
After The Fall
The Dark Ages and Why They Aren't So Dark Introduction - The West Goes Downhill The usual historical division of periods select the fall of Rome in 476 as the date of choice to begin the Dark Ages. The period between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance is usually divided into the Dark Ages or Low Middle Ages, followed by the Middle, and High Middle Ages. This view is essentially Euro-centric and includes a considerable amount of attention to that vestigial appendage, the Byzantine Empire. This is not really useful for our purposes. We are concerned with following the cultural developments of that theatre which was born in Ionian Greece. Consequently we will take a slightly different path with different divisions. In the fifth century, the world weather pattern takes a turn for the worse. It gets colder. Not only does this push the Huns out of their now drought-stricken plains of northern Asia into collision with their neighbors who push into their neighbor, and so on into collision with the

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Roman Empire, but crops in northern Europe just don't grow like they used to. So the barbarians keep moving south into the Roman heartland. From Classical Light Into The Dark Ages The Fifth Century Roman society, and the viable theatre it supported, begins to crumble under the barbarian incursions that begin in the third century. It is a long and painful death of the Roman Empire which finally succumbs in the fall of Rome. Theatres, and productions in them, survive in various centers throughout the empire until they are overwhelmed (at different times in different places) by migrating tribes and plundered by other raiding tribes. The craft, if not the art, of theatrical performance survives in small groups and individuals to gradually reemerge when and where societal conditions are suitable. The knowledge as recorded in books survives through quite different channels and surfaces in a different manner, ultimately to be reunited with the practitioners in the Renaissance. During this entire period (from the fall of Roman society into the 1400's) theatre practice survives in the hands of roving performers. They are known by a variety of terms according to the language and time in which they appear. Unfortunately they are known to us almost entirely through church records prohibiting them from doing whatever theatrical performance activity they are doing at the time. In a disorganized and embattled society they have no legal identity. They are denounced as "infamous" by the church and as being "masterless" by local governments. They pursue a precarious existence continually attacked by the church, but obviously welcomed as entertainers by those with the wherewithal to pay them. Some of the names they are known by are troubadours, jonglers, bards, minstrels, scops (in the Germanic territories), the singers and reciters of stories and tales; others are called mimes, historines, ludis and these practictioners enact bits and pieces of folk tales and stock character plots. Whatever the name by which they are called, they are also acrobats, jugglers, animal trainers, dancers and musicians, with as wide a range of skills as each can master. They no doubt show up in local celebrations as well, in Morris Dances, Sword Dances and May celebrations. Think of them as continuing throughout the centuries, always pursued and denounced by the church. A note on allegories and morality plays: Somewhere around 400 an orator named Prudentius* writes a work in praise of Christianity called Psychomachia* . This little opus deals with the struggle of virtues and vices for the soul of man. Somehow this particular Christian lesson plan survives and becomes a favorite source for morality* plays. It includes characters such as Hypocrisy, Heresy and the Prince of this world, as well as the scenic piece of the Wheel of Fortune* The later Romance of the Rose* includes allegorical characters. Also, the population (after their experience with the plague) is increasingly concerned with death. We see this in the visual arts as well as in the theatre. In drama it is epitomized as the "Dance of Death." Meanwhile the church (just as we saw in ancient Egypt) makes more and more use of theatrical elements in their effort to communicate with their flocks. Since those flocks are illiterate and increasingly understand nothing even of spoken Latin, the importance of graphic

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rituals grows. Eventually a socially and religiously acceptable theatre will grow under the sponsorship of the church. By the time of the fall of Rome, organized society ceases to exist in Europe. As this comes to be the case, we will turn to North Africa and the Middle East where theatre texts and other vital classical documents survive and are preserved. Proceeding chronologically, we will return to Europe as, and when, cultural activity reemerges. Where earlier it was possible to maintain something of a narrative flow, you will notice that we now move in fits and starts.* The End of the Western Empire in Italy Odoacer* leads the Huns in sacking Rome one last time in 476. He does not, however, sack, plunder and run. This time he, and his barbarian horde, stay, and start trying to become more like those people they just conquered. Odoacer* calls himself the King of Italy and moves his capital from the now rather dilapidated Rome, to Ravenna. When Odoacer* dies, the "kingdom" has very little to hold it together and Italy begins to split apart into principalities. A quit different barbarian, an Ostergoth, Theodoric* (500 ff.), becomes ruler of Rome. His main claim to fame is a scholar he appoints as consul in Ravenna*. This scholar, Boethius*, translates Aristotle* into Latin and writes The Consolation of Philosophy*. This is an extensive work of commentaries and original treaties on logic, arithmetic, music and theology. It becomes another useful addition to knowledge for the monastery libraries. The disintegration of Italy continues and it will not be reunited until the nineteenth century. Many of the Italian localities simply pull in their locals and survive as small city-states. Such places, like Bologna, will save some of the Roman sense of civilization for a later time. So much for the Italian part of the West. The western world, organized, civilized, educated and, having learned extensive skills under Roman tutelage, disappears under the weight of continuing barbarian invasions. The magnificent network of roads, urban centers and efficient management of resources and trade erodes. The primeval forests, so laboriously cleared for cultivation, gradually, but irrevocably return. The West sinks into confusion and disarray with a population that is made up primarily of illiterate, unskilled tribes moving into the neighborhoods. Literacy and knowledge retreat into monasteries. The Augustinian world-view that the real world of disaster and suffering exists only so that we may contemplate the values of the hereafter prevails. The West becomes culturally comatose and subsistence survival is the rule of the day. In a few places, such as Ireland, civilization and commerce avoids the barbarian devastation, but in most of the West, darkness falls. The fabulous Roman roads fall victim to the encroaching woods since no one wants (or dares try) to go from one place to another. Tiny clusters of huts are the only breaks to be found in the great stretches of forests, wild beasts and wilder men spreading over Europe. In the disintegration of the Empire we need to consider what happens to the Roman* legacy in the West. There are several threads to follow which will lead us into the emerging Middle Ages*. Language - The first thread is the Latin language. Latin continues to be spoken by all the scattered and stranded Roman citizens. It provides the foundation for all the Romance* languages. Under the Franks in Gaul it begins to become French. In Italy, under the Lombards and Goths it evolves into Italian and Italian dialects. In Spain and Portugal, under the

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influence of the Vandals and Sueves, it becomes Spanish and Portuguese. In Britain, under the Angles and Saxons, Latin is almost wiped out. The Teutonic tribes and the Huns are little influenced by Latin in the changing areas they control. For all the diverse and shifting populations of the West, Latin is the language of diplomacy, commerce, and, of course, learning and the Church. Every so often a serious attempt is made to preserve and transmit it. By the end of the sixth century the gospels have been translated into nine languages. In most of these languages it is the first written literature. Law - The second thread is the Roman Law. Owing a great deal to Greek ideas, much of the western scheme of equality, justice and fair dealing depends on Roman law. It provides a sense of a world brought together by unbreakable bonds of rights and obligations. Throughout the Church, Roman jurisprudence becomes the basis of Church canon law. And, through the Church, the law and its applications spread everywhere the Church is to be found. The Church - The third thread is the main one through which the Roman legacy is passed in the West. The Church preserves and adapts Roman organization, gradually acquiring many of the qualities of the old imperial order so condemned by St. Augustine*. Roman organization gives shape to Church institutions and Roman political imagination gives strength to the idea of a Church universal. Even the Roman obsession with Divine Missionaries becomes a Church obsession. The doctrine that all spiritual power is vested in the Pope and that earthly power should receive sanction of the spiritual, in effect turns the Pope into a Caesar, a Pontifex maximus* (the Roman head of the state religion, remember?). Why Europe Isn't Very Interesting In The Sixth Century The long night of the "Dark Ages" descends on Europe. The Sixth through the Eighth centuries is a time of endings and forgettings. The numerical population of Europe falls to half what it has been. The few vestiges of social order remaining are in scattered locations in Italy, France and Spain. The Franks seal the Visigoths in Spain, where they try to bring some order out of the chaos. 481 - 511 In France, Clovis* (later to be known as "Louis") becomes king of half the Franks and extends his kingdom. He is followed by a number of Merovingian kings (when Colvis* dies his kingdom is divided among his four sons) who attempt to maintain some kind of order. Their efforts are largely futile, but they do begin a system which will gradually evolve into something that will come to be called feudalism*. Feudalism is essentially a system of obligations. The king needs help to keep order and fighting men to defend (and enlarge) his kingdom. But everybody is busy trying to make ends meet and put food on the table so there are no available people to serve in specialized areas such as an army. A system of temporary service evolves, where those in authority can call on those under them for armed assistance from time to time. In order to make this work, the king creates "Counts", who, in turn, create "knights." In return for service, the king rewards each Count with land and plunder and the Count does the same for his knights. All of them depend on the people who are bound to the land. These guys will soon be known as serfs, or villeins. The land they have to deal

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with is really falling into disrepair. The manorial system usually associated with feudalism won't rally get going for another three hundred years. The roads are disappearing in the encroaching forests and the only things moving regularly are lions, bears, wolves and wild boar. Communication is only through the church, by means of the brave monks who travel on foot, occasionally actually arriving at their destination. Literacy vanishes outside the church. As we move into the sixth century there are two centuries of intermittent plagues. The only bright spots are in agriculture and the church. In agriculture there are two discoveries. The moldboard plough (which can deal with European soil in a way the Mediterranean scratch plough never could) and the switch from oxen to horse power help clear the forests and increase production by fifty percent. The introduction of legumes (peas, beans, that stuff) improves nutrition considerably. Gradual improvement of horse power includes the development of the horse collar and horseshoes. The church benefits by being the only going concern in sight. All literacy, records, organization, skills and usable property is concentrated in the church. Particularly, through the increasing number and industry of the Orders of monks and nuns, the survival skills of productive labor and knowledge is spread, ever so slowly. The Roman Empire In The East Hangs On Obviously there are a number of emperors in the East that we are skipping over. We do, however, need to take a quick look at a fellow named Justinian*. From 527 to 565 he tries his best to retake parts of the West and bolster up the Empire. He is aided by his wife (reputed to be of equal or even greater ability). His wife, the Empress Theodora*, has been an actress so we know that the theatre can't be all that dead. Justinian* is best known as a major law giver and codifier of laws. His works become known as the Justinian Code*, and are made up of twelve tables, or books. These laws will be used throughout western civilization as the basis for all legal systems. He also manages to recapture some of the western Empire, including part of Italy. But Justinian's* reign is punctuated by a number of natural catastrophes. There are frequent earthquakes in Rome, Italy, and the east, as well as a great epidemic of bubonic plague at the end of his reign (565). 529 Justinian* closes the thousand year old school of philosophy in Athens as an action against paganism. As a result many of these teachers leave, going to Persia and Syria where they will pass their knowledge, and books. on into the later Arab culture. The eastern Empire is really a continuation of Alexander's rather than Rome's. Its intellectual center is Alexandria. In both the East and the West, the power and wealth of the church increases. Finally, the Bishops control the administration and church property as well as all the monasteries*. The Eastern Empire will continue to exist, increasingly eastern, for over nine hundred years. It comes to be called the Byzantine* Empire from its center in the city of Byzantium, sometimes called Constantinople. We will refer to it whenever it seems appropriate. Since it becomes increasingly isolated from the West, it also becomes increasingly irrelevant to the continuation of western civilization. When that is the case, we will be looking primarily at the West.

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Social governance the Caesar/Brutus Divergence The memories of the Roman Republic as the embodiment of a golden age of frugality, honesty, simplicity and courage (the Brutus point of view) will haunt the psyche of the West to emerge in the American and French Revolutions. Meanwhile, the (Caesar's view) notion of imperial order, especially of world empire, will pervade the imagination of western leaders. From here on, western history will be driven by the aspirations of a whole series of men who aspire to the role of Caesar or emperor. 529 St. Benedict founds the Monastery of Monte Cassion and the Benedictine Order. The primary importance of this particular Christian organization to theatre is that (perhaps because of Benedict's Roman culture and education) it will be the the one to foster and develop theatrical works (even if it is primarily for religious purposes). The Benedictine* Order makes self-sufficent communities based on the view that to work is to pray. Such simple problems as the need to know the "canonical hours", when to pray and perform rituals, lead to the development of clocks. 533 - Last known reference to Western Roman theatre (in Ravenna and Rome) in reign of Athalaric. 550 In the mid 500's St. Columban* works on France and Switzerland. 563 St. Columba* begins the conversion of Scotland and England. 587 With the rise of Christian* power there is increasing persecution of the Jews, especially in Spain* where the Visigoths accept Christianity. 603 Justinian's* Body of Civil Laws, along with the Key to the Laws (Digest) is lost in 603 and nobody knows how to manage things now. Freedom is meaningless in a world of anarchy. Where And How Islam Begins The Seventh Century The Arabian* peninsula, extending southeast into the Indian Ocean, occupies a pivotal trading position, bounded by the Red Sea on the West and the Persian Gulf on the east. Despite its historical position as the major trade connection between the western empires and the riches of India*, China* and the mysterious East, it has never truly been a part of any empire. The Semitic desert tribes rule themselves, and occasionally, their neighbors. They pay only minor lip service to the changing powers to their north who provide protection for the vital trade routes. Culturally, these people are familiar with the whole range of Greek and Roman ideas and texts, as well as many Persian and Eastern works. At the height of the Roman Empire,* a small strip of the western shore on the Red Sea was under Roman control with individual trading cities ruling themselves throughout the rest of the area. However, the religions of their neighbors also filter into the desert and settle in the trading towns and cities. The trading city of Mecca* is a place of pilgrimage and sanctuary where the

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protection of hospitality prevails. Dominated by the old religion of the desert tribes, it houses the Kaaba*, a square temple of black stones with an ancient meteorite as a cornerstone. The meteorite is regarded as a god who protects all the other tribal gods of Arabia. Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, too, have many followers here and throughout Arabia*. Medina*, to the northeast, tends more toward the Jewish faith and has a number of Jewish settlements nearby. Mecca* Mecca*, this prosperous and influential trading center, serves as home to an Arabian version of a literary Olympics, with recitations of poetry. Tribal Sheiks under a "King of the Poets," judge and award prizes for poetry. The arts of music, architecture, art and poetry play a big role in Arabic culture. Unfortunately for us, theatre does not. The Judaic prohibition against making graven images is taken up by the Arabic peoples, and realistic imitation of nature and of persons is forbidden. Recitation and talking are the primary diversions. Endless religious discussion ensues during the fairs which flourish as pilgrims and trading caravans come and go. c. 570 Mohammed* is born into this culture and lives an undistinguished life for forty years. Then, having been exposed to years of religious discussion, Mohammed* begins to talk to a few friends and relations about his own views of the reality and unity of one god. In the tradition of his people he writes a few verses (revealed to him by an angel) asserting the unity of god, providing some generalizations about righteousness, a future hell for the negligent and evil, and, paradise for the believer in the One God. c. 580 For some ten years Mohammed* continues to speak and write, claiming to be a new prophet crowning and completing the work of earlier Jewish prophets from Abraham through Jesus*. His followers exist as a small [c. 619] cult, gradually gathering strength and numbers. Eventually, the local leaders are beginning to be upset by this new movement. Mecca* depends on a polytheistic cult for its wide reputation as a site for annual pilgrimage. Attempts are made to suppress Mohammed*'s open preaching and many of his followers flee, taking refuge in Christian Abyssinia. Medina* When things begin to look pretty bleak in Mecca*, Medina* invites Mohammed* to move there and rule. After two years planning and sending followers to prepare the way, he escapes a murder plot and flees to 622 Medina* (this flight is known as the Hegira*), September 20, 622, and begins his time of power. His early reign is very Bedouin with lots of raids on caravans. This leads to larger battles with the Meccans and hostilities continue for some years. Finally a truce is concluded which extends the rule of the Prophet to Mecca*. Part of the bargain is that the faithful will turn to Mecca* to pray instead of to Jerusalem. More important to the leaders in Mecca is that the new faith will maintain that city as the center of religious pilgrimage. Islam* Spreads Like Wildfire Through The Seventh Century

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Mohammed* begins to give up on the notion that Jews and Christians worship the same god he does. Allah* becomes his special god and is tethered to the meteoric stone of the Kaaba*. The faith he propounds is exceptionally democratic and attractive. He preaches a great sermon after his last pilgrimage from Medina* to Mecca* establishing a tradition of fair dealing and generosity, creating a society (Islam*) more free from the widespread cruelty and social oppression than any preceding one. All Muslims are brothers and equals. Priests and sacrifices are forbidden. Islamic doctrines avoid any of the elements that cause disagreements and abuses for the Christians. 632 By the time of Mohammed*'s death in 632 his power has spread over all Arabia*. Peoples are welded together with the cement of religion and Islam* is pitted against a corrupt Christianity and the decaying tradition of the Zoroastrian Magi. A close friend and supporter, Abu Bekr*, succeeds Mohammed* as "Caliph" (Kalipha = successor) of the Islamic people, setting himself the task of organizing the subjugation of the whole world to Allah*. Arabia* is now the center of will and faith, while almost all the rest of the world is in turmoil and disarray. 634 The military campaigns now begin. Bekr* dies in 634 and Omar* (634-644) becomes Caliph, leading the major conquests. Islam* sweeps out of Arabia* into Persia*, Syria* and parts of the Byzantine Empire. Everywhere Christians, Jews and Arabs join the invaders. From the outset, the Bedouin aristocrats of Mecca* dominate the new empire. The family of the Omayyads* provide the Caliphs for almost a century. Two attitudes prevail in the rise of Islam. On one hand the movement brings the broadest, freshest and cleanest political idea yet to sweep the world. It offers better terms than any so far to the mass of mankind. On the other hand, as with previous movements, the austerity of the leaders slips into the desire for wealth and conspicuous consumption. Great palaces and gorgeous clothes emerge as the mark of the conquerors A new theme of aristocratic greediness emerges. Claims of the right to rule come from Mohammed's relatives and a series of struggles begin between Medina* families and Meccan* aristocrats. Leadership of Islam* slips into squalid disputes of bickering heirs and widows. The quarrel continues today between the Shiites* (maintaining the hereditary right of Mohammed*'s nephew, and son-in-law, Ali, to be Caliph as an article of faith) and the Sunnites* (who deny this particular addition to the Muslim creed). Unfortunately Mohammed* is ignorant of history and the political experiences of Greece and Rome. Consequently, he leaves his followers no scheme for a stable government to embody and concentrate the will of the faithful. There is no effective form or body of laws to express the spirit of democracy that prevades Islamic teaching. Islam remains autocratic, regressing from the customary, more democratic, laws of the desert. For 125 years Islam* spreads from the Indus valley in the east to the Atlantic and Spain in the West, from the borders of China in the north through Upper Egypt in the south. The conquests flow in the reverse of the earlier Vandals, until finally it is stopped in France. We will pick these conquerors up as they establish cultural centers. 646 - Down in that center of learning, Alexandria*, they are losing the library. The Christians, mistaking it for a pagan temple, burn it. Then the barbarians burn it. Finally, the Arab armies

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take Alexandria in 646 and finish burning it. With this last blow, the lamp of western culture is truly out. Back in Europe, Briefly. A few random things are going on, an abbey built here, a cathedral there. 680 Over in Spain, the locals crown a fellow names Erwig who, being an aggressive, newly converted Christian, calls for an extermination of the Jews 681 In England, Gloucester Abbey is founded. 685 Winchester Cathedral* is founded. 692 Among the Moslems, the Omayyads* become the leading family in the power leadership business. 694 That persecution of Jews in Spain leads to a Jewish revolt which is crushed by the Visigoths. c.700 Easter eggs become the thing among Christians as the pagan symbols blend with Christianity. 715 Up in Germany, St. Boniface* is spending his time vigorously converting everybody in sight for the next forty years. Islam* Enters Europe As We Enter The Eighth Century 710 The Arabs begin reconnaissance for an invasion of Spain*. Led by Jubal-Tarik* (from whom we get the name Gibralter) the invasion gets a real local boost from all the Christians, Jews and disaffected 711 Visigoths who hate the way things are going at home. The Arabs cross the strait from Africa and begin to take Spain away from the Visigoths. Rolling up Cordoba, Toledo, Medina, Zaragoza, and all of southern Spain (which they call Al-Andalus, the land of the vandals, or 712 Andalusia*), they sweep over the Pyrenees and threaten central France. 732 They are finally thrown back at Tours by a rising Frankish mayor called Charles Martel* (Better known as "The Hammer".) Despite continuing battles with the Christian barbarians in northern Spain, the Arabs settle in to turn their part of Spain into an economic and cultural paradise. 749 Back home in Islam there is a power change. The center of power moves north to Damascus* and then to Bagdad*. The Omayyads* are out and the Abbasids* (taking up the Shiite* cause) are in. The main relevance of this for our purposes is that the Islamic empire splits and the Omayyads* control Spain, the Mediterranean and North Africa, setting up their

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Independent Moslem* states rise. Charlemagne* orders his scribes to copy all the ancient PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. where they are safeguarded for four hundred years by treaties with Charles Martel's son. Charlemagne's* first step is to standardize religious practice because he needs administrators who are properly trained. Pepin*. Arab culture is really taking off in Arabia* and will soon spread to Spain*. All the Christian laws afflicting the Jews are abolished. This political infighting doesn't affect trade 751 and cultural diffusion. The Jews who have fled to Africa to escape persecution return to this enlightened climate. The schools are to teach literacy. Which takes us to the false dawn of what looks like a break in the Dark Ages. a standardized writing script (Carolingian minuscule). The only literacy to be found is in the Church. boozing. there is a brief break in the barbarian invasions.pdffactory. An organizer and leader in the old Roman tradition. with illiterate serfs serving an equally illiterate lord. He establishes schools in every monastery* and cathedral in France. small communities link into a loose manor-type system. Charlemagne*. Religion is not suppressed but half of every big cathedral is made into a mosque. gambling. brings us to Charlemagne. With most of Spain* under Moslem control. people are no longer bound to their craft or land (except the serfs. The clergy are a mess. wenching. Paper begins to be made all over the Arab world. Their primary interest is establishing a flow of revenue so taxes are lightened. Minimal education comes to be offered free and the main cathedral schools become centers of intellectual activity in Paris. From this time on these liberal arts will be taught all over Europe. But the Jews in the invading Moslem troops remain in Narbonne and southern France. The Spanish Omayyads* make another trip over the Pyrenees and are again turned back. entirely autonomous. particularly in the monasteries*. When the Arabs take Samarakand. of course. The books and knowledge the Arabs have picked up from the Nestorian monks at Edessa (in Persia) include Greek and Persian medical texts. somewhere around the eighth century. Musa* and his son Abdul Aziz* set up a working society with effective and humane rules.* they get a Chinese papermaking factory. Charlemagne* (742-814) comes to the throne of Frankland in 772 and leaps into action. and Capella's* seven liberal arts. of course) and the temporal power of the Christian church is destroyed. he begins to whip things into shape. Charlemagne* And The Brief Revival Of The Empire In The West After a time. A medical school and hospital opens in Bagdad* and the Arab 765 reputation for fine medicine begins. Which. Lyon and Reims. who is really a remnant of the old Roman Empire. and grandson. Spain. engaging in trade and fighting. Gradually. Chartres.own empire capital in Cordoba. but all infidels (non-Moslems) have to pay taxes. From his capital in Aachen.com . No Moslem. During this lull there is a brief cultural recovery. led by a remarkable man.

Like earlier barbarian hordes they appear in two different ways. literature. What is even more relevant here. eventually providing a personal guard for the Byzantine emperor. (the colder weather.Scourge From The North As We Enter The Ninth Century Up in northeastern Europe. fight Constantinople. As trade and conquest pour wealth into the hands of the powerful monied class. at the moment.pdffactory. is another movement that occurs at the same time as Charlemagne. Related to the Angles. leaving cultural as well as population changes in their wake. turn to promoting social and cultural works. trade and wealth prosper and flourish. put colonies on Greenland and take a few trips to America. Pushing south and east they establish the first Russian kingdom. bringing large sections of Europe under his control. He is also a big-time military leader. but like many other tribes they have a strong bardic* oral tradition. Islam* is creating a world cultural center in Bagdad* under Haroun-Al-Raschid* 786 to . philosophy. For two and a half centuries. Arts. as plunderers. Further off. The Vikings* first recorded appearance on the European scene is 787 or when they raid the southern coast of England. overpopulation or the increased seaworthiness of their ships) they suddenly turn to i viking (raiders striking through vik. The Vikings* . and part Persian. The Vikings* are coming. as well as from later archeological evidence. they descend on England. Europe. they run their course. In 800 Charlemagne* is crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III* and this lays the foundations for the Holy Roman Empire. the Scandinavians and Danes have settled the peninsulas of Denmark.manuscripts they can find. and. They sack their first 793 monastery at Lindisfarne off the English coast of Northumbria. We know them from the annals of literate people they invade. they settle Iceland. as traders and settlers. Norway and Sweden as productive farmers and expert fishermen. They are not literate and have no written language. unaffected by either the Romans or the central European invasions. Then they subside into settled societies and disappear into local cultures. and the Mediterranean. They are called Danes in 789 English records. part an inheritance from the Romans. rich in spoken sagas*. They finally come up with a working system of administration. the Caliph better known to us from The Arabian Nights. In Bagdad and 809 its empire. Christians. For some unknown reason. Viking* pin-point raids are starting on the coast of Europe. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The French call them Normans. in order to preserve them from disappearing down the tube. Saxon and Jutes who have invaded England. When 800 Charlemagne* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor marking the false dawn of new learning and culture. Simultaneously Back in the East As Europe is beginning to suffer the scourge of the Vikings*. bays or inlets).com . pagans and Jews are widely employed in government service and enjoy the freedom to practice their own religious ways. like the Romans before them. another barbarian group has been developing their own individualistic culture. they. In their distinctive long ships. Ireland.

Manoralism. [The Indians claim they provided these last two. are all much more likely places for farming and settlement.com . is left to face the Viking attacks which will begin to threaten his empire. especially through the diligent efforts of the Irish. derived from the Roman villa.) The manor is essentially a self-sufficient estate. In addition to the Hellenistic medicine and mathematics. The "lord" is essential to the system and every man has to "belong" to some lord. Sometime. 809 With the death of Haroun-Al-Raschid* the Islamic empire centered in Bagdad falls into civil war and confusion where it will remain for two hundred years (until the Turks take over leadership). Some might include a number of villages. Music schools sprout up in Medina (Spain). Charlemagne* is anointed Holy Roman Emperor* of the West in Rome. 800 In Ireland the famous and beautiful Book of Kells* has been finished but the Vikings are about to descend on the relatively peaceful and very productive Irish culture. they have close contact with the Sanskrit literature and physical science of India. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the concept of the zero and the decimal point. very shortly thereafter. The crime of being a "masterless" man can result in death or slavery.poetry and building flourish. Being "masterless" is the charge regularly brought against traveling players. There is an enormous revival of human pursuit of science. mostly by water. Christianity is spreading. * In this Arabian* Islamic Empire. Some trade returns. Vikings Move On As Does Islamic Culture The world weather has shifted from the earlier cold pattern and it has gotten warmer. 814 Charlemagne* dies (see above) and Louis*. This system of binding people together will persist for hundreds of years. All are constructed entirely of fragments from all the empires Islam has over run.pdffactory. Louis the Pious* his heir. they come up with Arabic numerals (a big step up from Roman numerals if you want to do any useful math). In Cordoba* a musician named Ziryab* sets up a music school patterned after the old conservatories in Bagdad*. governor and judge to his serfs (villeins who live in a village. History flourishes as well as biography. through the river networks and along the coastal rims of the Mediterranean and the North Sea. It works like this: The lord would live in a "manor" and act as protector. He becomes the defacto minister of culture and influences every part of Spanish cultural life. Educational systems develop as does all literature. As the Vikings sail the northern seas the lands they encounter are more suitable for crops than they are now. the economic and social system associated with feudalism* is really spread by Charlemagne. He introduces new styles and variations of musical instruments. The Baltic area. who knows when. romantic fiction and the short story. 822 The cultural splendor of Islam blossoms in Spain. just like the old Roman ones. Schools and charities blossom. Arabic replaces Greek as the language of speech and writing and the intellectual life of the Arabic speaking world spreads over the old Hellenic world. The Holy Islamic War degenerates into a systematic accumulation of plunder. 813 In Europe Charlemagne* crowns his son.] They practically invent Algebra. Iceland and Greenland.

Viking raids begin on Rouen* and proceed to Paris*. plunder. Muscovy and the eastern European Jewish kingdom of Khazaria*. Most influential of all Ziryab* develops the trading Jews in an enterprise to bring arts and cultural resources from all over the world into Spain. brings in astrologers from India to teach chess. 842 Turkish mercenaries are converted to Islam and join Arab armies. pillaging and sacking Seville*. 859 Another bunch of Vikings* go east into Russia*. [You may notice that some places are beginning to get a country together under a king. Christians are so well treated that there is a backlash Christian movement to renew the old martyr status and some Christians try hard to get the Moslems to make martyrs of them. establishes a school for women to teach cosmetology and fashion. they land on the Baltic coast of Russia (called "Rus") enlarging their hold and setting up trading centers. [You may also notice that these centuries are largely a time of sack. Rome. Byzantium. a guy called Halfdan gets the best of the other nobles and founds a monarchy. Germany 841 and the low countries (now the Netherlands and Belgium).com . 840 The empire left to Louis the Pious* by Charlemagne* is split among Louis' three sons at his death. Gaul. China. Viking raids begin on France. the first king of Denmark.] 850 In Spain. Some of them stay.develops food and food serving. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. organizes a glass factory to produce tableware. Their travels take them to India. Under Rurik* (later 860 known as the first Russian grand prince). 851 Vikings (called Danes in Britain) maraud up the Thames (England) and attack Canterbury*. 846 The Arabs sack Rome. In Scotland a guy named Kenneth* defeats the Picts* and becomes the sole king. pillage and burn.] 845 Vikings destroy Hamburg and penetrate into Germany. damage the Vatican and destroy the Venetian fleet. They rage through northern 840 Ireland and establish their rule from Dublin*. 844 Vikings raid Spain. Eventually Turks will take over the eastern Islamic empire from the Arabs. In Norway. Egypt.pdffactory. 839 Viking raids are increasing and the first great viking chief leads a big group to plunder and rule in Ireland. Meanwhile the Vikings in Denmark unite Jutland and the Danish Isles under Gorm the Elder*. notably Kiev*.

at about this time. Theatre Reappears In Bits And Pieces As We Move Onward Into The Tenth Century The old empire of Charlemagne* crumbles under Viking attacks. 878 Alfred* recaptures London from the "Danes" (English Vikings) and works out a treaty with them establishing boundaries for each side. Aix-la-Chapelle and Worms. These are Vikings who. The Book of the Roads. 865 These Russian Vikings push down the Dnieper* to the Black Sea* attacking Constantinople*. They also live under a severe set of rules. rather than just going off on the occasional raiding party. there is a chapter entitled "The Routes of the Jewish Merchants Called Radanites. 880's Among the European Vikings. an order of Viking knights. Rurik* founds the city of Novgorod*. In the geography text. They have a stronghold in which they train rigorously when they aren't out fighting. blocking trade. 862 Back in Russia.com . One of the groups grows into the famous Jomsvikings*. The Vikings in England (Danes) occupy Northumbria and East Anglia and 866 they establish a kingdom in York 869 The Arabs take the island of Malta. The Wonders of India. much like monks.861 Vikings ravage central Europe. Khazaria* occupies the lower reaches of the Volga and northern Caucacus.pdffactory. Tolouse. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Book of the Roads. Cologne. 874 A different group of Vikings. Unfortunately." (from the Persian rah'dan meaning "he who knows the way") which describes the incredible range of territory these Jews regularly traveled. The multilingual Jews are not carriers of either Christian or Moslem creed and are literate in at least one other language. the traveling Jewish trader. 871 Alfred the Great* comes to the English throne. But enormous strides in acquiring international culture are being made through a little known and unlikely means. In the region of the Crimea the Jewish kingdom of Khazaria* dominates. barring the way of the Vikings advance from the north and Islamic armies from the south. make a profession of fighting. They are invited to rule. China becomes xenophobic (fear of foreigners) and the mongolian Tartars ring China. The later rise of European chivalry* and that of the religious military orders owe much to the standards of the Jomsvikings*. under Ingol and Leif take a group to Iceland and start a settlement. sacking Paris. This change in trade enables Venice to develop trade monopolies and many of the Jews retire from trade to the Spanish islands of Minorca and Majorca where they teach navigation. 903 The Arabs begin writing geography books based on the travels of the trading Jews and the Arabs: Book of Lands. a system of military groups develops. The pagan nations of this region held a great debate on the relative values of current religions and the Jews won. This makes them eminently suited for foreign trade since they are admitted everywhere.

and basic grains like rice.We are beginning to hear about secular entertainment at Christmas revels. Charles the Simple*. but it will blossom later with the navigation skills to discover America. 932 Spain. This one survives into the fifteenth century as one of the star acts of the mimes*.This may seem a bit obscure. an all island parliament. Fruits (like oranges. king of the West Franks. c. offers to give them a grant of land if they become Christians. Go and announce that he is risen from the tomb. The tenth century is also the time when Flanders (up there in the Low Countries) becomes the center of cloth production for Europe. *911 . Rollo. is the jewel in the crown of Islam. bananas and figs).pdffactory. the Althing*. and their territory comes to be called Normandy (the land of the Normans. spices. European leaders begin to come to Spain to study.* 10th century Liturgical Drama (performed by and for the clergy) is widely done in Benedictine monasteries. Comedia Bile* that features a bunch of talking fish. The Arabs bring a whole new range of plants to grow in Spain. flourish across Islamic Spain. an Easter church recitation of dialog between the Angels and the three Marys at Christ's tomb: Angels: Whom seek ye in the tomb. O Christians? The three Marys: Jesus of Nazareth. Switzerland (St. 912 The Russian Vikings under Oleg* have a confederacy of towns and provinces ruled by Viking princes and. especially in France (Limoges and Fleury). he is risen as he foretold.) They settle in. for the time being. Angels: He is not here. 925 At this time we find the earliest extant reference to the trope*. nuts. They do and he does. There are fun things like a popular ventriloquist farce of late antiquity. have the eastern Slavs under control. and will figure greatly in much later fighting and conquering.) 930 The Viking settlement on Iceland has at least twenty thousand people and a democratic government. with its capital in Cordoba. learn French. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Aesthetically irrigation makes possible the formal gardens of the Alhambra. Germany (Richenau) and Spain (Ripoll. Gall). the crucified. Ecbasis Captivi* has as its subject matter stories from Aesop's Fables*.com . O Heavenly Beings. The irrigation systems (started by the Romans) from Syria and Arabia* turn Andalusia's dry plains into an agricultural bonanza.A secular play. Obviously they are beginning to become pretty wealthy too. 900's . appear on the lower Seine. lemons. 911 The Vikings in France (known as Normans) under their leader.

can be bought and sold with the land. and perhaps. and can be freed). 936 The tenth century is the time of the rise of the Saxons (a Germanic tribe centered in Germany). starting a trend that improves the place and standing of women in Christian society. and Sapientia. and are farmers and craftsmen). 955 Otto I* defeats the Magyars and Slavs Theatre Appears Momentarily We have finally arrived at a moment of theatrical history. Callimachus*. the Slavs. We will be talking about her later. in this case a guy named Gerbert (later to become Pope). early versions of the later Miracle* and Morality* plays. a Benedictine abbess of Gandershiem in Saxony. It is often questioned whether or not the plays were written to be acted. often well-off). Resident barbarian tribes are beginning to develop into social units. Trade improves. and slaves ( usually prisoners of war and condemned men unable to pay their fines. beating his eastern neighbors. 950 England is beginning to shape up as something of an organized society under AngloSaxon law. goes to study in Spain. They have lively dialog and owe something to native farce. Gallicanus*. Her plays are designed to teach Christian values while providing good literate style. Slowly but surely the view of woman as Eve. There is even some evidence that at least one of them was performed for a visiting Abbot. too. They are also quite funny. 959 Hroswitha. Duke Otto* (later known as Otto I the Great) is elected king. Abraham*. acquiring laws and a semblance of social order. Saxony is important because Hroswitha* (also known as Rroswitha) is born there a year earlier. for a visit of Otto I*. The subjects are Christian history and morality. a large class of thanes (landed gentry. production increases. The Vikings are a trial in certain localities. He proves to be a terrific warrior. technology inches forward and and the weather stays warmer. 940 One of those European leaders mentioned earlier.pdffactory. Since the church has need of examples of good writing style to teach literacy. There are few noblemen. himself. writes six original prose Latin comedies in imitation of Terence*. the cause of sin. churls (ordinary free men who can own and sell land. serfs (bound to the land. Evidence supplied by the plays themselves tends to support the view that they were. The cult of Mary begins to be very popular. in a way. Hroswitha* takes the view that the content should also instruct. They deal with miracles and non-present characters which makes them. These are: Paphnutius*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Dulcitius*. mother of God and deserving of respect and veneration.com .) 951 Otto I* (that Saxon) marries the daughter of the king of Burgundy (she's also the widow of the king of Italy) thereby becoming king of the Franks and Lombards.Saxony Rises As A Force In Europe The tenth century is a time of gradual change. Bohemians and Magyars. probably due in part to the effectiveness of Otto I* as a ruler. is softened by the view of women as similar to the Virgin Mary. The warm climate continues. but other geographic areas get on with the business of making life just a little better than awful. All six of her plays survive.

Anglo-Saxon literature is just beginning (Beowulf). Otto II*) sort of putting things together in central Europe. or perhaps these ideas are just popular. Twenty-seven advanced public schools supply tuition free education and the University of Cordoba draw scholars from all over. We have seen the rise of literary comedy with Hroswitha*'s imitations of the comedy style of Terence. this is a good point on which to end the chapter. Bishop of Winchester. and mills of all kind spreading. founding the Capetian line. Beowulf. This sort of this will become big in the Lowlands (Netherlands. 962 Otto I* gets himself crowned and anointed Holy Roman Emperor* in the West. There is a "Holy Roman Empire" (under the German. Liturgical (playlets used in connection with the liturgy in the Mass and other services) drama can often be found throughout Europe in Benedictine monasteries. of course. there is the highest level of culture and education in Moslem Spain.Sometime in here the first Anglo-Saxon literary work. 966 The last great era of Moslem Spain starts under Hakam II* in Cordoba. visitors to Byzantium tell of seeing performances. 969-975 Apparently the English pick up on Hroswitha's ideas. go forward to chap6 or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In the next century the introduction of the new loom increases cloth production. the time of Otto I*. is composed. Belgium.pdffactory. in Ireland. 10th century. about to change again. 999 Brian Boru*.com . Afterword With all the economic and social progress going on. In the Islamic part of the world. It appears in the Monastic Agreement compiled by Ethelwold. 967 Otto II* is crowned emperor in Rome. The Curch is beginning to do dramatizations (the Trope*) of the Mystery (Passion of Christ) business as a rather regular thing around Easter. places like that). The library and education are the finest available. but from up in England we have an extant church playlet complete with stage directions for performance. c. 987 In France the last of the Carolingian (descendents of Charles Martel) kings dies and a guy called Hugh Capet* becomes king. Things are. rallys the Irish to subdue the Vikings. There is a population explosion in Europe. 990 Mechanical productivity is on the rise in Europe with hemp mills in southern France. *985 Those Icelandic Vikings keep moving west as Eric the Red* goes to Greenland. and the first references to the production of religious plays are showing up. A survival in the Eastern Empire is a passion play of ten scenes (although this one could have been imported from Europe).

preserved and enhanced by the Islamic culture as it spread over the old Alexandrian Empire. They are given at Christmas and their plots revolve around the apparent death of someone. and the dead person is brought back to life. particularly Spain. social and physical reconstruction in the West.Most of the professional entertainers are called minstrels* since almost all of them can sing. The play is taken from house to house. dance of the buffoons. often. democratic to produce classic theatre. Especially in Britain. act. dance and. (Sounds a lot like the ancient Egyptian death and resurrection plays and probably owes a great deal to all the pagan winter celebrations. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and the French ballet de cour*. Other Disguisings* are performed during the carnival season prior to Lent. play instruments. It is also yeilding to the light of classical knowledge. [see the Introduction and Chapter One] we need a society that is.home Home CHAPTER SIX Into The Middle Ages Introduction We begin a new chapter here because things are about to take another abrupt change.) These Disguisings* will lead to the Renaissance court Masques* and Italian intermezzi*.) In the Christmas plays Father Christmas is the presenter. (Some of these persist down to the present day. If you remember our original premise. Europe Moves On Into The Eleventh Century 1000's on . a fool. masks and disguises. Europe in the Dark Ages has produced none of these. By the end of the Middle Ages the trickle will turn into a flood and that will trigger the Renaissance. tumble and do acrobatics. This knowledge from Arabic sources. These are mainly court entertainments which comes from the local celebrations like sword dances. a man dressed as Maid Marion and sometimes a dragon and St. We also need a society that is reasonably stable and economically well off. Disguisings* are done for all occasions. Meanwhile. The darkness of the Dark Ages is disappearing in the light of economic. will trickle very slowly into the West. George. That is now beginning to change. The Mummer's Plays* are done in dumb show. does some really weird things. a hobby horse. a doctor comes in. these usually include a clown. These minstrels* are popular among nobles and clergy throughout Europe.com . the five hundred years (give or take) that make up the Middle and High Middle Ages.pdffactory. have many ups and downs. and Morris dances (where their blackened faces and bells may have come from the Moors). at least partly. * In the courts of ruling houses there are other forms of entertainments known as Mummings* and Disguisings*. So far.

as usual. Their Christian neighbors regard this as a golden opportunity and immediately start attacking. of course) is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*.Things begin to fall apart in Moslem Spain. the massacre of the innocents and the flight into Egypt. near Naples. At Limoges these include episodes about the shepherds.The first recorded reference to the use of gunpowder. More useful to education.Cordoba falls and. 1053 . a really useless early type of cannon.The famous Battle of Hastings* is fought when William the Conqueror*. 1050 . *1060 . 1044 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the library is destroyed. 1010 . but times are changing. As time goes by scenes are added to include Herod. descends into chaos. 1016 .Henry IV (German. Lief Erikson*. 1014 . 1028 . The beginning of what will come to be an all out persecution. They use it in the bombard*. a Nativity Play is performed. Bologna is now the center of legal learning in Europe. In France there are 11th century tropes for Christmas festivals.The Vikings help King Ethelred* retake London. pulling down London Bridge (remembered in the children's song) in the process. This will lead to a real can of worms about English succession and a big change in the fortunes of England. 1066 .Canute* conquers Norway (he now rules Denmark. England and Norway. The Viking. Italy.1000 . and Cordoba. the Visitation.England is now ruled by a part-viking named Canute*. every cathedral in Europe has a school. who is married to ex-viking William of Normandy's* sister. There are revolts in leadership. This throws the current English language into disrepute and it will take a few centuries for the new English language to rise from a blend of Norman French and native Anglo-Saxon. the Magi and the manager scene. but hardly anybody knows about it. Because of Otto* and the Empire.By this time the School of Salerno. 1013 .The consecration of Westminster Abbey* in England. the Byzantine* Empire is importing Arabian paper and paper is being made in Moslem Spain.com .pdffactory. the knowledge spreads throughout Europe.By now. makes his first voyage to America. as well as all Andalusia. the Annunciation. has introduced Arabian medicine into southern Italy. Soon these show up all over. 1065 . crosses the English Channel and takes England. in a dispute over who inherits the English throne. There is an anti-Jewish uprising in Granada.At Nevers. Fortunately much of the contents are saved and dispersed.The Italians are finally beginning to apply their learning to the problem of law and a Bolognese jurist Gratian* produces a lawyers textbook. Gunpowder won't be widely used until later.) 1040 . especially to Toledo*.

1076 . Scholars stream in to study the terrific Arabic texts. El Cid* is billed as the perfect knight. intrigue and. These guilds are hierarchically organized (a power pyramid). The main workers in the trade are journeymen (skilled enough to work on their own. His armies are led by the fabled El Cid* (from the Arabic Sidi meaning Lord. 11th & 12th centuries . Many legends. this is intellectual heaven. This is especially true in Spain where Alphonzo VI reunites the three northern Christian kingdoms of Leon. The majority of the defended cities in Spain fall. the library is not burned and survives intact. These are developed as protective organizations against the oppression of local feudal lords and to help merchants make connections in other towns when they travel for trade. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They also begin to push into what remains of the Byzantine Empire*. and a general myth grows up around Rodrigo. The cultural and intellectual riches flabbergast western tourists. for once. its ruler wants to get out. and does) to El Cid* and Alphonso VI (who has a lot of connections in town since he spends a number of years here as an exile from his own territories). evil Moslem hordes. Unfortunately this is all Christian negative advertising. Compared with what they have at home.com . and make use of the large population of multi-lingual Jewish scholars to translate the books into something they can read. not to armed might.) The Arabs are considerably more civilized.) When towns becomes self-governing (instead of being bound to a feudal lord) the guilds have the power. (that condensed version of Justinian's laws) apparently in Ravenna. At the top they are governed by council of masters (owners and supervisors) of the particular trade. they can't even understand half of it. They are much more aggressively puritanically Moslem than their former masters and start to make things very difficult for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land* . as well as the history books.) Low boys on the totem pole are the apprentices (they usually apprentice for seven years for no pay. Local accounts show him to be a raping.Very slowly there is the development of craft guilds. battling the dissolute.pdffactory. 1085 Toledo falls (that is.The wild and aggressive Turkish tribes the Arabs had been employing as slaves and mercenaries have replaced their masters and are now running things in Egypt (known as the Seljuk Turks from their homeland. The Eleventh Century Moslems Decline And The Crusades Begin By the middle of this century the Moslems are beginning to be pushed back from the European territories they have conquered. The Christians will carry a resentful jealousy of Arab culture for centuries. (The code of chivalry isn't really up and running yet. as seems to be the case in the famous fall of Toledo. Calicia and Castile.) known to his friends as Rodrigo Diaz de Vibar*. but they work for wages.1071 . They elect the mayor and town council from among themselves. This unification makes it possible for him to move against the Moslems to his south. but they get room and board. But the winners write the legends. to the local ruler deciding life is safer somewhere else. but to bargaining. poems. This is a definite advantage to the west because. pillaging barbarian just like everybody else. encouraged by the Pope who needs a really catchy public relations image to sell his push for the Reconguest of Moslem territories.) They take Jerusalem* away from the resident Arabs. than their Christian opponents. and often more chivalrous.The rising social organization in Europe gets some help from the rediscovery of the Digest*.

they pillage and burn their way through the Christian countries as they march to Constantinople. 1096 . Remember that "Reconquest" idea of the Pope's? Well. becoming king of Jerusalem*. Under a soldier of fortune called Walter the Penniless*.pdffactory.and Raymond goes off in a huff to Syria to seek a kingdom of his own. The Byzantine Empire* doesn't recognize the authority of Rome and it's being threatened by those nasty Turks who took Jerusalem* [see 1071]. Besides. There's a French one from Lorraine under Godfrey de Bouillon* who starts first. (mentioned earlier) about the terrific cultural edge the Arabs have over the Christian West. For such a difficult task they need more help and employ "lay" brothers who are permitted to sell their surplus. Antioch (Godfrey's younger brother Baldwin decides to take off on his own and takes Armenia. leaves his own religious order (Benedictine) to set up a new one in a poor. Another big step forward toward a productive economy. there is a surplus of the aggressive.com . really gnaws at the Europeans. a French monk.) 1098 Meanwhile. So the time seems just right for a religious crusade to free the Holy Land* from those uppity infidels. As usual. what with all that productivity and social organization. Godfrey dies of typhoid fever and his brother Baldwin takes over. By this time they're beginning to refer to these Turks as Saracens*. Instead it's mostly the common people who flock by the thousands. the People's Crusade* moves out of Cologne on the road to Constantinople. There's considerable jockeying over which of the leaders gets to rule there. fighting types just dying to make war on somebody. and finally Godfrey* gets the nod.The First Crusade 1095 Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade*. where he stays for a while as the prince of Edessa. anybody. but the most effective is a dirty. He takes the title of "Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. comes in two parts. He's followed closely to Constantinople by a bunch of Normans from southern Italy and Sicily under Bohemond of Taranto*.The combined force of around thirty-five thousand horse and foot soldiers march off to meet the Turks.Meanwhile. That jealousy. back in Europe. The fourth. 1099 Back at the Crusades . the real fighting types put together four great divisions of knightly armies. think of the plunder! 1096 So all the bishops and priests everywhere start preaching the Crusade. His order comes to be called Cistercians* The whole point is to set up abbeys 'far from the haunts of men' on marginal land.'s* son Duke Robert of Normandy*. The larger part is made up of English. The relevance of this particular event is that it spreads the latest and best agricultural practices among the local populations. marshy area of Burgundian forest called Citeaux.Three years after they start. the remaining forces take Jerusalem*. The smaller part is from Flanders (that place where they make all the cloth) under Count Robert II*. Robert Molesme*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and biggest bunch. It isn't those fighting type knights that he attracts. Fortunately for the surviving local Christians. back in Europe. With considerable ups and downs they fight their way through Nicea. Normans and Bretons (northern France) under William the Conquerors. Immediately behind them comes the bunch from Provence in southern France under Count Raymond IV of Toulouse*." The two Roberts pack up their loot to go home 1100 . 1097 . homely little runt who comes to be known as Peter the Hermit*. the entire People's Crusade* is wiped out by the Turks just south of Constantinople.

The architectural style is based on the use of the Roman (really the Etruscan) arch. and those mills. Dancers show up in plays that include Salome* and a tumbler is vital for productions of Le Tonbeur Notre Dame*. What with all that loot from the Crusade. Professional actors begin to be used to play those roles in plays (about Christ's Passion) that the townspeople don't want to play." The first is The Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. but power and wealth corrupt and they soon get a reputation for arrogance. Paraphrases of Euripides' tragedies shows up in a third of the 2. These are the guys with the white surcoat and big red cross.640 lines. The next order is the Templars*. Judas and executioners. Some will hold summer and winter fairs. in the region of Champagne. 1120's Meanwhile back in Spain that intellectual revolution is getting started. about five of them. who get the so-called Temple of Solomon as their headquarters and they get to wear the same outfit as the first group.As The Twelfth Century Begins Economic And Intellectual Profits 11th or 12th century (although it could have been the fourth) theatre was apparently still a going concern in the East. too. This also leads to progress in finance. is completed. The ancient puppet and marionette plays are always popular. the crossing points of trade routes start having regular fairs. Towns. 1120 The earliest record of a Miracle Play* at Dunstable in England.We find many other entertainers appearing in plays. It gives us a good example of how the Eastern Empire of Byzantium is trying to combine the classical with Christian. France.pdffactory. They rapidly become as wealthy as many European kings. The various orders are given huge gifts of land and money from kings and barons. the cathedral at Cluny. set up regular fair times. Great for trade. 1100 The most famous example of Romanesque* architecture. I will the Passion tell which saved the world." It combines some aspects of the story of Christ's death with a lot of classical stuff. 1104 Champagne Fairs begin. Then there is the Order of the Knights of St. They begin to found a bunch of military "Orders. At the start they all have strict rules that have a lot in common with the Jomsvikings* [remember them?]. like Satan. The Templars get a reputation as really fierce fighters.com . that kind of stuff. This order specializes in providing a hospital and hostel for pilgrims. improved productivity with that Cistercians* agriculture. Plays which appear to have been performed in the Byzantine Empire include: Christus Paschon -* it begins: "Now in the manner of Euripides. An Englishman from Bath named Adelard* goes to learn about astronomy and picks up a lot more. He goes home with a translation of Euclid's* geometry and a good understanding of the new method PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1100's and 1200's . and probably pretty good for the entertainers. They get black robes with an eight point white cross. letters of credit. John who are more widely known as the Hospitallers*. the knights who did it start to get religious. 1101-1128 Now that Jerusalem* is finally in Christian hands. the others May and autumn ones.

Denis outside Paris. Bernard) preaches the Second Crusade*. this business of rational thought and natural science. Some stay in Toledo to work for Raymond the Archbishop.000 lines. starting with Salerno.Jeu d'Adam* (The Play of Adam) is the oldest extant play in French. one of the first troubadours whose name is known.pdffactory. This new system provides the intellectuals with a really usable tool for arriving at a truth. [That won't fly. to have been produced outside a cathedral for a larger public. This will become very dangerous for his health when the Church realizes what a can of worms this new learning can be. The Second Crusade Theatre Is Showing Up In The Church 1146 The Turks have taken back Edessa. and give the whole thing up an go home. Big impact on his European colleagues. a Breton philosopher and the guy who has the memorable affair with Heloise*. it takes four days to perform outdoors. Later known as The Mystery of Adam* it is written by Arnoul Grebau*. slaughtering the Christian inhabitants. Here we finally get a surviving text of a religious play that appears. For the next sixty years Gothic cathedrals will rise all over Europe.ADAM AND EVE 2. c.com .of thought which he writes out. also picks up all that wonderful learning from Spain. dies. This time it is supposed to be a penance for sins and not an opportunity for plunder. With over 35. 1150 . from the stage directions. especially the works of our friend Aristotle. so it's obviously time for another crusade. But even more of a bombshell is the philosophy. It is definitely a different approach from the authoritarian Augustinian view. He sets up a bunch of translators to cope with all the manuscripts flowing in from the "Reconquest" in Spain.CAIN AND ABEL PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It'll make things pretty dangerous later when these new views come up against the old Augustian head-in-the-sand thinking of the church. 1127 Guillaume de Poitou* (b. 1130's *Peter Abelard*. Lots of others take off for Spain from all over Europe. The play contains three main parts 1. lose most of their men. 1070). Universities begin to be founded around Europe. This play deals with the mystery of the passion of Christ and covers events from Adam through Pentecost. Bernard of Clairvaux* (later known as St. His system of nature and the logic of argument comes complete with Arabic commentaries to make the whole thing easier to understand. This involves the pointed arch so widely used by the Arabs.] 1148 The French and German forces marching to Damascus* bog down arguing over who will get what loot. 1144 The beginnings of Gothic* architecture show up with the church of St. The range of sciences becoming available is mind boggling. and is now using the new logic in his teaching in Paris.

commercial city. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Admission is not usually charged although some places have special seats for hire. mainly the Three Kings* and the Prophets Play*. who hire the teachers and set the rules. Scenery: There is little attempt made to be elaborate in setting the scene until the plays pass in to hands of laymen. It has been republican for centuries and has a healthy independence of thought. Almost all of the other religious dramas (we know of something over 400. He lays the foundations for English Common Law. an educational institution free from rule of the church.) All plays use music. Henry (see below) marries Eleanor of Aquitaine* 1154 Henry II* (the one who married Eleanor) comes to the English throne and the Plantagenent line begins. characters begin to have more elaborate costumes for such roles as the Wise Men (Three Kings. Production techniques in Medieval religious drama . Soon. The University of Bologna immediately develops a reputation for legal instruction and starts the fastest growing of medieval professions. 1152 Frederick I Barbarossa* becomes king (in Germany).pdffactory. some not for ten years. and occasionally with choir boys.(as we move outdoors. It will attract students from all over. the lawyer. furniture and other objects. It is run by the students. gradually pick up additions. no more than 200 lines) seem to have been performed in the monasteries and inside the cathedrals for Easter. when lives of Saints are enacted.) There are also a number of plays dealing with the Christmas season. In part 3 the dialog has the scriptural part in Latin followed by paraphrasing that dialog in French.) Props: as the plays expand to subjects beyond the Trope they begin to include the objects needed as symbols (the dove) and for practical identification of the characters (gifts from the Three Kings.3.* The Arts faculty become controversial because they are most strongly influenced by all that new knowledge coming out of Spain. The University of Bologna is the world's first really non-religious university. Gradually the number. Most Passion plays are not given every year (some every second year.) Costumes: which start out as church vestments. all very short. Other biblical events are dramatized.com .) and. 1158 Frederick I Barbarossa* issues a decree founding a protestant (that means non-religious at this point in time) university in Bologna*.PROPHET'S PLAY (foretelling coming of Christ) The dialog is in French but the stage directions and songs are in Latin. They are various enlargements on the Trope*. It is under the protection of the emperor. free from papal interference. and situated in a republican. The longest and most complex is the Antichrist which is so full of diverse and elaborate scenes that it was probably a bardic performance piece and was not dramatized at all. like wings for angels. Only three deal with the crucifixion: two are in the Carmina Burana ( a collection of plays and poems from a monastery in Germany) and one from this same date from Italy (about 320 lines long. This city has a tradition as a Roman municipality and escaps the grip of feudalism that plagues the rest of Europe. but still being performed by clergy. length and variety of subject matter increase.

there's a lot of interest in Jerusalem* and the millennia. write. The point of all this is that these Mamluks will take over the kingdom later and give the Europeans a lot of trouble. he 1187 finally captures Jerusalem. taught to read. They are Sunni* and consequently have lots of problems with the Shiite* remnants of the Fatimids. is murdered by four of Henry's Norman knights. 1167 Frederick I Barbarossa* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*. there's a lot about that in Revelations*. takes all the cash he can lay his hands on. We also hear of the first European references to a needle that points north. He reorganizes France and it begins to be the dominant power.pdffactory. Saladin replaces his African troops with Turks. Yemen and part of Iraq.) These men are prized as terrific fighters with horse and short bow. Saladin*.1160 .) 1171 In Egypt the Kurdish Ayyubids* depose the ruling Fatimid rulers and start their own dynasty under Saladin*.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1163 Notre Dame* is built.Plays are being performed in England that deal with the lives of Saints (religious chivalric knights. mainly from the Turkish Kipchak tribe (Crimea and southern Russian steppes. [This is the time of all that "Robin Hood" stuff. They will extend their rule to Syria. as Sultan of Egypt and Syria. Oxford 1170 Thomas a Becket*. and heads off for the Crusade leaving his brother John* in charge at home.1170 . It will take a while to develop this into a workable compass and improve navigation. University is founded. When the news of the fall of Jerusalem* reaches Europe everybody starts getting ready to move again. He tricks the Christians into breaking the truce which provides him with a good excuse to push the Christians out of Palestine. As the Christian knights come into more and more contact with Saladin.com . In order to keep things running smoothly they (the new rulers) make use of slavewarriors. Nobody in Europe needs to be told that it is time for the Third Crusade*. This really gets Henry* into hot water with the Pope and the church.) They are captured. 1189 Richard I* (the Lionheart) comes to the English throne. Well. They are converted to Islam.* He turns out to be a lot more chivalrous than his opponents. These Turkish slave-warriors are called Mamluks* (meaning "something that is possessed". one by one. The Third Crusade The One We All Remember 1183 The Moslems have this new leader.) The first part is all about that local celebrity Barbarossa* and the second part deals with the Antichrist and fighting him. and speak Arabic and can rise to be army commanders. In England.* the European notion of Chivalry develops. 1180 Philip II* comes to the throne of France. There is also a really extreme bunch called the Assassins* who run around terrorizing everybody. c.What with all that crusading and the end of the century looming on the horizon. He does a pretty good job. and somewhere over in Germany there is a terrific play called The Antichrist (performed in Latin by clerics. Henry II's* Archbishop of Canterbury. Taking the fortress cities.

(the Feast of the Holy Innocents. (who seem to share that Roman military "Divine Missionary" attitude. 1192 The stalemate ends in a five year truce and Saladin* still in firm possession of Jerusalem*. or 6. against the pagan Livs. The Pope's representatives are preaching a Holy War. 1199 On the death of Richard*. or 13) is one of the feast days given over to some of the lesser clergy.com . gets a papal OK to have a crusade of his own. Sometimes plays are staged as part of the festivities and they also are comic. to the familiar tales of Robin Hood. in northeastern Europe (Latvia. Germany and Palestine from the Emperor and privileges from the Pope. up in his part of Eastern Europe. The Teutonic Knights*. Leading. It includes activities similar to the Feast of Fools. On his way home Richard* is taken hostage by Duke Leopold of Austria* and held for ransom for two years. at least their dominant motive is redemption through battle) are founded by the German Crusaders to the Holy Land. That doesn't work too well because the crusaders come just for the summer and go home in the winter.At Regensburg on the Danube there is a performance of a Prophet Play*. Greece. Like other military orders. That busy fair district of Champagne is holding a jousting tourney when the Holy War is preached as part of the event. Albert of Buxtehude.pdffactory. December 28) is another festival given over. 1197 A Cistercian* abbot named Berthold* is invested as Bishop of Livonia (Latvia). to the choir boys. When he is unable to convert the pagan population he goes back to Germany and recruits a crusader army. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It's now a contest between Richard* and Saladin* and neither one wins. John Lackland* becomes king of England. 1191 The crusaders take back Acre* and Philip* goes home sick.) the Livonian Bishop. So much for that Crusade.The Feast of Fools (the Feast of the Circumcision. The clergy use the occasion to ridicule their superiors and the routine of church life.1190 Everybody starts off for the Third Crusade*. It is an opportunity for comedy and farce and no doubt makes use of earlier pagan practices. wealth and prestige. they grow rapidly in power. leaving Richard* in charge of the whole shooting match. of course. All the knights at the jousting think this Holy War business is just the thing. The Feast of the Boy Bishop . They get land in Italy. Richard* leading the English (and knights from all his French possessions). January 1. actually. 1194 The Scandinavian mythology collection Elder Edda* appears. Philip* leading the rest of the French. so they join up and the word spreads. 1190's . 1194 . Meanwhile. The Festival is presided over by a "bishop fool" who has ecclesiastical authority during the festival. in this case. They have the patronage of the Holy Roman Emperor (who is also German) and the Pope. etc. and Frederick (who drowns on the way and his army disappears) leading the German forces. 1198 Pope Innocent III* becomes the new Pope and speaks of the need for a Holy War. Their headquarters is in Palestine at Acre. in this case to the subdeacons.

1200-1350 . Finally. Legend. laymen begin to be entrusted with acting roles.We find La Seinte Resurrection.com . he persuades the Crusaders to go east by land. They are Europe's best land managers.late 1100's . he claims. 1201-2 Off to the Crusades . This.The church reaches the peak of its power. They figure its easier to get there by sea than to take that terrible land trip through Constantinople. a Jean Bodel* (crusader. Each monastic house is a medieval factory. He wants to punish Constantinople for refusing a trade agreement.The 30. Plays in the venacular (the local language) gradually replace those in liturgical Latin (which the clergy use and none of the locals can understand. They open warehouses and finance offices in major sea ports. As the plays begin to move out of the church on to the porch and finally into the open square.There is now a Confrerie de Jongleurs. As you might suspect. as the competition increases to do a better job.000 pieces of silver) to provide ocean-going transportation and the Crusaders can't meet the price. c. they actually hire professional actors for the big parts. The Doge really has a hidden agenda. Inside the church the dramatizations are done by the clergy as part of the mass. 1200 . The Low Countries industrialize (in a modest way) and the Friesians* are noted for their wool. Paris has a religion-centered University where a student takes six years of Arts and four years of theology.* ( a brotherhoof of composing and performing minstrels) and one of their members. and persuades them to capture the port of Zara on the Adriatic coast of Dalmatia. 1202 So the Fourth Crusade* starts by sacking a Christian city to line the pockets of the merchants of Venice. He even offers to foot the bill. By the start of the century there are thirty Cistercian* [remember? that really productive order?] houses all over Europe. and Miracle Plays as well as the great Mystery and Last Judgement Plays all are really concerned with this dying business and they all draw heavily on the contrast between redemption and damnation. Nicholas Play* full of crusader battles and tavern scenes. becoming famous for their wool.000 or so would-be crusaders assemble in Venice with plans to attack the Saracens by way of Egypt. When they lease land it comes with strict instructions and rules on how best to farm it. instead of south by sea. The Doge (leader of the Venetians) wants a ton of money (85. So. an Anglo-Norman play More Crusades And A Small Renaissance As We Go Into The Thirteenth Century The Thirteenth Century is marked by the appearance of new towns and cities based on commerce.pdffactory. town official and author) writes the St. In 1200 . will be acceptable as security for the needed money. Parable.) This change is accompanied by another transition. This seems like a terrific PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Doge further suggests that the Crusaders should capture Constantinople and unite the Byzantine* Empire with the rest of Christendom.In all European countries it's a time of gradual transition in the writing of religious drama. this does not make the Pope happy.

1206 The Mongols under Genghis Khan* begin their conquests. They set up a puppet Frankish emperor of what they call the Latin Empire*. He signs an agreement to finance the crusade. and the teaching of Aristotle* is banned in Paris. The Crusaders sack. the Crusaders get Emperor Alexius IV* (nephew of the former deposed emperor) put on the throne. the greedy conquerors split up into bitter. The Mongols are an interesting bunch who elect their leader democratically. the Sword Brothers* take all of Livonia and start looking north for something more to conquer. have risen to be the elite guard. It is officially called: "Brothers of Christ's Militia. loot and burn the city. a tough little Mongol named Temujin* (soon to be known as Genghis Khan* has united the Mongolian tribes and is in control of central and eastern Mongolia. starting with parts of China. quarreling factions. But then. the Mamluks*. with a little fighting and a lot of conniving.] The Crusaders never crusade. a united church and the best plunder around. the trouble with the Church starts.pdffactory." These guys are recruited from just about anybody and they get a lousy reputation. splitting the plunder between the Venetians and the Frankish Crusaders. The new knowledge is becoming dangerous to the authority of the church. A significant side-light is that the Italians take home some terrific cultural treasures and their contact with the East helps push the revival in classical learning and art. the whole Byzantine intrigue falls apart. They have the military advantage of using stirrups (which are just now showing up in the west) which enables them to stand up and shoot their bows while riding at full gallop. 1." Soon they come to be known as "The Sword Brothers*. He creates order out of chaos and establishes a new pyramid of power based on a full time corp of nomadic hunters who earn promotion by merit. because they have to drop everything and go home to vote whenever the current "great khan" dies off. This often puts a crimp in their fighting. What more could you want? Meanwhile that beleaguered Bishop Albert in Livonia (Latvia) gets papal approval to establish a military order to be based there. called Bahris* because they are garrisoned on an island in the Nile. they can move like lightning.idea to church and greedy nobles alike. Since the Mongols are nomadic and not encumbered by material possessions. outside Cairo. [This bogus "empire" will hang on about 57 years and then collapse. 1203 Off to Constantinople where.000 and 10. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Bahr alNil. 1204 The Greeks (who are the military power in Constantinople) start open war with the invading Crusaders.com .000) with his own elite corps of 10. 1210 Remember all that Aristotelian stuff pouring out of Spain? Well. the Saracens get stronger. Back in Latvia. Genghis is a whiz at administration and a good lawmaker. We'll hear more from him later. They are known for their dubious morals. He divides them into military style units (100. but they are terrific fighters. Only the greedy merchants win. 1203 Off to the East.000. Down in Egypt those equally terrific Turkish slave-warriors.

is raised by a revivalist type French boy. Frederick II* is creating a trained civil service and down in Naples. bringing in German farmers to colonize the territory. Thousands of young boys march to the French port of Marseilles where they expect the waters to part so they can walk to the Holy Land.One of the other fun things people do. He is a spectacular ruler. 1224 So are the Teutonic Knights* and the King of Hungary has to expel them by force. ever since that Crusade business got possession of Jerusalem. Meanwhile Genghis Khan* is conquering the rest of Persia. Persia. but that's fairly far. They (the Poles).a system of degrees and their requirements is up and running in Paris. They force him to set his seal on the Magna Carta* at Runnymede*. but that's a long trip and often somebody is doing a massacre there. There are three exciting places to go to do the shrines. a place called Compostela. His remains are supposed to have the power to slay Moslems (which is handy in Spain) and cure disease.) Apparently he is supposed to have traveled there from Jerusalem to preach the Gospel. a University free of monastic and clerical control. 1219 On the university front . plus get cured of any dire diseases you might have. 1212 The Children's Crusade*. It figures prominently in the medieval tour guides (yes. The third place is way out on the western edge of Spain.pdffactory. creating a rigid framework of law and administration.com . is that they go on a pilgrimage. and his court PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. too. Meanwhile in Germany. Frederick II* grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*. King John* is badgered by his powerful barons to share some of his power.000 men and 10. The waters don't and most of the children are sold by merchants into slavery. Next best is Rome.000 siege engines from China. this place has been really popular all through the twelfth century. They come and set up an independent state. laying the ground work for a future democratic society. He is interested in culture too.) 1211 Those Teutonic Knights* get involved in eastern Europe when the King of Hungary invites them up there to help defend against some central Asian Cumans. and the Bulgars of the upper Volga. there really are some. Anyhow. He is traveling with 200. offer them (the Teutonic Knights) a province and whatever they can conquer. and pick up a few religious souvenirs. In three years he kills millions. 1217 Back in Asia Genghis Khan* is subduing Khwarizm a Turkish dominated empire including Turkestan. a real embarrassment to the church. The Mongol atrocities are legendary. too. 1223 Genghis Khan* is entrenched in the Ukraine and Crimea. It is the spot that claims to have the tomb of Saint James the Apostle (Santiago in the Spanish. At the moment it mainly empowers the barons and cuts into the rights of the king. and very expensive. The best place is Jerusalem. 1215 In England. drives north through the Georgians. 1218 The Fifth Crusade* is another abortive attempt to get to Jerusalem through Egypt. He pushes to the Caspian Sea. look at the relics. most of Afghanistan and part of northern India. But that's OK because a Polish Duke asks them to come up there and tame the Prussians. full of practical advice and directions. the Kipchak Turks of the Volga steppes.

What with all these crusades there's lots of interest in this crusading business back home. northern Iraq.is the birthplace of Italian as a literary language. Frederick II* stands at the peak of the feudal pyramid. But the Mongols* are busy destroying Kiev and defeating the Polish.000 men. Moscow and Vladimir. It's a ten year treaty and nobody likes it. The Baltic Crusade* is under way but they get sidetracked by fighting the Mongols*. southern China. and now the Mongols. there is also disease. 1237 The Mongols* continue invading Christian Russia. including lots of knights and minstrels doing their things. Frederick II* puts together the Constitutions of Melfi. but they are eventually absorbed into the Teutonic Knights*. Armenia and Azerbaijan. 1228 The Sixth Crusade* is led by the Holy Roman Emperor*.com . At this time. Silesia and turn south into Hungary. He calls for a crusade against the Russians of Novgorod*. They don't want to. leprosy is introduced into Europe.) under his control. royal weddings. 1227 Genghis Khan* dies and all the Mongol leaders go home to vote on a new leader. overwhelming Rostov. He isn't too interested in fighting and instead wangles a treaty getting the surrender of several cities. 1236 The Mongols* turn to eastern Europe with 150." (a collection of independent Italian cities. northeast Persia. rivaling the Pope for top place. 1236 . Cotton is manufactured in Spain. He gets the Pope to make them do it in return for his agreeing to lead another Crusade. national victories and for visiting royalty.pdffactory. the Royal entry* and Street Pageant. They sweep through the Bulgars in middle Volga and Cumens in the southern steppes. 1230 Among the plunder brought home by the Crusaders. including Jerusalem*.There is an example of another kind of entertainment. 1241 The Mongols* devastate Moravia. 1238 The truce in Palestine ends and everybody fights everybody else for years. Frederick II of Germany. 1229 A new great khan is elected and the Mongols under Ogedei resume conquests of Korea. plus a corridor to the sea and all prisoners freed. In Germany there is a Magdeburg Pentecost Play called The Roundtable. 1225 A story of courtly love appears in the well-known Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose) by Guillaume de Lorris*. By this date we find plays being added to these events. The Sword Brothers* have added more territory to their original Latvian holdings. The Teutonic Knights* have managed to take over all of Prussia and beyond. the Christians. 1240 The Pope gets pretty excited about things up in Russia what with the pagans. so there is a brief respite and a break in their headlong advancement towards Europe. the first comprehensive legal code seen in Europe since Justinian. 1235 . He wants to bring the "Lombard League. This is a lousy PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These are given by municipalities in honor of coronations.

* are taken prisoner. 1254 Louis* returns to France. The Small Renaissance Part of the Century Craft Guilds* become stronger and more widespread. but Louis* stays. The entire army. Production increases and literary. Everybody gets sick. King of France (later to be known as St.pdffactory. Louis*. musical and artistic activities thrive. 1250 .com . He spends four years trying to build up what remains of the Christian territorial holdings. 1255 The church finally gives in and permits all Aristotelian work into the curriculum of universities. 1252 The Inquisition (which has been around for a while) begins to use instruments of torture. The news spreads back to France and another Crusade is planned. Oxford* is founded. 1245 This is the first recorded European exploration of Asia.idea. The Christians lose Jerusalem* for good. then a stalemate. but fortunately the Mongols have to quit (Ogedei dies) and go home for another election. then the usual diseases of a military camp. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. they get decimated. 1242 When the Baltic Crusade gets going against Novgorod* the crusaders loose. 1250 There is a lot of fighting.German drama begins to be visible with the Easter Play of Muri*. who keeps a journal. Meanwhile a grandson of Genghis Khan establishes the Golden Horde* of Mongol* warriors on the lower Volga. The avowed purpose is to identify and punish heresy. these particular ones are from a different and more ferocious tribe) sweep into Jerusalem* and leave it in ruins. Much ransom is paid and most of the Crusaders sail for home.] The University College. Individual artists start putting their name to their works. John of Joinville*.) It takes seven years to put the rebellion down.) [There is a terrific account of this Crusade by one of the French participants. Frederick II* dies and the imperial crown passes to the Hapsburgs*. 1250's During this decade the Mongols* destroy Bagdad* and kill the Caliph of Islam. including Louis. This encourages the Prussians and they rebel against their crusader lords (those Teutonic Knights*. This institution will really get up and running later. This is the beginning of thirty years of war. 1258 Mongols* take Bagdad and overthrow the caliphate. 1249 The Seventh Crusade*. this one under Louis IX*. under Louis arrives in Egypt (the idea is to attack the Saracens at their home in Cairo*. This puts another big dent in the remains of the Islamic Empire. 1244 *The Khwarizmian Turks (The Egyptian Turks keep taking new pagan Turks for their army and they fight with all the zeal of new converts.

Roger Bacon* (philosopher) writes De Computo Naturali. a play with music. by Rutebeuf* . All this philosophy business is helping lay the ground work for breaking the church's intellectual monopoly.The House of Commons is established in England. in Sari on the Volga the Golden Horde* controls the Kipchak Khanate. and in Samarkand the Mongol* Chagatai rule the central Asian steppes as the Chagtai Khanate*.) These characters have been used by the populace when they have celebrations in which an army of damned souls. c. Back home the Mongols* have elected Kublai Khan* as their leader. 1259 In Egypt the Mamluks* finally seize the throne of Egypt 1260 and when the Mongols* threaten the eastern borders (with their depleted forces) the Mamluks* rout them. The Mongols* are about to attack Egypt when their current Khan dies and most of them troop home for the election giving the Arabs a breathing space.In Rome there are organizations of Actor's fraternities* called the Lord's Minstrels*.In Italy. who will grow into the stock Commedia dell'Arte* character of Arlecchino*. They wear animal masks (particularly asses ears). In Persia the Mongol* Ilkhans rule. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the first French "operette. he will be known as Harlequin. Catherine and St. Paul. Later yet. loud bells. or souls of the dead. Miracle of Theophile*.That prolific author Adam de la Halle* comes up with an interesting work called Jeu de la Feuille* which may be the earliest secular work we have. 1261 More saint plays appear in France. 1264 Thomas Aquinas* writes Summa Contra Gentiles (in philosophy and theology) reconciling the dual modes of thought (St. In plays." *One of the things that is interesting about it is his use of characters that seem to owe their origins to pagan demon cults (although they also would be right at home in an Etruscan* farce. as well as plays about St. All these plays center around miracles and later there will be a category of Miracle Plays*. etc. The Mongol* Empire begins to fall into separate pieces while the main group takes over all of China*. the Mongolian hordes are settling in and contributing to the gene pool of a whole bunch of different places. 1264 .pdffactory. 1261 . So now. a Confraternita* produces a splendidly staged sacra rapprasentatione* (sacred representation) at Treviso. Augustine* and Aristotle*) into a double standard and splits philosophy off from theology. This ruins the Mongol reputation for invincibility and stops their western movement. most of Russia is ruled by the Mongol* Batu. these demons and devils show up in many forms but the chief one is the character of the chief devil called Herlequin. 1262 . go screaming in a wild chase all over town. He will be putting out more writings for another ten years. giving some measure of power to the commoner people.com .

These wagons (or carts) show up now in Spain. 1275 Marco Polo* stays on in the service of Kublai Khan* in China for 17 years and writes A Description of the World.these are small structures establishing the location of the scenes Second . journeys to China.1264 The Feast of Corpus Christi* is inaugurated. 1264 . the King of Castile and Leon. a merchant from Italy ( relative of the earlier Polos). 1270 Louis* dies on an expedition to Africa to bring Christianity to Tunis. where a platform (called a roca) is carried around by a bunch of men. with all the booty paraded along the streets in elaborate wagons? Well. Alfonso the Wise*. seales. More about these later as they become more sophisticated and widespread..the mansions*.sets up a school to translate Arab texts into Latin. for the auto sacremental*. loci. 1276 In Spain. With his death.) This will provide one of the biggest theatrical opportunities in the coming centuries.this is a neutral open space adjoining the mansion with as much room as the actors need for their action. These are soon put on wagons (called carro*). This will remain the done thing in Spain for centuries. they need a lot of mansions for their plays. This wagon business is popular in England as well. instead of the audience to the show. 1272 In England Edward I* becomes king. 1266 Over in China* Kublai Khan* receives two Venetian merchants. There are as many mansions as needed for the dramatization and the actors move into and out of the platea when they want to establish a new locale.pdffactory. The thing carries a tableau (a bunch of people in a pose) and when it's set down.com . or stops moving. the heart goes out of the crusading business and the Age of Great Crusades is over. THEATRICAL PERFORMANCE SPACE IN CHURCH DRAMA The dramatic interludes in the liturgy move out of the church and onto the porch where they begin to be public plays. There are two areas involved in the stage delineation of the performance space: First . or domi . the tableau swings into action and the play begins.the platea* or place . 1271 Marco Polo*.Remember those Roman triumphs. now that cities are getting bigger. Niccolo and Matteo Polo. It is a part of the new interest in the life of this world (going along with the new cult of the Eucharist. They start using Wagons* in the Corpus Christi* productions when they want to bring the show to the audience. 1274 In China Kublai Khan* tries to conquer Japan and fails. He also updates star tables and produces Alfonsine tables which will PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the elevation of the Host and the dogma of transubstantiation.

Albertus Magnus*. spectacles (reading glasses) become available.] In the late 1200's we find the earliest example of a type of drama peculiar to the Low Countries.provide the astronomical standards for the next three hundred years. appears. Obviously the church is going to have problems with this new view. 1280 Technological advances appear. 1284 This is the time of the "Pied Piper of Hamelin. c. 1291 More technological advances." 1290 Now that the Teutonic Knights* have things under control. the rule is no Jews. culminating in the wars of the 20th century. From here on out it is their territory and they are based there. c. 1276 . These start spreading in the 1300's as societies concerned with poetry.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Knights carry on a large and lucrative trade. is that belief can come only through understanding. The Teutonic knights abandon their old stronghold of Holyband and move their activities to the Baltic where they exterminate the heathen Slavs and replace them with god-fearing German farmers. The new view. It deals with peasants and supernatural events. 1297 The Teutonic Knights* are battling the Rigans and those guys ask help from the Lithuanians. They specialize in allegorical drama. This stuff is vital for calendars and navigation.com . He is later associated with alchemy and magic. The Play of Robin and Marion*. music and drama. 1298 Louis* is canonized as St. the colonization of Prussia begins by German colonists from northern Germany. Louis*. 1283 The Teutonic Knights* finish subjugating Prussia. (and Bacon's view). 1277 Roger Bacon* imprisoned for heresy. and a paper mill in Italy. [We will find these teutonic views reappearing at regular intervals. this time it is a terrific advance for scholars. they are very firm about Christian rule for Christian subjects. a German philosopher and scientist dies. Also. The viewpoint of the church is that understanding can come only through belief. the spinning wheel.Plays are given as part of the victory pageant celebrating Edward I*'s victory over the Scots. 1283 . They have their own fleet in the Baltic. The first one we know of is the Flemish The Boy and the Blind Man*.Adam de la Halle comes up with another secular play.pdffactory.The earliest known secular play The Play of The Greenwood* by Adam de la Halle*. It's called the Chambers of Rhetoric*. 1298 . These are usually allegorical or historical and are done in pantomime* including tableaux vivants* (living tableaus. a leap forward in optics.

The Viking outposts in Greenland freeze to death and will not be resettled.pdffactory. 1300 . Weather Gets Colder and the Arts Take Off 1300 Population is high and there is a temporary end to the European slave trade. They are by and large made up of laymen with some clergy. The Little Ice Age Begins The Fourteenth Century And We Come To The Down Part Of The Late Middle Ages Starting with a period of uncertain weather. cannons come to be in wide use during this century. Philip IV* of France is real chummy with Pope Clement V* Philip* wants to abolish all those powerful military orders and start up one of his own. He declares the Teutonic Knights* guilty of barbarous acts (this will remain typical of these guys and their descendants). By the middle of the century.Those terrific tournaments the knights used to have to keep them sharp for the crusades are becoming more and more pure entertainment. Professional musical entertainers called Jongleurs appear in France. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1305 The Italian painter. the Pope judges the dispute.Religious guilds and confraternities appear around Europe. 1303 The Pope is again called to judge the Teutonic Knights* and again he claims they are guilty. the Pope. If the plague and the weather aren't enough. a global cooling sets in. Philip IV* arrests all the Templars* in his realm and tries them for heresy. They start having dramatic elements including elaborate processions and dramatic interludes in the evenings. The Pope* does. the population of Europe will be only half what it was at the start. 1300 . by the end of the century. c. Giotto*.com . Philip* does. plague will follow famine until. 1307 Dante* composes his Divine Commedia. Rains and unseasonable frosts bring on a decline in harvests and then total crop failures. When they produce the religious plays the church must still OK the scripts. In northern England these are the craft guilds. to authorize the arrest and trial of all the Templars* throughout Europe. paints frescoes in Padua.1299 In that argument between the Teutonic Knights* and the Rigans.The Pope* is taken over by the French and moves to Avignon. 1305. There is wide spread famine and progressively colder weather. 1308 Philip IV* also persuades his chum. and many Templars* are condemned and burned.

What with the end of the Crusades to the Holy Land. The date is the Thursday following Trinity Sunday. and all that trouble with Philip* in Europe. 1311 . Its theme (the redemptive power of communion) is one that can draw plots from all biblical events.com . 1311 Official sanction is finally given to the Corpus Christi Festival* and it's soon celebrated almost everywhere. 1315 A silk industry starts up in Lyon by Italian immigrants. The Black Death* Comes To Europe 1347 A ship from the Black Sea docks in Messina (Italy) carrying the plague from the East.The first clear record of plays done for the French Street Pageant celebration honoring Edward II*'s visit.) 1313 .) Not all plays are associated with this festival. and special occasions such as gratitude for deliverance from plague. what a plague it is! Within twenty-four hours of infection and the first tell-tale black pustule. 1313 The problem of producing copies of documents leads to metal type casting (for printing) which first shows up in the East (probably Korea. 1332 The bubonic plague* starts showing up in India. beyond Philip's* reach. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and in France the Grand Marshal of the Templars is burned at the stake for heresy. 1336 . Eventually a cosmic drama (which covers events from the creation to the destruction of the world) comes to be acted as the main part of the festival. More importantly other groups (besides the clergy) are given roles in the celebrations (nobles. Dominican monks are using that wagon stage business for their Magi Play*.) feast days of the patron saint of a particular city. They expand their territory in the Baltic (Pomerelia and Danzig) and carry on a running fight with Poland and Lithuania. 1314 The historic defeat of the English by the Scots at Bannockburn* where William Wallace and Robert Bruce gain fame. Other celebrations when plays are done include Easter. the military religious orders are really in trouble. Whitsuntide (seven weeks after Easter.1309 The Teutonic Knights* get the message and move their headquarters from Venice to Marrienburg castle in Prussia*. Now that there is very little crusading going on. the victim is dead. adventurous nobles flock to the Baltic Crusade*. And. etc. The Corpus Christi Festival* is established in an effort to make the church more relevant to the ordinary man and his life. Italy.pdffactory. merchants and craftsmen. 1337 The Hundred Years' War* between England and France begins.Down in Milan.From this date on there are Corpus Christi festivals* in England. varying from May 23 to June 24.

having inherited everything the dead no longer need. Til Eulenspiegel*. He will become an even more popular character in story and plays. When the troupe belongs to a king or a great lord they are permitted to go on tour (when they're not needed at home. a two-day Passion Play* is performed in the free city of Frankfur am Main in Germany. In the countryside.The plague* is carried by fleas on the black rat and comes in two forms: pneumonic (striking the lungs and always fatal) and the more familiar bubonic. 1348 The Italian writer Boccaccio* (who sensibly retreats to an isolated place while the plague is around) comes out with his Decameeon*. All in all.Despite the plague. a new image of the "dance of death" prevades art as a haunting memory of that time. and more likely. The survivors find themselves incredibly wealthy. and has largely run its course on the continent.com . They go on a gigantic spending binge. In some places. Radical reformers spring up and have to be coped with. Somewhere around seventy-five million people die of the plague. Workers have the upper hand and they try to make the best deal they can. like Germany. Many places it isn't safe to travel at all. at least one-third. a brilliant effort to deal with life among the dying. For years after the plague. Fields go to waste. Industrial productivity is at a premium and a real push for more technology gets under way. They bring the religious orders under state control After the plague wealthy merchants like to behave like the nobility. Serfs are no longer bound to the land and farm-workers can set their own terms. (from which some recover) causing large black pustules which leads to the name Black Death*. This kind of document really helps us figure out what these plays looked like. a popular figure in Germany. dies. It begins its European journey in Italy and surges north leaving towns depopulated with no one left to bury the dead. It seems like the end of the world.pdffactory. The German plays are full of robust sensuality and sturdy piety. Many more die of hunger and the violence caused by social disruption. without a productive base. But. It takes three centuries for the population to regain the level it had before the plague struck. Half the workforce is gone and labor is desperately needed. stock animals die of hunger and disease as their owners succumb to the plague. The plague changes everything. Authority breaks down and political uprisings crop up all over. the price of everything goes up. In Florence the city begins to tax church property and stop it from increasing. The old system of being tied to your father's job is definitely out. as much as sixty percent of the land falls out of cultivation. The status of the remaining labor pool is totally changed. one-half of the European population perishes. 1350 The plague reaches Stockholm. They employ their own troupes of performers. There is an extant copy of the director's scroll with all the stage directions. travelers' inns close down. *1350 . First there is a terrific sense of joy for those who are still alive. and being out is dangerous.) They get special letters that identify them as servants of the king (or whatever) which enables them to be legal anywhere (that "masterless PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

man" business is now a thing of the past. In China. the famous Chinese play. the drapers do the Prophets [it's what you might call the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Earliest reference to that most popular of English cycle plays*. His name is Timur the Lame.8 in] plays (42 plays) In addition to the Cycle plays there are at least ten other British dramas in English and three in Cornish which survive. better known as Tamerlane*. 1371 In Spain Jews are required to wear a yellow patch over their hearts identifying them. since it will pierce armor. Tough on all those knights. 1370 The steel crossbow comes into general use as a weapon of war. Since they are a prosperous and powerful minority they arouse a lot of envy and jealousy. an uprising leads to the end of Mongol* rule and the beginning of the Ming* dynasty. 1361 The Black Death reappears in England. a Mongol* soldier seizes power in Samarkand and gains authority over both the Changatai and the Golden Horde*.In Germany. Other Mongol* empires also fall apart. The craft Guilds finance their own productions and every craft takes part. there are Abelespele*. for the intellectuals. Out in central Asia. the goldsmiths. Anti-Semitic hysteria frequently breaks out in parts of Spain. The Second Shepherd's Play. by 1375 In the British Isles there are at least 125 different towns which produce plays. 1350 . the Magi. except in central Asia and Russia.pdffactory. There are four locations from which we have extant Cycle texts: Chester (24 plays) York (48 plays) Wakefield (32 plays) also called Towneley plays Ludas Coventriae or N[LN Length:0. 1369 Chaucer* writes his first book. 1368 Out in China. 1351 In Italy Petrarch* writes his autobiography. The ship builders do Noah. Epistle To Posterity.com . 1375 . learned dramatic productions. He will come to be known throughout Europe as the scourge of all central and western Asia. Although only twelve are known as producing the Corpus Christi cosmic dramas. but you still have to prove that you are not a "vagabond"). The Chalk Circle* is written by Li Hsing Tao.

1390 Those heretical. 1396 A great crusading Christian army is decimated by the Turks at Nicopolis on the Black Sea and the flower of western aristocracy is slaughtered.We hear from that heretical John Wyclif* and he refers to a play entitled Play of the Lord's Prayer* being performed in Yorkshire.) Most of the group goes home but Chrysoloras* gets an offer of the Chair in Greek at Florence University and so he stays. 1387 Canterbury Tales by Chaucer* appears on the scene. The wagons apparently move through the town (with the actors in tableaus until it stops) to different points in the city where they play in sequence until each location has seen all the plays.com . 1391 A series of massacres of Jews rage through the largest cities in Spain. 1380 Timur* (the current Mongol) begins a long series of successful campaigns into Persia. 1378.pdffactory. Poland and Lithuania make a dynastic union and develop a good force to bring against the knights. The texts are always being revised and adapted to accommodate the new performers. These plays range from very short to cycles requiring more than twenty-five days to perform. A lot more plays survive in France than anywhere else. by 1390's most prosperous cities in Europe have lengthy religious cycles (in their local language. 1386 Up in northern Europe the downfall of the Teutonic Knights* begins. especially to a theologian named Jan Hus*. so each one often added stuff on their own. The Byzantine Emperor sends an academic Manuel Chrysoloras* to the west for help. Georgia. John Wyclif* tries to reform the English church but his doctrines are condemned and he is expelled from Oxford. The Pope won't give any (he wants to get rid of the competition in the East. France. Most of the Cycle plays don't cover the whole Bible (like the British.The first record of court entertainment Disguisings* with elaborate scenery and effects occurs when Charles V* of France entertains Emperor Charles IV*. which do) but end with the resurrection of Christ.) made up of many short plays.earliest commercial advertising productions]. Each play is staged on its own wagon but there is an empty platea * wagon that pulls up to the one with the set on it so that the actors have room to act their show. *1377 . The Pope is captive of the French. There is terrific rivalry among the guilds to come up with the best show and the biggest effects. one in Rome and another in 1417 Avignon. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. If any craft gives a bad show it's fined. There are rival Popes and nobody knows who the right one is. 1378 . 1382 An early protestant.The church is in disarray with two popes. protestant writings by Wyclif reach Bohemia (in Czechoslovakia) where they make exciting and stimulating reading. The wagons seem to be about ten feet by twenty feet in size. Russia and points west.

and alchemists are busy looking for the philosopher's stone and the secret of turning everything into gold. The plays survive and are extant. They love him. witches are consulted for medical treatment.1397 Chrysoloras* opens his Greek classes in Florence and we have the beginning of a revival of Greek literature in Italy. The Theatre is moving on like a snowball going down hill. 4. bigger every moment. but an equally overwhelming distrust of the church (especially all that selling of indulgences. This goes back to Pythagoras* and the Italians are reading him for the first time. ending in devastation and a flood of refugees to the west (which is where we get the term for anarchic and unconventional: "Bohemians". people are crazy about numbers (which have magical properties) like 3. even in categories there is a hierarchy. fire.In York (England) there is a guild of the Lord's Prayer* performing Paternoster plays every year. 1398 .) With that shortage of labor left over from the population loss there is a strong drive for technology. Jan Hus* of Bohemia. air) and everything else comes in fours (seasons. directions. Earth is at the center of the universe and the heavenly bodies revolve around it. Richard II* is deposed and Henry IV* of Lancaster gets the throne. God is at the top and stones are at the bottom. Everyone knows their place. lectures on theology at Prage. The world is still medieval and the "Great Chain of Being" determines everyone's and everything's place in the universe. Theatre Blossoms In The Fifteenth Century What with that classical knowledge trickling in from Spain and from Byzantium there is a real itch to find out more about it.The French Confrerie de la Passion* begins performing religious plays in Paris. But. water. Humanism* is in the air and it will soon settle in Italy. The fourteenth century marks the end of feudalism* and the rise of a new Europe. winds. 1399 In England. most of all for something that can do automatic copying and help bring down the high price of copying all those lovely new books coming over the Pyrenees. just aching to be spent on something. Magic is popular. His followers will spark a revolution. those spiritual pardons you can buy for any sin.pdffactory. 1399 . And. without giving up the religious PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) In fact. The de Medici* start lending money on an international scale. 7. These are also being performed in Lincoln and Beverley. 1398 Another precursor of the protestant movement.) Timur* conquers Delhi. There is also an overwhelming preoccupation with death and judgement. Everything is made of the four elements (earth. ages of man. The Florentines begin to get a thirst for classical culture. the lion is king of the beasts as the eagle is king of birds. There is lots of talk about "the music of the spheres". 12. with the terrible Black Death behind them. Western music is beginning just about now and uses the Pythagorean scale. there is a lot of surplus wealth laying around burning a hole in their (the Italians) pockets. India. 6. This group will go on doing this until 1548.com . the mystical heavenly sounds of Aristotle's* universe. Theatre reflects all this interest in being human and not just religious. at least in Italy. that is. so things are moving toward secular theatre.

Instead of using the Corpus Christi* stations. Just like the military they are mainly laymen.The ecclesiastical drama flourishes in Italy. is the Confrerie de la Passion* (Passion fraternity) in Paris*. but the most famous is The Castle of Perseverance *. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. of course) begins to be the thing. Adam and Eve and God.In England they are using two kinds of spaces for production. They also do the cycles* differently than the rest of Europe.Remember those military religious orders? Well now they're a lot of theatrical religious orders for the express purpose of producing religious drama. The clergy are kind enough to also pass along to the guilds and corporations who take over the financing. so all the plays are of equal length.We find a Tirolean version of a secular May play. *1400's . the English do mystery cycles with each text in short one-act form.pdffactory. Both the performance spaces used for production (at St. with all that interest in classical know-how.theatre just yet. their great accumulation of scenery. The playing rounds are 126 and 143 feet in diameter. a boisterous Shrovetide comedy. angels. The European ones all end with music of Te Deum*. One of the most important groups. A more realistic style of presentation and of costume (except for things like devils. There are multiple settings in the Cornish Plays* (done in Cornwall.com . In the Fifteenth century the Church is weakened by all that problem with the Pope (having too many of them at once and not knowing which is the legitimate one) and the revival of classical knowledge that threatens church authority. 1400 . too. There is the rise of farcical and grotesque elements as well as topical references and lots of criticism of current affairs cropping up in the plays. 1400 .) Everything Takes Off In All Directions At Once The clergy have pretty well given up control of the increasingly secular drama to religious guilds and flagellants (those weird people who like to run around whipping themselves for all the sins that caused the great plague). but this system gives them the needed link with the church for producing theatre. much more spectacular. Another difference between the English and the rest of Europe. in terms of theatre history. (The Church is not the only one who knows something any more. In fact the religious festival stuff is getting grander (and longer) by the minute. The round is used particularly in Cornwall. the pageant wagons* and in the round. The guilds and corporations have to have the last word in how the money will be spent and who will be in the cast. It is now up and running. Plays are also performed in a semi-circle like the Roman theatres. This gives the producing organizations a good stock of visual elements to build on.) We still have two of these plays. is their tendency to end the play cycle with minstrels piping a dance in which the spectators are invited to participate. 1400's . Just in Penwith and at Perranzabuloe) and the play still exist. props and costumes that they have collected and used over the last two hundred years.

The Florentines really go for this classical civic glorification of the community-conscious individual. 1403 Suleiman I* takes over as head of as much of the Eastern Islamic Empire as Timur* has left him. The earliest known literature in the Cornish language shows up here. The first steps toward Humanism are being taken. Petrarch* had said it decades before. More important in the near future. lying around in broken pieces all over. That suits them to a tee. He publishes all about it in his "Rules of Perspective. This spreads through the schools. 1408 The Italian sculptor. that they soon would be able to walk back to their glorious past. as a military order.We begin to get Italian efforts to revive interest in Roman drama. After a successful dome-building job they collaborate on.) They are now housed in the Hospital de la Trinite*. They come back impressed and started to look for their own classical Roman past. 1401 Timur* conquers Damascus* and Bagdad* 1402 Timur* defeats the Turkish Caliph at Ankara and takes him prisoner. 1400 That Greek teacher from Byzantium. Now they want to. 1412 What with all scientific mathematical and optical knowledge coming in from Spain. Manuel Chrysoloras*. 1411 . things are beginning to happen. c.1400's . the answer is mostly. Boy! will this ever be a boon to the Renaissance theatre! But more of that later." 1410 The final end comes to the Teutonic Knights* when they are annihilated by the Polish and Lithuanian army. Donatello*. John. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and the passionate interest in Roman ruins (to figure out how they did what they did with architecture). A happy by-product is the association of an educated merchant named Toscanelli* with a practical architect. they are finished. universities.The Confrerie de la Passion* moves its operations indoors (in case you wondered if everybody did their thing out in the weather. Their home of Marrienburg remains intact as does most of their territory. and puts it to practical use with the first-ever perspective painting. and those theatrical people in the law courts. they come back from their trip with a copy of the absolute best in ancient map making information. But.pdffactory. turns out his statues of "David" and "St. 1405 Timur* dies." 1413 In England Henry IV* dies and Henry V* comes to the throne. 1402 .com . but not always. Brunelleschi* gets interested in this perspective* stuff Toscanelli* told him about.The oldest extant Morality Play* called The Pride of Life* shows up. really excites the Florentines and a group of influential businessmen take a package tour to Constantinople.In France the Confrerie de la Passion* gets the monopoly for doing shows in Paris. Brunelleschi*. 1400 . a copy of Ptolemy's* Geographica.

Prince Henry* (later known as the "navigator") of Portugal is using their work and sets up a school of navigation at Sagres. which are lighthearted afterpeices (that means between courses of dinner.In Navarre. or after dinner. put on by "fool's companies.com . churches in Florence. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Jan Hus* is burned at the stake for heresy. 1428 That strange little French peasant girl. Vincent. Pedro. including all that great stuff they learned from Ptolemy about making a grid so you can tell where things are (as opposed to the medieval way of just making a cute decorative picture.) 1425 . 1426 Holland becomes the center of European music. off the Malay peninsula. robust (that usually means sexy) plays called Klucht*. 415 Henry V* defeats the French at Agincourt*. students of Paris College de Navarre make a morality play out of a sermon. A question is posed and the various chambers compose and produce answers in the form of allegorical drama. In England Henry VI* is crowned. 1425 Henry*'s (the Portuguese) brother. They come up with a special kind of stage that looks a lot like it could lead to the later Elizabethan stage. This way of doing shows in the round doesn't seem to have caught on over on the continent.pdffactory." Then there are the Sotternieen*. goes off to Florence (the map center of the universe). He is responsible for convincing the Florentines to regard their religious theatre as works of art. besides being a merchant and student of mathematics.Secular: In Germany they are doing crude. and in front of.A note about that Brunelleschi* architect. The King of Portugal starts trying to find an alternate route to the Spice Islands (Way off in the East. and a lot of finding a new way to get to the East and those Spice Islands. Cape St. 1426 . 1413 . and get Toscanelli* (who.The Low Countries begin having competitions among the Chambers of Rhetoric*.The English morality* play reaches its zenith in The Castle of Preseverance*. the westernmost spot in Europe. He also works out the technical apparatus for performances in. We know more about this play than almost any other thanks to an exhaustive investigation by Richard Southern (reported in his book The Medieval Theatre in the Round (1957). There is a prize for the best.) 1413 .) 1419 Remember those Jews who retired to an island to study navigation? Well. is also a doctor and a cartographer) to put together all the information he can on maps. They are performed both outdoors and indoors. This becomes the major dramatic expression of the Low Countries. He wants to do a little Christianizing in Africa. leads the French army against the English. 1429 Joan of Arc* raises the siege at Orleans and makes possible the crowning of Charles VII* at Rheims. So Toscanelli* does. Joan of Arc*.

Meanwhile in England the language is changing from Middle English towards Modern English. The allegories deal with the responsibilities of governing and the qualities needed in a king. A case in point is Bien advise mal advise* (Bad advice. 1432 .The social farce is developing in the efforts of jurists. Now.000 lines long with a cast of sixty. Italy. 1442 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. civic organizations. It has all those lovely precious metals and blacks. students.) This one is allegorical and performed at six key places in the city as the procession moves through London. 1430 Joan of Arc* is captured by the Burgundians and handed over to the church inquisition for trial. they start up the slave trade again.The free Hansa city of Lubeck has "Lubeck clubs" which organizs performances of little comedies and then performs them on wagons. Good Advice) performed at Rennes. 1431 . like the one welcoming young Henry VI* to the city of London is a case in point (in the Renaissance these will be called Trionfi. In this little gem the "well-advised" get carried up to heaven by angels. The great cast iron gun ("Mad Marjorie") is introduced. The well known Wheel of Fortune* is part of the elaborate scenery. wandering scholars.Down in Florence. scribes. Georges Chastellian* writes a play with allegorical figures as the active protagonists. since the spice trade would go down the tube if the Turks take Constantinople* .The Pageant Wagons* are widely used for other events besides plays.fs 1435 A Swedish Parliament meets for the first time. It is entitled Le Concilede Bale*. Democracy is looking up.com .At the court of Philip the Good of Burgundy.1441 Portuguese navigators (thanks in part to all that map help they're getting from Toscanelli*) exploring the west coast of Africa find the African Gold Coast.1515 . they do a show honoring John the Baptist* with 22 settings on moveable scaffolds. 1431 Joan of Arc* is found guilty of heresy and burned at the stake at Rouen. what with the labor shortage back home. 1439 The Pope calls a big meeting to see what the west can do to help Byzantium* where the terrible Turks are on the doorstep.Some of the morality* plays become really elaborate. especially that merchant Toscanelli*. The composition and production of farces is especially evident in the law-clerks associations (Basoches*) with performances called Basoches* du Palais.1430 . 1439 . It is 8. merchants and craftsmen. 1433 Symbols are important and this is the year the double-eagle is adopted as the emblem of the Holy Roman Emperors*. 1434 Those Portuguese explorers are working their way down the African coast and Joao Diaz rounds Cape Bojador. 1439 .pdffactory. The civil pageants. It looks like everybody is getting into the theatrical business. Florence is willing to foot the bill.

1449 on . Shrovetide comedies and other merriments. 1453 The Hundred Years War* ends with the English giving up territory. They do use costumes and masks.We have no idea who wrote the best known morality play Everyman *. 1453-1455 Gutenberg* and his financier. especially in Flanders. Germany. Despite its late date. it really belongs in the Middle Ages. He also worked on illustrations of the spectacular Triumph of Maximillian* I (along with a lot of other artists). Illustrations of the entire triumph is published in 1512.The nice thing about farce is that it makes no technical demands and can be done anywhere.The apprentices of Nuremberg's guilds organize the Schenbartlauf*. 1450 .pdffactory. Marieken vaon Nieumeghen* is the title of this anonymous gem. It shows us a great deal about the elaborateness of all varieties of wagons used all over Europe for Pageants. they're using those wagons too (called Wagon spel*). 1486 through 1528 .) 1452 Metal plates are used for printing. Although he is later than this period.1510 . 1445 Those Portuguese explorers are still working their way down the African coast and Diniz Diaz discovers Cape Verde. *1495 or 1509 . it is still frequently done and always popular. Afterword PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.All over the Low Countries. 1450 Florence under the Medici* becomes the center of humanism and Renaissance. 1485 . These theatrical events put on by various boy's groups remain a popular entertainment for another hundred years. Johannes Fust* print the first 42 line Bible at Mainz* and keeps on printing books like crazy. They have also got a craftsmen's acting association up and running (Gesetten ronde Spele*. In the Tirolean south the location of these Schenbartlauf* is set in King Arthur's court. 1450 or so .Burlesques* and peasant plays* are becoming popular throughout Europe. But.com . Processions and Festivals as well as Triumphs*.Germany is busy doing all kinds of different plays. They come up with the first known play-within-a-play about a female Faust-type who gets into a bargain with the devil but is forgiven in the end.cover the period in which Albrecht Durer* did his incredible woodcuts in Nuremberg. his works illustrate the medieval characters and subject matter just as it would be seen in the plays. The sottie* is closely connected with Paris groups like the Enfants sans souci* and similar groups throughout France. Constantinople* falls to the Turks and we end the Middle Ages. Both the farce and the sottie* have heroes that are commoners and courtiers in fool's dress. For example: the Conrega dei Rozzi* group in Sienna (Italy) is so successful with its Peasant Plays* that they are invited to play in Rome and at the Vatican.

as is the playwright and the designer.Actually. At the moment. go forward to PartTwo or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History home Home PART II The Renaissance Through Romanticism .The Trunk 1450s to 1830 Introduction This period deals with the development of the popular and commercial theatre. The Renaissance is coming fast and furious and the world is about to change beyond recognition. But with the rise of Humanism * already off to a good start in Florence. of course. The other important thing dominating the beginning of this period is the recent invention of the printing press. the printing press up and running and all set to handle all those new theatre books that are streaming in from Constantinople*. In Greece it was a forum in which the best ideas and characteristics of the community were put forth. this is a good place to end one period and prepare to start another. the Holy Roman Empire in the East. The Renaissance (rebirth) begins with the arrival in Europe of scholars (and their books) fleeing from the Ottoman Turks when they take Constantinople. Meanwhile. Ever since we started western theatre in Greece it has enjoyed the support of the government and of religious bodies because it is recognized as a vital community activity.pdffactory. At this time the current ruler of Bohemia (later this is western Czechoslovakia) is Holy Roman Emperor Sisigmund I. In Medieval times theatre was taken up by the church as a way of communicating Christian ideals to the whole community. the last remaining vestige of the old Christian Orthodox Byzantine Empire. nor particularly Holy. The professional actor is here. as social development usually does. The Ottoman Empire (inheritor of the eastern part of the earlier Islamic Empire) is beating at the doors of Europe. In Rome it was changed into entertainment and offered as one of the ways of celebrating events of special significance to the community.com . The Rennaisance is possible because of the ability to put into print all that PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. As we begin this period there are several things that need to be taken into account. the Medieval world lingers on in many places and many aspects. he is having a terrible time leading a cursading army to fight the Protestant Hussite rebellion in his home territory. It begins in the intellectual revolution of humanism and ends as the societal industrial revolution begins. The relationship theatre has with society undergoes a complete change in this period. with religious theatre on the wane and secular theatre on the rise. which is neither Roman. there is the Holy Roamn Empire in the West.

This part of theatre history is difficult to follow because important. The English cut off Charles I's head and the English theatre goes to school with the French. The Golden Age of Theatre is here. Playwrights and actors take center stage and everything gets published on those new printing presses. Once the Spanish finish pushing the Moslems out of Spain they launch Columbus on his explorations. are happening in different countries at much the same time.com . people begin to get the romantic idea. Between the paying customers and the wealthy patrons. The market place determines what will and what won't be put on the stage. market oriented theatre. The French neoclassic stuff gets stale and the Germans finally get a little peace and stability. Slowly professional companies emerge to fill the gap in patronage as the Church withdraws and theatre moves into a production pattern we can recognize today. Central Europe and France are much slower in developing their theatre because of all that religious Protestant stuff that leads to wars and social unrest. which the French will then develop into ballet. Romanticism takes off in Germany and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.classical literature becoming available to Europe as the Arabic tide recedes. What with all that commerce happening with the Far East and nationalism being the in thing all over. high comedy rules the day. Private patronage of theatre (which has been with us since Roman times) becomes much more important as the transition begins to public. Now Europe is breaking up into nationalistic states which want to get out from under any control by the Catholic church in Rome. The Italians try to recreate classical tragedy performance and create opera instead. theatrical professionals have the opportunity to get back to work and move the amateurs off the stage. Very soon there is all that new wealth coming in from the Americas.pdffactory. classical comedy and tragedy explode into a bewildering array of theatrical forms. From its start in Italy the Renaissance spreads throughout Europe where we will pick up all the other points of view. Times and society keep changing. At the same time England splits with the Catholic church and goes its own way theatrically. theatre really takes off. Spain picks up the Italian theatrical ideas first. and the last frantic flight of scholars and their books to the West. France finally gets into the swing of things and puts the icing on the Renaissance cake with their French neoclassic period. Architects and designers have a field day. Gradually the church abandons theatre entirely and. The spread of newly rediscovered knowledge stimulates all of western society. The Medieval disquisings are transmuted in the royal courts into the court Masque. The first point of view is Italian. When the exiled English go home from Paris to the Restoration. We move into the time of national interests and characteristic national styles. the availability of classical knowledge is by and large complete. For this reason we will be covering the same time frame several times from different points of view. Commercial entertainment and artistic merit come to be the criteria for successful theatrical production. but very different things. with the dominance of the affluent merchant class is Italy. All sorts of theatre buildings start popping up all over. The humble farce. With the fall of Constantinople in 1543.

............. All this revolution will... For this reason the theatre of the European Renaissance of Italy............. the Industrial Revolution gets under way and society takes a revolutionary turn..............com .... of course.................... religious... philosophical. just as it's blossoming..............The Italian Renaissance 1450s to 1550s ........... Much of the theatrical activity happens simultaneously in these PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www..........................Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Chap9 CHAPTER TEN. CHAPTER SEVEN................ technological....French Neoclassic and English Restoration 1630-1680 The French Theatre Finally Gets Up and Running Chap10 CHAPTER ELEVEN..... But...............spreads like crazy.The English Renaissance 1588-1629 . Spain and England is designated a Golden Age........ scientific..........Theatre in the Age of Reason 1680-1770 CHAP11 CHAPTER TWELVE.The Spanish Renaissance 1550-1587 .. political...The First Stop In The Golden Age of Theatre Chap7 CHAPTER EIGHT.......pdffactory. and social turmoil...Romanticism 1770-1830 Chapter 12 next Chap7 back PART I Introduction first Theatre History or PART III Introduction home Home CHAPTER SEVEN The Italian Renaissance 1450s to 1550s The First Stop In The Golden Age of Theatre Introduction Not since the Golden Age of Greek theatre has so much universally admired theatre occurred..Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Chap8 CHAPTER NINE....... We end this period in intellectual..... revolutionize the theatre..

It's capital. towns and churches fund and support these religious plays.three ethnic and linguistic locations. occupying a large territory centered in Damascus and reaching north up into the Balkans and west across North Africa toward Libya. This theatrical pattern and theatrical content is about to change Humanism comes to Italy Keeping in mind that classical knowledge has been trickling into Europe through Spain for hundreds of years and has been available (at least the scientific stuff) in Spanish Universities all this time.) which is swiftly crumbling under the Christian attack of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. It has a number of things going for it.com . we need a brief explanation of why the humanistic revolution gets started in Italy. after a thousand years of false starts. Now the capital and last bastion of the ancient Empire is finally over run. Here we find the low countries' Chambers of Rhetoric* and the various French and German society plays. At this point in time (the 1450s) there is a strong Islamic Empire. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. to display their wealth and magnanimity as they celebrate weddings. prosperity and order in several independant cities. The Church dominates theatre with enormous Mystery Cycle productions at the Corpus Christi festival in late May (or early June). Theatre professionals are to be found mainly in productions by the wealthy and the Church. to illuminate the peculiarly Spanish contribution to western theatre. There is a separate Arabic Islamic rule centered in Spain (and extending through Morocco and Algeria in Eastern North Africa. The third stop will take us to England. When Constantinople falls to the Turks in 1453 Italy is the wealthiest and best educated part of Europe. Constantinople. Italy is the primary heir of what once had been the Roman Empire in the West. In order to clarify the differences while maintaining the interdependence of theatrical development we will emphasize each country in turn. over run by barbarians back in the 400s. The third major area of theatrical production is found in the professions.] The Turks have been slowly but surely devouring the Eastern Roman Empire (a.) is finally sorting itself out into reasonably stable kingdoms of one kind or another. These productions are full of spectacle and music. They are otherwise occupied at the moment. victories. etc. Crusades against the Moslem forces in Palestine and plague and disease. continuous warfare. The wealthy nobility and merchants employ theatre as the Romans did. is frequently besieged. Italy is the home of the Pope and the whole system of the Vatican which manages Catholic business everywhere. mainly the lawyers. The Western Empire. When the Renaissance begins there are three main areas of theatrical production. First of all. proliferation and the concurrent experimentation which reveals classical Greek and Roman knowledge and heritage to Europe.k. The next stop will be in Spain. [This is why we don't start in Spain. Why Italy? First. Bysantine Empire) for the last six hundred years. Despite this simultaneity they are very different from each other. We begin in Italy with the translation.pdffactory. Through all of this the Italian peninsula has managed to keep more continuity of learning.a. Miracle and Morality plays are also popular and the craft guilds. ruled by Turks (who wrested power from their Arab masters quite a while ago).

law. Why not elsewhere in Europe? If you recall the Middle Ages you will be aware that the French and English are busy fighting the tail end of the Hundred Years War which will be followed by the English civil War of the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. also it has a bigger fleet and closer trade ties to the east. Florence and the Papal States. Third. traffic and money is. They are also typical of the Italian merchants who become more powerful than kings in other countries. they are trying to bring culture into their corner of the world and they have the wherewithal to do it. holding companies not to mention diplomatic and government posts. how to handle all the money. but Spanish connections in Naples and the Italian invention of international banking will keep financial futures looking rosy for quite a while. Milan.] Florence will be the most interesting cultural spot especially (since Cosimo became the leading power broker in the 1430's) when it is ruled by the de'Medici* family.pdffactory.] This whole upper part of the peninsula is dominated by the Republic of Florence [including the Republic of Siena. Italy. Starting in the south there is the Kingdom of Naples which is currently under the control of Spanish overlords. this was the home of the Etruscans who taught the first Romans everything they knew. supplying a number of Popes. some of which are more independent than others. Duchy of Modena and even Urbino which owes the Papal State. The peninsula is run by five major powers: Venice. is the large Republic of Venice. Stretching west where the peninsula spreads into the European continent. These merchant princes will also run much of the Catholic church. It also includes. Ferrara. They also are busy looking into everything classical in an effort to help the rich merchants make their towns look as spectacular as ancient Rome. takes the lion's share of all the monies made on trade.Consequentially they are rich beyond anybody else. North of the Papal States is that part of Italy known as Tuscany [If you remember. The de'Medicis* are very big on being patrons of art and theatre. Naples. Geography and Political units Fourth and last is the rather unique political makeup of Italy. Second. they start up all kinds of academies that specialize in Roman and Greek classical knowledge. So. of course. This particular republic is considerably more democratic than any of the others. Just north of Naples are the Papal States which include a lot of various small political pieces. that secular University business has been going great guns all over Italy educating lawyers in double entry bookkeeping. on the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. insurance business. is the Duchy of Milan. Also they have big time educational standards. and. They pretty much control the Republic of Genoa (on the Gulf of Genoa) and the island of Corsica. banking. Northwest. With the Turks now cutting that trade route there will be a gradual downward trend in that income. That is.com . Naples includes the islands of Sardinia and Sicily as well as all the peninsula south of Rome. Rome which is where all the action. running over the Lombard plains to the Alps. as the first port of call in the trade routes from the East.

com .* an improvisational street comedy decended from Roman comedy.] This movement regards man (the human) as the measure of all things. are trying to find another way to get to all that rich eastern trade on which the Italians have a monopoly. Consequently. and the popular street theatre for the masses. The Germans are fighting the Russians and Slavs and the whole eastern edge of Europe is fighting Turks and Mongols. Humanism* and the Theatre Medieval theatre continues in fits and starts wherever the Catholic Church has the upper hand. Classic Models Among all those classical books flooding into Itlay are copies of the plays of the Greeks. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The rest of Europe will pick it up second hand from Italy. The Religious theatre we are already familiar with and it will be easy to follow it as it blooms its last and subsides into a minor place in society. Euripides* and Aristophanes* as well as the Greek dramatic criticism of Aristotle* which will be interpreted and misinterpreted to the present day.Roses. Aeschylus*. the humanist academic for the courts and intellectuals. The Spanish are still fighting the last of the Moslem Moors and. In the areas of theatrical architecture. architecture and theatrical production. They use the Roman critic Horace* as a guide to understanding Aristotle. Since Italians regard themselves as descendents of Romans. These texts include plays. the new knowledge will change theatrical production into a form we recognize today. The Humanists are fascinated with everything classical. which will delight and influence acting and comedy writing throughout Europe. technical innovation and design. The primary theatrical contribution of the Italian connection lies in their examination. scenery. these various other Europeans are too busy at the moment to do the experimentation and development of classical knowledge the Italians will do. It is here (where the money and knowledge is) that the theatrical principles of classic Greek and Roman theatre are reborn a thousand years after the barbarian hordes destroyed the cultural centers of the Roman Empire.* The secondary theatrical contribution is the Italian Commedia Dell'Arte. The best architects and painters will design the scenery and theatre architecture. including the theatre. Simultaneously the new knowledge and attitudes acquired from all those classical books is starting a movement called Humanism* [from the Latin studius humanitatis meaning the "studies of mankind". as well as works on rhetoric. So we have three theatrical directions going at once: the medieval religious.pdffactory. they try to make their Italy as grand as their ideas of Rome in its heyday. critical works and scenic and architectural works (especially the architectural works of Virtuvius* and the descriptive theatrical encyclopedia of Pollux. The rulers (especially the Florentine Medici* family) promote. The Italians are far more interested in the classical Roman writings. along with the Portuguese. instead of taking the Medieval religious view that God is the only thing worth considering. encourage and fund all this theatrical stuff for two hundred years. Sophocles*. The Academic theatre is the glory of the early Renaissance. the comedies of Plautus* and Terence* and the tragedies of Seneca*. experimentation and dissemination of theatrical texts.

The literary products of this rebirth do not closely resemble the originals and are welded on to the theatrical fruits of the medieval world. The Commedia acting and comic scenarios will provide one of the most popular and influential theatrical performance forms for the next two hundred years. This comedy.. In the popular street theatre the continuum of professional actors blend Greek and Roman comic characters. the Italians misinterpret the production of tragedy. They assume that the entire Greek text was sung. comedy. tragical-comical-historical-pastoral.. written in Latin. Several dramatic efforts had been made in imitation of the classic theatrical forms in the fourteenth century. as Polonius lists in Hamlet*: ". by Antoino Laschi* . It is Eccerinus* by Albertino Mussato*. De Architectura* is rediscovered [especially important for us is Book X which deals with the theatre. Some of these are: a sottie* an interlude* Mummings. The results provide a bewildering variety of plays. tragical-historical. The Italians put this idea into practice with a reconstruction of Oedipus Rex* sung and lavisly accompanied by dance. history.1315 The earliest humanist tragedy appears. pastoral-comical. written in Latin. written in Latin is a satire on student life."* There are also short plays for specific occasions. The Theatrical Renaissance Starts How and Where In order to understand the rise of Humanism* and its impact on the theatre we have to go back briefly and take notice of the earlier isolated moments leading up to this period.pdffactory. historical-pastoral. pastoral. by Pier Paolo Vegerio*. Achilles*. its subject matter is drawn from Christian doctrine. c.. and create Commedia Dell'Arte*. 1390 The first humanist comedy appears. Written in Senecan form.. 1414 Vitruvius*' comprehensive work on Roman architecture.tragedy. 1390 A tragedy appears on a classical subject.Views of how plays should be written and produced are patterned on humanistic understanding of the classics. c. As we move into the fifteenth century more classical works show up. .] It will take PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. thereby inventing opera. adapted through the Middle Ages to the local culture's Italian comics. Paulus*.com . add this to Medieval court disguisings and musical entertainments and create Masques* which will develop (later in France) into ballet.* They also take classic information on theatrical dance.* Mummers' Plays* In addition to the various forms of plays. c.

and we can begin to see a close relation between art (painting and sculpture) and dramatizations in the subject choice. under the patronage of Cosimo de Medici*. perspective is finally systematized by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi* (1377-1446) and a painter. 1465 The printing press is introduced into Italy and all those books from Constantinople as well as from Spain begin to be printed. providing amazement and delight for the crowd.pdffactory.* will finish his Gates of Paradise at the Florence baptistery in two years (he began it in 1425. A few Italians will study it and develop theatre designs. in the scene depicting the punishment of Judas. Printing in the West began in 1453 and took into 1455 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1429 . Albans and (for the second time) becomes the "Protector.a while to get this one printed. 1425 . like survival.com . Della Pittura* by Leon Battista Alberti*.Twelve of Plautus*' lost plays are rediscovered.We find in Germany the Hesse Christmas Play*. Florence becomes the center of humanism* and the Renaissance. real sheep guts are purchased and at the point at which Judas is disemboweled the pouch holding them on the actor is slit open and the guts spill out. In 1452 and again in 1460 we begin to see really gross realism in the passion plays. a real rake and terrific poet named Francois Villon* is coming out with his Le Petit Testament*. Over in France. it does not become widely available. This is useful because now we can look at the art and begin to have some idea how the plays looked in production. how figures are grouped and the costumes and props. 1450 Under the rule of the Medici*. more urgent things. comes out. Consequently.In Florence. For example. This perspective business will revolutionize theatrical scenery when they put it together with all that architectural stuff from Vitruvius.The first treatise on perspective. 1429 Cosimo de Medici* takes over the leadership of the family and becomes the first eminent Florentine patron of the arts and a key figure in reviving the study of the ancient world.) The rise of humanism* is a slow process and there are still many examples of medieval theatre all over Europe. 1435 . The sculptor. 1450-60 . The Renaissance Officially Begins 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks and we mark the beginning of the Renaissance as the last of the Roman Empire in the East crumbles and the scholars and their books flee to Italy. Masaccio* (1401-1428). Those aggressive Turks are still pressing against eastern Europe as they overrun Athens. 1455 In England there will be a delay in the arrival of the Renaissance because the "War of the Roses"* begins when the Duke of York (Richard)* defeats the royal forces at St." 1456 In other parts of Europe the population is preoccupied with other. Ghiberti. It's a terrifically handy little guide to how to draw in perspective. with all os its lavish illustrations.

on the other hand. 1471 . She is third in line for the throne of Castile and he is second in line to that of Aragon.pdffactory. Considering that it took two years to put out the first book. The pastoral may have been patterned on the Greek Satyr play. and. Now the Pope is getting a set of Greek letters. on a stage 180 feet long. The social farce originates from jurists. But things will change soon and they will make a big splash in history. keep in mind that this is not what you would call a well-organized country. In Spanish Castile* King Henry* dies and Isabella* becomes Queen of Castile. 1471-1518 Between these dates all the known Greek and Roman plays are published. Castile. The First printing press is set up at the Sorbonne in Paris. wandering scholars. There is a fairly sticky war of succession waged against her by a relative (a niece. 1465 . In addition the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon have hated each other for centuries. slaves. money. 1473 . students.) The English won't be up to writing this sophisticated a comedy for another sixty years (see below. Ferdinand* (currently King of Sicily) and Isabella* get married.In France the social farce Maistre Pierre Pathelin* marks the beginning of French comedy.The first printing of the works of Terence* helps get classic Roman comedy out into Europe.The first pastoral* play is done in Italy. When we talk about Spain. you will realize that printing a large number of different texts will take some time. punctuated with battles against the Moors (Spanish for the Moslems in Spain) in Granada*.) 1467 Pope Paul II establishes the first printing press in Rome to print works in Greek. they are staging the Mystere de l'Incarnation. This will mean gold. Johannes Fust* to print the first 42 line Bible at Mainz*. 1474 . but it is not recognizable as such. 1470 The Portuguese navigators are busy discovering the Gold Coast of West Africa. [remember that each letter has to be cast in metal to make up the supply of letters the printer uses when setting his type. merchants and craftsmen. civic associations. 1469 Over in Spain. Aragon has a pretty good parliamentary tradition and the merchant class is the most influential.for the German Gutenberg* and his financier. This printing business gives a big boost to the process of getting all these different languages straightened out. Juana La Beltraneja) who has the support of Alphonso V* of Portugal (who is an uncle of Juana and wants to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.] In Venice the Aldus Manutius press begins putting out a group of works refered to as the Aldine classics. scholars. scribes. Most of the next thirty years will be filled with endless civil wars. especially from the law clerks association (Basoches*.* 1474 In England the first book in English is printed by William Caxton*. All those letters are for the Latin alphabet. At Rouen.com . is hardly more than a very loose affiliation of petty kingdoms run by the local nobles. The Italian pastoral deals with love. later.In France the Medieval theatre is still the main theatrical form.

to complicate the matter further. at Tarascon. Each order has a Grand Master. This system puts them outside the reach of most of the laws of the kingdom. and. officers and knights who all enjoy all the privileges of the clergy as well as the aristocracy. This puts a real crimp in any possibility for rebellion. battling and making alliances which fills Europe during the Renaissance.marry her.) If all this seems very confusing. Portugal used to be part of Spain but isn't at the moment. 1476 . they also have their own authority system. The same year Ferdinand* accedes to the throne of Aragon. Even when the garments have turned to dust. Not only are these very rich and powerful.] Isabella and Ferdinand develop a clever way of dealing with these guys. The last play of the English Marco Morals* (the big three of the morality plays) Mankind* appears.In France.pdffactory. sometimes new ones are put up so nobody can forget the shame. With a small cast of 5-7 players. castles and influence but laws get better. Spanish Military Orders* The hard part is how to deal with those influential (and wealthy) orders that have grown up (in imitation of the religious monastic orders of knighthood) to fight in the "Reconquest of Spain" (remember the Spanish have been doing this since the twelfth century. Those who are "reconciled" to the true faith wear yellow ones with diagonal crosses while those who are remanded to the secular arm to be executed wear black decorated with paintings of demons and hell-fire. After a while there are some safeguards.England has a flourishing religious theatre. The nobles lose a lot of money.) Officially its aim is to uncover relapsed Christians (forcibly converted Jews and Moslems who are reverting to their original religion) but actually it starts out as an instrument of racial persecution. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. it is.) There are three of these orders in Castile: Santiago*. This interesting Catholic institution develops as an instrument of the Spanish government and reports to the Crown (who also appoints its officers. [note: understanding this strange Spanish system is critical to following the plots of later Spanish plays about them. The worst part of the Inquisition* is the procedure of anonymous accusation. (more evidence required) and people who accuse for personal gain are prosecuted. Calatrava* and Alcantara*. This is the typical kind of bickering. Those who are convicted are paraded in an "auto-da-fe"* (an act of faith) wearing smocklike penitential garments. 1475 . 1479 Bringing order to Spain That messy Castilian war comes to an end and Queen Isabella* is firmly in control. After the parade these garments are hung up in the parish church with the name of the individual who wore them attached until they crumble to dust. 1478 The Pope grants Ferdinand* and Isabella* permission to introduce an Inquisition* into Castile. They both set to work trying to curb the powers of their respective nobles and quit all this civil warring. it seems to be the property of a band of strolling players who perform it for profit. Later Inquisitions* in Italy and central Europe will be far worse in terms of abuse of the system.com . They gradually get Ferdinand elected Grand Master of each of them as the posts become vacant. Membership in the Orders become essentially a matter of honors to be bestowed by the crown. they take several days to perform the morality play L'homme Juste et L'homme Mondain*. They get hold of the last one in 1499 and start moving most of the Orders' revenues into the royal treasury.

In Germany. the Holy Brotherhood* (Santa Hermandad). who currently have the monopoly on maritime exploration. are busy working their way around Africa to go east and turn him down. they put together a work called Speil von frau Jutten*. [Remember that Shrovetide includes the Monday and Tuesday immediately before Ash Wednesday which makes it a big carnival and festival time before Lent.pdffactory. From this date on the apprentices (Schembartlauf*) of Nuremberg guilds are organized. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. who will become a German magician and the prototype of the Faust* legend. It seems very much like a highway patrol or national police force. You will notice that the comic dramatizations performed for religious holidays become increasingly political. 1480 Every now and then a real person appears on the scene who will be taken up and used by writers. (This is one of those events and set of characters that will show up in plays. but by 1500 the system brings reasonable order out of the medieval chaos and Spain begins to shape up as a Renaissance power. Georg Faust*. Isabella* creates a national one.com . These are bands of vigilantes financed by many of the Castilian towns to keep order and protect the interest of the town.Redemption is the big theme. Columbus* (Genoese map maker and would-be explorer) tries to interest the Portuguese in a voyage west to get to the East. Drawing on legends of "Pope Joan" who was a terrific sinner but got redeemed as she died.) 1484 Pope Innocent VIII* issues a Bull (that's what they call a letter communicating what the Pope orders) against witchcraft and sorcery. It takes about twenty years. These guys are recruited from each village and town by quota. is known as the producer and author of a bunch of comic Shrovetide plays called Fastnachsspiele*. One such individual is born this year. especially in German countries. 1479 . a sort of early police force loyal only to the town. to dispense justice impartially. Hans Folz*.] These attack the political and moral decline of knights. They are interested but can't afford it at the moment as they are fighting the Moors. stories and paintings. This makes it possible for the Spanish Catholic Church to avoid those problems that give rise to the Reformation in central Europe and make life difficult for the Italian papacy. playwrights and painters later on. He tries the Spanish next. This will contribute to the problems the church has with secular productions for church events. The Portuguese. We are in for three hundred years of active witch hunting. 1482 In Spain. Soon play production will split up and comedy will become entirely secular. When the aristocracy objects to this the King and Queen also raise a permanent national army to keep everybody (including the aristocracy) peaceful and orderly. 1480 . Isabella* and Ferdinand* open attack on the Moorish kingdom of Granada* 1483 Up in England Richard III* claims the throne when young Edward V and his brother mysteriously disappear. a native of Worms who works in Nuremberg.Another threat to civil order comes from the "Brotherhoods" (hermandades). Unlike other countries the Crown also has control over the Spanish Church with authority to appoint all ecclesiastical positions and make church reforms in Spain. run by the Crown.

This surrender marks the end of centuries of Islamic rule.Italian rulers begin to finance the production of Roman (or imitation Roman) plays as part of their efforts to bring culture to Italy.Meanwhile. Under the Inquisitor-General.pdffactory.In England we finally find a professionsl English acting troupe. but they are still done in Latin. They give the first performance of an ancient play. put on by the royal household and its resident nobility. They give him two ships and he finances a third. the Roman Academy*. On October 12 Christopher Columbus* makes landfall on San Salvador PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.In Ferrara they've got one of those academies for reviving classical learning. the Earl of Oxford's Men*. Even more influential is the printing of Vitruvius'* Ten Books on Architecture* which will provide graphic architectural information for the shape of the Renaissance stage. the last Moslems in Spain (in Granada*) give up.** Italian Theatrical Renaissance Gets Going 1485 . 1491 . in part. This is patronage and provides the troupe with legal status and protection so they aren't imprisoned as "masterless men.com . they don't have). 1492 . The result is that he comes to the throne as Henry VII* (he'll rule into 1509) and starts the Tudor* dynasty (which will continue through Elizabeth I.) Disguisings* are amateur productions. Torquemada*. the Mummers' Plays*. On August 3 he sails away in the Nina. Mummings* tend to make more use of dance and characters from their folk festival origins. The first tragedy by Seneca* is staged in Rome by the humanists and the first comedy by Plautus* is done in Ferrara by the Duke. of course. People come from all over Europe to study with Laetus* so they can take all this production stuff back home. Pinta and the Santa Maria. These may be produced by trained groups rather than done by court participants. usually in honor of some royal guest.1485 Up in England Henry Tudor* defeats and kills Richard III*. As the Masque* develops. In April the King and Queen finally give Columbus* the OK for his trip west. the Jews and Moslems have three months to either leave or be baptized. The Spanish Catholics are really a zealous bunch. The form of Disguisings* comes. 1486 . Under the leadership of a guy named Pomponius Laetus* (1424-1498) they get busy trying to figure out how to reconstruct the important points of a Roman Theatre by using the architectural information from Vitruvius* as a how-to guide. in England largely pantomimic Mummings* and Disguisings* are very popular with Henry VII* (he reigns 1485-1509. This doesn't mean the troupe performs just for him. The event is followed by a crusade against the large Jewish minority in Spain. Disguisings* gradually merge into that form and disappear as a separate entertainment. In England the Master of the Chapel Royal* choirboys is often responsible for these entertainments. In order to do this sort of production. from the Mummers' Play*.In France the Miracle of Pentecost is the subject of Jean Michel's* Mystere de la Resurrection*. 1485 ." 1492 In Spain in January. they need the original theatre (whcich. using masks and costumes.

the "new world. 1495 . Henry Medwall* writes a satire. most usually.(or perhaps 1509) we get the English Everyman*. out into the North Atlantic. The Spanish take European diseases. This one is often still performed. silver and probably syphilis (at least this disease begins to ravage Europe as men return from the Americas. At Tours* they are doing L'homme Pecheur* (Man the Sinner.) A syphilis epidemic sweeps from Naples all over Europe.com . They are ideal for a professional traveling troupe because these plays have a small cast. it seems that it is spread into Europe by these invading French soldiers. Fulgens and Lucrece*. 1495 The French King. but it's all the aboriginal inhabitants know of the world. colleges. That terrific illustrator and producer of woodcuts. These interludes are performed in a neutral space before a facade at schools. 1493 What with all this zealous exploration by the Spanish and the Portuguese they get Pope Alexander VI* to issue a Bull dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal. Apparently the idea catches on. to find a new route to Asia. We'll see more later." It may be new to the Europeans. 1497 The English Cabot expedition reaches the coast of North America.) 1494 Interesting side observation: the first known lottery is held in Germany.) 1494 . pearls and exotic flora and fauna. 1496 England tries to get into the exploration of the New World. All this warfare in Italy doesn't seem to slow the artists. It's a Goods Lottery.France is very busy with more morality plays. opens his own studio in Nuremberg and travels to Italy.in the Bahamas. usually no more than eight characters.In England the oldest extant English interlude appears. Meanwhile the Portuguese expedition under Vasca Da Gama* finds a sea route (around the southern tip of Africa) to India and arrives there. Sforza* is into encouraging art and classical studies. Da Vinci* is busy painting "The Last Supper" (-1498. Albrecht Durer* (1471-1528). He will produce a phenomenal amount of visual material over his lifetime. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. One of his first acts is to give Lodovico Sforza* the Duchy of Milan. 1497 . Henry VII* sends John Cabot* and his son Sebastian* west. the most enduring and popular of all morality plays. 1493 Maximilian I* (-1519) becomes the Holy Roman Emperor*. at noble's residences.pdffactory. just like the other Italian leaders. law student's Inns of Court and. Since the Spanish held Naples when the French invaded. It is widely reported that syphilis is brought back from the New World by the Spanish soldiers. sheep and horses to the new world and bring back gold. The Age of Discovery is now up and running. invades Italy and Florence. In April Columbus* returns to the Spanish court with six aboriginal "Indians" and various examples of gold. Charles VIII*. Christianity. He Takes Naples.

One of the results of the Spanish Inquisition* and the zeal of Archbishop Cisneros* is another book burning he leads in the magnificent libraries of Granada. in the face of any opposition. the Incas* (in 1531.) The Incas* have tons of gold and the Spanish are well on their way to becoming the richest and most powerful nation in Europe. His later descriptive writings will lead Europe to call the Americas by his name. establish settlements. 1500 The first commercial colleges are founded in Venice. Hispanolo and then Panama. By 1526 Pizarro has crossed the isthmus of Panama to find the Pacific and sails south along the Pacific coast to discover the other major American power. After a while the Spanish begin to realize they have not reached the east and turn their attention to exploiting the new world.1499 Amerigo Vespucci* sails to South America. by 1549. ********************* A General note on the Spanish and the new world The Spanish gradually land on. He burns all Arabic volumes he can lay his hands on. This can be seen in the Spanish ruling PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In their settlements the Spanish use the natives as forced labor but these have a tendency to die off so. They hit pay dirt in Mexico where the Aztecs* suspect the Spanish may be their god (Quetzalcoatl*) returning to claim his nation. enslave. This marks the end of Arabic scholarship in Spain and makes a lot of knowledge disappear. The Spanish minor gentry (hidalgos) flock to this new trade of being conquistadors (conquerors).com . kill off the local inhabitants on the islands. Anyway the Aztecs* have a lot of civil wars of their own and a good bit of gold and silver. In 1504 Cortez takes Cuba. A General note on the Portuguese and the new world The Portuguese made a deal with the Spanish (approved by the Spanish pope) to divide the new world between them on a line of longitude which turns out to give them Brazil which the Portuguese sailors discover in 1500.pdffactory. with the help of the Portuguese (who have been busy looting Africa) the Spanish start importing African slaves to work sugar cane plantations. baptize. ********************* A Note on Social Stability Through Intermarriage With the beginning of the Renaissance the rulers and leaders of various countries find that marrying their children to the heirs of other countries is a productive substitute for going to war. There isn't much gold there so they import a red dyewood (called brazil) which gives the colony its name. spread diseases (especially small-pox) and. The Venetian fleet is defeated by the Turks. The Swiss are busy establishing their independence. 1519 he lands on the eastern coast of Mexico. claim.

eventually. Queen of England. 1500 .A number of the Mystery Cycles leave prompt books which are invaluable in providing information about the productions. which is mainly informative. England and the Holy Roman Empire* The alliances brought about through descendants of Ferdinand and Isabella: 1. Charles V*.Europe rediscovers Hroswitha*'s plays. some specific "society" concerned with poetry. France. a Benedictine abbess of Gandershiem in Saxony.Daughter Juana marries Philip the Handsome.Daughter Isabella marries King Emanuel I of Portugal (she dies in 1491 and he marries Maria (see #4). It seems likely that they were actually performed.The influence of rising interest in Greece and Rome shows up in Henry Medwall*'s morality play Nature*." 1501 . 1501 That French army in Italy is still on the move and they enter Rome. produces the future Mary I*. drama.] .Catherine of Aragon* marries the English Prince of Wales.Daughter Maria (see #1) marries King Emanuel I of Portugal when he is widowed. Arthur. Portugal.house example where the offspring produced will rule (at different times) Spain. writes six original prose Latin comedies in imitation of Terence*. By this time almost every town in the Low Countries (Netherlands. who will be the next Holy Roman Emperor.pdffactory. [You might remember that in 959 Hroswitha*.) has a organization. One such comes from this date for the production at Mons*. etc. philosophical and educational. Archduke of Austria son of the Holy Roman Emperor* Maximilian I*.* 4. She then marries Henry VIII* and. Michelangelo* is busy sculpting "David. who dies in 1502. music. 3. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) 2. The subjects are Christian history and morality. 5. and performing these plays. They have a son.com .Son John marries Margaret of Austria daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor* Maximilian I*.

musical entertainment and. The production is run by a producer.A Royal entry* of Katherine of Aragon into London is produced.In France. the play deals with mental and physical hygiene. This won't get off the ground for quite a while.) 1507 . No doubt an early advertising effort assisted by the Chamber of Commerce.) Full of spirit and profanity. He is so good that he will still be in demand in 1532. The primary evil under attack is gluttony and Banquet is sentenced to be hung by Diet. The morality plays are not restricted to any one class as can be seen in the play Les Enfants de Maintenant* (the "now-children") which deals with the sons of a baker. 1504 Isabella* of Castile dies and her daughter Juana is heir to Castile. who will become a famous doctor and Astrologer.) She will. the local public prosecutor. He is even better known to us as an excellent producer of Mystery plays. good for trade.pdffactory. attacking a range of evils arising from good living. These are very popular combination of a triumphal parade. The show is directed PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Maximilian I* begins reform of the Holy Roman Empire. which he regards as a Hapsburg* monarchy. Venice sends an embassy to the Sultan of Turkey proposing the construction of a Suez Canal.In Paris the morality play Condamnation de Banquet*. 1566). by Nicolas de la Chesnaye* appears in print (and no doubt in production. sometimes. at Poitiers. play performances (very short plays). all done for the populous of the city. He also writes a number of sotties and a useful document on the duties of a director. who also speaks the prologue and other parts like that. 1508 . 1502 In Castile (the part of Spain belonging to Isabella*) the Moors* (those North African Arab Moslems who ruled Spain for the last 700 years) are required to be baptized or leave Spain (just like the Jews. The fighting doesn't bother Da Vinci* who is busy painting "The Mona Lisa. however. 1505 In Spain Ferdinand* rules Castile jointly with his daughter (who is insane and married to Philip of Austria. meneur de jeu*. Michelangelo* (1475-1564) goes to Rome to work for the Pope (Julius II. This was written for a student's performance. in which he advocates cultivated diction for the actors. This one is financed by the city council and the trade unions. a religious Cycle play is staged by Jean Bouchet* . known through the ages for his predictions." In Scotland there is a step toward the eventual union with England as James IV* marries the Tudor daughter of Henry VII*.. produce an heir. The production expenses are shared by the Confrerie* (the producing group). the town council and the participants (guilds and merchants).com .) 1503 The Spanish take Naples back from the French. Margaret. Another interesting personality is born. too. the Frenchman Nostradamus* (d.

done by Raphael. An earthquake destroys Constantinople. There are normally eight of these players. They import labor to till the sugar cane plantations in the New World. but they are the forerunners of later acting companies in England. under Henry VII. I suppositi*. Henry VIII* joins the effort. He's a great fan of entertainment of all kinds and will start to move the English into the theatrical Renaissance.) 1508 Pope Julius II* confirms that the Holy Roman Empire* automatically goes to a German King. enough to perform interludes. it goes against their belief that everything (sun. We should note here that in England.com .) Religious leaders really don't like this. The Spanish and English will translate. They become defunct as the theatre changes. They are also free to tour for their own profit. planets.* there is a group of actors called the Royal Interluders* who are on the King's payroll to participate in court revels. 1512 Copernicus* comes right out and says that the earth and other planets go around the sun (instead of everything going around the earth as the Church and the ancients believe. This sort of astronomical view often leads proponents into big trouble. stars.* Ariosto's* patrons (the d'Este* family) build a temporary theatre in the classical style influenced by Virtuvius* that will be in use until 1533. and all) moves around the earth.The use of the Italian venacular in drama begins at the court of Ferrara with the production of The Casket* (La Cassaria) by Lodovico Ariosto* (1474-1533). Working now for the Pope.by a magister ludens* or maitre de jeu*(master of play). Henry VIII* marries his first wife.) 1508 . perform and adapt both this play and his 1509 play.) This is the time when the black African slave trade starts with the Spanish.pdffactory.) 1511 Pope Julius II* gets Venice and Aragon to join in a Holy League* to drive the French out of Italy. Brief Consideration of the Range of Plays PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. like being tried for heresy. The production uses that terrific perspective drawing (that the Italians began developing back in 1435) in the scenery. They are busy persecuting Jews in Germany (between the Catholic Inquisitions* and the sorcery and witchcraft stuff. Catherine of Aragon* (his brother's widow. but since the Turks own that now nobody in Europe cares much. this becomes widely popular. Sometimes the director is so good that he gets a contract for a number of years (like a winning football coach. 1509 Henry VII* dies and Henry VIII* (he reigns 1509-1547) comes to the throne of England. Michelangelo* starts painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (he finishes in 1512. This comedy deals with Renaissance city life and is based on a Roman plot. Since they're fighting the French. 1510 The Spanish are exploring the American coast as far north as Charleston.

In theatrical circles.folk. He is exiled from his service on suspicion of conspiracy and turns to writing comedies. Commedia dell'Arte* refers to the popular improvised street comedy performed by professionals. greedy priest. and. he is equally well-known. La Calandria* by Bernardo Dovizida Bibbiena* appears. The Prince* (1513). The director or the producer usually takes the role of the praecursor* who announces and comments on the plays. Pierre Gringoire*. and most influential writers of this form. etc. Balboa* makes his way across the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean from a peak in Darien (the current name for Panama). this one is based on Plautus*' Menacchmi*. a work still read and its advice still followed today.In Paris a writer.and the Latin plays the Humanists were writing in imitation of the ancient Romans. morality. This play is considered a masterpiece of the commedia erudita*. In 1513-20 he is writing the most enduringly popular comedy of the Italian Renaissance. 1512 .] Niccolo Di Bernardo Machiavelli* (1469-1527) . all guided and aided by the clever "parasite" (a guy who makes his living off other people.Florence. Both of these kinds of plays were based on: 1. Italy.k.1512 . however.) [note: these are still being done in France and Germany and will continue to be really big in Spain for another two hundred years] 2.) 1513 . Sixteenth century Passion Play* performances are played in front of the churches and in market squares.the sacred plays (rappresentazioni sacre*) which include any kind of dramatization suitable for religious instruction (mystery.these could be domestic brawls or legal or religious quarrels and disputations) and the May plays (maggi*) 3. based on the models of the Romans but dealing with current city life. La Mandragola* (a. He writes the Play of the Prince of Fools and of the Mother of Fools* to be performed on Shrove Tuesday [remember? that festival time before Lent?. is a member of a political cabaret. published 1532) his plays influence Spain. especially the debates (contrasti* . rustic or peasant plays. It is a terrific and funny critical look at Florentine society with a scheming.com . England and France. gullible husband. Lodovico Ariosto* (1474-1533) is the first. 1513 All that exploration is going full speed ahead. While he is best known for his epic poem (Orlando Furioso *.pdffactory. All work comes to a stand still (sounds like the Roman PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Another Italian comedy. miracle. he is best known for his political advice to rulers. gorgeous wife and ardent lover. The Makdrake Root*).a. Ponce de Leon* discovers Florida. The Portuguese reach China.The term masque* is first used to denote a kind of poetic drama. Primarily a statesman and philosopher working for the Medici*. best. We should take a moment here to straighten out all these terms the Italians use to identify their plays: The commedia erudita* refers to the "learned comedy" the academies are promoting.

a Hapsburg born in Flemish Ghent. 1516 . Ferrara and Padua during Carnival time. This time they conquer eastern Anatolia and Kurdistan.The first Italian tragedy. This will bring a lot of problems to Spain because he will devote most of his attention to affairs in the Holy Roman Empire using Spanish wealth to do so. especially in England and France. One of the earliest actors and playwrights is Angelo Beolco* (1502-42) who plays in Venice. When religious drama starts to be suppressed (at different times and in different places between 1400 and 1550. His character is a shrewd. now the Italian Province of Bolzano) is done in the Parish church and takes seven days. Beolco's plays are fully written out but this will change as time goes by and later commedia pieces will be in the form of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. a writer. France gets the right to appoint its own ecclesiastics. 1515 . This gives rise to a big controversy as to which is a better model. is written in blank verse and based on Greek models instead of Roman. He promptly grants a monopoly of Negro slave trade to Florentine merchants. 1514 . It's the fashion for these commedia actors to take. 1517 Exports from the New World begin to show up in Europe. The author is Vigil Raber*. The various commedia characters will develop with distinctive regional dialects and characteristics. Coffee shows up for the first time. Charles I (see above) shows up in Spain for the first time since inheriting the throne.com . the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire*. rebellious. This is Archduke Charles of Burgundy and the Netherlands. 1515 The Turks are still beating at their neighbors. the gossip. now Charles I* of Spain and later to become Charles V* as Holy Roman Emperor*.)* Birth Of The Commedia Dell'Arte* Amateur commedia groups are working in cities all over Italy and rapidly becoming professional.In England John Skelton* writes Magnificence*. 1516 In Spain Ferdinand II* dies and the throne goes to his grandson. France. as a stage name. the name of the character they play. who can't speak Spanish. stage and costume designer and director. Peace is declared between all those parties fighting in Italy (England.pdffactory. Beolco becomes known as Il Ruzzante*. Spain. by Giangiorgio Trissino*.) the morality* play becomes Europe's dominant form of religious drama. Sofonisba*.Festivals) and people come in from the surrounding villages where the event has been announced by a herald. talkative young peasant who speaks in the dialect of Padua. instead of leaving it up to the Pope.The Bozen Passion Play* (in the south Tirol.

It often develops into an independent "turn*" practically identical to the "acts" of current circus clown groups.) If you remember back in the 1370's there were two different popes simultaneously and that heretical John Wyclif* (he'd been trying to reform the English church and ends up getting expelled from his teaching job at Oxford when the London church synod condemns his doctrines) starts people thinking about church reform.com .*)] Beolco is probably the most famous of the early commedia actor-manager-performers. As it grows in importance and popularity the distinction between lazzi* and burle* is often blurred and the term lazzi* comes to be used (incorrectly) for both. This meant that not only could you buy your own way into Heaven. In the late 1400's Pope Sixtus IV* came to grips with that concept of Purgatory* which had developed in the Middle Ages. relatives and loved ones.pdffactory. They want more say so in how things are run and they take a dim view of all this immorality and greed in the church (which runs most of their lives that their rulers don't cover. cults of Saints. you had enough money. Lazzo* (plural lazzi)* is usually a slight piece of commedia comic mime or pantomime embellishment by the comic servants. It grows into extensive individual mime characteristic of particular actors and servant characters. pantomime and comic bits [the burla* (plural is burle)* and lazzo* (plural is lazzi. indulgences. Strangely enough this bothered some of the Christian faithful. The terms burlesque* and burletta* come from burle*. pilgrimages. Gradually a whole cluster of practices developed in which God presumably rewarded the number of prayers. relics. The real hallmark of the commedia is the use of mime. of course. He writes a number of plays. He combined Purgatory and penance (doing something to show you were sorry for sinning) by issuing indulgences that would assure that the deceased could transfer from Purgatory to Heaven. Ever since the Black Death* (that big bout of bubonic plague that eliminated about half of the European population back in the 1350s) the lower classes have been getting uppity. lust and vulgarity. Celibacy becomes rare and making money seems more important than tending their flocks. Providing. They will include a number of set speeches which each actor-character has ready to insert in any play at an appropriate moment. Pretty handy item. contributions. an outline of the action. clerics from parish priests through bishops and even the popes have been drifting into more and more greed. The Winds Of Reformation* Begin In Germany In much of the Catholic church.scenarios*. Wyclif had done a lot of writing and some of his ideas reach Bohemia (down there in Germany) and ring a bell with a theologian named Jan Hus* who starts preaching reform in Prague. and. some of which are still popular today (see below.) Burla* is the term used to refer to the commedia comic interlude or practical joke that usually involves some horseplay. This strikes sparks and leads to a local revolution which gets Hus* excommunicated in 1410 by his superiors and in 1411 by the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. of course. As early as 1300 the pope had developed a neat way of making money by granting a certificate of absolution (indulgences) which anyone could buy. now you could get a transfer for all your departed friends. The indulgence will provide the purchaser with absolution for any sin they might have committed.

pdffactory. a patchwork of principalities. It will also totally change the structure and role of theatre. Luther's part of Europe is a mess of 65 imperial cities.com . The same fate awaits one of his followers. 1519 Charles I* of Spain (as grandson of Emperor Maximilian I*) becomes Holy Roman Emperor* as Charles V. In the spring of 1517 a lecturer of biblical studies at the University of Wittenberg hears him and really gets mad. 1519 Luther is involved in a big public debate and admits he supports the ideas of Jan Hus*. 1518 Back in Germany Luther* is supposed to be disciplined as a dangerous heretic but his local ruler. Aix-la-Chapelle. The Reformation* starts in a very influential part of the world. It will get worse. In this year they appear in Lo Strascino* at an Orsini wedding. comes out with his 95 theses laying out the reforms needed in the church. the whole thing gets spread all over Germany and throughout Europe. The first printing of Aeschylus* comes out. Italians and Ottoman Turks. Boy will this make a difference for Spain. Pretty tricky political situation. Lodovico Ariosto* arranges regular performances at the court theatre. 1518 A guy called Lorens de Gominot (remember that Florentine monopoly granted by Spain ?) gets a license to import 4. Cortez* brings Arabian horses from Spain to the North American continent. they just percolate around Europe for a century and then erupt in some really big movements. It will also keep him busy fighting French. Now many of these have a lot of autonomy but the Holy Roman Emperor* rules all his territory as the Pope's temporal counterpart. duchies and other territories within the Holy Roman Empire*. In October 1517 this lecturer. 1518 . Unfortunately all this religious reform is tangled up with political turmoil and poor Hus* gets burned at the stake for heresy in 1416.000 African slaves to the Spanish American colonies.* He is crowned at the traditional location. any grievance against the Church and the Pope is also against the Emperor. At the Court of Ferrara. 1520 There are a lot of things going on this year - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Jerome* in 1416. This will destroy the unity of the Catholic Church and lead to a total shake-up of the political map of Europe. Frederick* of Saxony (one of the largest states in the Holy Roman Empire*) backs him.pope.In Sienna (remember it's under control of Florence) the Commedia dell'Arte* group known as the Congrega dei Rozzi* is headed by Niccolo Campani* (known under his acting name as "Strascino*") who appears in one of his own plays before Pope Leo X. All of which brings us to the big event that starts the ball rolling all over Europe. These reform ideas don't go away. So. A Dominican preacher named Johann Tetzel* has been licensed by the pope to sell indulgences (these provide remission of punishment even for sins committed in the future) in Germany. Political struggles are coming into the reform debate. Martin Luther*. Thanks to the availability of the printing press.

He heads west. all with their own laws and customs (not to mention religious controversy) and these are not willing to pay taxes to support the endless wars.] This is also the beginning of the Anabaptist* movement in Germany under a guy named Thomas Munzer* (1489-1525). Luther* retaliates with a book burning of his own at Wittenberg where he burns the excommunication Bull and some theology works. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. into the Pacific Ocean.* Holy Roman Emperor*) mortgages the Spanish gold from the Americas for years to come. Magellan* (a terrific Portuguese navigator. This Protestant movement (named for their views on the validity of baptism) emphasizes social and political aspects of religious reform. He lays out what will become the basis of Protestantism (the name comes from the movement of protest against the Catholic Church).Luther* starts publishing his ideas in a big way (24 books and pamphlets in German) and calls for a general council to look into papal abuses and develop reform of the clergy. Questions the basis of papal authority Believes in going back to the Bible rather than going by religious historical development Calls for a priesthood of all believers" Get rid of "indulgences" and pilgrimages Let the clergy marry End religious holidays and Saint's Days Go back to the Bible for who can perform which sacraments Celebrate Mass in the venacular (local common language) and let people take wine and bread (at the moment only the priest can do this) The Pope starts excommunication proceedings against Luther* and orders his books burnt (most people don't). Luther really understands the value of the print media and he and his followers have a mass propaganda going.com . this will show up under Hitler 400 years later. More imports from the Americas reach Europe . through the straits that will bear his name. complete with woodcut illustrations for those who can't read.this time it's chocolate. getting a really bad name for themselves at times. now working for the Spanish) gets around the southern tip of South America. [You might observe that the Germans seem to like book burning. This leads to bankruptcy and Spanish Charles (V.pdffactory. Some of the Hapsburg* brood marry into the ruling houses of Hungary and Austria. The Holy Roman Empire* is full of diverse units.

read and teach only what is in the Bible. and has original subject matter while making use of the form of Roman comedy. As mentioned earlier. He gets rid of all "graven images.pdffactory. making the first circumnavigation of the globe.)[This "down with images" business will put a real crimp in theatre. One of his ships. [Sounds a lot like our current televangelists.] He claims the end of the world is PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) This Bible business is a no-no because the only authorized Bible is the Latin Vulgate (written by St. on home to Spain. like the Moslems. pictures and thepriest's robes (just regular clothes for preachers now. 1524 The French are finally thrown out of Italy. 1521 A Franciscan preacher. insists on being literal aboutthe second commandment. publishes pamphlets further developing Luther*'s views. The English court gets to eat their first American turkey.] Meanwhile the Turks are moving up the Danube to Belgrade. Luther* has to go into hiding where he writes and translates the Bible into German (incidentally making the Saxon dialect standard for the German language. Johann Eberlin. 1521 Magellan* gets to the Philippines where he is killed.(the Italians are busy doing just the opposite) No liturgical business except two priests and they can sing.The most delightful (and still popular) comedy in Italian is published by that irrepressible political writer. Meanwhile the Turks are taking the Isle of Rhodes.com . and. it is called The Mandrake* (Mandragola*). In the largely autonomous confederation of states that make upSwitzerland. A group calling themselves the "Heavenly Prophets". In Germany the popular religious reform movements are starting. Niccolo Machiavelli*.) Luther's* New Testament is published this year. continues to sail west. 1522 Back in Germany. a preacher in Zurich (Huldrych Zwingli) takes these reformsa step further. led by that Anabaptist* guy named Thomas Munzer*.1520 ." Back inGermany some follow suit and throw out statues. under Sebastiano del Cano. Jerome in the fourth century. claims to interpret the Bible according to the "inner light" which comes directly from God to his chosen people. His stuff includes: Priest elected by the congregation Priests can also practice trades Stiff penalties for immoral conduct (this will blossom in the "Puritan" (keep religion pure) movement Get rid of adornment in houses of worship .

1525 More than two-thirds of the imperial cities in Germany adopt Lutherism*. Giovanni Da Verrazano*. 1527 Sweden adopts Lutherism* Charles V*'s (Holy Roman Emperor*) Spanish and German mercenaries' pay hasn't come. People promptly begin to revolt in the southern Black Forest. Clizia*. 1527 . This will spread in fits and starts. 1525 .) They take the Hungarian capital of Buda and cross the Danube into Pest. 1526 Trading in the East keeps developing and the Portuguese are in New Guniea. over the next four years. Babur.com . 1528 Finland adopts Lutherism*. Peter's cathedral.pdffactory. musketry. The Pope is imprisoned and they demolish the old St. to conquer all of Hindustan only to be chased out again.000. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Up in Prussia. There are severe outbreaks of plague in England. Meanwhile. Machiavelli* comes out with a more neoclassical comedy. In the exploration business a Florentine navigator. You may notice that relations between the Church and the "Holy" Roman Emperor aren't very charitable. The Ottoman Turks under Suleiman I* (the Magnificent) are marching over Hungary with a disciplined well armed band of janissaries* (from yeni ceri = new force. They invade Rome and the Vatican.coming and that change will come from revolution by the common people. Charles V* gets married to Isabella of Portugal.* enters Delhi and continues. The Mongoloan. Grand Master Albert of the Teutonic Knights turns his domain into the secular Duchy of Brandenburg with himself as the Duke. killing about 4. He defeats the Swiss as well as the French. The Medieval world is rapidly becoming transformed into the Renaissance. based on Plautus*' Casina*. sacking and pillaging as usual. Charles V* gives Augsburg merchants the right to colonize Venezuela. (You may remember that we call the Verrazano Narrows. Charles V* becomes the master of Italy using that new high tech weapon.In England Henry VIII* builds a House of Revels* (inside a palace) to stage court entertainments like those Italian ones. Only the northwestern Rajputana is still Hindu. Michelangelo* is commissioned to design a dome for the new one. between Staten Island and Brooklyn.) Over in the East a descendant of Tamerlane* and Genghis Khan* named Babur* is starting a Mongol incursion into India where Muslim dynasties of Afgan and Turkish peoples are in control. after this guy. explores the coast of North America from Cape Fear (North Carolina) northwards and discovers New York and Narragansett bays and the Hudson River.Back in Italy.

These plays are still produced today and are available in several languages. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.* (No doubt to help keep the Turks away from Europe. The meaning of the Holy Roman Empire is changing from the holy to the secular.com . at Bologna.) 1531 Great waves of superstition follow the appearance of the "Great Comet" (which we will call Haley's Comet. issues an edict that requires traditional Catholic worship be restored. The Portuguese are busy colonizing Brazil. Over night the political situation in central Europe has changed. six princes and 14 cities issues a protest against it.We finally hear about women acting on Italian stages.) 1531 Erasmus* publishes the first complete edition of Aristotle*. Andrea Doria. The Lutheran powers in Europe form a Schmalkaldic League for mutual protection against attack on the grounds of religion. They are called the "Protesting Estates" and the term "Protestant*" is now applied to anyone leaving the Roman Church. John on Malta under his Genoese Admiral. The Ottoman Turks advance as far as Vienna and Charles V* has to compromise on this religion business with the Germans to get their military help against the Turkish invasion.) This will be the last imperial investiture by a Pope. 1528 . The Reformation* begins in Scotland. 1530 Despite the fact that he has already been crowned.pdffactory.Henry VIII* wants to get a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. He will become well-known and may rulers will try to hire him to beat up on their enemies.) Henry VIII* wants his divorce so much that he breaks with the Roman Church and declares himself head of the English Church (which will come to be called the Anglican Church. especially in the professional companies of the Commedia dell'Arte*.) Meanwhile Suleiman I* hires that busy pirate named Khayrad-din who becomes known in the west as Barbarossa* (Redbeard. Charles V* reestablishes the Knights of St. An active pirate named Barbarossa* seizes part of Algiers and Tunis and ravages the coasts of Italy and Spain.The commedia plays La Moschetta* (The Coqutte*) and Il Reduce* (currently available as Ruzzante Returns From the Wars*) by Angelo Beolco* appear. Pope Clement VII crowns Charles V* Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy (which he just conquered. This will lead to a lot of trouble with the Pope. 1529 When the current Holy Roman Emperor*. Charles V*. 1529 . The Turks are also marching south against the Shiites* in Baghdad and taking Armenia and Azerbaijan together with territories from Mesopatamia to the Persian Gulf.

Apostle's Creed and the Lord's Prayer at meals. 1497.pdffactory. This will lead to endless "Wars of Religion" and keep France from advancing on the social and cultural fronts." This narrows the choices available to women in Lutheran* states. 1340-1400. the political possibilities of religious reform aren't lost on Henry VIII* who wants another annulment from the church and isn't getting it. With the catholic nunneries closed there are no celibate religious vocations left for women.* sails to North America. A ribald Frenchman. Westphalia) sets up a "communist state" of Anabaptists*.) The Reformation* begins in France. John Leiden* (in Munster. 1580) comes out with the landmark farce Johan. At the moment he is doing Henry VIII*. landing in Labrador. Henry VIII* institutes the Act of Succession and requires everyone to take an oath recognizing him as head of the Church in England. The French explorer. Thomas More* won't take it and is beheaded. that's what they're here for. 1533 By January of this year Anne Boleyn* is pregnant with Henry VIII*'s child and the matter of a wedding and producing a legal heir becomes pressing. Divorce becomes harder to obtain. In Europe the religious reform movement is shifting its emphasis from the need for everybody to read the Bible (which leads to everyone having their own interpretation of it) to more discipline and indoctrination in the particular leader's views. "A woman does not have complete mastery over herself. racy humor and grotesque invention.) Fathers are urged to instill the habit of reciting the Ten Commandments. In September Elizabeth* is born. Luther*'s attitude toward women is pretty tough: it is the duty of all women to marry and bear children. This results in his excommunication by the Pope. The rulers don't like this popular government stuff and quite a lot of fighting is in the future of this part of Europe. Jacques Cartier. In the art business we find Hans Holbein*.1532 Chaucer*'s works are published (remember that he lived and wrote c. He is known for his broad. he does this secretly in January but it is validated in May) Anne Boleyn*. 1533 The English playwright John Heywood* (c.. publishes the first book of his Pantagruel*.. providing a terrific character for much later plays. painting everybody who is anybody. Let them bear children to death.com . Henry VIII* finally divorces (actually this divorce had been started several years earlier but it isn't legally tidy until May) Catherine of Aragon* and marries (again.c.If women grow weary or even die while bearing children. The best example of this trend is Luther* who regards the family as central to Christian life and composes catechisms for homes and schools to teach a firm foundation in the faith. the younger. that does no harm. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1534 In England. creating the Anglican church and taking possession of all that lovely Catholic church real estate. He takes the easy way out and breaks away from Rome. His views are really Roman in their view of the father as ruler of the family (paterfamilias. 1535 By this time there is so much Spanish activity in the new world that the crown appoints a viceroy to Mexico. on rising and on going to bed. God created her body that she should be with a man and bear and raise children. Johan*. Francois Rabelais*.

Francois Rabelais* comes out with his second racy book. King John*. 1536 Denmark adopts Lutherism* and the Reformation spreads to Norway. 1539 . The Ottoman Turks now control the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean and operate in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean against the Portuguese.000 Christian slaves. capturing Tunis and freeing 20. This pretty well ends any religious drama. Gargantua* and Part Two of Pantagruel*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Catherine of Aragon dies (presumably of natural causes). and Henry VIII* gets a third wife.The Roman Church makes a rule that there can be no production of church plays without prior sanction by church officials. In Florence they are filling a crystal sphere with water and lighting it from behind with candles to represent the sun. This one is a noticeable step forward toward the development of the chronicle play*. A guy called Aristotle de San Gallo* (1481-1551) comes up with this and a number of other clever adaptations of devices described by Vitruvius* and Pollux*. The most forceful spokesman denouncing Catholicism is Thomas Naogeorus* who writes Pammachius*. Sebastiano Serlio*. An Italian architect. In England John Bale* (1495-1563) (actually he is Bishop of a place in Ireland) writes a morality history play. He begins to dismantle the vast range of monastic and ecclesiastical property. Austria. 1538 One of the more influential Reformation figures. We hear India rubber mentioned for the first time. 1538 .com . Michelangelo* is busy in Rome painting "The Last Judgement" on the wall of the Sistine Chapel. Barbarossa* takes most of Venice's islands and fortresses in the Aegean. In England Anne Boleyn* is executed for treason.Charles V* is very busy fighting the Moslems. Henry VIII* will take his time finding another wife now that he has a male to inherit. in addition to the two female offspring. Clever devices for stage effects appear. in which John battles the evil forces of the Pope. 1537 Jane Seymour* gives birth to a male heir.pdffactory. published six volumes but we will look at him a little later when he writes something about theatre. Jane Seymour*. John Calvin*. dealing with the struggle against the Antichrist (covering more than a thousand years) and ending with a glorification of Luther as the target of antichristian forces. (376 religious houses are dissolved) getting very wealthy in the process. (the future Edward VI*) and dies as a result. is thrown out of Switzerland and settles in Strasbourg.The wide spread struggle between Protestant and Catholic is reflected in the theatre. A troupe of Commedia Dell'Arte* visits France.

Henry VIII* also takes his fourth wife.) are Protestant but Catholic Spain now has control of them and tries to control the Chambers of Rhetoric*. As different rulers are recruited. She is a little too free with her favors and looses her head. of course. Anne of Cleves*. pastors (responsible for correct doctrine). no sex and no hope for another heir. The Irish are still objecting to this. etc.pdffactory.The Low Countries (Netherlands. Evangelists spread out over Europe winning huge bunches of converts to this strict discipline of Calvinism*.com . these guys will be of some help to the theatre since Catholics like to use it for instructing people.) 1540 In Italy the native comedy has become well established.) We hear about the first Christmas tree at Strasbourg cathedral. Meanwhile he declares himself King of Ireland and Head of the Irish Church. That public lottery business shows up in France. It includes destruction of religious shrines. 1540 Henry VIII* has his marriage with Anne annulled and looks around for somebody sexier. In order to respond to all this. He sets up a societal system that channels all the energies of its subjects into the service of God. All the confiscated gold and artifacts fattens the King's purse. Catherine Howard*. The result is that dramatists become more secular and religious drama disappears. This is to be a group of militant priests dedicated to propagating the Catholic faith through education and missionary work. already know it is there. Actually. On this date they require all plays be regulated by the church officials.] Geneva becomes known as the Protestant Rome and wields a more uncompromising authority than the papacy. They abolish taverns and ban dancing and singing. The system is administered by a hierarchy of teachers. This is not a productive marriage. Pope Paul III* founds the Society of Jesus*. He is now off and running in the house and palace building business. Church officials are empowered to inspect all households for backsliders.1539 . elders and deacons (to enforce the doctrine. Hernando de Soto* (or maybe his first name is Fernando) is discovering Florida (the Seminoles. whole populations become Protestant. Over in Switzerland that even more puritanical reformer named John Calvin* (a French preacher) has his doctrines preached in Geneva and their influence spreads like wildfire to France and other countries. [They don't take kindly to theatre either. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Over in North America the Spanish are discovering the Grand Canyon (the Navaho and Zuni Indians are discovering the Spanish and their sheep and horses. 1539 In England we have the final Act of Parliament dismantling Catholic religious sites. Trouble is on the way. This turns out to be another mistake. He starts looking for number six. they are discovering the Spanish. He is the most dynamic and influential leader of the Reformation*.) Every aspect of civil life is under their control. 1541 Henry VIII* takes his fifth wife. A historian named Olaus Magnus* comes out with a map of the world showing some of those new discoveries and more realistic distances.

1541-42 . Later (in 1622) he will be canonized as Saint Ignatius of Loyola*.In Paris they are doing cycles of the Apostle and Old Testament plays. 1542 The time of the conquistadors is over and Spain appoints another viceroy. on the Senecan revenge stuff). Nothing happens on this idea. The opposition is working hard and Loyola* (1491-1556). John Knox*. The Jesuits* aren't far behind. sheep. There is also. in Bourges. solves the problem of quickly shifting scenes by using the Greek device. of course. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Orbecche*. San Gallo*. Charles is busy celebrating the marriage of his son. Antonio da Mota*. Spain and the costal towns of Tuscany (Italy). converting as he goes. and arrive in Japan in seven years. the periaktoi* (a three sided thing that pivots on a central pole to show three different scenes) as described in those classical books.In Europe the Reformation is marching on. Mary* becomes the Queen of Scots at age six days. de Soto* is discovering the Mississippi River. not only tending the ailing King but educating the three royal heirs in the range of Renaissance literature and knowledge. A Spanish navigator (Blascoda Garay) gives Charles V* a design for a steamboat. Dido* and Cleopatra*. He continues with two others in this vein. and Catholicism. Oklahoma and eastern Kansas.com . (The local inhabitants are discovering European diseases. this time to Peru. Catherine Parr*. 1506-1552 and in 1622 he will become a Saint. Barbarossa* sacks the Duke's town of Nice. Over in America Coronado* is exploring New Mexico. In the East the first European. Philip* to Maria of Portugal. In the East the Portuguese land in Japan bringing firearms with them. leads a Calvinist* Reformation. who helps found the Jesuit order and comes to be called the "Apostle of the Indies") to Goa (India) as a missionary. is made the first Superior (or General) of the Society of Jesus*. In the spring he hits Barcelona. a forty-day cycle of Apostle Plays. But already the market place is affecting playwrighting and he turns to writing serious plays with happy endings because that's what audiences like. The King of Portugal sends Francis Xavier* (c. She is a really good caretaker. Calvin* comes back to Geneva and in Scotland a follower.That clever scenic effects man. who planned the Order. The French invite Barbarossa* to Marseilles to help them in joint operations against the Duke of Savoy. 1543 Henry VIII* takes his sixth (and last) wife. Meanwhile. 1543 . He will work his way around India. Texas.) 1541 An Italian called Giambattista Giraldi Cinthio* (1504-1574) comes up with a revenge tragedy (based.pdffactory. The first Protestants are burned by the Spanish Inquisition*. Naples as well as the island of Sicily on his way home to Istanbul. horses. shows up in Japan.

More money to send home. the musicians' pit and the basic systems of moving scenery and of lighting an indoor performance.Henry VIII* is so taken with entertainment and organization that he creates an Office of Revels* to organize entertainments in that Revels building (see 1527) and other places. The office. All these come to us out of the merchant princes' desire for spectacle and the academies' study and experimentation and are done by architects. will also regulate theatre throughout England. The Italians turn this idea into balconies. the back part of the stage is raked upward (from which we get the references for actors to cross up stage). The rest of the audience seating makes up a semi-circle facing the stage and rises in tiers. leaving only a pretty narrow front part where the players can move on the level. German. Between 1500 and 1650 all the pieces are developed. tinting the light in a variety of colors. Serlio's illustrations will also be reprinted in future editions of Vitruvius*. Over the next 75 years this book will be translated and published in French. is where the guy who pays the bills sits to see the show. in order to get the perspective scene.pdffactory. 1545 . Keep in mind that all this "architecture" business is still very temporary and is designed to be set up in a big hall in a palace or out in the Duke's (or prince. the settings. He shows perspective illustrations of comic. Actually he put together ideas from a lot of other artists who were working on this perspective business. the Master of Revels* and his Master Clerk*. finance and produce plays and other entertainments for the court. This office is under the office of the Lord Chamberlain and is to regulate. because they are the ones in charge of court entertainment.The second part of Sebastiano Serlio* (1475-1554)'s Architettura* is published. of course. Latin. There is a flat open space for the orchestra and a raised stage. The first big step is the work of a guy named Serlio. the curtain and proscenium. Theatrical Scenery Takes Off The perspective theatre of Italy is the origin of our contemporary theatre production.1544 The Spanish discover silver mines in Peru. or whatever) park. He is influenced especially by Baldassare Peruzzi* (1481-1537) because he studies with him at Rome. The satyric scene will become the standard for the pastoral scenery. Spanish and English. This is a real gem (still available today) because it is the first published Renaissance work on theatre practice and the illustrations are widely copied and reprinted in other works on architecture. Serlio* describes how to light the stage with lamps and candles. It is opposite the center of the stage on a raised platform. We will look at various advances as they occur. Dutch. Vitruvius* had put a colonnade behind the audience to improve the acoustics. and Peruzzi is a big time designer of these perspective sets. the stage. Serlio has been sending his books to Francis I* and this leads to an invitation to work at Fontainebleau*. Later these balconies (which become audience boxes and balconies) will dominate the theatre audience.com . 1545 . through its main positions. He also introduces colored light where a reflective basin goes behind the light and glass globes of colored water goes in front. But. That. This dictates some particular things: Everything (especially the point of view of the perspective) is designed around the Royal Seat. which helps spread all this Italian set design to France. tragic and satyric scenes the way he figures Vitruvius* described them. The first permanent appointment as Master is a Sir Thomas Cawarden*. Later the English will really take to this colored PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. tested and put together. The auditorium.

1547 Remember that Lutheran* league? Well.pdffactory. Edward VI* comes to the throne (with a Lord Protector to run things.At Valenciennes* they are doing the Mystere de la Passion* which takes twenty-five days. mostly for moral betterment since he is one of the first writers to become a follower of Martin Luther*. have their mansions arranged so that God is at the north or the extreme left. especially at Valenciennes*. Charles* (V. 1546 Ivan IV* is crowned Czar of Russia in Moscow. and.In Germany Hans Sachs* (1494-1576) is also writing a tragedy. All other mansions are in the order of their use ending with Hell at the south or the extreme right. They have to put together a cooperative society to produce it. Spain now has a Council of the Indies to rule all that territory in the Americas. 1546 . emerging as the first well known actor-author-manager in Germany. The French declare that the French language (rather than Latin) is now the official language of the French authorities.) That peculiar French doctor. * These platform stages. Die Meistersinger von Nurenberg*.] He has been writing since about 1518. active and prolific theatre person and we will hear a good deal more about his various accomplishments as time goes by. The members raise the money and share the profits it brings in. As an author he is best known for his Carnival Plays (fastnachtsspeil) where his homespun humor and folksy daily life depictions shine. is writing his first predictions. There is a great need to restore 1563 order and authority to the ministry. Lisabetta* . They reserve to the Church of Rome the sole right to interpret the Bible. 1546 . He is an interesting. especially with the mushrooming output of all these printing presses. not much is going on there. In England Henry VIII* dies and his only son. the minute we get a printing press we also get censorship. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They want to reassert control over all expressions of church doctrine.light business. [He will even show up as the hero of a Wagnerian* opera in 1868. 1547 . Otherwise. They have been trying to reform things since 1480 when the Spanish had founded their Inquisition* (to root out heresy) and in Italy in 1534 when the Pope (Paul III*) began new policies to combat the Reformation. They meet to try to deal with all this Protestant uproar and humanist tendency. He trains his actors and directs his own shows. The Protestant civil unrest will spread to France. 1545 The Roman Catholic church calls the Council of Trent*. since he is only ten. They have to several pressing problems to address. Wouldn't you know. the Holy Roman Emperor*) defeats them and they rebuild their military strength by making an alliance with France's Henry II*. At this point in time all these theatres are temporary and go up and down for festive occasions.In Italy Pietro Aretino* (1492-1556) writes his only tragedy. Nostradamus* (1503-1566).com . In order to accomplish their aims they reinstitute the Inquisition* and produce a list of works the church wants to suppress (Index Expurgatoris*). He has been doing mediocre comedies which may have contributed to some of the plays of Ben Jonson and Moliere. This tragedy is reputed to be the best of its time. Orazio*.

where and what of religious play production.Also at this time everybody is reading Italian plays in France and England. Spain is at the peak of her political and economic power and will stay that way until the end of the century. The local population of Mexico drops from c. 9 million down to 1. There are terrific mechanical effects. called transformations. In Mexico the silver mines are being mined by the Spanish. Other effects. These are usually dwarfs and cripples. The Commedia dell'Arte* is really popular with the general public in Italy and will soon begin touring all over Europe. when.5 million while in Peru it plummets from c. rain falling. 1550 . This makes it really difficult for that group with the Paris monopoly on producing plays (remember the Confrerie de la Passion* that started work in 1402?). (or secrets) make people appear and disappear. they have to have two. and the production of religious plays is prohibited in Paris. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 25 million to c. In Spain religious plays continue to be produced since the Inquisition* has control over theology and the how. Some of them get so big that. tongues of flame lighting up Hell and trap doors in use all over. It's not very fancy and we will be talking more about it when we get to the French. Ivan IV* calls the first ever national assembly in Russia. It has a Hell's mouth* that opens and closes.These special effects are helped out by all that stuff Serlio* wrote and the Italians had been developing for court productions which is now reprinted in Vitruvius* book on architecture. Titian* is painting and Benvenuto Cellini* is busy sculpting. There is lots more money there.000 Europeans in the Americas where European diseases decimate the locals.pdffactory. In the art field. along with master mechanics and seventeen assistants just to run the Hell mansion. 1547 By this time the production of religious plays in Italy is pretty much down to zero. water turns into wine and loaves and fishes magically appear. They've just built and opened a new theatre. what with clouds carrying angels down and bringing saints up. Moses' staff sprouts leaves and branches. The scenic effects are getting more spectacular every day and the conducteurs de secret* are in charge.3 million. Lot's wife turns into a pillar of salt. the first theatre building constructed since the Romans. the Hotel de Bourgogne*. 1550 By this time there are at least 100. so they just rent it out to secular professional groups. The influence of both the plays and performances will show up as theatre develops around Europe. 1549 At this time Court Jesters* begin to appear in Europe. The Inquisition* put a real damper on religious theatre things.SECRETS* . a vital step to later French theatre. 1548 Mary* Queen of Scots (now aged 6) gets engaged to the French Dauphin (that means he's next in line for the throne) and goes to France. as at Mons*. 1548 They get the message in France. 2. too. The brotherhood is not about to give up this valuable property.com .

The exciting theatrical discoveries and experimentations in Italy are rapidly spread throughout the European culture and specialists in architecture and design come to the Italian innovators to study. 1505-56. we'll talk more about this later. chronologically. Ralph Roister Doister* by Nicholas Udall* (c. but always looking to Italy as the leader in theatrical research and design. French. Each major European culture (Spanish. ii. Since the center of the Catholic Church is in Italy. for example) to provide the second stop on the Renaissance tour.com . the rising tide of Protestanism does not upset the relatively stable. Not only was Italy intellectually ready. Danish and German) moves forward into the Renaissance at their own pace and in their own way. English.In Italy it is the beginning of early Baroque*. merchantile dominated cities and political entities of the Italian peninsula. In England we see a five-act English comedy.pdffactory. combine with Spain's close political relation to Italy (they own Naples. The geographical position of Spain as a peninsula. they were ready to embrace the newly rediscovered humanistic knowledge of Greece and Rome. it was financially and politically ready to explore and build on the theatrical heritage being uncovered.) ********************* Afterword Italy has been the first stop in touring the Renaissance because. 393-396 next Chap8 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER EIGHT The Spanish Renaissance 1550-1587 Continues The Golden Age of Theatre PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and the intense Catholic nature of the Spanish culture. Act II.

There are three internationally famous Spanish writers of this period. It is a short piece performed originally on a scaffold before the church. the last two of whom are major playwrights. The earliest known auto in Spanish comes from about 1200 (Auto de los reyes magos. Another distinct difference between the Spanish theatre and the English is that in Spain (as in Italy) women appear on the stage in professional companies from the very beginning.) The date usually falls in June because it is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday which is the Sunday after Pentecost which is fifty days after Passover which is the Hebrew festival celebrating the night the destroyer "passed over" the houses of the faithful as it destroyed the first born of Egypt. The Italians are up and running. No doubt the international position of Spain at this time influenced the spread of their writers' reputations. religious theatre is forbidden as a relic of Catholicism.) By the 16th century it reaches its full glory in the works of the major playwrights Lope de Vega* and Calderon* {see below. Later they are performed on flat moveable wagons (carros*) where scenery can be put up and fancy effects installed. In Spain it is performed for many religious holidays but it forms the centerpiece of the Corpus Christi* festival.] In terms of plays and playwrights. influencing everybody interested in theatre.pdffactory.] The Corpus Christi* festival was introduced into Spain in 1314. The Spanish are well into the riches of the New World and eager to imitate the Italians in cultural things. Cervantes*. The Spanish Inquisition's control over theology makes it possible to continue religious plays while other Catholic areas give up trying to police the content of religious theatre and simply forbid its production. Calderon*. The auto sacramental* (plural is autos sacramentales. Lope de Vega*.) The content of autos is a dramatic restatement of the tenets of the Catholic faith. Other than this temporal similarity there are distinct differences. alone. In those areas which are becoming Protestant. the Spanish Golden Age occurs simultaneously with the English. [The Corpus Christi feast (Latin for Body of Christ) was instituted in 1264 to honor the "Real Presence" of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist (the "giving of thanks" at a meal and especially the Last Supper.their disregard for the Italianate slavish imitation of Roman play forms and Roman criterion for playwrighting. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Introduction It is useful at this time to take a look at the Spanish theatre. Europe and England are still too busy with political and religious matters to make any real theatrical strides. The form of the auto* includes its use of elaborate allegory. Spain.com . By the last half of the fifteenth century there are records of paid performers engaged for the celebrations for the event. we will refer to them as autos) is the Spanish term for their religious play. Spanish theatre is unique in the Renaissance in that they continue religious theatre as the main theatrical form. Significant hallmarks of Spanish theatre which they share with the English are: 1. will continue the practice for another two hundred years. especially the preoccupations and ideals of the Counter-Reformation. [Note: they are eventually prohibited by royal edict in 1765.

Secular performances are forbidden on Church holidays (the number of these will increase over the next hundred years) but can be held two or three days a week.com . 1499 . eclogues. In England. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Earliest surviving edition of Fernando de Rojas'*s (c. during the big Corpus Christi* festival. is working for the Duke of Alba as a playwright. The rest are in both languages. Bartolome de Torres Naharro* (c. Court productions and popular theatre boom. 1485 . In Spain this existing space is found in the corrales*. 1502 . It will be translated into English in 1631 (as The Spanish Bawd*).] One of the major differences between Spanish and English performance spaces is that in Spain there are a number of major cities. He has studied in Italy and brings the Italian style of writing pastoral dialogues to his Spanish pieces. farces. 1465-1541) Celestina* (La comedia de Calisto y Melibea). It may be that the strong Roman presence in Spain helped maintain performance activities through the Dark Ages when the rest of Europe was repeatedly assaulted by successions of barbarian invasions. He is regarded as the third (and last) of the three founders of the Spanish Renaissance theatre.their use of existing space for presenting plays. Playwright will borrow plots.pdffactory. moralities. as well as religious. At any rate it becomes a going concern as the Spanish forces eliminate the Moors. 1536). With the discovery of the New World and all that lovely new money coming in. His last 12 years are devoted to really extravagant secular allegorical fantasies full of uninhibited satire and lyricism. is the Court poet for the next 34 years. He writes novelesque plays dealing with the conflicts of love and honor. 1524) is writing in Rome where he did most of his plays.Gil Vicente* (c.c. He is inventive. actor and director of entertainments. musician. He is one of the three men credited with founding the Spanish Renaissance theatre. allegorical spectacles and romantic plays. has also been visible in parts of Spain since the thirteenth century as has some form of acting as a profession. theatre is centered in London and the companies only travel when they are barred from performance in town (usually due to the plague. In the beginning there is no roof. The windows of the houses surrounding the yard are used as boxes for more distinguished viewers. He is the second of the three men credited with founding the Spanish Renaissance theatre. 1513 . Spanish playwright. characters and speeches from it as well as writing sequels to it. 17 in Portuguese and 11 in Spanish. a Portuguese playwright.) Background for Spanish Theatre Secular theatre.Juan del Encina* (1469-c. He writes in a number of dramatic forms. We have 44 of his works extant. of course. plus. [In England they will use inn yards very similar to the corrales. developing these forms from several earlier types and excelling in the morality play and romantic comedy. This work is immensely popular with at least 60 reprints in the sixteenth century alone.2. 1492 . This is an unperformed 16 act dialogue novel which he will rewrite in 1502 with 21 acts and a new Miles Gloriosus* character. scenes. These are basically the yards of houses where the stage is in the rear and the bulk of the audience stands in the courtyard. 1539).An influential Spanish playwright. Consequently the Spanish theatrical companies are constantly traveling from place to place. 1465-c.

He writes mainly in natural. The English really don't like this. Spanish theatre is often regarded as beginning with his career. 1552 . They are not sure who the author is (a Mr. Tobacco begins to move from the Americas to Spain. His best known one is called The Olives*. This is the usual thing for Renaissance playwrights. He comes up with an indigenous kind of play. The French found a colony in the Americas on the Bay of Rio de Janerio. S) but assume it is William Stevenson* who's a fellow there. It is really very dreary but it's a beginning for the French. this is only a momentary lull.pdffactory. Then Mary I* comes to the throne. by Etinne Jodelle* (1532-73). idiomatic prose. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Cleopatre Captive*. 1554 In England Mary I* puts Elizabeth* in the tower and marries Philip* of Spain. Eventually the problem will crop up again and become the Thirty Years War*. son of Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*). making fun of the manners of his day.Over in Germany Hans Sachs* continues his busy career writing Tristan und Isolde*. Things get so messy under her rule that we know her better as Bloody Mary*. The college playwrights in England are beginning to get into the theatre business and the second full-length English comedy.] As an actor his characterizations of comic fools and rascals are so well regarded that they encourage an Italian Commedia dell'Arte* troupe to come to Spain.Back in France they are coming up with the first classical (this means it is modeled on Seneca*) tragedy. Lope de Rueda* (c. In other parts of Europe religious arguments are motivating civil wars and these are moving into international conflicts. You may remember that she is the daughter of the Spanish Catherine of Aragon* and strongly Catholic in Anglican England. However.We find the first really important Spanish theatrical figure who puts it all together. [He and Shakespeare* used the same two original Italian plays. 1553 Things are not too stable in England as Edward VI* dies and Lady Jane Grey* is Queen for nine days. 1505-65) is a professional actor-manager and author. which is a short comic interlude. 1555 The Peace of Augsburg* (ending that fight between Charles and the Protestants) gives all German governments the right to choose Lutheran* or Catholic and all their subjects have to agree or move elsewhere. 1553 .com . Meanwhile. events go on 1552 In Eastern Europe Russia's Ivan IV* is busy conquering Kazan and Astrakan. the paso*. Gammer Gurton's Needle* is produced at Christ's College. Cambridge. His company includes women and is usually made up of thirteen or fourteen people in addition to the actor-authormanager. Like everybody else he also writes plays based on Italian originals.1552 . contracting with Valladolid (the capital of Spain at the moment) to be the pageant master for the Farce Festival. She wants to reverse the religious changes in England. His plays are performed by his own company as he tours all over Spain playing in inns and courtyards for the public and in palaces and the great houses of the nobility.

In Mantua the second big name (Italian. In India the Mongols return to Delhi and gradually take northern India (Bengal. Leone di Somi* (15271592) is in charge of theatrical entertainment. The English establish the Muscovy Company to trade with Ivan IV* in Russia. At the beginning they use temporary stages. 1557 State bankruptcy in Spain and France and a really bad influenza epidemic all over Europe. They will lay some useful foundations for the eventual German and Austrian theatre.Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*). Those Jesuits* are getting into the theatre business with a Jesuit play. abdicates his rights to his domains in the Netherlands. Sack-Full of Newes*. They also send out trading ventures to Africa and the Orient.pdffactory.Back in Italy the Olympic Academy of Vicenza* is founded to study Greek drama. John Hawkins*' ships. In Russia Ivan IV* takes Astrakhan and opens the Volga trade route to the Caspian Sea. Philip II*.with the death of Mary I*. Big trade in slaves between Africa and Mexico. With a company of amateur actors he presents plays twice a week between twelfth night and Lent. going in search of the legendary southern continent "Terra australis incognits" (as you can tell nobody's stumbled on Australia yet. In about 1556 he writes a marvelous treatise on production and staging called Four Dialogues Concerning Theatrical Performance*. It is the first work dealing with acting* and a real landmark. This work deals with playwrighting. In the area of art Michelangelo* is sculpting the Pieta*. one of their traders. He is interested in setting the mood of scenes by how much light is used.1576) rewrites the may play into a Shrovetide Schwank*. Elizabeth I* comes to the English throne and we enter the Elizabethan* period. naturally) in theatrical design. 1558 Finally. Hans Sachs* (1494 . 1557 . Euripus*. He is a shoemaker and a master singer who turned out 198 dramatic works. Italy and Spain in favor of his son. are captured. They will keep on doing this trade stuff wherever they get a toehold. bright for most things and darkening when tragedy strikes. lighting. but soon they will work up to a building of their own. acting. by Lewis Brecht* in Vienna. 1556 Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*) retires to a Spanish monastery in Yuste and gives the Holy Roman Empire* to his brother Ferdinand I*. sick of endless struggle. This year he becomes the leader of the Nuremberg Mastersingers*.) 1555 .com .) Unfortunately for them.The most famous German playwright. In England a printing monopoly is granted to the Stationer's company of London. In England we have the first English play to be censored. costume and staging. including The Wandering Scholar* and the Exorcist*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

She reforms the currency. Things will go from bad to worse for her.) It is still a temporary thing.pdffactory. forbids production of religious plays. The Earl of Leicester's Men*. ends hostilities with France and Scotland. In France Francis II* dies and his widow.com . but nobody much cares. He will become an Earl later (1564) and then they will be under the name by which they are best known. Mary* Queen of Scots. they are organized as the players of Lord Robert Dudley. 1558 . 1561 Remember those Teutonic knights who became secularized in Prussia? Well.In England one the earliest organized continuing company of actors is founded. 1500-1571. c.The modern innovation of the proscenium arch* shows up for the first time in a drawing made around this date by Bartolomeo Neroni* (c. 1560 By the 1560's only Italy. She puts out an Act of Supremacy making her the head of the Church. In England there is the beginning of Puritanism* which will make things increasingly difficult for the theatre. an Act of Uniformity setting out approved forms of worship (trying to balance the Catholics and the Puritans) with a new English prayer book and making church attendance compulsory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Spain and Portugal are not affected by the rising tide of the Reformation* which is going hand in hand with rising nationalism and interest in local heritage. 1559 . In England Elizabeth I* is busy governing. 1559 Francis II* ascends the throne of France and his wife. The first Calvinist* refugees from Flanders settle in England. and requires all able-bodied men not specifically permitted to engage in other trades to work the land. Because of the English laws requiring actors to be under patronage.Elizabeth I*. 1520-1569) is busy painting.In the art world Brueghel* (Pieter the Elder. Mary* Queen of Scots. 1560 . now those in the Baltic States do the same thing. Remember that at this time England is an agrarian society with special emphasis on wool and textiles. Tulips from the Near East arrive in Europe for the first time. The Church of Scotland (Presbyterian*) is founded and the reform parliament abolishes papal authority and forbids the celebration of mass. She is becoming more and more a political pawn. The forerunners of hand grenades are made for the first time. tries to go home. This affects traveling players who are "masterless" men. calls herself Queen of England. He will also father three generations of painters. having seen how much trouble religious controversy caused in England. Madrid becomes the capital of Spain.

Ivan IV* of Russia tries to take over Livonia and ends up at war with Poland. At this event there are nine societies involved in the competition. claiming to have written a four act play at the age of twelve. After traveling to Valencia. There is plague in Paris. nobles and peasants with their behavior governed by the four "humours". He is a precocious child. over and above the money allotted by the societies. In the New World the French try to colonize Florida and the slave business is picking up as John Hawkins* begins slave trade between Guinea and the West Indies.pdffactory. In his own day he is clearly the most prominent playwright in Europe.) The play is performed before Elizabeth I* on New Year's Day. Sweden and Denmark. 1562 An interesting year. He is referred to as the consolidator of the commercial theatre in Spain. In his own time Lope* is referred to as the lion of Madrid. It also influences generations of European playwrights. 1484-1558). Lope de Vega* (1562-1635) is undoubtedly the most prolific playwright of all times. In the Low Countries the Chambers of Rhetoric* reach the peak of lavishness of their productions at a contest in Antwerp* lasting a month.com .) By the time he returns he is becoming known as a dramatist and poet. He claims to have written 1500 plays and between 400-500 are extant. they do not have the universality that Shakespeare*'s will reveal. His critical work. however. When he leaves the University he goes to work for a theatre manager in Madrid. Because his writings are embedded in. This is the first work (written in Latin) to attempt to standardize literary form and content. Despite their cultural limitations some of his works are still popular today. The New Art of Writing Plays in This Age*. They use twenty-three triumphal chariots and 197 pageant wagons. and reflective of this culture. Today he is not widely known except for his work The Sheep Well* which is often performed. the "Phenix of Spain" and men came from many other countries to see him and his work. It takes fifteen days to perform the plays and cost the city a bundle. is doing his thing in Italy. Lithuania. the Thomist* systematic conceptions of Catholic moral theology and the highly stylized Spanish code of honour. His dialogue is in ingenious. Gasparo Bertolotti*. Taking time off from the theatre he also will go on the Expedition to the Azores (1583. He becomes a page for the Bishop of Carthagena and attends the University at Alcala de Henares. carrying off and marrying the daughter of a former offical of Madrid he will join the Armada (see below. There is a posthumous publication of an influential critical work called Poetics* (just like everybody elses) by Julius Caesar Scaliger* (c. lyrical verse regarded as superb. As usual it misinterprets Aristotle. The first War of Religion* starts in France with the massacre of 1200 Huguenots in Vassy. Lope de Vega* 1562 .Born this year in Madrid. He will continue working to the age of seventy-three.In England the first surviving English historical tragedy Gorboduc* is written by a couple of students of the Inner Temple (Thomas Norton* 1532-84 and Thomas Sackville* 1536-1608. is of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Elizabeth I* is seriously ill with small pox. The first great violin maker.1561 .) CONTENT: Lope's* works involve the traditional content of the world of the Spanish catholic with its view of society as involving the king.

Venice is big on public theatre because it is not run by nobles and a monarch and has a strong. They are losing out on the "first in trade" race. 1564 .com .s grandson. the privilege of coming up with a place to put on all comedias given in the city. James I of England. grants a charitable organization. He advocates writing to please the audience rather than following any classical guidelines. the future James VI* of Scotland and. the Confradia de la Sagrada Passion*. he also makes enormous cultural improvements. They try to make up for it with an all out effort in the arts and learning business.In England two important playwrights are born: Christopher Marlowe* and William Shakespeare*. middle class. now the capital of Spain. Portugal and England doing all that New World business and tootling around Africa to the East. Suleiman I* dies. The term "Puritan*" is first used in England.pdffactory. he brings sweet potatoes and tobacco to England.) In Italy we find the first mention of a public theatre building in Venice.Madrid. rich. We might take a moment here to look at the work of this leader of the Ottoman Turks who brought the Ottoman Empire* to its height. He PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1564 The Counter Reformation spreads to Poland. They come up with three squares (or corrales. Mary* Queen of Scots marries Henry (Lord Darnley) and rapidly becomes pregnant. It speaks for the majority of the playwrights and the public of this time. Akbar* opens a house of worship where all faiths can argue and discuss (including the Portugese Jesuits. More of these will show up but they don't have the innovative influence of the buildings the Academies will build. There is the beginning of a general outbreak of plague in Europe with over 20. eventually. In India Babur*. 1566 Mary* Queen of Scots gives birth to a son.great importance. Social Problems 1563 The first War of Religion* ends but many more will follow. 1565 John Hawkins* not only takes slaves to the New World. which helps explain why we don't hear much about French theatre during this time.000 dead in England.) 1565 . The first printing press finally comes to Russia. Not only does he vastly enlarge the territory he started with. The Catholic Counter Reformation is busy in Bavaria. what with those trade routes to the East closed by the Turks and Spain. Things are getting economically less than glorious in Italy. Nostradamus dies and in the Netherlands there are Calvinist* riots.

pdffactory. He is called the law giver. Mary* Queen of Scots' husband. palace galleries.The earliest English prose comedy. courtyards and town squares. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. People watch these processions from balconies. Under his there is a blossoming of Ottoman architecture and decorative arts. periaktoi*. The political pawn is now going from bad to worse. 1567 In the Netherlands nationalist and Protestant fervor combine in revolt against Catholic Spain. It includes 21 pageant wagons and 392 mythological figures in gorgeous costumes.The first public theatre presentation takes place in Madrid. In Florence they have one of those elaborate processions (descended from the Roman triumph*) called trionfi*. medical and theological colleges. hostels. There are a lot of drawings of this one that still survive. 1566 . The Supposes*. biography and poetry. schools. geography. The Duke of Alba is sent in as military governor and begins a reign of terror. She abdicates in favor of her infant son. Suleiman I* develops and spreads a system of laws in civil and criminal codes with a uniform system of justice throughout the Empire. This one is called A Masque of the Genealogy of the Gods and is designed by Giorgio Vasari* (1511-1574). 1569 . by Ariosto*. In France the Protestants (Calvinists who will are called Huguenots) are fighting with the Catholics. In Russia there are disastrous weather and harvests this year and next. are used in Florence. public soup kitchens and gardens. 1568 . Lord Darnley dies and she is kidnapped by the Earl of Bothwell*.Those clever constructions for changing scenes. Writing thrives in history. In northern England there is a rebellion (this happens frequently) but down in London they are having a public lottery.com . In the New World Francis Drake* is sailing with John Hawkins* and the South American Indians are being decimated by typhoid fever. This will continue for a long while. His play is taken from that popular 1509 play. This is not a good idea.000 die. by Geroge Gascoigne* is presented before the English Court.builds up the capital of Istanbul* with everything from enlarged aqueducts (for new fountains and baths) to a great complex of hospitals. 1569 In Lisbon (Portugal) there is an epidemic of carbuncular fever and 40. I suppositi*. 1568 Mary* Queen of Scots flees Scotland to England. Titian* is still painting. He has planned a canal to join the Volga and the Danube in order to check the Russian expansion under Ivan the Terrible* and to improve connections with the Uzbek Turks in central Asia and enable the Turkish fleet to reach the Caspian Sea and threaten Persia from the north.

He needs all the friends and relatives he can get to protect his Empire because the aggressive Turks are busy sacking Nicosia and Cyprus and declaring war on Venice. 1570 -By this date the English cycle plays are dead. Charles XI* of France marries Elizabeth. Only 70 people return for those ships of John Hawkins* that were captured by the Spanish. The Spanish take the Phillipines which finally gives them a foothold in the East. Anne of Austria.com . The Dutch War of Independence (from the Hapsburgs*) begins. Peasants who survive flee to the eastern frontier. 1571 The Turkish fleet is defeated by the Austrians in the Gulf of Patrus at Lepanto (Cervantes* fought at this battle and mentions it in his Don Quixote de la Mancha*. Both women are daughters of Maximillian II*.000) of the Huguenots in France helps bring to an end the year-long fourth French War of Religion* and amnesty for the Huguenots. while crude and inaccurate in its interpretation of Aristotle *. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.A Flemish geographer. 1570 There is a lot of dynastic marrying going on making Hapsburg* alliances. is best known for establishing the notion of the "three Unities" and will influence playwrighting for centuries. Gerhardus Mercator*. Lodovico Castelvetro* (1505-71) comes out with his demand (in his Poetica d'Aristotle*) that Aristotelian* principles be introduced into contemporary drama. 1572 The infamous St. This makes the English mad and they (especially Francis Drake*) set out to plunder Spanish ships in the Caribbean. Because of this the English merchants start seriously looking west to the Americas. the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor*. Bartholomew's Day's Massacre* (August 24. Titian* is still painting. At this time England is having trade troubles because of the wars in Europe (especially the Spanish blockade at Antwerp) and the Spanish interference with English merchant vessels between the North Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar. The kind of projection he uses for this map bears his name ever since. The English Parliament demands the execution of Mary* Queen of Scots. This work. hoping to do their own cloth making. they kill 2. The Russians finally prevent the Turks from building that canal and reach a peace between the Ottoman Empire* and Russia. comes out with his Cosmographia* and a map of the world for navigational use. Russia now has severe plague. and Philip II* of Spain (widower of Bloody Mary*) marries his fourth wife.) England has been losing money by selling their wool to the Low Countries (who are currently in considerable civil turmoil) where it is turned into finished cloth so they enact an Act of Parliament forbidding the export of wool from England.

The peerage is somewhat different in every country but only the English really affects the theatre.The Spanish build a theatre in the Corral de la Pacheca* with a roof covering the stage and sides of the patio. Gradually the English system developed the hereditary nobility (where the title descends in the family line) into five levels of "peers": duke. 1574 . 1577 In England the Holinshed Chronicles* (a neat history that will help Shakespeare do his history plays) is published. the upper house of the English parliament.Finally the first theatre to be built in England opens. is born. This means that any company of actors in England must be under the patronage of a "peer. They are free to seek employment wherever it's legal. Let's take a moment here to clear up this English Peerage business. There are two relevant parts. 1572 . The theatre is built at the insistence of a company of Italian players who use this playing space. it impresses all Europe. just that they are organized under his patronage. earl. This doesn't help its reputation as the most important international port. appropriately enough the Theatre*. that is people of their own social station. as a storage place for costumes and properties for Court entertainments. There is State bankruptcy in Spain despite the fact that Spain gets one-fifth of all the Americas' silver and gold. viscount. These are the "peers" who make up the hereditary House of Lords. 1573 Remember that Pastoral* play business? Well it peaks in popularity about now when an Italian named Toquato Tasso* comes out with Amita*. 1576 .pdffactory. the Corral de Don Juan*. There is also an awning for the rest of the patio. James Burbage* built it and the Leicester's Men* (later to be called Oxford's Men*) are playing there. inherited the Netherlands as well as Spain. One of those old monasteries appropriated by the crown. Philip II*.com . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. One of the two most admired and imitated pastoral plays (we'll get the other one in a minute). 1576 If you remember the Spanish king. (which is in London) has been used. marquess. James Burbage* (c.1572 ." (This didn't mean that the peer pays them. 1530-97) gets a licence to open a theatre in London but it will take him two years to get it built. and baron.In England another famous playwright. in part.This year the matter of actors' patrons is further stiffened by requiring that the patron must be no lower in degree then a baron. This year the master of the choir boys at Windsor adapts part of the building as a theatre for the boys productions. All that rebellion among the Dutch leads the Spanish to sack Antwerp. Blackfriars*. called. Ben Jonson* (1572-1637). 1575 There is an active theatre space in Spanish Seville. The second is an out growth of the feudal system in which "peer" came to mean the tenant-in-chief who held his land directly from the crown. First. the term peer dates from the Magna Carta when people were guaranteed the right to be tried by a jury of their "peers".

In the world of art El Greco* and Rubens* are painting. who designed it. Beatrice Cenci* (1577-99. Francis Drake* leaves England on a voyage to South America and on into the Pacific and around the world. This year we have a guy called Stephen Gosson* writing The School of Abuse* 1580 Spain and Portugal become linked again (Philip II* inherits Portugal) and we see the first empire on which the sun never sets. The Curtain*. As the Protestant movement spreads we will hear more from them. 1579 . It will be more useful for that new opera form than for the theatre. and later. Down in Italy a woman is born who will show up in theatrical tragedy later as a tragic heroine. 1578 . The architect. Meanwhile the Turks* are expanding in Georgia (Russia). Andrea Palladio* (1518-1580). With the increasing number of theatres in cities around Spain. The Ottoman Turks* have established diplomatic relations and granted commercial privileges to England because they both hate Spain.Spain gets another permanent theatre this year. Yemen and Morocco. Spain invades Portugal. opens outside London. They will retain much of their colonial empire into the mess with Napoleon in the early nineteenth century. dies before it's completion and Vincenzo Scamozzi* (1552-1616) finishes it up. too. the Teatro Olimpico*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. this makes the Pope excommunicate Elizabeth I* and that gives Philip II* of Spain a good excuse to start plotting to replace her with Mary* Queen of Scots (remember she is descended from the sister of Elizabeth's father. They dominate the Persian Gulf and the west coast of India (through Portugal) as well as the Americas and the Holy Roman Empire.In France they are busy with the 6th War of Religion*. It is the oldest surviving Renaissance theatre.) 1577 . 1579 Francis Drake* gets into the Pacific and up the west coast to claim New Albion (in California) for England.) This won't do her any good. a third.pdffactory. the number of professional actors also rises. The French are occupied with the 7th War of Religion*.Another corral is built in Seville. There is an earthquake in London and Francis Drake* returns to England and a knighthood from his trip around the world. Meanwhile the English subdue some rebellious Catholics in the north. 1580 .In Italy the Olympic Academy of Vicenza* starts building an influential theatre building. the Corral de la Cruz*. It looks like a reconstruction of a Roman theatre except it is inside. And. in the exploration business. There are people in England who are busy opposing theatres.com .A second theatre. These permanent theatre are additions to the use of the corrales.

In England we have what will later be known as the last performance of a miracle play (in Coventry*. England won't adopt it until 1752 and Russia holds out until 1918.) The Turks* are beating the Persians and still fighting Austria but their technological progress is declining and the Europeans are forging ahead.C. Third. Second. In England Geroge Peele* writes a pastoral play and Shakespeare* gets married to Anne Hathaway. 1583 The English set up a colony in New Foundland (Canada. but it doesn't fly.com . First. 1582 The English are eager to get an overseas empire too and they send expeditions to Mesopatamia.) has resulted in a noticeable difference between what the calendar says and the solar year. These affect works dated in the last ten days of the year. there are the obvious differences between when a play is written. when it is performed first and when it is published for the first time. India and the Persian Gulf. However. 1582 Calendar Reform The Julian* calendar (put in effect by Julius Caesar* in 46 B. (That means that the year 2000 will have its extra leap year day. this calendar reform really messes up the process of keeping records.) 1581 In Italy there is an exceptional man of science. In India Akbar* announces a new faith (Divine Faith) which is a synthesis of Hindu.) The Gregorian calendar* is adopted by all the Christian nations except England and Russia. The error in this calendar won't really bother us until we have accumulated a full day by the year 3. The Russian Orthodox Church breaks from the Greek and no longer recognizes the authority of the Greek Patriarch.Spain gets still another permanent theatre this year. we have the differences brought about by the calendar changes. Keep these problem in mind when you find date discrepancies. busy studying and experimenting. We have tried to provide those dates that are generally agreed upon. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the French court is fascinated with this dance business. In the Ottoman Empire* inflation is rife. So.3000. 1582 . the Corral del Principe*. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). The Ballet Comique de la Reyne* is performed at court and somebody named Coroso* writes a treatise on dance technique. To fix this the Pope Gregory XIII* orders a calendar reform which cuts ten days out of the present year (October 5 becomes October 15) and provides that there will be no leap year day added to years divisible by 100 except those divisible by 400.pdffactory.Despite those religious wars. keep in mind that the dates you will find in various sources differ for a number of reasons. typographical errors and mistakes. These may now be dated as occurring in the following year. there are cases of inaccurate record keeping. 1581 . We find some people making the change retroactively and others leaving old dates as they were. Christian and Moslem. Il Ballerino*.

come in two major kinds: 1. 1584 Russian colonists defeat the Tartar tribes and take over much of Siberia. participate in a number of businesses and. Perhaps this last profession clashes most with his best known quality of being constantly involved in love affairs. or the cape and sword. 16045 Part I) than for his thirty plays. He is far and away the most popular Spanish writer for the stage. France. and entremeses*. We talked about the content of his plays in the introduction and we will look at his best known play later when it appears but this is a good time to consider the man. The members are drawn from a number of currently successful troupes. He will participate as a military man in the upcoming Spanish Armada *. Of these plays only eight comedias and eight extremes survive.In Spain this is the year when Lope de Vega* (1562-1635) begins to write for the stage. begins writing plays. In Italy Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola* (1507-1573) comes out with another one of those useful publications.com . 1584 .there is an interior state of anarchy. The rest are autos*. Fortunately he also wrote at length about the plays.At the Blackfriars* theatre in London John Lyly* (c. become a priest.000) and that this number includes 483 comedias*. Edmund Tilney*. He is probably the best known Spanish writer today. The Englishman. He claims he wrote an unbelievable number of plays (between 15. 1584 . Unlike most of the Spanish playwrights he is not primarily a company manager.pdffactory. productions and playwrights of his time in Spain. He is usually described as flamboyant.000 and 18. work as secretary to a nobleman. In this he writes at some length about periaktoi* and how you can make them with from two to six sides.This year Miguel de Cervantes* Saavedra (1547-1616).) 1585 . a pastoral. which may be an understatement. comedias. De Vega made a big splash in everthing he did and he did just about everything. Lyly writes exclusively for court tastes and his plays are performed by Boy's Companies* (we'll go into this a little later. corruption is widespread and able leaders have disappeared. dealing with men of minor nobility - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. especially Leicester's Men*. The Two Roles of Perspective Practice*. Another prompt book is available from the Mystery Cycle production at Lucerne*. more for his novels (especially Don Quixote de la Mancha*. 1551-1605). finds Virginia and annexes it for England. gets sent around the country to pick a company for her majesty. The full-length plays.Capa y espada*. dies and his son. providing us with a vivid picture of the theatrical world of his time. better known as just Cervantes*. in 1614. better known as Ivan the Terrible.In England the Queen's Company* (Queen Elizabeth's Men) of players is formed in London when the Master of Revels*. 1554-1606) puts on his Campaspe*. Ivan IV*. We will find Boris turning up as the subject of Russian theatre and opera. Fyodor gives most of his powers to his brotherin-law. Boris Godunov* (c. Sir Walter Raleigh* (he spelled it Ralegh). nor is he an actor. 1583 .

1586 . saints.) The prologues varied from simple monologues (like the English versions) to short dramatic sketches. 1585 In this conflict between Spain and the Netherlands Elizabeth I* takes the Netherlands under her protection. These will gradually grow into short farces (by 1650.pdffactory. Tirso de Molina* (c. These full-length plays are introduced with a prologue (loa*) and between the acts the entremeses* (interludes*) are performed. Corneille*'s play. Le Cid*. He does more with characterization and moral sentiment than his contemporaries. He also dramatizes parts of Don Quixote* by Cervantes*. William Shakespeare* (1564-1616) leaves his home in Stratford* headed for London theatre.) He is best known now for El Burlador de Sevilla* (The Trickster of Seville) which provides the first theatrical work of the Don Juan* story. 1584-1648) .This year marks the beginning of Kabuki* theatre in Japan but nobody in Europe knows it.a friend of de Vega and best known for his play.a government worker born in Mexico who writes about thirty plays. mythological or noble characters doing things in far away places and times. This year also brings official licensing of women on the stage in Spain. In England the famous actor. 1587 Mary* Queen of Scots is finally executed. usually topical and may indlude songs. We no longer hear much about them but the best known are: Guillen de Castro y Bellvis* (1569-1631) . These interludes are short sketches. He is a lot picker about the quality of his plays which deal mostly with court life in Madrid. they loose their international importance to the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam.a friar who writes about 400 plays (we have about 80 now) before the Council of Castile makes him give it up (in 1625.legendary plays referred to as teatro.com . What with all those problems in Antwerp.2. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Las Mocedades del Cid* or The Youthful Adventures of the Cid which will provide the basis for the great French playwright. Edward Allyen* (1566-1626) becomes head of the Lord Chamberlain's Men* who are currently touring with the Lord Admiral's Men*. the Teatro Olimpico* finally opens with a production of Oedipus Rex* designed by Angelo Ingegneri*. 1581-1639) . at Vincenza. Juan Ruiz de Alarcon* (c. There is enough information preserved about this production to recreate it today. Philip II* of Spain decides to work on invading England. In Italy. ruido (noise) or cuepro (corpse) acording to the primary subject matter concerning rulers. Other Current Spanish Playwrights Lope de Vega* is not writing in isolation and many of his comtemporaries are very well known at this time.

Spanish prestige and power are damaged beyond repair and Spain never recovers.* the English firmly take their place in the Renaissance. From Plymouth the English spot the Spanish coming through the English Channel and the 80 ships of the English fleet sail out to meet them. opposing the Counter Reformation and generally being a thorn in their side.pdffactory. the English drive them into a spot where they can send fire ships among them. The English send a colonizing group to Virginia (remember Jamestown?) but it vanishes so they look to Ireland for room to colonize. They limp home having lost 63 ships to England's none. For this reason we will move to England. The Spanish theatre continues to blossom. The remaining Spanish theatre will appear chronologically as it happens. The Spanish have had enough of English interference and opposition what with that support of the rebel Dutch. From here on out the English are upwardly mobile in the international power game.There are Portuguese missionaries throughout Japan. 1588 The Spanish Armada* .) After several setbacks the Spanish Armada* gets under way in July with some 131 big ships and many small ones. ******************************* Afterword With the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Keep in mind that the last great Spanish Renaissance playwright hasn't even bee born yet (Pedro Calderon* de la Barca (1600-81). What with greater maneuverability and bigger guns. better known as Calderon*. This leads to a chase in which all of the Spanish ships are damaged.com . The Spanish try to sail around the British Isles through the North Sea. Scotland and Ireland.This is the turning point for relations between England and Spain. The Spanish decide to invade England with an army from the Netherlands and the Spanish fleet from Cadiz (which Francis Drake* made a terrific dent in the year before.) next Chap9 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER NINE The English Renaissance 1588-1629 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but the English theatre really begins to take off. A boost in national pride and economy is also a boost for the English theatre. excursions and colonial aspirations in the New World. running into storms and wrecking on the various coasts of Norway.

and St. that is. Mummers (which include historical-mythical enactments such as St. Morris Dances (sexy encounters).Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Introduction With the defeat of the Spanish Armada England is ready to move fully into the Renaissance. English theatre has more diverse roots. They have. These roots are supplemented by the Renaissance learning evident in the early amateur playwrights of the universities and Inns of Court (lawyers and law students. Song Dances (Here We Come Gathering Knots. the English also have a strong theatrical heritage from their folk drama. not all choir boys were also actors. This catastrophe does not occur for a while yet. etc. Windsor. but it certainly affects the records available for this period. Since they were always expected to entertain the court and did not need to be commercially successful.). these companies had an edge over the rising professional adult companies. These Boy's Companies* grew out of song and grammar schools attached to various cathedrals. the religious drama and various European theatrical efforts. been moving in this direction all along. of course. where "knots" means a bunch of flowers). but now we will now try to bring English theatre into focus. ADULT COMPANIES The professional companies of adult actors are under the patronage of peers and are known by their titles (as in the Lord Chamberlain's Men) so it becomes very confusing when the actual PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. When England began producing Miracle* plays the boys were given more acting activities.) BOY'S COMPANIES* Entertainment for the court and the upper classes has been provided for centuries by the companies of choirboys of the major churches: St. While the Spanish theatre comes out of the coherent world of the Spanish catholic. of the type that caused the medieval "Black Death") and an extensive fire which burns much of London and most of the theatrical records.com . and. In addition to the classical literary heritage of Greece and Rome.] Background for English Theatre FOLK DRAMA The general background lies in centuries of folk drama which include the May Game (Robin of the Wood. Paul's*. Their success is due to various Masters who expanded the activities of their groups. As the Elizabethan* period progresses patrons take on companies of boys and the number expands beyond those associated with the great cathedral schools. Another background is the civil pageantry found all over but especially in London. The worst plague year (1665) is followed by the fire (1666). George and the Dragon which was played as late as 1863). The actual participants in these Boy's Companies were drawn from the schools and choirs. Chapel Royal*. Sword Dances (which embodied the conflict of winter and spring). [There is a certain problem in establishing accurate dates and references since there will be frequent recurrences of the plague (the Bubonic plague. George's Chapel*.

Orlando Furioso* (c. It is out of this talent pool that the early acting companies are formed. George Peele* (1558-1596) is also a versatile and prolific playwright and collaborator in at least seventeen plays and numerous entertainments. Coming out of Cambridge and Oxford. Thomas Lodge* (1567-1601) is mainly a collaborator on plays except for his own The Wounds of Civil War* (c. The Taming of A Shrew* (c. 1590). As early as 1482 at least two peers* have recorded troupes (Richard. With the rise of the printing press their employment as story-tellers began to decline and the impersonator. Robert Greene* (c.) This business of having a patron is necessary because there are a bunch of legal problems in being a "masterless" man. he wrote (or co-wrote) about fourteen plays ranging from comedy to pomp. which brings us to the next component. 1560-92). 1591.people who hold the titles change. 1589). part becomes more relevant. and The True Tragedy of Richard III* (c. impersonators and story-tellers. More popular are the Chronicle Plays* that come throughout the second half of the sixteenth century. Here we are mainly concerned with those major companies whose actors and playwrights dominate this period. Both as an author of how to do it (Euphues*) and by the example of his plays he pushes balance and clarity in the use of dialogue. five men in particular influence the great dramatists who will follow. King Leir* (c. especially The Troublesome Reign of King John* (c. but that wasn't very popular. 1588).) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. As we mentioned in passing the comedies Ralph Roister Doister* by Nicholas Udall* and Gammer Gurton's Needle* were written and performed in schools in the 1550's. acrobats. They did a little bit of everything.pdffactory.com . These actors are descendants of the minstrels of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. for example) by law students. 1590). SCHOLAR DRAMATISTS When the Italian research and publications reach the attention of the English academics they start coming out with new kinds of plays. a dramatist. strongly affecting Shakespeare. Best known for George s Greene* (c. 1588) based on Roman sources and pointing out English parallels. he is versatile. 1553-1606) authors seven plays and a number of semi-dramatic court entertainments during the height of Elizabeth's* reign. these University writers are: John Lyly* (c. prolific and fluent. having professional acting companies doesn't do much good without really good plays. they were singers and instrumentalists. INTERLUDERS As the Medieval period blends into the Renaissance the main adult professional acting groups are performing Interludes*. However. These were followed by attempts at tragedy (Gorboduc*. 1589). Soon the rewards available to University writers from the theatre tempt more authors to try their luck at playwriting. poet. novelist and pamphleteer. jugglers and conjurers. These guys had become a powerful trade union keeping free-lancers out. or actor. Duke of Gloucester and the Earl of Essex. 1591) and Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay* (c. He helps write (with Greene and Lodge) early versions of plays that will later be developed by Shakespeare. carnage and hell-fire revivalism.

This grows to include storage and maintenance of costumes and properties as well as employment and supplies for the production of specific entertainment events. the Bull*. The censorship powers are part of the Crown's response to Puritan* objections and an effort to protect actors as well. MASTER OF REVELS* Since Henry VIII* established a permanent office in 1545. the English are more democratic. they are intolerant of play-acting and other entertainments and unlikely to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. [The Boar's Head* may also have been an inn or it may have been a playhouse in Whitechapel outside the city. The main emphasis is upon the scenic effects and costumes. As we get to the practitioners (Ben Jonson* and Inigo Jones*) who make it into an art. Educated at Cambridge. certainly traveled abroad. The Master of Revels* soon (in 1581) comes to be the official Censor of Plays.) plays were performed in public inn-yards and private halls. there have been various power centers.com . the Cross Keys* and the Bel Savage*. it is used for performances in the seventeenth century.Thomas Nashe* (1567-1601) is mainly a battling journalist but collaborates with Marlowe* on two of his four plays as well as writing poems. The city of London has its own very strong power base in historical precedent and in the merchantile power of the major port and trade center of the island. satires and pamphlets. the Master of Revels* has been in charge of all pageantry and entertainment for the ruler. and sensitive to the right-wing moral objections of the Protestants. dance and recitation. it is often accompanied by an ante-masque* (or anti-masque) done by professionals. Inns in London which frequently have their yards converted for performing plays include the Red Lion*. Unlike the Italian and Spanish forms of government. becomes known as a "drama house. The civic authorities in London are basically conservative. we will discuss it at greater length. Essentially produced for a particular occasion and performed by amateurs. Another location in town. at least in the sense that the sovereign does not have complete control. MASQUES* By the time we reach the reign of Elizabeth I* the court fun and games of Mumming and Disguising have become the Masque*. the Red Bull*. Christopher Marlowe* (1564-93) is a man of outspoken opinions and an avowed atheist. The nobility and especially the city of London have extensive powers. PERFORMANCE SPACES Prior to the construction of the first theatre building (the Theatre* in 1576. granting part of his authority to the Barons of England.] Obviously these temporary quarters are inadequate for regular use but they have the advantage of being in the city. This means that all scripts must be submitted to him (for a fee) for his approval before the play can be performed anywhere in England. the Bell Yard*. Marlowe* may have seen military service in the Netherlands. During his short career he launches English tragedy. Detailed accounts are kept and these records provide a wealth of information about theatre in England. with music." Whether this is also an inn is unclear. Ever since King John* was forced to sign the Magna Carta*. may have been a government spy and died in a tavern brawl.pdffactory.

some too far out to be successful. The location of the Theatre*. geographically. Sources Of English Playwrighting While Greek and Latin plays were set in either comedy or tragedy forms which dictated plot.com . With wider use of the printing press historical writings proliferate and become available to dramatists. These. without roofs for the audience in the "pit. It remains in use by various companies (and with some oppression from the city) as a "private" theatre until the general closing of theatres in 1642. Two of the major sources for English plots. The Masters of Boy's Companies* are the first to achieve an indoor theatre by leasing two floors at Blackfriars* (another one-time monastary) and turning the upper floor into a "Private House" for performances. two (the Rose* in 1588 and the Swan* in 1596) go up on the south bank of the Thames. even though. These include a number of early plays dealing with rulers of England that will provide raw material for Shakespeare* (such as King Johan* by Bishop Bale. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. (to us) the Globe*. characters and language." The final step in English theatre buildings is seen in the various attempts to provide a playhouse with a roof. Next comes a private theatre at Whitefriars* (1608) used by boy's companies. is on land that had been a Benedictine priory north of Bishops-gate entrance into the city.pdffactory. London still has the feudal city walls and gates at this time. These playhouses are. is constructed from the timbers of Theatre* in 1599. then. The Misfortunes of Arthur* and The History of King Leir and His Three Daughters* (c. Plays in this category fall into four broad groups: Historical-legendary deals with English doings before accurate histories were being written. These include plays like Gorboduc*.) Plays in this category often have trouble with the censor since they lend themselves to political bias and activism.involves historical (or pseudo-historical) events. wrecked and restored (hence the Phoenix* name) seems to be used exclusively by adult companies. The former church lands. are crown lands and beyond the jurisdiction of the City of London.) Outside the city gates is an area referred to as the "Liberties. the plays of the Spanish and particularly the English Renaissance show a wider range.approve the construction of playhouses inside the city's walls (yes." which are beyond the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor of London. 1550) as well as European historical events (such as Tamburlaine*. like the Spanish corrales. Salisbury Court* (1629) houses both boys and adult companies and the Cockpit* (or Phoenix*) (1616) which is adapted as a playhouse. Later the Hope* (1614) goes up the year after the Globe is accidently burned. James Burbage* acquires a lease for another part of Blackfriars*. Others follow. they are within the City walls. Historical proper picks up on known historical figures and events. outside the gates. The Chronicle Play* . characters and form come from The Chronicle Play* and the The Broadsheet Drama*. 1590). The best known playhouse. confiscated by Henry VIII* when he broke with the Catholic Church. then dies. This is hardly necessary since the whole area of Blackfriars is a "liberty" within the city and the Lord Mayor has no authority there. and his sons inherit the first professional indoor theatre in England. c. comprise the playhouses that will provide the main locations for the Golden Age of English theatre. The following year (1577) a second playhouse (the Curtain*) opens close by the first. In the same year land is leased for the Fortune*.

The best examples of the type are the anonymous Arden of Feversham* (c.com .Biographical plays also come under special scrutiny from the censor if they deal with people of political significance. and in eighths for an octavo. Playwrights sell their plays to performing companies which then "own" the production rights as long as they can hang on to them. any agreeable emotion that does not obviously come direct from God is evil. The Broadsheet Drama* .) By and large a play is not regarded as literature and the last thing a company wants is to have one of their plays printed because then it would be available for the use of other producers. Puritans object to governmental expenditures (which they fund in the taxes they pay) for the "charms of Satan. The problem is further complicated by the matter of money. The main controversy is between the religious elements that object to what they perceive as the temptations of the Devil (all the arts) and the Court's desire for entertainment and international status as patron of the arts.pdffactory. (Unlike the Spanish playwrights who can make a good living writing a lot and selling the results to religious as well as secular production groups. Play-doctoring usually pays more than simply writing a play and selling it to a company. However. They usually have only one copy of the plays (the prompt copy in the hands of the book-keeper) with a few scrolls for the players. A Yorkshire Tragedy* (c. The actor who can fix up an old play is in big demand when he is on salary or a share owner of the company. 1591). These tend to come slightly later than the historical proper plays and allow the dramatist to explore a particular character rather than centering on a range of events. 1599. George. 1606) and A Warning for Fair Women* (c. The City (of London) and the Privy Council finds it useful to let the theatre take the heat.) For example the First Quarto of Hamlet* is two thousand lines long while the Second Quarto is nearly four thousand.) Cooperative Playwrighting At this point in history we need to be reminded that there is no such thing as copyright and plagiarism is the done thing. This puts the theatre PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. tales of magicians and other folk characters. At This Point In English Theatre PURITANISM AND THE THEATRE The theatre had been under growing attack from the more militant elements of the religious Reformation who come to be known as Puritans. These show up after the use of broadsheets printed and distributed to spread local news. in fourths for a quarto. We can see this in the early publications of Shakespeare*'s plays in the Quarto* form (this refers to the size of the page used. With a popular play (such as this) the company may publish the work themselves after pirated editions have already appeared. In many ways these plays are suprisingly similar to their soap opera descendents current today. Popular legendary goes back to early folk drama (such as the mummers and their St. This is the case for Shakespeare* and other successful playwrights of this period. they take a sheet of paper and fold it in two for a folio. Everybody who writes plays (as well as other forms of writing) makes use of anything and everything available. a lot of pirating goes on and garbled versions of plays that are performed do get into print.tends to be tragic dramas of domestic and popular events. The plays make use of famous scandals and crimes and usually are murder plays." For the Puritans.) This category includes Robin Hood dramas.

The other event of importance to the English stage is that Inigo Jones* (1573-1652) starts studying to be an architect. Kyd* is the dominant theatrical influence for the great playwrights currently rising in the theatre. however. by "defenses" and "apologies" from main-stream playwrights." This production has the advantage of being produced by the Admiral's Men* with Edward Allyen* in the title role. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. from time to time. 1587 . There is little doubt that Shakespeare* (as well as all other English tragic playwrights) is influenced by productions of Marlowe*'s plays. * [Note: the most recent revival of this play was in 1976. events go on EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION BY THE ENGLISH Ever since the Eastern trade routes were cut by the Turks all European powers have been scrambling for ways to reach those spices and other goodies in China. As the currently most democratic country in the world. This is not. Hardly anything is known about Kyd* and. Both these Iberian countries [that peninsula sticking out of Europe into the Atlantic is called the Iberian peninsula] have the state finance their explorers and colonists. especially in units of five (iambic pentameter). Part I (Part II will show up in a year or so) by Christopher Marlowe. Japan and India. blood. From 1577 on there are increasing verbal attacks in print and even on the stage. We'll hear a good deal more about him later. His major weapon is the mighty iambic line [the poetic unaccented. Meanwhile. Political Puritanism continues to work against the theatre until it finally succeeds in the Civil War.pdffactory. We will see this in other countries.) Next we find the first great play of the English Renaissance. It is a knock-out success and is revived off and on for over fifty years. full of revenge. although he may have written a number of other plays. When a playwright emerges who gives voice to this use of language a surge of great playwrighting follows.] This play reveals the English poetic drama in an integrated form with the full assimilation of the Senecan metrical form into what has come to be called the "mighty line. Once the Spanish Armada is defeated the English will embark on exploration and colonization with a zeal and determination unmatched by their competitors.The first company of English players abroad shows up touring in Germany. which are met. 1594. Edward Allyen*. It is a stunning success and the first great part for that up and coming actor.com .in the position of being a tool of the Devil. Tamburlaine* the Great. followed closely by the Spanish finding their way around South America. This play starts the theatrical ball rolling. the English prefer private enterprise (where they can keep the profits) to government finance (where the people still have to pay the costs but state keeps the profits) for such activities. accented "foot" which best suits the English language. the English way.] Marlowe* is twentythree and out to sweep "trumpery" from the tragic stage. The Portuguese are busy with their way around Africa. Back in England we find The Spanish Tragedy* by Thomas Kyd* (c. This particular moment when a language develops a dramatic voice of its own seems to occur in every country at some definite time in its development. The style will come to be known as the Elizabethan tragedy of blood. only one other is positively known to be his (Pompey the Great also known as Cornelia*. 1588-94). ghosts and passionate blank verse.

it is hoped. A lot of English criticism appears about now. In Italy. Despite all that religious warfare in France we hear about some French provincial troupes touring. Henry IV*. England is home to a rising tide of Puritans* who want to purify the Anglican Church rituals and accouterments. The Jew of Malta*. the guy who finished the Teatro Olimpico. This concerns the religious diversity spreading throughout Britain and causing social and political unrest. Bernardo Buontalenti* (1536-1608) is doing his finest work. We will go into this religious stuff a little later in more detail. comes to the throne.) The first force is the need for a passage to those Eastern markets. The third force is more private.Christopher Marlowe* comes out with more stunning successes. 1588-1590 . This indoor show has a ship with twenty sailors and a guy in the crow's nest singing songs while the dolphins dance below. 1589 . The first Bourbon* king of France. Since those Iberians have the current monopoly on the African and South American routes. These plantations. These plays also continue to be produced until the theatres are closed in 1642. (The French will also find this a viable thing to do). Inigo Jones*.) This particular spectacular is in celebration of a marriage and runs for a solid month including an elaborate water procession (naumachia*) on the Arno River. Vincenzo Scamozzi* (1552-1616) builds a small theatre that will set the style for the main developmental line of buildings for play production. how to do all this stuff. Remember that England is now officially Anglican.In Florence under the de'Medici. One of the indoor spectacles imitates the ones on real water and has such things as a mythological figure moving through the fake waves on a shell with dolphins and Tritons. lots of comedies and intermezzi. (the exact dates of when they were written is a little fuzzy) The Tragical History of Dr.com . the English (and the French) are looking for a Northwest Passage around or through that still undefined North American land. Faustus*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. (He does this job for almost sixty years. Then there is the spread and proliferation of various Protestant sects. The State Church would much rather send these religious dissenters off somewhere than deal with them at home. This distresses the remaining Catholics. Giulio Parigi* (1570-1635). and Edward II*. will become richly productive sources of various raw materials needed back home. but encouraged by the government.pdffactory. at Sabbionetta*. will teach the Englishman.Three forces will drive this activity (two of them powered by the desire for lots of money. The second force at work is the belief that Britain is overcrowded and needs "plantations" or colonies in which to put the surplus poor population.* the talented architect and supervisor of entertainments. Later Buontalenti's pupil. 1589 Galileo* is now a professor of mathematics at Pisa.

First are the names they go by.pdffactory.] Consequently following the career of a particular actor or playwright is a little like playing leap-frog. Baluchistan. Food prices keep rising and the ranks of the poor are swelled by the unemployed. The Faithful Shepherd*. As we move into the 1590's this company is still the most popular because of superstar actor Allyen*. Will Kemp* the comedian. I Accesi*. [There had been earlier troupes under this name but those had been under the patronage of other men who held the post.1590 In England . [Remember back in 1576 we mentioned the Leicester's Men* later to be called Oxford's Men*?] The second confusing aspect is that the major playwrights and actors move from one company to another. We might take a moment here to get an overview of theatre at this point in time. There are several important major theatre companies and a number of minor ones. and leads. Two things are confusing for us about the companies. The Italian Commedia dell'Arte* company. Kasmir) and makes the Hindu Kush (that huge mountain range) the frontier between his Indian empire and territory of the other Mongols. art. Remember that they have to have the patronage of a peer and are usually known by that patron's title. on the other hand. There are three companies worth remembering at this time: THE LORD ADMIRAL'S MEN* . Kandahar.this is a year of disastrous harvests. In Portugal theatres are closed frequently. the Earl of Tyrone. In Ireland resistance has been growing in reaction to English colonization there and this year the Irish revolt under Hugh O'Neil*. [Remember in 1583 we had the Queen's Company* (Queen Elizabeth's Men) formed in London with members drawn from a number of currently successful troupes.This was the most famous troupe in the 1580's with playwright Christopher Marlowe* and the exceptional actor Edward Allyen*. or he may be given another title or be referred to by his position with the government. Richard Burbage*. cope with paupers and vagrants. Adult Companies .] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. eventually. Since he holds the governmental post of Lord Chamberlain they are called the Lord Chamberlain's Men*. by Giambattista Guarini*.In Italy we get to that second really popular Pastoral* play. especially Leicester's Men. In India Akbar* takes more territory (Sind. begins activities. THE LORD CHAMBERLAIN'S MEN* .com . This changes the name of the theatrical troupe. is blooming and Puritans* (who are strictly anti-art) object. to plans to establish colonies in the New World.When the plague interrupts the London season in 1592 they tour and in 1593 a number of the peers (including the Admiral) die and troupes break up and reorganize under other patronage. There is population overcrowding and the gulf between rich and poor widens. but we will try to make it as clear as possible. Most of the best actors (Allyen*. All this increases the number and kind of laws enacted to fund workhouses. the tragic actor) and Shakespeare* put together a new company with Lord Hunsdon as their patron. This is a new troupe and the most famous one using this name.1590'S In England the Golden Age of Theatre is up and running. Of course the guy holding the title may die and somebody else inherits. 1590 . In the first two or three years of the '90's it's likely that Shakespeare* is acting with them.

some 60 manuscripts of plays of this period eventually come into the hands of a collector named John Warburton* (1682-1759). He apparently kept his actors and playwrights in his debt in order to keep them working in his theatres. He will own not only the current Rose*. Performances of the leading companies are regularly requested for the court and performed there. in building the Fortune*. One of the most valuable assets a company has is the range of scripts they own. He writes tragedy and comedy but is best known for his translations of Homer* that will influence the Romantic poet Keats*. the Hope*. He built the Theatre* in 1576 and bought Blackfriars*. costumes and wherewithal for a particular production. made use of them to light her stove and line the bottom of pies. HOW COMPANIES ARE STRUCTURED Companies work under patronage but that merely provides the legal umbrella for their professional activities. This is not good and leads to instability in his company. His account and memoranda books. OTHER RELEVANT PLAYWRIGHTS OF THIS PERIOD [NOTE. the companies go on tour with those members who wish to do so. rental of a theatre (if the company does not own their own). Normally the companies play in the public theatres surrounding London and. The theatres these companies play in have been discussed earlier but at this time we might take note of who owns what. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.] George Chapman* (c. and later in 1614.THE EARL OF OXFORD'S MEN* . but in 1599 the Fortune*.) They will merge with the Earl of Oxford's Men* (there was a troupe under this name as early as 1492 but they mostly toured the country) in 1602. called Henslowe*'s "diary. They're also well paid by the crown for these court performances. hiring of salaried actors to supplement the company as needed and purchase of scripts if these are not written by a member of the company.pdffactory. Normally the company has shares which are bought by members of the company. private theatres or the inns inside the city. Many are the only surviving copies of plays that had never been printed. 1560-1634) playwright for the Admiral's Men* beginning 1596. He is at his best in a joint venture with Allyen* (who married his stepdaughter in 1592). Expenses include the usual range of scenery. Henslowe* is even better known for the information he left us about English theatre. In the end only three survived. Betsy Baker*.com . Each shareholder receives a share of the profit the company makes. Ford and Massinger. If you remember. James Burbage* (who's son is the actor Richard Burbage*) is one of the most prominent owners. As we will see. The surviving plays are the work of Dekker. In 1599 the Theatre will be torn down and the timbers used to build the Globe*. in the winter. there are times when a particular company will get into political hot water for putting on a play that seems too much like a political jab at current affairs. Sometimes the comedians tour on their own with solo acts. Unfortunately Warburton* was careless with them and his servant. When the plague or religious or political controversy forces theatres to close." give us good insights into the theatrical world of this time.Another important company seems to have formed in 1589 under the fourth Earl of Worcester (there had been a company of the Earl of Worcester's Men* since 1555 but this is a new troupe. The other owner of importance is Philip Henslowe* (?-1616) who is not an actor but a real impresario. This provides the initial financial base for the company.

in 1623. burning and other assorted forms of mayhem dear to the hearts of the playgoing public.1576-1634 writes exclusively for the Children of St. John Marston* (c. A prolific writer of about 220 plays. 1592 Henry VI Part I*. John Webster* (c. Because of the lack of information from the published versions the exact dates of the first performance of each play are uncertain. 1575-1635?) by 1602 he is writing for Worcester's Men* and later collaborating with almost everybody. The Maid's Tragedy* (c.His career is documented beginning with this date so it may be useful to take a moment to outline his life and work. apparently pirated and without his permission. Two Gentlemen of Verona*. III*. John Ford* (1586-1639) will begin his career in around 1612 and be best remembered for 'Tis Pity She's a Whore* (1627).1580-1627) writes comedies which are as good as his contemporaries. He works some with Fletcher* and his A New Way to Pay Old Debts* (1625) is one of the best of his plays to survive Betsy's depredations. Love's Labour's Lost*. a play filled with incest. blood. The Comedy of Errors*. 1572-1632) is known especially for the comedy The Shoemaker's Holiday* 1599 and his collaborations in The Honest Whore* (1604-5) and Witch of Edmonton* in 1621. 1573-1641 is an actor and playwright for the Admiral's Men* in 1599. his acting company (now called the King's Men*) puts out all 36 in folio form. This year (or the following one) we hear of him as a well established actor and dramatist. He will later move to Queen Anne's Men*. He writes at least 36 plays. Cyril Tourneur* (c.Thomas Dekker* (c. Beaumont* and Fletcher* will be best remembered for their comedy. Generally speaking they seem to go like this: 1591 Henry VI Parts II. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He is best known for two bloody revenge tragedies. in 1601. During his life 16 are printed (in quarto form). blinding. Philip Massinger* (1583-1639) doesn't appear in theatre until 1619.) Thomas Middleton* (c.com .pdffactory. The Knight of the Burning Pestle* in 1607 and a tragedy. Paul's* and the Queens Revels*. John Fletcher* (1579-1625) joins Francis Beaumont* (1584-1616) in 1606 to form a writing team that is prodigious and enduring. Thomas Heywood* (c. 1610. He joins Dekker* in the Battle of the Poets* attacking Ben Jonson*'s writings in a satire. William Shakespeare* -(1564-1616) 1591 . counting collaborations.1575-1625) is known for his revenge tragedies. After his death. Fletcher also collaborates with Shakespeare*. A Trick to Catch the Old One* (c. 1605) is a good example. 1593 Richard III*. Satyromastix*. The White Devil* (1612) and The Duchess of Malfi* (1611614).

1597 Henry IV.pdffactory.Christopher Marlowe* dies in a brawl in a tavern (possibly killed because of his secret service activities. 1608 Pericles*. 1606 Macbeth*. As You Like It*. 1613 Two Noble Kinsmen*. Shakespeare* is doing Henry VI Part I*. 1592 . A Midsummer Night's Dream*. 1598 Much Ado About Nothing*. 1596 King John*. Richard II*. 1602 Troilus and Cressida*. 1 and 2*.com . 1600 Twelfth Night*. 1595 Romeo and Juliet*.1594 Titus Adronicus*. The Merchant of Venice*. 1604 Measure For Measure*. Coriolanus*. 1607 Antony and Cleopatra*. 1609 Cymbeline*. or Sacred Comedies*. 1605 King Lear*.000 dead) and the theatres close so the players go off to tour the countryside. 1599 Henry V*.) By this time the English theatre is no longer dominated by the Universities. Othello*. 1592-93 The plague is pretty bad in London (15. Julius Caesar*. 1610 A Winter's Tale*. All's Well That End's Well*. 1611 The Tempest*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Merry Wives of Windsor *. Timon of Athens*. The title of a collection of such plays by Cornelius Schonaeus*published this year shows the trend. 1593 . Shakespeare* is doing Richard III*. The Taming of the Shrew*. Christian Terence. The Comedy of Errors*. Two Gentlemen of Verona*. 1601 Hamlet*. Henry VIII* (both of these with Fletcher).The influence of Hroswitha* shows up in a movement that produces many morality plays.

Essays. This type stuff is only done in the academies and in the courts for the next forty years. He will continue to write. The Taming of the Shrew*. An Apologia for Poetry*. Shakespeare* is doing Romeo and Juliet*. 1594 The Vatican is giving people a hard time over that theory of the universe worked out by Copernicus*. Shakespeare* is doing King John*.Sir Philip Sidney*'s critical work on theatre.com . mutinous. Francis Drake* sails to the Spanish Main (in the Americas) and up the Orinoco River in South America. This hasn't survived but apparently it's the last effort in a running battle among dramatists (since 1592) getting nastier as it progresses. Another of those classical academies. The Dutch begin to colonize the East Indies. 1 and 2*. They recite or chant the words to musical accompaniment. publish and hold governmental offices. The Merry Wives of Windsor*. It won't be used by adult companies until 1603. Shakespeare* is doing Titus Adronicus*.Shakespeare* is doing Henry IV. The Spanish are still trying to do something massive to England.In London a new company made up of some men from other major companies is formed under the Lord of Pembroke. 1595 . 1596 . 1597 . Henry IV*.In Italy they are inventing opera*. 1597 .1594 . is published posthumously. They land on the English coast of Cornwall and burn Penzance and Mousehole.James Burbage* (c.pdffactory. The Merchant of Venice*. They perform at the Swan* and in July come out with a play called The Isle of Dogs*. the Camerata of Florence* is concerned with Greek music and how it relates to Greek drama. [An effort of the previous year by Nashe* is regarded as one of the finest pieces of scurrilous abuse in the English language. Civil and Moral. He doesn't get permission to open it. 1530-97) buys another part of that old ex-monastery where the boys troupe played (between 1576-84) and rebuilds it as the second Blackfriars theatre* to use in the winter. declares war on Spain. A Midsummer Night's Dream*. One of the great philosophers of all time. he will do best under the Stuarts.] The Isle of Dogs* is a satiric comedy written by Nashe and Ben Jonson* among others. England finally bows to progress and abandons the bow as a weapon of war. They try to create something similar to the ancient Greek tragedies and come up with Dafne* (text by Ottavio Rinuccini* and music by Jacopo Peri*) which turns out to be the beginning of opera.) The Lord Mayor of London closes the playhouses and three of the company PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1597 Sir Francis Bacon* (1561-1626) publishes his first work. It causes a terrific scandal (referred to as lewd. seditious and slanderous. 1595 The French king. Later it will become the most popular dramatic form in Italy after the Commedia dell'Arte*. Richard II*.

com . but audiences want to be seen so this doesn't happen for quite a while. However. 1598 Every Man in His Humour* a satire 1599 Every Man Out of His Humour* a satire 1600-1 Cynthia's Revels* played by the Children at Blackfriars*. at the Rose*. Dekker* . Discourse on Representational Poetry and the Manner of Staging Plays*. the Lord Admiral's Men*. Although he may have acted earlier (by all reports his acting was poor) we hear this year of his first significant playwrighting effort Every Man in His Humour* which is given by the Chamberlain's Men* with whom he is currently associated. All the players who can go on tour do so until the theatres are permitted to open again in October. 1598 . The success of this play enables Jonson to become a free-lance playwright rather than stay on as a shareholder with one particular company.including Jonson* are sent to prison for a couple of weeks (this happens to Ben Jonson* several times) but Nashe* escapes.(1572-1637) 1598 . He also pushes for darkening the auditorium. 1610 The Alchemist* excellent comedy 1611 Catiline His Conspiracy* an unsuccessful tragedy PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Ben Jonson* . comes out with an influential book. This unfortunate scandal puts a real crimp in all the other companies who are not involved. Angelo Ingegneri* who did the first show in the Teatro Olimpico. Claiming benefit of clergy (a plea writers used successfully all the time) he gets off with a clean slate and a branded thumb. 1601 The Poetaster* written in response to the writings of Marston*. et al in Satyromastix*.pdffactory. He is big on the importance of lighting and pushes the idea of a front light batten with reflectors to light the actors faces and a valence to conceal the light source from the audience. the same fall he gets into a fight in which a man dies and he goes to prison again. 1603 Sejanus His Fall* a failure as a tragedy 1606 Volpone* his best comedy 1609 Epicaene* performed by the Children of the Queen's Revels* at Whitefriars*. In El Paso (now Texas) they produce a comedia. Among these is Ben Jonson*. Even far from home in the New World the Spanish love theatre. Shakespeare* is doing Much Ado About Nothing*.Now is the time to consider the other major playwright of this period Ben Jonson*. Pembroke's company disintegrates and Henslowe picks up the best players for his own company.That Italian designer.

In Florence they finally get around to putting on an opera. As You Like It* and Jonson* does Every Man Out of His Humour*. elaborate expression of princely power driven by the Church and Italian rulers.About this time a new style called baroque* becomes popular starting in Italy. His efforts meet with disaster and he runs for home. This baroque business will show up in theatre gradually over the next hundred years. his queen is very fond of theatre and theatrical performances start to be given frequently at court. This leads to even more trouble for Spain. By 1600 in most of Europe (except Spain) religious drama has been abandoned. However. 1599 . He takes no interest in government and leaves all that work to various Dukes. In Spain there is a big controversy about actresses and the royal council declares that they can't appear on stage unless their husband or father is in the company. The trend is toward monumentality. There is also a ruling that neither sex can appear in the dress of the other but nobody pays any attention to this. 1599 Elizabeth I* tries to cope with the Irish problem and sends Robert Devereux.pdffactory. grandeur. It is applied to all artistic forms (music. Professional productions and court masques (done by members of the court) are often done wherever the court is.com . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1625 The Staple of News* marks Jonson*'s return to the stage but none of these later plays are as good as his early work. He is also known for his extreme piety which doesn't do the public theatre much good. Baroque* 1600 . 1629 The New Inn* 1631 The Magnetic Lady* 1633 The Tale of a Tub* (revised) 1598 In Spain Phillip III* (1578-1621) inherits the throne.1614 Bartholomew Fair* excellent comedy 1616 The Devil is an Ass* a comparative failure and Jonson* leaves the theatre for some years although he keeps on as Court Poet*. architecture and sculpture) and involves adding infinite decorative features. writing. Julius Caesar*. all those Spanish possessions and the problems of being a declining power. Thomas Dekker* does The Shoemaker's Holiday*. In Italy a family of scenic designers named Bibiena* (or Bibbiena) make an international reputation over the next hundred years.Shakespeare* is doing Henry V*. The classical models they started with disappear under all these embellishments. richness and movement. the Earl of Essex* to crush the rebels. This is a grandiose.

Colored lighting and the use of a flask in front of a light which focuses and projects the light are in use. Six Books of Perspective* by Guido Ubaldus*.com .pdffactory.A really fun Spanish document is published that tells all about the kind and range of traveling players of the time. The author. another system slides a flat off stage revealing one behind it and the third uses the prisim shaped periaktoi* which revolves revealing a new side each time.Shakespeare* is doing Hamlet*.Inigo Jones* is back from Italy and his studies of Vitruvius* and Serlio *. We have available extensive drawings and descriptions of all the marvels Ben Jonson* (see below 1605) and Jones* create which will be published after each show is over. Shakespeare* is doing Twelfth Night* and in 1600-1 Jonson* does Cynthia's Revels*. transparencies. 1603 . sky-borne chariots. Jones* is familiar with the whole range of stage effects from moving clouds. 1602 . By now there are three systems for changing the wings. revealing a second. is tried for treason (over this and his behavior in the Irish fiasco) and beheaded. The procedure of transferring a perspective to a set of flat wings is described in a book published this year. He will now embark on a career of design that will determine the course of future scene design and theatre architecture in England. His work. In Russia there are three years of terrible famine (1601-03). Jones* is thoroughly familiar with all of the Serlian settings and the Italian devices for changing scenery. recites his piece and passes the hat. In Spain the number of theatrical companies is reduced to eight and these must be licensed. ship wrecks and heaving seas to conflagrations and a darkened hall to enable controllable lighting. The picture frame effect of using a proscenium arch will show up extensively in his work. They produce Satyromastix* and Jonson fights back with The Poetaster* late this year. Jones* has the financial support of the Revels Office* which puts up the money for all his experiments. One system strips a first cover off each wing. All's Well That End's Well* The Masque And The New Scenery. is an actor in a traveling company. 1601 . The Battle of the Poets* is in full swing with Marston* and Dekker* accusing Jonson* of satirizing them and their style in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels*.One of the changes in the theatre is the use of the flat wing which shows up around now. Entertaining Journey*.Shakespeare* is doing Troilus and Cressida*. starring Inigo Jones* 1603 . 1601 Earl of Essex* (who is coming home from that fiasco in Ireland) leads a revolt. describes eight kinds of companies from the single actor who travels on foot. He gets appointed to the household of Prince Henry as architect which puts him in sole charge of the court Masques*. Rojas*. In London Jonson* does Sejanus His Fall* which is a failure as a tragedy both with the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Unlike the professional theatre. travel in their own conveyances and have a ticket taker for entrance fees. to the large company of about sixteen who can perform fifty plays. earthquakes.

We are now at the beginning of the English settlement in what will become the United States. Even in America there is a French production at Port Royal. There's another heavy outbreak of plague in England.public and in incurring official censure (the play had political implications but the Queen likes it.) The King specifies (very loosely) which patch of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This year she dies and he becomes James I* of England. The system of colonization works like this . He does a major festival this year. Shakespeare* is doing Macbeth*. Next year he and his fellow conspirators are sentenced to death. Many engravings of his work survive. The company (sometimes before. 1606 .This is a busy theatrical year. This year they produce (among others) the famous Masque of Blackness*. They sometimes also sell shares to other investors.com . 1605 Czar Boris Godunov* dies and Russia plunges into eight years of anarchy and civil war. 1605 . Jonson* begins his collaboration with Inigo Jones* doing Masques* as entertainment for the court. 1604 The English East India Company is busy exploring Java and that area. In Spain Cervantes* published the first part of Don Quixote* (the second part will be out in 1615. his best play which is performed by The King's Men*. Buontalenti*'s pupil.Shakespeare* is doing King Lear*. 1604 . Spain and England finally make peace. Arcadia (Canada.pdffactory. Giulio Parigi* (1570-1635) takes over designing for the de'Medici*s in Florence. sometimes after selling shares) applies to the King for a patent (a specific grant of land. Jonson* does Volpone*. It begins this year with the Virginia Company of London getting a royal charter and sending 120 colonists to Virginia.Shakespeare* is doing Measure For Measure*. In England Guy Fawkes* plots to blow up the House of Lords (called the Gunpowder Plot).) English Settlements Begin In America 1606 . We leave the Elizabethean period and begin the Jacobian. Othello* and Thomas Dekker* does his collaborations in The Honest Whore* (1604-5). In Italy those flat wings show up in a court production in Ferrara designed by Giovan Battista Aleotti*.) 1603 Elizabeth I* has declared James VI* of Scotland her heir.) He also writes about thirty plays but it is this satirical romance that is widely translated and dramatized which captures our imagination down through the ages.A private company is founded with a board of governors who own the stock and put up the money for the enterprise hoping to reap big profits from it.

Shakespeare* is doing Pericles*. 1609 In Spain Phillip III*. one from the city of Plymouth. Spain has national bankruptcy and this causes the Bank of Genoa to fail.com . This one has a really spectacular water procession (naumachia*) on the Arno River called "The Battle of the Argonauts*. throws out the last of the Moors (known as Moriscos*) which is economically a disaster. Orfeo*.pdffactory. The first tea from China is shipped to Europe by the Dutch East India Company. So the London patentees head off for Virginia and the Plymouth ones try (but don't make a go of it) for Maine. In Ireland the Brits are defeating the Irish and as a result of the massive defeats the Irish leaders flee the country. He pushes the emphasis toward musical rather than dramatic values and introduces a greater role for instrumental music. put on in Venice. 1608 Poland takes over much of northeast Russia and blockades Moscow.Parigi* does another major festival in Florence. gets his opera. 1607 The first great operatic composer. 1607 . and. This is known as the "Flight of the Earls. Virginia. gets to make use of the private theatre at Blackfriars*. friars are forbidden to attend the theatre and secular plays are banned from presentation in religious houses and churches. Claudio Monteverde* (1567-1643). PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This is rather tricky since the King doesn't own the land and nobody knows exactly where it is or what it is like. On some occasions a bunch of people colonize a place and then get a patent. Each one gets a tract of land of 10. Finally his company. Coriolanus*. 1608 .land is granted to the company for their colony and development. Timon of Athens*. the other from London. overhead borders. The Spanish are getting much stricter on censorship of plays. The whole affair is very untidy. CHURCH THEATRE CONTROVERSY IN SPAIN In Spain the problem of actresses leads to a decree that no one except actors are permitted backstage.000 square miles. Also he usually makes the grant run west to the Pacific Ocean even though no one knows how far that is from the Atlantic coast. John Fletcher* and Francis Beaumont* collaborate on The Knight of the Burning Pestle. now the King's Men*.Shakespeare* is doing Antony and Cleopatra*. in his extreme piety. back shutters. He also recognizes the independence of the Netherlands. The Russian nobility (Boyars) form a provisional government and install a Polish Czar. This year James I* gives a patent to two small groups of colonizers. The English put a permanent colony in the Americas at Jamestown." By the early part of this century there are three basic elements in the settings for productions: side wings." who escape to Europe to avoid persecution for their rebellion. Plymouth is to settle their group between the 38th and 45th parallels and London between the 34th and 41st.

is assassinated and his son. In America the English colonists prevent French from settling in Maine and Nova Scotia. He dissolves parliament because they won't do what he wants. 1611 In Spain Phillip III*'s queen dies and court performances drop off. Louis XIII* succeeds at the age of nine. Henry VIII* (both of these with Fletcher). his mother. 1615 -In Spain the number of theatrical companies is increased to twelve. The Dutch on Manhattan Island open a trading center there. In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with The Man in Green Breeches* which features women disguised as men. is exploring Delaware Bay and Hudson Bay. 1613 .James I* issues a second colonizing patent to the Virginia Company (who sell open stock) for a strip 400 miles wide stretching from the Atlantic to Pacific. 1612 . In England James I* is having trouble raising money. This self-government doesn't work too well. The Spanish Church doesn't like this sort of cross dressing (remember that 1599 ruling against it?) 1612 In Russia they drive out the Poles and put Mikhail Romanov* on the throne. The Knight of the Burning Pestle* is performed.Shakespeare* is doing Two Noble Kinsmen*. The King James Bible* (the authorized English version of the Bible commisioned by James I*. This will continue to happen until it turns into a civil war.Shakespeare* is doing The Tempest*. 1614 -John Webster* puts on The Duchess of Malfi*. The English are planting tobacco in Virginia and get the right to govern their Jamestown colony. Henry IV*.Shakespeare* is doing Cymbeline*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. 1609 . Obviously there is a regent.John Webster* puts on The White Devil*.Shakespeare* is doing A Winter's Tale* and Jonson* The Alchemist*. 1610 The French king. Fletcher* and Beaumont* write The Maid's Tragedy*.com . Jonson* does Epicaene* performed by the Children of the Queen's Revels* at Whitefriars*. of course) is published. Queen Maria de'Medici*. which still must be licensed. Henry Hudson*. 1611 . Over in the New World the English explorer. 1614 James I* has another parliament that won't discuss finance and he dissolves it again. 1610 .

1622 The Council for New England grants sections of land for colonization to two different men which starts off the settlement of what will become Maine and New Hampshire. although it won't be used for another ten years.com . In the intermezzo at the Uffizi* palace theatre (built by Buontalenti*) there is a permanent proscenium arch. It is designed by an architect called Giovan Battista Aleotti* (1546-1636) with a permanent proscenium arch. 1621 In Spain Phillip IV* (1605-1665) comes to the throne. However.In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with his best historical play. 1623 First English settlement is established in New Hampshire.In England Thomas Dekker* does Witch of Edmonton*. Shakespeare* dies this year. 1622 . These will make up the future colony of New Netherland which they will lose to the English in 1664. It all gets straightened out and later they are incorporated into Massachusetts. Unfortunately for his country he leaves the running of it to his Prime Minister (Olivares* ) who introduces great extravagances and gets the country into a lot of wars.pdffactory.Parigi* does another major festival in Florence. who have been fighting with Spain on and off for years. The Dutch. renew their fighting again. 1619 The first black slaves arrive in Virginia. 1618 .] Guillen de Castro y Bellvis* (1569-1631) . They start small settlements on the Hudson and Delaware rivers which will become New York City. [This building is really the prototype of the modern stage and still survives today. They also establish the Dutch West India Company with a monopoly on trade between Africa and America and the right to establish colonies.comes out with Las Mocedades del Cid* in two parts exploring the exploits of Spain's national hero the Cid. The Puritans have an OK from the Virginia Company to settle there but they land on Plymouth territory instead.The Teatro Farnese* is finished this year at Parma. 1617 .Jonson* is made poet laureate by James I*. treating the heroic Queen Maria. the first town of the Massachusetts colony.1616 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Albany and part of Philadelphia. Prudence in Women*. 1620 The English colony business picks up this year with the successors of the Plymouth group getting a new charter as the "Council of New England" and a sneaky band of Puritans (now known as the Pilgrim Fathers) taking ship in the Mayflower* and landing at Massachusetts where they settle in this year as squatters. This is Gloucester. 1621 . 1618 The Thirty Years War* begins with the "Defenestration" (throwing the Regents out the window) in Prague. the extravagances include spectacular theatre for the court. A Puritan divine gets a spot in New England to offer refuge for the poor of England and be supported by fishing.

His serious plays explore honor and jealousy and include: No Monster Like Jealousy* (c. The importance of his work for the court lies not only in the plays themselves but also in the production of them. 1641) After 1652 he writes secular plays on demand for the court which are short.pdffactory.] Calderon* is particularly noted for his auto sacramentales* and is regarded as having perfected the form. He writes primarily for the court. The most lavish productions with professional actors occur in the next decade as will be seen below in their own time. He writes two main kinds. Most of his works are autos and the bulk of his other output is written for the Spanish court. comes as a successor to Lope de Vega*. comes from the name of the hunting lodge. This is Richelieu* (actually named Armand Jean du Plessis. More influential for European drama are his secular plays. Best known of his early religious plays are: Belshazzar's Feast* (c. plays. The English make their first settlement in eastern India and that governance business in Virginia isn't working and James I* takes it back for himself. These are rather like musical comedy and become one of the most popular Spanish dramatic forms. 1648) and Augustin Moreto* (1618-1669). Many of these are performed at the royal hunting lodge and their name. As a favorite of of the Queen Regent he now becomes Louis XIII*'s Chief Minister and will exercise complete control. including Francisco de Rojas Zorilla* (1607-c. as do most of the other best dramatists. Spanish Court Theatre Flourishes Pedro Calderon* de la Barca (1600-81). Duc de Richelieu) (15851642). [His contemporaries. Cosme Lotti* (?-1665) from Florence in 1626 to stage the court entertainments in a large hall at the Alcazar and in the gardens at Aranjuez. both for politics and the theatre. 1634) The Great World Theatre* (c. mostly religious. better known as Calderon*. Even today his best secular work Life's A Dream* is frequently revived. 1634) The Physician to His Own Honor* (1635) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . (with the work of Inigo Jones*) the Italinate design blossoms in the court productions. zarzuela*. light and somewhat similar to the Stuart masque. He is already a prominent church man (Bishop and Cardinal) and elected member of the French States-General.1624 In France an important figure. They are taken up by the French and will influence the English later through French translations. lived and worked in Madrid. especially through French translations. As in England. writing about 200. His works have considerable influence on European drama. The cape and sword comedies deal with happily resolved love intrigues and misunderstandings and are best represented by The Phantom Lady* (1629). Beginning about 1621 and continuing until about 1640 Calderon* writes almost all of his secular plays. Phillip IV* brings one of Parigi*'s students. steps onto the national stage. of which about eighty survive.

1629 In England. and takes the Italian principles of theatrical staging back home. In this work there are only two pages devoted to constructing scenery.) His highly personal lyrical style makes translation difficult and even in Spain his court plays are little studied. Massachusetts. of course. The plague is in London again.com . 1626 In America Roger Conant is settling Salem. Peter Minuit (1580-1638) as director-general of the Dutch West India Company. comes out with his Civil Architecture *. part of it with Parigi* during the 1608 festival. Meanwhile he grants a charter to the Massachusetts Bay Company beginning with the land around the Merrimac and Charles Rivers and.Another influential theatrical production author. the elder (1591-1667). This will lead the English colonies in America to rebel eventually. running from the Atlantic to Pacific. 1628 . He studies for ten years in Italy.pdffactory. 1625 James I* dies and his son Charles I* takes over. The Puritans get the right to have their own governance and next year starts the great Puritan migration under Winthrop [John PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Philip Massinger* does A New Way to Pay Old Debts*. Charles I* dissolves parliament again and it won't meet until 1640 when things will go from bad to really awful. who is one of Parigi*'s students.John Ford* puts on 'Tis Pity She's a Whore*. the German architect Josef Furttenbach*. He designs elaborate Italinate scenery for court entertainments staged in a large hall at the Alcazar. In Dresden Germany they put on the first German production of Shakespeare's Hamlet*. 1625 .) 1626 . 1627 . Life Is a Dream * (1636. This year they finally put on a production in the Teatro Franese* over in Parma. Italy. buys Manhattan Island.The Painter of His Dishonour* (1635) Secret Vengeance for Secret Insult* (1635) The Wonder-Wroking Magician* (1637) Mayor of Zalamea* (1642) His finest and best known play is a philosophical allegory. money-making and building a Puritan commonwealth in New England. A tobacco tax and monopoly are established in England. In the Thirty Years War the German general Wallenstein* is having a series of successes. but he will write more later. In Spain The Suspicious Truth* by Juan Ruiz de Alarcon* comes out. The Germans love his plays and will continue productions of them. and a Dutch Colony is founded on the Hudson River. He will be used as a hero in one of the later Romantic tragedies (see Schiller in Chapter 12. This company has two factions.The Spanish court imports an Italian designer. Cosme Lotti* (?-1643).

Everybody "belonged" in a definite relation to everyone else with a fixed status.pdffactory.com . In towns this organization was paralleled by the organization of the guilds. banking. conservative who helps shape the theocratic policies of the colony. The next step at this transition time is the belated theatrical and social revival called Neoclassicism. It is the last great flourish of court dominated theatre. merchants and industrial capitalists. This economic system was made for a local civilization with the church. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. village and open fields in England. traders. By the middle of this century a whole new class arises and seeks political representation and power. As the power and money pass into their hands so will culture and the market for theatre pass to them. The old medieval economic system is changing. Feudal society depended on service and inheritance which ensures a regular succession of people who work the land and others who make sure it is worked properly. 1588-1649. the differentiation of function in industry has been growing for a long time. The old forms center on the organization of agriculture as seen in the system of manor. This meant that each person had their place and function in the world. The traditional theatre audiences. Beginning in Italy. They will begin with founding Boston in 1630. Most people are tillers of soil who work the land of their immediate lord and subsist on a share of that land. making and selling are rapidly becoming distinct functions and we see the appearance of people who are essentially merchants rather than craftsmen selling their own wares. will slowly change into a middle-class audience.]. The modern forms of commercial and industrial enterprise are slowly taking shape. There is also a store of wealth which can be used for new and more profitable enterprises. insurance and investment capital are driving commerce as transportation and exploration open up the whole world to European trade. Capital and labor. It was dominated by tradition and custom. which takes place in France. There is now a clear division between employer and hired workman. ******************************* Afterword As we complete the Renaissance with its last manifestation in the French Neoclassic period we need to take into account a major change which is occurring in European society. They inherit their rights and obligations from their fathers. exporters and importers are coming rapidly to dominate the economic scene. It's largely self-sufficient and organized to make a living off the land. the whole local community on one hand and the court on the other. 12 times govenor. By this point in time (1630).Winthrop*. This year marks the beginning of the "Puritan Exodus"from England. Each district supplies the immediate needs of the local population. This is what might be called the capitalist middle-class which includes land owners. based on local privilege. Middlemen. nobles and administrative officers contributing to it functioning as a unit.

On the side of AGAINST: The king rules from his palace outside Paris and has a total autocratic hold on what can and cannot be done in the city. Paris must jump to Louis'* tune. The Puritan turmoil that is brewing in England does not extend into France.next Chap10 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TEN French Neoclassic and English Restoration 1630-1680 The French Theatre Finally Gets Up and Running Introduction France at this time has several things going for it and a number slowing it down. France has always had very close ties with Italy and has benefited from all the knowledge and skill developed thus far in education and the arts. bringing increased economic growth to the home country. Spain and Italy who are currently using a number of urban theatrical performance spaces. Economically the French are on the rise. strive to develop enough expertise to win in the competition for the one or two available performance spaces in Paris. Unlike England. France has only the Parisian Hotel de Bourgogne* and a tennis court. Unlike England where the city of London enjoys a high degree of autonomy.pdffactory.com . The Bourbon monarchy is secure and politically stable with close ties to the Hapsburgs and to Spain. Monopoly - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. With the turmoil of the Religious wars behind them. Louis XIII* is on the throne and the country is being driven on to greater artistic endeavors by the soon-to-be Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu*. peace and prosperity are spreading throughout the country. Foreign exploration and international colonies are rapidly expanding. The major theatrical activity exists in the Provinces where touring companies. On the side of FOR: The religious controversy between the catholics and protestants is finally resolved with the catholics in control of the government but a reasonable amount of freedom and security guaranteed the protestants. The centuries long conflicts with the English are no longer active but they have left a strong sense of French pride and nationalism which prevents the French from learning anything much from the English. much like those in Spain.

Background for French Theatre 1625 . You will notice that this monopoly applies only to plays in French.Ever since medieval times the Confrerie de la Passion* has held the monopoly for housing theatrical performance in the French language in Paris. The Court Theatre The Salle du Petit-Bourbon* is in a gallery of the Bourbon Dukes' palace. of course. The Crown seems to regard the monopoly as a satisfactory way to control theatre in the capital. the Hotel de Bourgogne*.pdffactory. The king. often literally. This will be the famous Salle des Machines* (see below. One of the odd things about French theatre production is the custom of seating some privileged patrons on the stage. in the king's palace. Long. in the audience's laps. Later a more elaborate space will be built here. roofed. It has been occupied constantly by various amateur groups. This means that touring Italian commedia dell'arte troupes can not only perform but even move in permanently. They usually offer two or three performances each week. when French theatre companies go looking for performance space that can be adapted from non-theatre use they are not looking at inn yards or corrales. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The English will pick up thbis odd habit and take it back to use on their stages when they go home for the Restoration* Soon the great playwrights of the French Neoclassic period will swing into action. France has replaced Italy as the center of western dance theatre. Since 1588. The monopoly only applies to the city of Paris so many different aspiring troupes of actors tour the provinces honing their skills and waiting for an opportunity to perform in the city. The game has been popular since medieval times and the spaces built for tennis play are 90 by 30 feet. When the Confrerie* went out of business the monopoly remained with their theatre building. These will be: two great writers of tragedy Corneille* and Racine. (and later the Cardinals who run things) has performance space in the palace (the Petit-Bourbon*) and sometimes permits additional companies to appear in Paris in converted tennis courts. When the English come to visit (during their troubles) they will pick up on this monopoly system and take it back home. Now it becomes a regular theatrical performance space. it has been used for balls and ballets. These admirable structures only need a platform at one end to become a theatre space serving between 250 and 1800 spectators. Consequently. What turns out to be ideal are tennis courts.* and the greatest comedy writer. at the end of this period the French will develop the first permanent acting and producing company in the Comedie Francais*.com . Moliere. 1660). Tennis courts The weather in Paris is wetter and colder than London and Spain.* Finally. It will be the biggest and most advanced theatre yet attempted on the Italinate model. and often with balconies for spectators.By this time the ballet de cour* dominates the court entertainment. with a stage at one end. This cuts down on the space the actors have to move around in and puts them. traveling Italian comediens and aspiring French troupes.

Chryside et Arimand*. Four important dramatists emerge: Jean de Mairet*. Jean de Rotrou*. and.com .pdffactory. a new wrinkle. The Phantom Lady*. Jean de Mairet* (1604-86). parliament gets to have a say-so in how the English Church is run. These include not raising taxes without the consent of parliament. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Pierre Corneille* (1606-84). By the time he turns nineteen he will have two plays produced at the Hotel de Bourgogne*. This year he writes his first play. no martial law in peace time.In Spain Court entertainments are reaching their peak as Philip IV* brings the Italian designer Cosmo Lotti* from Florence to put Italian scenery into the indoor and outdoor productions. He writes farce and tragi-comedy early on. since he is always broke. next to Corneille*. no imprisonment without a specific charge. is the foremost playwright of his time. So much for English experiments with democracy. He will be prolific and more than thirty of hiw plays survive. His plays remain in the classical repertory down to the present. He will be the first to formulate the Italian theory of the unities* for the French theatre. 1628 In England Charles I* is having trouble with parliament. Pierre du Ryer*. contributes to the establishment of tragedy as a popular form. 1626 . This makes Charles I* so mad that he dissolves parliament and tries to rule without it. no soldiers billeted in private houses. 1625 Back in England .Back in Spain Calderon* comes out with one of his best known cape and sword* plays. Charles I* convenes his first parliament and then adjourns it to Oxford because of plague in London. He will write a number of plays based on works by Lope de Vega*. Charles marries Henrietta Maria (daughter of Bourbon Henry IV*) of France.The Hotel de Bourgogne* now regularly houses a professional troupe (as opposed to earlier amateur performers.James I* dies and Charles I* is crowned. Francis Bacon* is busy writing Of Masques and Triumphs*. He is a governmemt official who writes to make a little more money. and Pierre Corneille*. It makes him sign the Petition of Right* (dating from King John and the Magna Carta*) which forces him to promise not to do all those things he wants to do. Pierre du Ryer* (1600-58).) A new era in French theater begins with the efforts of a group of well-educated and technically proficient playwrights. 1629 . This view will lead to disaster for everybody. She is strong for an absolute monarchy and she is Catholic. Neoclassical ideals are reinstated and professional troupes appeared in Paris. Jean de Rotrou* (1609-50) is the second most important playwright of this period. turning to tragedy in the 1630s when it becomes popular. a tragi-comedy. The whole court has no sympathy with parliamentary Puritanism. will become one of the two great tragic French playwrights of all time.

1629 Over in America the English are fighting the French and this year the English storm Quebec. opens its doors in London. lighting and special effects can provide the visual wherewithal.In France.com . With so many private theatres showing up. Salisbury Court*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. bringing love versus honor to the French stage. especially playwrighting. 1630 . He collects five playwrights (Collete.In England the second roofed public theatre. Claude de l'Etoile. horror and spectacle which is much better served in these indoor theatres where scenery. Georges de Scudery* (1601-67). produces Clitophon*. 1629 . depicts a rehearsal and defends actors from the charge of immorality. De Rotrou* adapts Spanish dramas. It is created by Inigo Jones*. He becomes the principal dramatist to the Hotel de Bourgogne. At court the Royal Cockpit* opens.Du Ryer*. It is so successful that Montdory*'s company becomes one of the leading ones in Paris. The colony of Massachusetts is founded. He uses his position to encourage the development of French literature and the arts.pdffactory. Boisrobert and Corneille *). In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with his El Burlador de Sevilla* (The Trickster of Seville) the first theatrical work of the Don Juan* story. It was successfully produced in Rouen. a comedy unlike either farce or pastoral and which will set French comedy on new path. the public theatres are now used only in good weather between May and October. The middle class has a craving for sensationalism.Meanwhile English Theatre is Changing 1629 . This going to the Spanish will be very important for Corneille* later. an aspiring playwright is not one of these favored few and his resentment of Corneille* will crop up later. Montdory* mounts a new production of Melite* here in Paris.Cardinal Richelieu* [see p. to provide Charles I* a home for the King's Men* to perform at court. concern for the actor's personal character and dignity appears. Rotrou*.140] (1585-1642) is made Chief Minister to the court of Louis XIII*. The play is titled Melite*. becoming the virtual ruler of France. Gougenot*'s La Comedie des Comedians*. 1629 In England Charles I* dissolves another Parliament in March and one will not meet again until 1640. starring Montdory* (Guillaume Desgilberts 1594-1651) who now comes to Paris with his acting company this year after beginning his acting career in a tour of Holland in 1612. to make plays out of rough sketches he writes for them. Back in France Richelieu* Pushes Theatre Development 1629 . He helps to establish tragedy as a popular form. Corneille* had written his first play back in his home town of Rouen for a strolling company. The love and honor theme will really excite Racine*. and fancies himself a dramatic author. an educated government official.

a rogue and vagabond and denied church sacraments. His list of qualifications to be an actor includes: appropriate facial expression. infamous and misbeseeming Christians.pdffactory. lewde.And that the profession of Play-poets. This torrent of venom can be seen in parts of its lengthy subtitle such as: ".In England the Puritan opposition to theatre is growing by leaps and bounds. Mumtaz Mahal. like everyone else. Anything which might distract the struggling soul from these two activities is a tool of the Devil. The notion that the theatre. together with the penning. 1631 . In this particular case the Puritan view takes the position that human beings are inherently evil and must be won to God by exclusive devotion to hard work and religious observances. condemned in all ages as intolerable Mischiefes." This viewpoint needs some exploration since it dogs the theatre down through the present day. heathenish. and most pernicious Corruptions.are sinfull. This year an acid-tongued Puritan pamphleteer called William Prynne* (1600-1669) comes out with a work titled Histriomastix* (he will call a later one by the same title) attacking popular amusements in general and stage plays in particular. Pamphleteers make much use of historical precedent from classical sources as well as Christian sources.1631 Over in India the Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal* for his favorite wife. ungodly Spectacles.com . The Confradia de la Novena* is still in existence and includes all theatrical people. Henrietta Maria) and puts it under the control of Lord Baltimore. Punishment Without Revenge*.. Ben Jonson* retires from writing masques for the court and William Davenant becomes the principal writer. should be judged on an individual basis. absence of posturing. who died giving birth to her fourteenth child.. It is both the glory and the bane of theatre that it affects public opinion and action. and consequently theatre going..Lope de Vega* is doing another of his better known plays. 1632 ...Back in France they are also concerned about the social status of actors..That popular Stage-players. 1632 Charles I* issues a charter for the colony of Maryland (named for his queen. In Spain the actors are finally allowed to form a guild like that of other trades. and sound judgement. absence of provincial accent. unconstrained movement. We have pointed out that Euro-centric theatre acts as a mirror for its society as well as a platform where public attitudes are propounded and debated. a good memory. impressive bearing. of Stageplayers. English Religious Opposition Increases 1632 . affects the attitudes of the public is not a new argument. This really helps raise the social status of the actor from being branded "infamous". acting and frequenting of Stage players are unlawfull. Georges de Scudery* (1601-67) comes out with a play with the same title as Gougenot*'s La Comedie des Comedians* also arguing that actors. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

* the First Earl of Strafford* (he is president of council of the north. It is this view that is transported across the Atlantic and planted on North American shores. base. more significantly.Also at this point in time in England the Crown is seen as unresponsive to the Puritan view. particularly in New England. Consequently. Charles I* is able to bypass normal legal processes and rule as he wishes.pdffactory. He has had a free hand in opposing these protestant sects and is now trying to root out Presbyterianism in Scotland (which is why Charles I* is here being crowned this year. Roarers.) Charles I* and Laud* works closely with Sir Thomas Wentworth. He is a passionate advocate of the Anglican Church and vehemently opposed to Calvinism and Puritanism. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Bawdes. Prynne* calls the theatre audience: "Adulteres. privy councilor and lord deputy of Ireland where he put down both Catholic and Ulster Presbyterians. still alive and well in current times under the appellations of "fundamentalism" whether Christian or Moslem. to be made into a truly pious society from which the Crown. William Laud* (1573-1645) becomes the Archbishop of Cantebury and virtual first minister for Charles I*. Ruffians. mired in adherence to Anglican religious views and. 1633 Charles I* is crowned the King of Scotland and revives a fine on forest use to raise money. all goodnesse. for this view. Fortunately the New World will also include other plantations with other views. theatre and crown are seen as identical in their evil. who hate all grace. Drunkards. idleness. totally given over to extravagant financial support of theatrical entertainments. these matters in England go from bad to worse and defenders of the theatre are overwhelmed by the Puritan opposition. The New World is. In this view every expenditure is unwillingly wrested from the public by illegal means (the King keeps disbanding or dismissing Parliament in order to raise money for the Crown) and the primary use to which this money is put appears (since it is the only clearly public evidence of expenditure) to be theatrical display. for these immigrants. Something like 21. The period between 1629 and 1640 is known as the great "Puritan Exodus" from England. wanton spending and for the Crown. the theatre and all who seem to tend in that direction will be excluded or expelled. You will note that this particular view is one of the human extremes of social organization.) Between these councillors and the notorious tribunals of the Court (the Star Chamber and High Commission Court). is the symbol of all religious and political abuse and theatre is its willing tool. As we move on. Adulteresses. It is useful to keep in mind that the Moslem view has always excluded theatre as a viable social entity. Cheaters. The Crown. idle. Panders. Whore-masters. Whores. in the 1600's. prophane and godlesse persons. and make a mocke of piety. Prodigals.000 Puritans flee the triumph of absolutism in church and state in Charles I's England.com ." He aptly represents the view that theatre stands for sensory pleasure.

quits the Cardinal's group and begins serious playwrighting. fed up with that business of turning sketches into plays for the Cardinal. The French players are touring to London. A new theatre.In England the most expensive masque. many really good writers don't make it into this exclusive club. The Triumph of Love* by James Shirley* (1596-1666) and Inigo Jones*. This academy bunch will really give Corneille* a hard time. opens in December. When that happens the members themselves elect somebody new to replace him.) Obviously." This means it is supposed to set standards for every kind of writing in French. over the years. including plays. is produced by the Inns of Court. the Hudson River valley and Delaware. All this will send shock waves through European monarchies and lay the ground work for later American and French rebellions.com . best known for his work with the founding of the academy and later opinions for it is Jean Chapelain* (1595-1674. Prynne*. Theatre du Marais*. repression of the theatre and the death of a reigning monarch.Louis XIII*. 1634 That venomous English pamphleteer. If you want to be a top-notch writer in France you have to get into this group. Scudery* is tickled pink to be one of the founding members because Corneille* isn't. This year Floridor's (he lived c. This one casts aspersions on the King and Queen and earns him life imprisonment. 1634 . Another writer. Corneille*. comes out with another effort. We think they're good anyway. will not be the end of his career. It is made up of forty men called "the immortals" because no new guys can be elected until one of the old ones dies off. Richelieu* has been urging the formation of the French Academy* as an arbiter of literary taste. The Academy is charged with the "purification of the French language.pdffactory. Back to the French 1634 . the first serious rival to Hotel de Bourgogne*. orders the establishment of the French Academy* (L'Academie francaise*). 15941654) and Charles LeNoir. 1608-71) company played the Cockpit* (that ex-cockpit in Drury Lane that had been redone as a theatre. The French Academy* 1635 .1633 . It's a converted tennis court in the Rue Vieille-du-Temple and is used by a company headed by the actor Montdory* (Guillaume des Gilleberts. the loss of his ears in pillory and branding on both cheeks (SL for seditious libeler.Richelieu* wants a little more theatre in Paris and ok's breaking the Confrerie de la Passion*'s monopoly.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Most of his early plays are produced by Montdory*'s company. egged on by Richelieu*.) This. From England there is a rising tide of Catholics and Protestants escaping the pressures of Anglican conformity.Back in Spain Calderon* is coming out with plays exploring honor. however. This excessive spending for what the Puritans regard as tools of the Devil will lead very soon to civil war. This year he does Devotion to the Cross*. Across the Atlantic there is a constant trickle of Dutch and a few Swedes settling in Long Island.

] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. leader of the Academy. But this controversy will bring him increased fame and begin his period of greatest successes. This controversy becomes so intense. The Doctor of His Own Honor*.Corneille* produces Le Cid* with Montdory* in the role of Rodrigue. and even insists that the findings be adverse. He launches his first attack with his Observations sur le Cid* in which he sets out to prove: the subject matter is worthless and besides the handling of it is terrible. anything beautiful in it is stolen. This sets off a barrage of opinions back and forth between the critics attacking and Corneille* defending. Scudery* jumps into the argument with great enthusiasm. the tragic form of the play is severely criticized by other playwrights. Finally the matter is referred to the newly founded Academy* and Chapelain* writes out the first draft of what will become their final Sentimens*. The controversy about Le Cid* involves praise for the ways in which it adheres to neoclassical doctrine and censure for all deviations. This is rather unnerving for Corneille* who has successfully produced five comedies. and. the plot revolves around the theme of lovers having to choose between their love for each other and their duty to their parents. it violates the chief rules of drama. [see: Les Sentiments de l'Academie sur Le Cid* by Jean Chapelain*. especially in an absolute monarchy.pdffactory.com . This play precipitates a battle that will clarify the conflict between old and new playwriting ideals.1651 1637 French Academy* is given the official charter under which it still operates. Cardinal Richelieu* asks the brand new French Academy* to pass a verdict on the play. finally. Other important plays: Contributions to dramatic theory: Horace* . has a lot of bad lines.Le Cid* has been such a terrific success that the other French playwrights are jealous and start a barrage of complaints. [Remember? Corneille* dropped out of the Cardinal's playwrighting stable and then went on to be successful? You just don't offend the powerful. Although popular with the people. Like the earlier Romeo and Juliet*. It is to Richelieu's advantage to bring discredit on Corneille*'s play so he encourages this sentiment. especially the First of Polyeucte* .] The attacks really upset Corneille* and he doesn't write any plays for four years. a tragicomedy and a tragedy between 1634 and 1636. 1635 In America the colonization of Connecticut begins. Corneille* 1636 . all of this in print. [In 1991 the Academy decided to drop the accent ague from the written French language. When he resumes playwrighting he adapts to the more stringent requirements and continues to be the leading playwright.1640 Discours* several.1640 Examens* several Cinna* .In Spain Calderon* comes out with his play. Its primary task is the study and codification of French language and style.1642-3 1660 Le Mort de Pompee* .1643-4 Nicomede* .] 1637 .

In England a new masquing hall (for presentation of those elaborate masques) is constructed in Whitehall Palace. Opera is now starting to be performed professionally and the Venetians like it so much that in the next four years three more opera houses will open.In Spain Pedro Calderon de la Barca* does his famous philosophical allegory about the human situation.Back in Italy (Venice). 1638 . mainly indentured servants (those who sell themselves into slave-like service for a set number of years to pay for passage and a start). 1638 In America there is an increasing flow of poorer immigrants to Virginia. This is regarded as his finest and is certainly his best known play. the upshot is the establishment of some terrifically restrictive requirements for French tragedy. comes out with his Manual for Constructing Theatrical Scenes and Machines*. Ireland a guy named John Ogilby* (16001676) is made Master of Revels for Ireland and gets a license to open a theatre in that city.the Unity of Place* requires that the action take place in a single location (preferably in one house. While there had been some small importation of African slaves to the colonies since 1619. It is the beginning of Irish theatre when. as well as above the scene. candles and oil lamps placed inside the side wings. on lighting. opens for an audience drawn from all classes.The Unities Well. He also describes a system of dimming the lights by lowering tin cylinders over the lamps. Now that architect-turned-set desigher.com . the number begins to pick up about now and seems to be about equal to the number of indentured servants arriving in Maryland and Virginia. 2. 1638 . 1637 . One of the most relevant things about his plays at this time is that they have PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but at the most. Life Is A Dream*. 1574-1654).) This tends to get still shorter until it becomes a requirement that the time covered in the action of the play should not be any longer than the actual time it takes to play out the production on the stage. the Italian Nicola Sabbattini* (c. and in foot lights. The opinion sets up a strict view of what can be used in a tragedy. Calderon c. in Dublin. Inigo Jones.pdffactory. The information includes how to rig a roll curtain and. the first Venitian opera house. 3. The basic points are called the three unities*: 1.the Unity of Action* means that there should be no more than one principal action.* can do all that fantastic Italian scenic stuff at the English court. This is the beginning of the spread throughout Italy of both operatic performance and buildings specifically designed for opera. the San Cassiano* .A still different influential author. within one day's walking distance).the Unity of Time* requires that the action of the play take place in the course of a single natural day (the "Twenty-four-hour rule". This is a major source of information about scenic practice. Remember he is writing mainly for the court and this play is done at the King's request.

] There are five balconies with 29 boxes each and a "pit" (floor level seating). In this work he covers the same ground as in his first work but with much more information including drawings and designs he made for actual productions. 1639 . The box system of seating means that you don't have to mingle with the rest of the audience.com . in the new palace in Madrid. In Germany the "Great Elector*".In other parts of Europe theatrical activity is flourishing. Giovanni e Paolo*. It is the most modern theatre of the day with a proscenium arch and wing and groove system for changing scenery. [Remember that Scotland hasn't been a part of England for very many years. Nobody knows much about him now but he will soon make a big splash.Back in Italy there is a Venitian opera house built this year. They are translated into French and many of the English Restoration* playwrights get to know them through the French.considerable influence on European drama. It is so snazzy that they occasionally have public productions with a percentage going to charities. His name is Oliver Cromwell* and he is a Puritan by religious conversion. But. The plays themselves have little impact on the English theatre because there are great difficulties in translating Calderon*'s highly individual lyrical style from Spanish into English. The German architect Josef Furttenbach* the elder comes out with his second work containing more information on theatre scenery. and begin to bring to trial those they regard as the king's evil advisors. Frederick William (fl.] He convenes what will come to be known as the Short Parliament. This arrangement of audience seating will dominate until the end of the nineteenth century. 1640 Charles I* needs money to raise an army to deal with all these problems in Scotland. It is the SS. It's long because it takes over the government from the King and it will stay in power into 1653. It manages to do this by forcing the king (who needs it desperately) to agree that it won't be dissolved without its own consent. The highest balconies are for the lower classes and the pit is anybody who doesn't care about social status. The parliament then proceeds to address a long list of grievances that have built up over the years.In Spain that Italian designer Cosmo Lotti* is building a permanent theatre. theatre in PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He becomes the leader of the Puritans in parliament. Another guy gets elected to parliament from Cambridge this year. His son will be the first Frederick of Prussia and his grandson will become known as Frederick the Great. Another parliament is called in November and it will become known as the Long Parliament. It is short (two months) because it doesn't do what he wants it to and he dissolves it. the Coliseo*. [Fortunately there is a surviving plan of the theatre and so we know exactly how it looked. A number of English plays turn up that are based on Calderon*'s plots and characters. He will be busy all over Europe as will his descendents. 1640-88) succeeds to the throne in Brandenburg. Recreational Architecture*. Problems in England 1639 In England that effort by Charles I* to try to change the Scots from Presbyterian to Anglican is turning into armed conflict. This is what is called the First Bishops' War in Scotland. 1640 . Charles I* loses it and is forced to sign the Pacification of Berwick and abolish the Anglican episcopacy in Scotland. 1640 . They release prisoners like Prynne*. who now becomes a member of parliament.pdffactory.

off with the rest of the family and the crown jewels to Holland to go chat up her relatives and friends on the continent for help.. Richelieu* builds a palace for himself. In Ireland the religious views are different but the effect of all this unrest is the same. He turns out to be a real whiz both at military organization and strategy and his success in battles earn him the nickname "ironsides". Parliament is really on a power roll and throws all Bishops out of the House of Lords. Things are not looking good so he packs his wife. with an excellent performance space (later called Palais-Royal*.. 1641 and the Civil War is up and running.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. selling or games permitted on Sundays. This really lights the fuse.Back in France by this time. Meanwhile the Puritans put many of their social ideas into practice: all theatres are closed and racing horses outlawed. 1641 . so he can raise an army and fight parliament.. Louis XIII* issues a decree stating his desire that ". passes the Grand Remonstrance which protests the king's wrongful actions. 1641 In England the parliamentary initiated trials are in progress to punish those evil advisors of the king and Strafford* [see above 1633] is tried and beheaded. gambling.general is headed down hill in the 1640's in part because of the Catalan and Portuguese rebellions this year. 1641 . America and Holland." The church still denies sacraments to actors. Those transformations that everybody is so crazy about work so much better with this system that it spreads all over Europe.com . The old. Italy.the actors' profession.not be considered worthy of blame nor prejudicial to their reputation in society. all French acting troupes in Paris are receiving a government subsidy. England Falls into Civil War 1642 In England. This entails cutting slots through the stage floor to enable a pole from the floor below to support a flat on the stage and be moved by a "chariot" that pulls it back and forth under the stage on a track. Giacomo Torelli* (1608-1678).1645 Down in Venice. no sports. Charles I* sets up his battle standard at Nottingham on August 22. The ropes that power each "chariot" are hooked together to one big winch so that all the flats can be moved at the same time. Cromwell* is in the lead in organizing armies for parliament. Henrietta Maria.) This is the first Italianate theater in France. His followers will be called the Cavaliers and the forces of Parliamentarians (or Puritans) are referred to as Roundheads because they wear their hair shorter and don't wear wigs. The Irish Catholics who had been subjugated by Strafford rise up and massacre the Ulster Protestants as part of a general Irish Catholic rebellion. simpler. There is a general atmosphere of uncertainty in Spain. works the kinks out of a scene-shifting system called the chariot-andpole* method. but his attempt fails and he has to flee with his family to Hampton Court.. Palais Cardinal. an influential designer. dicing. groove system will continue to be the main shifting method in England. This results in a wave of Protestant Irish sailing off to settle in America. Charles I* marches in person to Westminster in an attempt to arrest five members of the Parliament he accuses of treason. at the Teatro Novissimo*.

] 1645-1659 Ballet regains popularity. only he wants snazzier court productions. Acting companies disperse. He will come to be called the Sun King*. but Cardinal Mazarin* wields the power. This naturalized Sicilian will continue the policies of his mentor. 1642 Richelieu* dies this year and is replaced as prime minister by his protege. in which he appears as the Sun. others remaining to attempt surreptitious performances in the Cockpit* and the Red Bull. joins some of his former actors and begins to act in the provinces. 1645 . The Great Theatre of the World*. There is a momentary lull in the war at this point. fornication gets you three months in jail and adultery and sodomy are now felonies carrying a death sentence. This formative stage of his career will last until 1658 [see below. however. Other theatre buildings are torn down or stand idle.com .An Act of Parliament closes the theatres in London and suspends all performances for a period of five years so theatrical activity virtually ceases.pdffactory. still wants entertainment so their productions don't stop. Not the formal dance as we know it. The broad-based Renaissance audience is lost forever. that will influence nineteenth century Romantic playwrights.The public theatres are closed in Spain this year and will remain so through 1651.Calderon* comes out with a play. especially The Ballet of The Night. A visiting commedia dell'arte troupe begs the Queen to bring in set designer Giacomo Torelli to make their productions as appealing as the opera. 1645. He introduces opera to France. some of them following the royal household into exile in France. 1642 . The public will be without a public theatre for 18 years and will be very difficult to attract them back when theatres open again. The Spanish court. 1647 Back in war torn England. Many other actorss simply turn to other trades. 1646 . 1645 . 1643 Louis XIII* dies and the throne goes to his son Louis XIV* (born 1638. In this religious allegory God is a playwright. This year Moliere* gets out of debtor's prison.swearing and drinking are fined. This contributes to the decline of Spanish drama. Cardinal Giulio Mazarin* (1602-1661). but stories explained by a spoken libretto and pantomimed by performers in movements based upon ballroom dances. The actors who go to France will bring back many things they find in French theatre. he reigns 16431715.In the English Civil War Cromwell* works out a surrender of the king's 46 forces and heads the army's council of war to negotiate with the king.Cardinal Mazarin* picks up where his predecessor left off in the entertainment area. Cromwell* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Louis XIV* often dances in them.) Since he is only five at this time the regent is his mother. The Globe* theatre is torn down and some of the companies sell off their costume wardrobes. books are censored for "scurrilities and gross jests". She does and Torelli comes and introduces the Italian ideal in scene design to France. Cromwell*'s having problems with parliament and the king slips away to the Isle of Wight while trying to make a deal with the Scots for help. or touring on the continent.

(especially to Virginia).In England Parliament passes a new law ordering all actors be apprehended as rogues and the interiors of the Fortune*. There is religious contention as well since Cromwell* and his armies belong to churches which are "independent" and this causes the Catholics. The civil war involves the French nobles trying to regain rights taken from them by Richelieu. the Red Bull*.com .) This is the first great all-European peace treaty and gives Sweden and France a good deal. Cromwell* is sent off to Ireland to bring peace and protestant rule. The internal factional bickering in parliament is growing and when Cromwell* is off defeating the last of the Cavalier armies parliament makes a separate deal with Charles I*. together with defeated Cavalier forces. bribing officials to look the other way. The French civil war (of the Fronde. cause a decline in 1652 theatrical writing. rules France for the child-king Louis XIV*. 1648 In France there is also war. This leads to increasing religious tolerance in central Europe. emigrate to America. it does not bring an end to the fighting. This doesn't go down well with Cromwell's faction and since the army is with him there is a purge in parliament.has been willing to be lenient with the king but now he switches to requiring unconditional surrender. Cardinal Mazarin*. French. Calderon* turns to writing a greater number of religious autos*. This particular influx into Virginia raises the character and prosperity there by providing a balance to the earlier poor settlers. The main fare seems to be short farcical plays called drolls* which are sort of condensations of longer works. The upshot is a trial of the king and the framing of a new constitution called the Agreement of the People.In Spain. The Thirty Years War* (that religious fracas in Germany involving the Swedes. who continue to perform illegally at the one remaining theatre. with the public theatres closed. Salisbury Court* and the Cockpit* are dismantled. He will write two every year until his death in 1681. All the autos* presented in Madrid during this time (from 1641 through 1681) are his new works. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. When that proves too dangerous they perform in private houses. This won't last long. 1648 The English Civil War is on again and Cromwell* persuades parliament to embark on a government without a king. The Hapsburgs are on the short end of the stick and Germany is left a devastated and disorganized mess. It also plants the seeds for the next century's revolutions.pdffactory. In England the law forbidding performances expires and some open performances resume. Episcopalians and Presbyterians to get together and support the Royalist cause. This doesn't defeat the few hardy actors remaining. 1649 In England Charles I* is condemned by act of parliament and beheaded.1648-53) and the continuing war with Spain. The whole thing raises doubts as to whether religious war is worth the effort. He is busy creating the role of Sun King* for Louis XIV* and he solves this rebellion by forcing all nobles of high rank to live at court where they can be watched for subversive tendencies. He copes well with the various protestant factions but really plays havoc with the Catholics and they. does this send shock waves through the crowned heads of Europe. However. 1649 . Spanish and disparate parts of the Hapsburgs' Holy Roman Empire) ends with the Peace of Westphalia (except the Spanish and French who will keep fighting until 1659. tennis courts and inns. Richelieu's successor. Boy. 1647 .

He puts together a new and more intimidated parliament (remember he has the army behind him) and they resign their powers to him.In Austria there is rising interest in the French and Italian theatre stuff. 1654 . Meanwhile Cromwell* is having his problems with the other factions in parliament over constitutional reform and toleration. As the Mongols lose their grip the Europeans move in to open up trade and run things themselves.Back in England the actors seem to feel the future will be better and one William Beeston* (1606-1682) buys the Salisbury Court*. Virginia alone will show an increase of 25. Maryland and South Carolina.Back in France the French drama begins to recover from that modest civil war. In India in the 1650's the Mongol ruler (Aurangzeb) reverses the religious tolerance introduced by Akbar* and sets the empire on a decline.000 by the end of this Civil War period.In Munich (Germany) they open a court theatre and import Francesco Santurini*. This is supplemented by forced transportation of criminals.The first of several important works on theatrical practice comes out of the Jesuit schools in Germany. The emperor imports an Italian (Ludovico Burnacini*) from Venice to put on court entertainments. reorganizes the church. 1655 In the Americas Anglo-Spanish hostilities grow and spread to Europe. 1653 Cromwell* is losing his argument with parliament and forcibly dissolves the Long Parliament. Calderon* becomes a priest. younger brother of Pierre Corneille stages Timocrate. Now that the Thirty Years War is over the courts are trying to be as much like the French as they can. He is the author of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Thomas Corneille*. Another man. Italy's most outstanding designer.com . He legally unites Scotland. He continues to write autos* until the end of his life but no more secular Spanish plays. As a result there is a large emigration of Scots off to America. 1656 . to put on lavish spectacles. Prince Charles. 1652 . The colonies are growing by the thousands. In England the fighting continues as the English heir. Ireland and England.In Spain. 1650 In Russia by the 1650's the peasants have become serfs* (a sort of slave. 1650 . This one is Treatise on Perspective* by Dubreuil. In December he becomes "lord protector" under a new constitution. except they can't be freed or buy their way out) and are legally bound forever to the estates they serve. John Rhodes*. to Virginia. also organizes a boys company. he is a Scots' Stuart and they proclaim him king) and leads his army south into England. after a series of personal disasters. rebuilds it and begins training a company of boys. part of them political. 1651 . improves administration of justice.pdffactory. The Spanish theatres are reopened this year 1651 Prince Charles is defeated in Scotland in December and the Royalist part of the Civil War is effectively over. From here on he is the only real central authority in the realm. (later Charles II*) lands in Scotland (after all. promotes trade and tries to enforce a reformation in manners.

Moliere* and his acting company have finally arrived on the Parisian theatrical scene. Since his company is well trained in the Italian manner for short comic impromptu pieces.more than 40 plays. is born. Rutland House.with music by Lully*. These are done at a private house (his home). an actor who has ridden out the Puritan Interregnum*. But.1661. The darling of the stage at the moment (who is also present for this performance) is Montfleury* who bombastically rants and raves.1661. Moliere* quickly offers one of his comedies that have been so successful in the provinces. The English will learn a great deal from this. L'Impromptu de Versailles* . Sir William Davenant*.1661. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin called Moliere* (1622-73) appears before Louis XIV* and his Court acting in Corneille*'s tragedy Nicomede*. naturalistic acting style. ou Le Prince Jaloux* . Moliere* is among the first playwrights to bring a play's action inside instead of the more usual Roman habit of playing all the action out-of-doors. Comedy for the court and the popular commedia dell'arte* are blended and the new form. In England. Moliere*'s company is given permission to share the Petit-Bourbon* theatre with an Italian company already in residence. Monsieur*. Don Garcie. comedy of manners*. so they certainly don't count as public theatre events. He will become France's most important comic writer. Moliere* 1658 . This business of getting a performance past the restrictions of monopolies. Les Precieuses*. The second production is more famous than the first because it is the first real use in England of the Italinate scenery for a public (rather than a court) performance.pdffactory. The First Day's Entertainment at Rutland House.Plays done at produced at the PetitBourbon*: Richelieu*'s Palais-Royal*: Les Facheux* . The public production of the one-act satire. and The Siege of Rhodes*.Under the patronage of the king's brother. After Moliere*'s death his plays will make up a large and vital part of the French national repertory down to the present day. This is an historic moment in French theatre history. censorship and religious intolerance by having music as part of it will provide some interesting experiments in the future of England and France. L'Ecole des Marais* . [Note: see the character in Rostand's* Cyrano de Bergerac* who is supposed to be this actor.com . Louis hates Moliere*'s quiet. Their reputation grows. These are referred to as England's first operatic attempts but they are more like the later operettas. Spain has always had songs and dance so it doesn't matter there. but they aren't very good and he always lives in the shadow of his brother. it's a start. their performance of Le Docteur Amoureuz* is an immediate success.1663. mainly on the strength of Moliere*'s comedies L'Etourdi* and Le Depit amoureux* which had won them acclaim in the provinces.] Fortunately for theatre history and the French stage. gets permission to put on two musical plays. Moliere*'s plays Court plays . this same year caps their success. Le Mariage Force* - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

Even the king can't let it go on publicly although it is widely read and performed privately for members of the Court. 1667. There is plenty of it there and this makes a lot of powerful people mad.1670. 1658-59 .In England William Davenant* takes advantage of the legal loophole in the ban on theatre to present "musical entertainments.pdffactory. Monsieur de Pourceaugnac* . La Critique de L'Ecole des Femmes* . best equipped theatre in Europe. the Tuileries*. ou Le Mari Confondu. L'Avare* . This development gives it added urgency." He puts on three such entertainments in the Cockpit* over the course of these two years. Amphitryon* 1668. 1658 In England Cromwell* dies and his son Richard Cromwell* becomes lord protector. ou L'Amour Peintre* L'Amour Medecin* . the new theatre has a stage depth of 132 feet and a proscenium of only 32 feet.com .1669.1672. returns to writing plays but they are not among his best. Les Fourberies de Scapin* . Georges Dandin.1664. L'Ecole des Femmes* . Two of his best plays arouse so much animosity that the first.Corneille*. This one isn't even published in Moliere*'s lifetime.1665.1664.1671 Moliere* devotes most of his work to exposing hypocrisy and pretentiousness in the society around him. Le Malade Imaginaire* . Le Sicilien. The army finds him unacceptable and some of the council mistrusts him so he's off to a bad start. is not permitted to be performed publicly for five years. the largest. Tartuffe* . Psyche* .The Petit Bourbon* is torn down and Vigarani* adds a new wing to the king's palace. 1659 The war between France and Spain ends with the Treaty of the Pyrenees this year and France gets some territory including the Spanish Netherlands. The School for Wives* questions the right of guardians to dispose of their wards and precipitates an attack on moral grounds. 1659 . He rewrites it twice before it is deemed acceptable. Tartuffe* is an attack on hypocrisy. or Le Festin de Pierre* . Within it he builds the Salle des Machines*. Les Femmes Savantes* . is performed for several months and then dropped from the repertory. Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme* .1671.1662.1663. La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas* . Salle des Machines* in Paris 1659 .1668.1671. This will make possible settings of increasing complexity. What with all the internal disagreements the parliament has been considering the idea of a constitutional monarchy.1664. and is thought to be a condemnation of religion. Les Amants Magnifiques* .In Paris Cardinal Mazarin* sends to Italy for that famous scenic designer and builder of theatres.1673.1666. the elder.1666 .1668.1671. Gaspare Vigarani* (1586-1663) to build a proper theatre for the king. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The English will come to this theatre to copy the spectacles and manner of producing them after the Restoration*. Don Juan. La Princesse d'Elide* . Designed to be the last word in state-of-the-art theatrical design technology and stage effects. Le Misanthrope* . 1660 . The second. Le Medecin Malgre Lui* .1665.

The first object of this terrific theatrical space is to produce the shows given in honor of Louis XIV*'s marriage. The audiences are made up of the court. It takes all year for these men who get the king's patents to suppress the three Herbert gave licences to. Michael Mohun* at the Red Bull*. 1660 In France Louis XIV* marries Marie Therese of Spain (no doubt adding a little cement to that treaty he signed with Spain last year.000. and John Rhodes* at the Cockpit*. a dramatist before the theatre closing and one of those who went with the court into French exile.pdffactory. The king adds him to the list but the other two patent holders manage to diddle him out of it and hire him to teach actors. Charles II* has found the French system of theatre monopoly a sensible one so he sets his Master of Revels*. Unfortunately Charles* isn't aware that Herbert is moving so fast and he (Charles*) gives a monopoly on theatrical production in London to two other guys. it now includes women. John Ogilby* who held the patent before the civil war gets it renewed now. It takes him a little longer to get his troupe.) They appear at a hastily converted tennis court. By this time the English colonies in America have a population of about 80. duke of York and a Catholic. English Restoration Theatre Begins 1660 . daughter of the Earl of Clarendon. He has to be content with regulating the rest of England and collecting fees for licensing plays. It has the first English permanent proscenium arch behind the apron. The second patent is given to Thomas Killigrew* (1612-83). A new parliament comes in. the Duke's Men*. Since there is very little audience established in London this limited monopoly business makes economic sense. This will put a real crimp in the development of the English theatre and be a terrific help in getting theatre started in the English colonies in America. Although it does not seem relevant at the moment (it will later) Charles II*'s brother James*. Lincoln's Inn Fields*. It takes them a year to fix it up and open.) In England the Rump Parliament in England got rid of Richard Cromwell* last year (1659) and dissolves itself. up and running since he is busy building the Theatre Royal*.com . The first goes to Sir William Davenant*'s troupe called The King's Men* (even though. There is one more patent granted but it is for a theatre in Ireland. Sir Henry Herbert* (who did this job for Charles' father) to work assigning monopolies in the English form of patents* . Herbert gives out three of these to William Beeston* at the Salisbury Court*. upper- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The rush to pin down monopolies is further complicated by a guy named George Jolly* who has been running an English touring company in Germany and had a promise from Charles back in 1655. This leaves Davenant* and Killigrew* with almost complete control over theatrical performance in London. The upshot of this confusion over licensing is that Herbert and the office of Master of Revels looses the power to license theatres and companies in London. marries Anne Hyde.In England the theatre quickly revives but in a new French pattern. We now begin the English period known as the Restoration*. sits as a convention and invites Charles II* to come home and be king. This is a licence to perform. Eventually things get sorted out. in the French manner. for obvious reasons.

rakes. in the French tradition. Many of these last are involved with the king at one time or another. they will be able to do more realistic satires on current manners. One of the more interesting and informative characters of this period is Samuel Pepys*.] In London the Theatre Royal* opens under the patent of Killigrew*. the plays put on by these companies are revivals of pre-commonwealth successes. Catherine of Branganza. These kinds of plays will be popular for the next twenty years. These stringent acts will lead eventually. In London Sir William Davenant*'s The Siege of Rhodes* opens at his new theatre Lincoln's Inn Fields*. They also pass an interesting series of Acts repressing religious practice other than the approved Anglican. 1662 . be. or le cocu imaginaire*. Since they now use actresses. 1660 . who does not produce any children. There are now about 7.ieve it or not.Moliere* is granted an annual pension by Louis XIV*. At first. The Bores*. In England the new parliament is fiercely Royalist and passes the Act of Uniformity enforcing the use of the Anglican Prayer Book.000 ministers leave the church in disgust. Around 2. Soon they will come up with something like the new kind of comedies of manners* so popular in Paris. This year. the more populous English PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Moliere* comes out with Sganarelle.com . The number of African slaves is increasing because the southern plantations are labor intensive. who keeps an extensive Diary* including tons of gossipy information about the theatre. The Five Mile Act orders dissenting ministers to remain at least that far from any place they had ever preached in and forbids them teaching at schools.000 Dutch in the New Amsterdam area. Colbert will be a significant figure in the fortunes of France. More emigration to America. 1661 In France Cardinal Mazarin* dies. He appoints Jean Baptiste Colbert* (fl. The view was that having women on stage was immoral. They will also try their hands at "heroic" tragedies. Louis XIV* begins to run the country himself. 1662 . 1662 Charles II* marries a Portuguese princess. This is apparently not Charles II*'s fault as the results of his many laisons with numerous mistresses shows. to the industrial revolution.pdffactory. Fortunately it will be published. It is John Ogilby*'s The Smock Alley* in Dublin. their hanger-ons. In America by this time the population of Virginia is about 40.The first theatre built in Great Britain after the Restoration* opens in Ireland. Since he has a 22 million franc debt this is a smart move. only men were permitted to act on the stage. 1661 .000. as part of the ongoing altercation with the Netherlands. and his troupe performs exclusively at the Palais Royal*. Before the Civil War. A liberal charter is granted to Connecticut. He puts on L'ecole des maris* [School for husbands*] and a court entertainment.1661-83) Minister of Finance.Moliere* comes out with L'ecole des femmes* [School for Wives*. bullies and ladies of pleasure. His works poke fun at many contemporary affectations and at times makes the populace angry because of his disdain for conventions.class would-be courtiers.

pdffactory. It gets pretty bad with 1. 1663 The plague* (Bubonic). Colbert*. Thereafter the play progresses through interior action as the hero or heroine fights psychological battles within themselves. hard freezes. the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.1669 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Racine* uses the strict Unities set up by the French Academy to his advantage. This astronomical "sign" together with that plague in Holland makes the English nervous and they consider going to war with the Dutch.) 1663 . Furttenbach* the elder publishes his final work containing information on theatrical production. In the summer of 1664 England closes down trade with the Dutch in hopes of preventing the plague from reaching the British Isles. He will raise French tragedy to its peak. Racine*'s plays: Britannicus* . into a province and makes Quebec its capital. Much too much rain and long. on the overhead borders. This is bad news since this part of Europe is a major import-export spot and the plague can travel all over from here. Racine* 1664 . He solves the thorny problems of sticking to one place and a short time by having these characters fight inner battles between duties and desires.000 dying every week in Amsterdam alone. The Indian Queen*.assisted by naval forces. by John Dryden* (1631-1700) ." Since all this theatre stuff is going on indoors. 1664 There is a comet this year.Jean Racine* (1639-99). up in Canada. La Thebaide*. that smart Minister of Finance. This year Moliere* puts on Racine* 's first play. He uses the obligatory simple plots and creates very complex characters. the tragedy. This book has a terrific section on perspective scenery and "Four Different Methods of Lighting. There are oil lamps. behind a board shield as foot lights and.com . Noble Mirror of Art*. fixed in brackets on the back of wings. There is terrible weather this winter. escapes to Paris and is quickly accepted in literary circles. take over the the Dutch colony and rename it New York (after the king's brother. in a reflective tin box. We also get a heroic tragedy. He also founds an artistic academy in Paris. Love in a Tub* by Geroge Etherege*. It is successful. reaches Holland in 1663-64. The locale and action are set by opening each play with the protagonist telling all to a confidante.The German. forms the American colony of New France. which has been active around Europe for some -64 years. 1663 In France. the Duke of York. In Dresden between now and 1667 they put up an opera house. having been brought up by his grandparents and an aunt who becomes the Abbess of Port-Royal* (Jansenists*).In England we are beginning to get the earliest of those Restoration* comedies. with mica reflectors behind them. as the English gossip Pepys* tells us. as an area light for a throne or other spots needing highlighting. lighting has become very important. 1664 .

the city is a smoldering ruin. in a bakery in Pudding Lane near London Bridge. 1665 Exploration is still going on in America where the French Marquette and -75 Jolliet are busy exploring the Mississippi. The English are still bunched up in the fertile land east of the Appalachian mountain range.1672 Amdromaque* . and spreads over the city. The New World is a harsh one. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. with singing and dancing. Ninety percent of the living quarters are destroyed and 200. The Tragedy of Mustapha*. also called The Bear and the Cub*. but two weeks after his production opens Racine* lets the company at the Hotel de Bourgogne* do it in direct competition. A guy named Daniel Defoe* (who is only five at this time) will write a really harrowing account of this in his book A Journal of the Plague Year*. All theatre in the new world is strictly amateur. Old London.In England one of those writers of heroic tragedy. within the walls. but there is more to come. 1665 . Ye Bear and ye Cub* being done in Virginia. There is a record of three men being arrested in Virginia for performing this playlet. England declares war on Holland.596 people die in England. An additional 63 acres outside the walls perish. As we saw in earlier plagues. There is worse to come. Six days later. September 1. Missouri and Arkansas rivers. 1666 In England.pdffactory. Moliere* also accepts Racine*'s second play. But with the spring thaw and warmer weather we get the great Plague* of London.1668 Iphigenie* . is gone and the fire spreads to later additions. Roger Boyle* (1621-79). Northern colonies are largely under the Puritan influence which forbids theatre. this is the year of the great fire which destroys most of London.1674 [his only comedy] Phedre* .1667 Mithridate* . This is the earliest record of any theatrical performance in the American colonies.1664 Bernice* . Since Pepys* is running around London. does his first play. carrying messages from the king to rouse fire fighters. All of the finest public and private city buildings are gone. he gives us a terrific eyewitness account.000 people homeless. and besides.Moliere*'s company becomes known as the King's Players* but he also has to help out with the Comedie-Ballets*. Alexandre le Grand*. Between July and October at least 68. 1665 . This makes Moliere* pretty mad.1677 1665 This is the year of English disaster. bigger and brighter than last year's.1670 Alexandre le Grand* .1673 Les Plaideurs* .In America we hear of the first play in English. most people are too busy just trying to survive. In Spain Phillip IV* dies and court performances cease for the next five years. Only 75 acres within the city remain unburnt. Lully* composes the music for them. There have been weeks of drought through the end of August. The winter's hard freeze doesn't break until March and at that time Pepys* tells us of a second comet. He produces and writes a series of these. as Pepys* tells us. The fire breaks out on Saturday. 1665 .com . this is bad news for the theatre.La Thebaide* .1665 Bajazet* .

com . In it Motta* describes how the flats attached to the chariots can have another flat hinged to them so that they can be folded out to fill that empty space between each set of wings. wardrobes. buildings and scenery. 1666 . 1669 . After a slow start it really takes off in popularity and is constantly revived. Dutch and foreigners in general. Scenic delights that had been reserved for the British court before the fire. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. London booksellers lose their entire stock. of whom we will hear more later in relation to his theatres. He will be best known for designing and rebuilding St Paul's Cathedral.* which isn't very popular. His theatre designs bring the latest theatre architecture for the Italinate style of production to England. Champmesle*. arrested and otherwise attacked. A director of theatrical activities in Mantua. scripts. Britannicus.In the great fire of London there is great loss of theatre records.Racine* comes out with another tragedy. This begins Vienna's reign as the most important center for opera production in Europe for the next eighty years. requiring better sanitation. who comes from the Marais* theatre to play Heromine to Du Parc's Andromaque. French. One of the unexpected benefits of the devasting fire is the opportunity to rebuild much of the city. the actress Mlle. Fabrizio Carini Motta* (1627-1699). We are interested in him because he rebuilds several prominent theatres. Racine* comes out with his only comedy. This box set doesn't seem to be widely used. comes out with a work called Construction of Theatres and Theatrical Machinery*. to leave Moliere* 's company and come to the Hotel de Bourgogne* to play the lead in his new play. The financial loss is incalculable although it is estimated at ten million pounds. The English economy.In Italy the box set (that is a set which has side walls and a ceiling rather than just wings and borders) is apparently in use. Much of the prominent work will be designed by Sir Christopher Wren*. Les Plaideurs*. will soon be available to the paying public.pdffactory. which is intended for the Italian actors at the Palais-Royal*.Racine* gets his mistress. Hatred against Catholics intensifies and stiffer laws are passed against them. is now in ruins. In Austria they open an elaborate court theatre in Vienna to stage works by composers and librettists of opera they want to bring in from Italy. The rebuilding of London will take years. Interestingly enough the poor lady dies the following year and there is some nasty gossip that Racine* had her removed to make way for his new mistress. This finishes it for Moliere* and he never speaks to Racine* again. Many of these are killed in riots. However the leading Italian had just left town and so it is done at the Hotel de Bourgogne*. already strained by the war. Anyway. wider streets and building of brick or stone for the new London. 1667 In England there is now the Rebuilding Act. Hunger and riots continue through the winter. the play is an outstanding success and puts Racine* right up there rivaling Corneille*. A gifted architect. Sir Christopher Wren* (1632-1723) proposes plans for the rebuilding of the city. du Parc*.The fire is variously attributed to Catholics. Amdromaque*. 1667 . Motta gives a good summary of theatre stage practice up to this time. 1668 . the actress Mlle.

1671 . In England the Theatre Royal* burns down and Killigrew* commissions another on the same site. His enemies PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. written this year. the king (Charles II) has no legitimate heirs. His two daughters by the first are Protestant and marry Protestants (Mary* to William of Orange* and Anne* to Prince George of Denmark.* marries a second wife. This will make for a sticky succession battle later. is apparently designed by Wren*. comes out with Cambyses. oriental subjects overcome by degrading passions. 1674 . But.In London the new Drury Lane Theatre* opens with Killigrew*'s company. 1673 In England. Everybody likes Racine*'s play better. King of Persia*. This comedy will remain popular a lot longer than the tragedies. the King's brother. which burlesques the typical themes and plot devices of these heroic works.Racine*'s career is about to come to an abrupt end. too.Racine*'s Bajazet* goes on stage.1670 In America the Hudson Bay company is founded to cash in on the increased value of beaver skins. James. 1672 . another writer of heroic tragedy.This year there is an unfortunate run in between Racine* and Corneille* . This same year George Villiers* comes out with a comedy. because Jame's brother. This will be relevant in setting the northern boundary of what will become the United States.Racine* quits fooling with oriental subjects and goes back to the Greeks for this year's tragedy.pdffactory.Racine*'s Mithridate* joins his last year's play in showing historical. 1670 . This will only be a temporary arrangement and Louis XIV* begins to plan the future of theatre in France. Iphigenie*. Moliere* dies after one of the early performances of Le Malade Imaginaire. This year he comes out with his greatest work.In England. It's a brilliant success. The Rehearsal*. 1677 . Elkanah Settle* (1648-1724). some of his enemies get a hack writer named Pradon* to do a play on the same subject and have it produced two days after Phedre* opens. One of those new theatres designed by Sir Christopher Wren* opens.com . The production of Racine*'s Bernice* hits the stage a week before Moliere* produces Corneille's Tite et Bernice*. They are both working on plays with the same subject matter. That religious ban on church rites for actors is still very strong and they have to bury him in an unmarked grave at night. It. There is some criticism for his abandonment of Corneille*'s heroic mood but he is now the leading dramatist in France. This one is the Dorset Garden Theatre* for Davenant*'s company. At his death Lully* takes over the Palais-Royal* and Moliere*'s troupe joins with that of the Theatre Marais* to open a new theater in the rue Guenegaud*. Phedre*. 1674 . also named James. 1673 .) This second wife is Catholic and will produce a son. Even though there are no public Church ceremonies thousands follow the torchlit burial procession through the streets.

Charles II* has to sign the Act of Habeas Corpus to prevent arbitrary imprisonment but the country is seething with revolutionary fervor. 1678 In England the debate over who should succeed Charles II* and the big problem is religion.] The organization of the Comedie Francaise* resembles that of it's original medieval parent. It happens this way: In 1679. Plots and counter-plots abound and things are messy.pack the audiences and make sure that the hack's play gets more acclaim than Racine*'s does. Since the crown has been planning to bring to theatre something of the order and excellence the Academy was bringing to literature. Ever since the Civil War (which ended only 18 years ago) the Protestants have been afraid of loosing their hard-won rights and the Catholics have been scheming to regain those that they lost (when England turned Anglican under Henry VIII)*. comes out with The Rival Queens*. Mlle. Champmesle*. There are some variations since the casting of a new play is done by the author. the dilemma is resolved by a crown order to form a national company with a monopoly of spoken drama in French. The Anglicans and Protestants are working to forbid any king to be Catholic. This seems to be the tail end of the heroic stuff because John Dryden* is starting a new tragic style based on the French neoclassic simplicity and rules. we have a guy named Titus Oates* who fabricates what will be called the "Popish Plot. marries and raises seven kids.com ." in which the king (Charles II*) is to be eliminated and his catholic brother (James. who PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He writes All for Love* this year. make up with his home town. back in 1670) and when he gets the chance this same year to become Louis XIV*'s historiographer. It is a cooperative society where each permanent member actor holds a share. The Comedie Francaise* 1680 . The plot fails. he gives up writing for the theatre. and go back to Port-Royal* to study and record contemporary French history. the Confrerie de la Passion*. as a "regularized" adaptation of Shakespeare*'s Anthony and Cleopatra*.* on the throne and make it legal for the king to be catholic. This brought on a crisis in the Parisian theatre with everybody trying to inherit the prestige of Moliere and not doing much theatre. Needless to say Racine* gets huffy about this (despite the fact that he had done the same thing to Corneille*. with the new ones holding some fraction (a half or a quarter) of a share. 1679 A new parliament passes the Exclusion Bill (excluding Catholics from the throne) to prevent the Catholic James* from getting to the throne but the House of Lords throws out the bill. In England the last of those heroic tragedy writers.pdffactory. in the midst of this Catholic-not Catholic debate. Later he will get religion. left to join the Guenegaud* troupe. but the attempt puts the country in a tizzy. One of Charles II*'s illegitimate sons tours the country trying to raise support but the king declares him illegitimate so that his brother James* can inherit. [This was the way this period started but it got out of hand. The shareholders make all company decisions from choosing the plays to choosing their own parts in them. Nathaniel Lee* (1653-1692).*) is to be put on the throne. Now the Catholics are arguing and conniving to put Charles II's* Catholic brother. Now.In France the Comedie Francaise* is formed making the world's first national theater. the Hotel de Bourgogne*'s principal tragic actress. James.

The next major theatrical advancements in playwrighting and acting will occur in England as the French. next CHAP11 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER ELEVEN Theatre in the Age of Reason 1680-1770 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. French and Germans will be advancing theatre architecture and scenery as they concern themselves with opera and ballet more than straight theatre. which is now assigned a home in the Hotel de Bourgogne*. are only selected to replace a member who has died or retired. the Italian troupe. and through them the Italian. The retirement benefits are pretty good.com . called societaire*s. After 20 years service an actor or actress is entitled to a pension for life. The actor with the longest service is the head. This period can last from a few weeks to years before an opening occurs in the permanent membership. or doyen*. but their first great theatre period is over. and the ballet. The new company is to perform in the Guenegaud* and is officially called the Comedie Francaise* to distinguish it from the other official resident Paris theatre troupe. which is the name now given to the commedia dell'arte* performers. the new kid on the block is taken on probation.usually writes his plays with certain actors in mind. of the company. full members. They pick a role in a comedy and a tragedy to perform for their debut. up and running. influence flavors the English theatre. For this entrance level work they get a fixed salary and are called pensionnaires*. and the development of architecture. the Comedie Francaise. the Comedie Italienne*. conserving the great works and styles of the past and gradually becoming stale until things get shaken up in the French Revolution. The Italians. Actors who want to enter the society are chosen on merit. Other roles in revivals are cast by the company in consultation. The Comedie Francaise* will be a conservative group. If the members like what they see. When the society decides the cast. scenery. We will take note of developments in France as they occur. Similar to the Academy. their organization of actors. actors can't refuse a role. They split the profits according to the full or partial share each holds. all well under way. ***************************** Afterword We leave the French with the last of their great neoclassic playwrights dead or retired.pdffactory.

The search for "fundamental laws"." The neoclassic views of the Renaissance are beginning to change. "enlightenment" is interpreted differently by each ruler and mustn't infringe on their authority. is undertaken in all realms. it is an Age of Faith. Rulers strive to run their countries in an enlightened manner for the benefit of their subjects. of how to insure the rule of right reason here on earth. Gradually. reason will grow and flower as nature intended.Introduction The English Restoration* has. in which the central concern is addressing the problem. The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason* has already begun in the philosophical works of Rene Descartes (15961650). Thinkers are finally freeing themselves from slavishly following Aristotle as they discover that he was quite wrong about a number of things. Romanticism*. intended to replace Aristotle's deductive logic with an inductive method in interpreting nature. "I think. like the "laws" of nature. but irreversibly. This new view holds that reason is the way the mind naturally works and. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He is particularly relevant for advocating a new systematic analysis of knowledge. of course.pdffactory. bad laws. With the American colonies off to a profitable start. Theatre will adapt itself to serve new masters. At the moment it may be useful to be aware of some of the major participants since this is the time when the foundations of our current thinking are established. therefore I am. Galileo Galilei* (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer and physicist who conceived the three laws of motion later formulated by Newton. In England the merchant class is already rising on the tide of investments and ventures around the world. theatre will find new audiences and change to meet their interests and preferences. This last great theatrical flourish of a society led by kings and nobility will gradually fade into a society led by the mercantile middle class. etc. The Age of Enlightenment* is particularly evident in a new scientific way of looking at things. This is also the Age of Enlightenment* where reason is applied to public policy. owing much to two early thinkers: Francis Bacon* (1561-1626) was an English philosopher and writer. improved the telescope for astronomical use and was denounced and later tried by the Inquisition for heretical views that the earth and planets revolve around the sun. Of course. moral and political. the English. Scientific progress is rapid and widespread. The Age of Reason* will continue throughout the period covered in this chapter until it comes into collision with the next great idea. Scientific thinkers are attempting to be objective about what they see. if given a good environment (free of ignorance.com . already begun in 1660.). in A Discourse on Method*. We will take note of some of the more prominent of these enlightened rulers as we encounter them. In 1637 he wrote. In social and political thought there are new considerations about how society should be organized and how governments should be run. The rise of the powerful mercantile class is given a boost by the changes in attitude and emphasis among the philosophers and intellectual leaders. Moreover. Dutch and French are staking out colonial areas in India and the Far East. through the expressions of "natural philosophers" into a new outlook. superstition.

Baruch Spinoza* (1632-77) is a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish extraction.] His experiments with electricity place him among the scientists.) G.Scientific progress is carried on by such figures as: Anton van Leeuwenhoeck* (1632-1723) who improves the microscope and discovers unexpected complexities of what can be seen.) Immanuel Kant* (1724-1804) is a German metaphysician and transcendental philosopher and the founder of critical philosophy.com . The old architecture of a Christian cosmos with God at the top and man in the center is being rethought. His political accomplishments will be addressed later. but his work in founding libraries and establishing the postal system need to be remembered. This is an attempt to bring religion into a viable relation with the explosion of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In his principal work in theology he discusses the problem of evil and a defense of optimism [see Voltaire below. Benjamin Franklin* (1706-1790) is an American statesman. The seventeenth century produces a number of thinkers whose investigations lead them to reappraisals of current views in the Christian religion. especially in England. that give every evidence of virtue and morality.pdffactory. puts forth a theory of the formation of chemical compounds. Leibniz* (1646-1716) is a German philosopher and mathematician. This leads to rethinking ideas of religion. works out the system of chemical nomenclature that is the basis of our present system. Liberal in his religious views." There is the growth of "natural religion". together with Newton*'s. We owe our current Social Sciences to this guy. Carl Linnaeus* (von Linne) (1707-1778) is a Swedish botanist and the father of the modern system of botany. George Berkeley* (1685-1753) is an Irish philosopher who lives in America from 1728-31. He is remembered for giving the first accurate descriptions of a number of things he sees. The emphasis in now on rational inquiry and a search for empirical data to support views. scientist and philosopher [which makes it difficult to know where to put him. he champions freedom and sympathizes with American and French people in their struggles for liberty. He seeks to determine the laws and limits of man's knowledge while avoiding dogmatism. The intelligentsia consider that religion should be based on rationality and move to "deism" and "natural virtue" instead of "original sin. David Hume* (1711-1776) is a Scots philosopher known for his philosophical skepticism (Humism.] David Hartley* is an English physician and philosopher who lays the foundation for psychology and is active in education. totally unconnected with Christianity. Philosophic progress is based on some earlier men: Rene Descartes* (1596-1650) "Cartesian rationalism" is the leading theory whereby man might. John Locke* (1632-1704) is better remembered by the general population for his work in political theory [see below. Religion: Travelers and explorers find people worshiping deities.] He asserts that man is the product of his environment. Sir Issac Newton* (1642-1727) is an English natural philosopher and mathematician who conceives the idea of universal gravitation (1665. Antoine Laurent Lavoiser* (1743-1794) is a French chemist and the founder of modern chemistry. His work. He names oxygen. and. with others. develops calculus. discover basic axioms on which to build a "social science" as accurate and valid as physical sciences. He is a follower of Descartes* and the most eminent expounder of pantheism. especially microorganisms. by applying Decartes method of enquiry. W.

Marquis de Condorcet* (1743-94) is active politically in the aftermath of the French Revolution (with the Girondists) writing the Progress of the Human Spirit*." known for his Edict of Toleration. If this contract is broken by a ruler. Political theory: John Locke* begins the development with his 1690 publication Two Treatises of Government* in which he puts forth the view that government is responsible to the governed as a consequence of a mythical contract entered into when society was first formed. This work is condemned by the Sorbonne and publicly burned because in it he expounds his doctrine of sensationalism. becomes the King of Prussia. corresponds with Voltaire* and is a disciple of the encyclopedists. He begins the notion of the "noble savage." Authors who reflect the Enlightenment: Alexander Pope* (16881733) is an English poet. or sensualism.com . This idea. His followers and elaborators in France include: Montesquieu* (16891755) who is a lawyer and political philosopher. Jean Jacques Rousseau* (1712-1778) who lives mainly in Paris and is an associate of Diderot. Both comedy and serious plays are transformed into "sentimental" forms. supported by the success of the English Civil War. He is best known for his military prowess but also excels as an enlightened administrator and is an admirer of George Washington*. Aristocratic nobles turn more to opera and ballet and regular theatre caters to the increasingly affluent middle-class merchants. The coming Romantic movement will like it. Frederick the Great* (1712-1786). then the community has the right to rebel. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. We will. The combination of the ideas of the Enlightenment* and the inclinations of the middle class lead to theatre fare in which "sentiments" predominate. Economic theory: Adam Smith* will write the Wealth of Nations* in 1776. The triumph of innocent virtue rewarded and evil forces punished delights the public most. will grow and spread.pdffactory. Enlightened despotism is found in several rulers: Peter I the Great* (1672-1725) renowned for introducing European civilization into Russia and raising his country to a recognized place among European powers. but she identifies with the Russian people. influencing the revolutions of the eighteenth century and gradually decreasing the number of "absolute" rulers in the western world. He attempts a systematic survey of human nature reflected in his Essay on Man* (1733.scientific discoveries (such as Galileo*'s discovery that the solar system revolves around the sun) and a rational view of the universe. Clause Adrien Helvetius* (1715-1771) is a French philosopher who writes De l'Esprit* in 1758. Joseph II* (1741-90) of Austria/Germany and Holy Roman Emperor is one of the best examples of the "benevolent despot. which puts forth the notion of "enlightened self-interest.) This is an age of encyclopedias when a number of writers strive to put all this new knowledge together with the old. One of his more influential acts is when he sells his library to Catherine II* of Russia." Denis Diderot* (1713-1784) is best known for editing the Encyclopedia* although he also writes two plays and does a lot of art and theatre criticism. Catherine II the Great* (1729-96) of Russia is also known for extending her empire.

com . seating 650 people and built by Killigrew*. The plague and fire have come and gone and rebuilding London is well in hand. The proscenium arch is now a permanent feature. there are usually benches in the pit rather than standing only. Those who live outside London are regarded as culturally deprived and of no account in "society. When Davenant* died in 1668 two actors. The king. then it is William Smith) take over the artistic direction with the Davenant family controlling the finances and the patent. Lincoln's Inn Fields* seats less. The audience space has a raked pit. used earlier by Davenant* and not in use at this time. but the English stages feature a large apron in front of the arch. while acting and playwrighting flourishes in the public theatre.AND WHO.The English Restoration Continues and Becomes the Age of Great Acting Introduction: The actual restoration of the king is now twenty years in the past. there are grooves for wings and shutters." The playwrights and members of the company know their audiences personally and reflect their interests and tastes.pdffactory. This will change gradually as the period goes on. and traps in the floor and flying machinery hanging from above. have to follow architectural and scenic innovations through Italian and Austrian opera presented by and for nobility. HOW . The scenery is behind the arch where the stage floor is raked.COMPANIES Basically there are two patent companies in London. It is also here that audience seating begins to encroach on both sides. In this limited society everyone knows everyone else and they all live in London. This does not include Ireland which has its own patent. Drury Lane Theatre*. Killigrew* doesn't manage his company very well and in 1682 the two companies merge. 1680 . These are the only theatre companies permitted to put on plays in England. WHO. The two original patents were granted to William Davenant* and Thomas Killigrew*. built by Davenant* to accommodate operatic spectacles. Thomas Betterton* and Henry Harris (until 1677. his court and all sorts of hangers-on make up the mainstay of the theatre audience. The rest of the English population is still suspicious of the theatre and we will hear more of their views. On the stage we have actors and actresses who began the period as shareholders but the financial arrangements are changing too. Obviously there are also going to be "illegal" theatres and productions. The roll drop is another mainstay of the background scenery. There are a couple of licenses for theatre in the provinces. The English Restoration Theatre at this time: WHERE After the various fires the important usable theatres in London are: Christopher Wren*'s Dorset Garden Theatre*. Unlike the French. The trend is toward paying actors a salary and providing benefit nights in which the night's PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. ACTORS The performances start fairly early in the afternoon since the audience doesn't go to work. at least two galleries (or balconies) and lots of boxes. It is on this forestage that all the action takes place.therefore.

WHAT The types of plays and theatrical entertainments being given in these theatres include: tragedy written in blank verse. There is a traditional way of playing classic roles (that is. especially in heroic and tragic parts. audiences come to see their favorite actors no matter what play they are in.proceeds (less expenses) goes to the actor. farce) and especially comedy of manners*. That is. The Gentleman Dancing Master* 1672. 1663-1748) in comedy of manners beginning 1680.com . Anne Bracegirdle* (c. for example. This whole financial business will gradually change. The Country Wife* 1675. of course. all contemporary clothes. If it takes place in a chamber it is the same chamber they used for a different play last week. This is the period when Henry Purcell* (1659-1695) is starting to write incidental music for plays. (1680). The other actors fall far behind him. of intrigue. This is logical since there are audience members sitting on the stage and the actors can't move around with much freedom. comedy of all kinds (of "humours". best seen in Thomas Otway*'s The Orphan*. from the theatre in Dublin. The Plain Dealer* 1676) William Congreve* (1670- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. in large part. [by 1750 this changes and actors try new ways of interpreting old roles] Acting style is oratorical (or declamatory) which means that the actor with the lines comes to center stage and speaks his lines beautifully to the assembled audience. After that the actors rehearse for no more than two weeks. That works fine for the contemporary comedies but seems strange to us for plays that are supposed to take place. ACTORS Thomas Betterton* (1635-1710) is regarded as the greatest actor of his day. The author gets the proceeds of the third night of a run. The Man of Mode* 1676) William Wycherley* (Love in a Wood* 1671. but at the moment the number of potential audience members is very small and this means there is a definite limit to the number of performances and the number of plays needed. and. The scenery is made up of stock sets used over and over again. They are. The costumes are supplied by the actors with a company wardrobe for those who don't have something good enough. in classical Rome. Elizabeth Barry* (1658-1713) leading tragic roles with Betterton*. roles in plays that are revived frequently) and it is handed down from actor to actor.pdffactory. no matter what the play is. The next wave of important actors will come. We are moving into a time when the actors are more important than the plays. This is becoming the way to pay playwrights too. ACTRESSES Nell Gwynn* (1650-1687) brief career as a comedian and dancer 1665-69. an English version of opera which uses Shakespeare*'s plays and new works by Dryden* and has spoken passages. The most interesting and enduring plays of this period are those known as comedy of manners* and the more important authors of these are: Sir George Etherege* (She Would if She Could* 1668. The plays are rehearsed by the playwright (if he is alive) for the first three rehearsals.

the Banish't Cavaliers*. He calls it Louisiana* .1729). which persecutes everybody who doesn. WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS We are coming into a period with a large number of women playwrights. The Rover. is just the thing that will lead the American colonies to insist on putting the separation of church and ctate business into their Constitution. 1682 . Many of these Protestants emigrate to North America and many others go to England and Holland. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Her most successful plays are comedies of intrigue. The Dorset Garden Theatre* is now seldom used. 1686 . 1671-1697) comes out with the popular London Cuckolds*. is yet to come.] In the Far East. The conflict is called the "Glorious Revolution. the best known nowadays of all in this period. In America we find the first German immigrants.In Paris the French composer Jean Baptiste Lully* (who wrote music for Moliere*) comes out with his opera. Edward Ravenscroft* (fl. The title role is a favorite for leading actors. the town of Gotha* builds an opera house. ballet and foreign troupes touring. The first and best known of this band is Aphra Behn* (1641-89). They tend to be very industrious and skilled workers which is a big help in the colonies. He wants a return to an absolute monarchy and a reestablishment of Catholicism as the national religion. 1682 La Salle* goes down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico and claims all the land in the valley for Louis XIV. [This business of having an enforced state religion.com . We will look at his work later. 1683 Newton* explains his mathematical theory on tides and the gravitational attraction of the sun. This is just what Parliament has been afraid of and there is strong opposition to his views. We will hear more from this town later in the next chapter. However. all Chinese ports are opened to foreign trade. In France Louis XIV* revokes the Edict of Nantes* (that agreement that permittedreligious tolerance) and exiles thousands of French Protestants (called Huguenots*).pdffactory. 1683 In the tiny Duchy of Saxony. The End of the Seventeenth Century 1681 . 1685 In England Charles II* dies and his Catholic brother James II* comes to the throne. Armide et Renaud*. first done in 1678. performing mainly at the Drury Lane Theatre*. which makes sense since she spent the Dutch war being a spy. or. is often revived throughout the period in a modified version. In England the leading writer of farce. They are among the most successful dramatists of their time and some of their plays continue to be produced into the nineteenth century." in which the Catholic view is unsuccessful at the moment.Because of financial difficulties the companies of Davenant* and Killigrew* merge.t belong to that particualr faith. She is the first Englishwoman we know about to make a living as a writer. moon and earth. The Germans in Hamburg and Leipzig are also fairly involved with opera. the controversy will continue without breaking into actual warfare.The Spanish theatrical Renaissance comes to an end with the death this year of Calderon*.

Instead of a real armed conflict. parliament invites Netherlands's ruler. de Maintenon*'s girl's school at St. joining his Catholic wife and son in exile in France. Both Catholics and Dissenters are benefited by suspension of the penal laws against them through the king's Declaration of Indulgence. Aphra Behn* brings out a pantomime-farce.In England. his fatherin-law. Meanwhile William of Orange* (William II* back home in Orange) signs on as William III* of England and Mary becomes Mary II* of England. He does and James* quits without a fight at the moment. we now have two British political parties." Parliament meets in convention and decides to offer the crown to William and Mary* jointly. This brings to an end the "Glorious Revolution. 1689 . After all that parliamentary leadership since the first Charles fight in 1640. it is not performed professionally during his lifetime.1687 . They also sign on to a religious Toleration Act. They both accept these conditions and this marks the beginning of the British constitutional monarchy*. 1688 .Charles Davenant sells his controlling interest in the theatre to his brother Alexander. This is terrific for England but it doesn't cover the rights of overseas colonists. In England Henry Purcell* writes his opera.Racine* (now in retirement at Port Royal) is persuaded to write a play (Esther*) for Mme. The Comedie Francaise* moves into a new theatre built especially for them out of a tennis court of the Etoile* in St. to bring over Dutch troops and help them against the king. William of Orange* (James* II's daughter Mary*'s husband. Cyr. with a libretto by Nahum Tate* (who is better remembered for his adaptations of Shakespeare's tragedies with happy endings. William II and Mary I* have to accept a Declaration of Right which confirms the ancient rights and privileges of the people before they will be permitted to rule. which is not interesting in itself but is a forerunner of a theatrical trend that will lead to the English pantomime. It is very successful anyway. Parliament requires the rulers submission to parliamentary consent on important matters including who gets picked for succession to the throne. In America the European settlers conflict with the native Indians PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but the Test Act (which tests your religious affiliation) has not been repealed and there is still a lot of controversy. 1688 England is so mad at James II* about the Catholic business and his attempts to restore absolute monarchy that open revolt seems a real possibility. By the author's request. They accept and parliament ratifies the declaration as the Bill of Rights. Another crisis is on the way over this attempt to restore Catholic influence in the country. However parliament insists on certain conditions.) 1689 James II* tries to make a comeback and lands with an army in Ireland but William II* beats him soundly and James gives up next year. remember?).com . Peter I the Great* seizes the Russian throne from his half-sister and begins his attempts to turn Russia into a modern state. This may seem irrelevant now but it makes trouble later. Germain-des-Pres. This oversight will lead to a later revolution in America. The Emperor of the Moon*.pdffactory. Dido and Aeneas*. the Whigs and the Tories. 1687 The English Catholics win a victory when parliament passes exemptions for Catholics from the Test Act. The Whigs back the notion that the throne can be assigned by parliament and the Tories are the last of the Royalists and insist that the throne belongs by heredity and divine right.

break away from the management of Rich* at the Drury Lane Theatre. and a later one. It turns out a lawyer named Christopher Rich* had put up a lot of the money.and the Iroquois massacre French settlers near Montreal Canada. 1698. This is the year the Bank of England is founded. dies without children and the monarchy's succession become a matter for serious debate.pdffactory.In England William Congreve* comes out with Love for Love*. ownership of theatres pass into the hands of non-theatre people. This. He will write four more before giving up the theatre in disgust. 1692 . Now you can borrow money from an institution instead of a moneylender. the actor-manager emerges as the one position that will become the dominant force in shaping British theatre through the end of our period. The actor-manager is also the one who has the biggest financial stake in a theatre company. too. William Congreve* 1693 . grace and brilliance of the dialogue. Old Bachelor*. as the financial management of the theatre changes.In England.This is the year when William Congreve* (1670-1729) comes out with his first brilliant comedy.Racine* writes another play (Athalie*) for the girl's school at St.In England. He will also defend the morality of the stage against Jeremy Collier* [see below. Now Rich seizes control of the theatre even though he doesn't know anything about the business. His comedies are praised for their wit. led by Betterton*. 1691 .Alexander Davenant (remember he bought the controlling interest in the theatre?) leaves England to escape his creditors. 1693 . Among theatre artists. In this play. 1690 . This is also the year that the major performers. Tate*'s versions of these Shakespearean plays will prevail on the stage through the nineteenth century. Congreve* brings the comedy of manners to its peak.] His other comedies are: Double Dealer* (1693) Love For Love* (1695) The Way of the World* (1700) 1694 The English queen. The brilliant scenes are marked by the wittiest dialogue and terrific characterizations. is successful but he won't let this one be performed professionally during his lifetime either. Mary II*. the dramatist Nahum Tate* is made poet laureate. To the west a French explorer gets to the Great Salt Lake in Utah. He turns out to be a really lousy guy to work for and theatrical mutiny begins to brew.com . Cyr. He has rewritten Shakespeare's* tragedies with happy endings to appeal to the sentimental audiences. 1695 . Later (in 1721) this play will be performed and become known as one of his masterpieces.* The actors revolt and persuade William PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1690 The English found Calcutta (India) with a colonial administrator for enlarging trade.

The Anatomist*. 1696 .pdffactory.In England. Dryden* and a few others make public apologies but Congreve* protests and. New plays now show a move toward a more conservative moral position and increasing sentimentality. He will turn to fiction later. the good are sorely tried by evil. He is off for a year and a half to study European ways of life in Prussia. and they open up the Lincoln's Inn Fields* Theatre. 1698 . after one last effort. and are rewarded while the evil are punished. White's Chocolate House opens this year. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) Love's Last Shift* is the first of a number of plays that show profligate characters pursuing their fashionable objectives until. 1698 In England. England and Vienna.The English playwrighting trend toward moral and sentimental comedy shows up in The Constant Couple* by George Farquhar* (1678-1707). This promotes some changes in playwrighting. Daniel Defoe* is writing and recommends income tax in his Essay on Projects* which is full of commercial and social proposals far ahead of his time. He does.The commedia dell'arte* troupe is expelled from Paris following an alleged attack on Louis XIV*'s second wife. In England and Europe a popular means of transportation is the Sedan chair. 1696 England establishes the Board of Trade to promote the interests of merchants and industry. what with all these new foods being imported from distant parts. at the end.The new more sentimental and moral trend shows up in a work by one of the most prominent rising playwrights. Colley Cibber* (1671-1757. they do. Jeremy Collier* makes an attack on current playwrighting which has considerable merit. chocolate and coffee are becoming very fashionable. These will become the headquarters of those new political parties.III* to give them a license to form a second troupe. and convert to a sentimental moral view. He makes a good case that current English plays don't do either one. That is. they have a change of heart. Parisian theater is reduced to the Comedie Francaise* and the Opera.com . This will become home to the Tories* (the royalist party). Mrs. 1699 . Holland. A Short View of the Immorality and Profaness of the English Stage* emphasizes neoclassic doctrine that theatre should teach and please. Ravenscroft* comes out with his other popular farce. The French court of Versailles is the model for European courts. In England. reform. In England. He will learn a lot. 1697 This year Peter* The Great of Russia goes traveling abroad incognito. triumph in the end. will give up playwrighting for good. 1697 . Farquhar* manages to preserve wit in his plays but avoids problems of moral controversy and sets his plays in the country (which is more conservative and moral) rather than in the fashionable (and wicked) city. The Brits open coffee and chocolate houses.

These are a combination of a trade fair and a semi-permanent international market. The two biggest are the St. The play sparkles with witty dialogue. Millamant and Mirabell.* But. The leading pair of lovers. unmarried women are taxed for their spinster state. (James. Germain which runs from February to Easter. The French prohibition against any theatrical group (other than the two legitimate theatres) putting on performances depends on the definition of "legitimate" as a production in which there is only spoken dialogue. In Germany. they have competition from the theatres at the fairs. Louis XIV. It is full of fops. Laurent which goes from the end of June to the end of October. Louis will help the "Jacobite" cause by funding attempts on behalf of James III* to regain the English throne. but there is no evidence that he actually does so. of course. We will hear only occasionally from Spain as an important part of western civilization from here on. 1700 In Spain the new King is a French Bourbon. These fairs are not the week long livestock shows we are used to now.com . Connecticut German Theatre Begins To Stir . and.pdffactory. Yale College is founded in New Haven. 1701 Since the French and English have been fighting each other off and on for hundreds of years. foolish men and women. In Russia. while reserving two for the "legitimate" theatre. marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire* and begins the modern European state system. The Way of the World*. value. Opposing the archconservative church. intrigue. as it does in England.Congreve*'s last. Obviously these events are in need of entertainment as a regular ingredient. goes on the stage. and the St. ballet and pantomime. the son of James II*) as James III* of England. Philip V*. In America. This definition enables them to assign certain theatres for the production of Opera. In America the Hudson Bay Company is founded to take advantage of the increasing popularity.1699-1702 . The war left an PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and the Spanish Renaissance comes to an end. This distinction leads. it isn't suprising that the French King. and most brilliant.* recognizes the "Old Pretender". After this play both the world and its ways begin to change. but it sure makes the English unhappy. of beaver skins. It doesn't work. He changes the old Russian calendar to the Julian calendar* used in Europe. 1700 . Students present plays at Harvard and William and Mary colleges. 1700 . to troupes producing plays with music in them to evade the restriction. Berlin to be precise. play.1700 The Peace of Westphalia* (1648) had put an end to the Thirty Years War*.Over in America Richard Hunter* obtains permission to give theatrical performances. show how the wise and prudent can reach a marriage agreement that can survive among the dangerous ways of their peculiar world. Peter* has returned from his travels abroad and begins all sorts of changes.In France there are only two legitimate troupes in Paris: the opera and the Comedie Francaise. he makes a start on social reforms. The French fairs have been big time international affairs since the early middle ages. all driven by their desire for reputation and money.

The opening curtain time moves PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Economic decline continued into the end of the seventeenth century. For the sake of convenience it is usually called Germany although it includes a lot of adjacent territory to the east and south. As the period progresses we will see the rise of new acting methods and a new managerial system which will gradually raise theatrical performers from the misery of strolling players to dignified positions in an assured profession supported by noble patronage. The major force within this area is the Archduchy of Austria. In all these the clown is the most prominent figure. who's been married to a Prince of Denmark but she doesn't share the throne with him. Among other attributes he can be a comic peasant where his assumed stupidity covers slyness. because the ruling Hapsburg*s have family connections all over Europe (Spain. Hungary and Italy). appearing in such guises as Hans Stockfisch* and Pickelhering*. beginning a cultural and artistic flowering in Saxony that will last until his son's death in 1763.* In 1697. is made up of some 300 separate principalities. Consequently. only gradually becoming a comic character. Consequently. The German Narr* is equivalent to the English fool. By 1700 opera and Italinate scenery can be found in many of the German and Austrian courts. The first daily newspaper. the elector of Saxony* becomes the King of Poland as Augustus II*. Keep in mind that this part of Europe. it is only in the courts of those segments who are able to make economic progress that culture begins to raise a tentative head.pdffactory. The typical program there includes two plays followed by a farce. Under William and Mary* there had been a gradual decline in the court's interest in theatre. still technically the Holy Roman Empire*. Middle Class and Sentimental English Theatre 1702 William III* dies and parliament invites Anne* (James*'s other Protestant daughter) 1665-1714. Netherlands. Now Anne* has come to the throne. Interestingly enough the next King of England will come out of the Germanic kingdom of Hanover. By and large most of this central European area is a political and cultural mess at this time. The Peace settlement enabled the French to take pieces this Holy Roman Empire* territory and Sweden and Denmark rule over other pieces. This Central European area was the center of the German Reformation in thepreceding century and now is dominated by the Jesuit* school theatre which doesn't encourage professional theatre. this decline reaches an all time low and theatre is forced to look to the rising merchant class for new audiences. the popular theatre is to be found mainly at the fairs.com . The clown improvises at will. The first of these English guides are the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough. is issued in London. She also has no children and tends to let other people guide her. bishoprics and Free Cities. He has appeared throughout the sixteenth century as one who lives foolishly. In Denmark serfdom is abolished.impoverished and ravaged Germany.) Attempts have been made to adapt French neoclassic plays to German but the audiences don't like them. These characteristics are now being blended with the English clown and the Italian Commedia del'Arte* to give rise to the Hanswurst* (see below. the Daily Courant.

The owner of Lincoln's Inn Fields* Theatre.progressively later in the day to cater to those who work for a living. This is followed in 1707 with his The Beaux' Stratagem*. from Lincoln's Inn Fields* to a new theatre in the Haymarket named Queen's Theatre*. now under the management of Congreve*. Peter the Great* (reigns 1682-1725) is trying to westernize Russia and this year he imports a Polish theatre troupe. This seems to be a descendant and adaptation of the old court masques. 1702 . The popularity of this form sets back the development of written drama in German. school drama in the Jesuit* schools reaches its peak with some 769 schools. through the English comedians' Germanspeaking clowns. Although John Weaver* is beginning this process. 1707 . The kinds of plays presented change to meet the interests of a very different audience.* These are presented in the public theatres as afterpieces to regular plays. The Recruiting Officer*. This character combines some of the attributes of the Italian Commedia del'Arte*'s zanni* with the medieval fool and various English clowns [from Shakespeare's colleague Will Kempe*. 1705 . Joseph Anton Stranitsky* (1676-1726) who works mainly in Vienna." is issued. He helps establish a vigorous tradition of improvised comedy. they are beginning to decline and be suppressed.pdffactory. beer-drinking peasant with a Bavarian accent.In London this year.] Hanswurst* is a jolly. He is given his distinctive traits by the German actor. universities and seminaries in France. because they are trying to get the monopoly on education and are deep in political intrigues.In England. tears it down and puts up a new building which won't open for a while. the English actor Anthony Aston* arrives in America. But it also is devised as a means of pleasing the new.com . the new Queen's Theatre* doesn't work well for plays and it is now devoted entirely to the production of opera. The Jesuits are writing many important works on theatre practice. Both of these will become perennial favorites. Culture is slowly trickling in. lower class audiences. 1704 In America the first newspaper to survive. Betterton* moves his company. Much of this kind of theatrical activity is designed to sidestep the licensing laws. 1703 . red jacket. Rich*. A British vogue for Italian opera begins about now. John Spencer*'s Hans Stockfisch* and Robert Reynold*'s Pickelhering*. In Germany.Back across the Atlantic in the New World. He plays just enough performances in Charleston and New York to pay for his passage back to England.We come to the beginning of the English pantomime* as John Weaver* organizes dances into a connected story. 1706 . long yellow pants and a white neck ruff. but it doesn't prosper. it will take a few years and the efforts of another man to get it up and running.In Germany the traditional clowns have coalesced into a national (even though there isn't any "nation") clown called Hanswurst*. Germany and Austria.Farquhar* comes out with another play. 1707 . but. His costume becomes a green pointed hat. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the weekly "Boston News-Letter.

Outstanding English and Irish Actors Between 1710 and 1730 there are a number of prominent actors on the English stage. In Vienna we find the first appearance of the comedy clown Hanswurst* in suburban theatres.* is torn down. The playwrights get no royalties beyond this original payment. After the 14 years the copyright reverts to the author and it can be renewed for another 14. the metal-making business shifts into high gear.In England. Turcaret*." appears.com . The next problem delaying technological advancement is transportation. war and economic downturn earlier. In Paris. of England. When. what with all their ship building and turning wood into charcoal for making high quality metal.pdffactory. "the Examiner.1707 Queen Anne*. designed by Christopher Wren. a novelist and playwright. To be prominent means that the public goes to see the actor rather than the play. Even more momentous events are transpiring out in the English countryside. a new wave of immigrants starts. He will soon get into a dispute with the Comedie Francaise* and quit them to write for the theatres at the fairs.* comes out with his outstanding comedy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He will later (1740) publish his autobiography which is a mine of information on the English theatre 1690-1735. the Dorset Garden Theatre*.) arrives in London. In 1710 he becomes one of the managers and leading players at Drury Lane*. He is known for his system of subjective idealism (Berkeleianism. England is running short of wood. later this year. 1708 . one of his workers.) What with all that European confusion. 1710 . Also. By this time written works (like plays) can be copyrighted for 14 years and playwrights can sell the copyright to theatre companies. (that's sort of Bavaria). From the Palatinate in Germany.The first public German theatre opens in Vienna. Thomas Newcomen* develops a pumping engine to reduce flooding in the mines and there is now (in coke) unlimited fuel and access (because the ore mines finally aren't flooded) to the ore needed for technological advancement. the first literary periodical. A Quaker metal worker turns from using charcoal to using coke (coal partially burned to get the impurities out). 14.* comes up with a better coke. George Frederic Handel* (1685-1759. because the roads are really lousy and it's slow and expensive to move the coal and the ore to the ironmongering shops. a John Thomas. 1709 .000 emigrate to America. Some of the best known (today) are: Colley Cibber* (1671-1757) who started acting in 1690 and worked for Rich playing leads (especially fops) and writing popular plays. He seems to be one of the people responsible for originating the French Comic Opera (Opera Comique). Another ironmonger.The European composer. 1709 George Berkeley* (that Irish philosopher) comes out with A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge*. Alain Rene Lesage. finally gets a workable Act of Union with Scotland (the old Cromwellian one failed) and the island is now officially one country.

1714 Queen Anne* of England dies this year without an heir.Robert Wilks* (c. has been king of Hanover since 1698 and is the next in line for the English throne. in 1713. She plays both comedy and tragedy. George*. begins in Irish theatre) was an established actor in tragedy and dashing young hero roles in comedy at Drury Lane* by 1698. he is admitted to the management of Drury Lane*. By 1733 these actors will all be dead or retired. They are the ones who begin marching in step. This is where the German rulers of England come from. James*' granddaughter Sophia married into the German house of Hanover and had a son. begins in Irish theatre) who starts acting in 1712 at Smock Alley Theatre* in Dublin. becomes one of the managers and leading players there. This does not serve England very well.The School of Dance is established at the Paris Opera. He comes to London in 1691 and joins the management of Drury Lane*in 1710 but quits in 1713. highly disciplined and efficient army. Frederick* draws up a 297 page manual for all public employers. later known as Frederick The Great. but is best known for her success in high comedy.starts ruling. He quits using foreign mercenaries as troops and develops native forces by requiring all peasants in each canton or district to be liable for two years military service in the rank and file. by royal order. No problem. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1713 In England. begins in Irish theatre) playing low comedian roles. especially when he plays Falstaff*. In two more years he will be playing small parts at Drury Lane*. too. The only well known actor to remain will be James Quin* (1693-1766. He. audiences love his comic portrayals. He sets up a General Directory to translate royal decisions into written instructions and supervise implementation as well. This son.pdffactory.com . Thomas Doggett* (1670-1721. Barton Booth* (1681-1733. [We will see these guys being hired to fight in the American Revolution by the English. This year he succeeds to the British throne as George* I (rules 1714-1727. The officer class is the Prussian aristocracy ["Junkers"] where military service is a traditional career. aiming for uniformity through extreme discipline (sometimes driving soldiers to suicide. She will be the first actress to be honored with burial in Westminster Abbey. Frederick I dies and his son Frederick II*.) They invent the iron ramrod and increase the speed of musketry. 1713 In Prussia. 1665-1732. He is the last of the actors who achieve success with a declamatory style. Although he prefers doing tragedy. 1713 . He will build a terrific. In Prussia witchcraft trials are abolished. Anne Oldfield* (1683-1730) goes on the stage about 1700. He becomes the finest tragic actor in London. begins in Irish theatre) comes to London in 1700. He plays secondary roles until.] Frederick* regulates civil life as well. parliament's Act of Settlement enables them to go shopping for a suitable ruler. this year marks the last execution for witchcraft.) He can't speak English and spends half of most years ruling his home turf in Hanover.

at least nine will be revived at regular intervals. Louis XIV* dies and his grandson Louis XV*. the Italian Commedia del'Arte* is invited back to Paris and the Hotel de Bourgogne*. It is uncertain what kind of programs are produced here.In England (or he may have been in Holland at the time) Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit* (16861736) comes up with his mercury thermometer with a temperature scale. Voltaire* (16941778). social advancement and a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Oedipe*.1718 This year in France one of the most influential theatrical figures of his time. 1715 . publishes a theatrical political satire against his opponents called Androboros*. history.). This is the earliest extant American play. etc. but at least the Americans know they need theatre buildings and they are starting to do something positive about it. 1714 .com . There is musical accompaniment for much of the action and lots of grand spectacle. This tragedy is successful and. age five. establishes the pattern of English pantomime* with Harlequin Executed*. becomes the most famous and accomplished English pantomimist of the century. He writes it while imprisoned in the Bastille for writing a political lampoon. 1716 . (who manages both the Lincoln's Inn Fields* and Covent Garden* theatres). philosophy.In America. is crowned. They come back but they are now doing a number of different shows.remember that they call him James III because the French King said so) In France. son of the last JamEs II* who got bounced for being Catholic . This work provides the Fahrenheit scale in use in America and England. In music Bach* and Handel* are busy writing and performing their works. the Governor of New York. Rich**.In Paris vaudevilles and musical comedies appear. In France. Virginia*. They are also very appealing to the public. brings him fame. acting under the name of Lun*. theatre criticism. He is under the regency of the Duc d'Oreleans. While Rich will write only about twenty of these. 1717 In Prussia education is being promoted by Frederick* and school attendance is made compulsory. 1716 -1717 theatrical season in London is the time when John Rich** (1692-1761). As is evident by its title this theatrical form owes something to the Italian Commedia del'Arte* as well as John Weaver's dances with a connected story. Robert Hunter*.pdffactory. 1715 In England there is a Jacobite* revolt trying to put the "Old Pretender" (James III*.The first American theater is built by William Levington* of Williamsburg. These are a way of avoiding government restrictions on what company can perform where. There is also a mix of serious scenes featuring classical mythology (a sort of popular version of the earlier court masques*) with hilarious scenes using the commedia characters. the son of Christopher Rich*. 1718 England is at war with Spain again. England also issues the first bank notes this year. comes out with his first play. together with his other writings (plays. Voltaire* .

] One of his big contributions to theatre is his role in bringing about the elimination of spectators sitting on the stage. gets to see his last tragedy. He lives to a ripe old age and.In Germany. calling it a "tragedy for chambermaids. He becomes a great friend of a number of French actors of the time and will be elected to the French Academy in 1746. He unceasingly attacks religious bigotry. passionately addicted to theatre.com . Irene* (1778) performed on the stage of the Comedie Francaise*. He reads the Restoration playwrights and Shakespeare in the original and really learns from them. Among his best known tragedies are: Zaire* (1732) [based on Shakespeare's Othello*] Alzire* (1736) Mahomet ou le Fanatism* (1741) L'Orphelin de la Chine* (1755) Some of his drames* are: L'Enfant prodigue* (1736) Nanine* (1749) [based on Richardson*'s novel . tyrannical oppression and intolerance. combining tragedy and comedy and dealing seriously with middle-class domestic problems. He is exiled from France over a political quarrel and spends 1726-29 in London where he learns English and goes to the playhouses. [A drame* is a type of French play. see below 1733). He will become a very wealthy man. He is big on using plays as a vehicle for expressing controversial and philosophical ideas. 1719 France joins England in war on Spain." This doesn't prevent him from writing a bunch of drames* himself. influencing several generations of innovative actors and managers. a keen (but not professional) actor and builder of several private theatres where he can do private theatricals. This has to do with all that business of founding colonies and foreign trade. In France the theatrical companies that play the fairs are suppressed. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. later adapted for the stage is: Candide* (1759) [a satire on the philosophical optimism of Pope and Leibnitz*] He visits a number of courts of enlightened rulers and corresponds with them throughout his lifetime.pdffactory. She is an excellent actress and will become an exceptional theatre troupe manager.see below] One of his philosophical novels. In his works we also see the first influences of the cultures of the Far East creeping into the West. Carolina (or Caroline) (1697-1760) marries Johann Neuber* this year. one of the most influential German theatre figures surfaces now. Comedie Larmoyante* (tearful comedy. So named by Denis Diderot* to describe his own plays. 1718 .Court position.* and they both join a German acting troupe. He will later oppose the French genre. becoming known as Carolina Neuber. His contemporaries regard his tragedies as comparable to Corneille and Racine but the days of neoclassic tragedy are over. at the age of 84.

Newfoundland. Also. After two centuries the "mini ice age" is over and the next three decades will bring really fine weather. 1719 . Swiss immigrants introduce rifles into America. The English laws of this time ensure that ownership of land be passed on through the eldest son (who are prohibited from moving to the city to engage in commerce or trade. becomes the intellectual theatrical leader of Germany.) One of the most profitable areas of trade is in slaves from Africa needed to work the English sugar plantations in the West Indies. and. all contribute their cargo to the busy English ships. This will lead to all sorts of inventions. This summer is the hottest on record and it is only the beginning. More people need more houses and more household goods so building and manufacturing take off. protected from foreign competition by the great Navigation Acts of 1651 (they make all colonies subordinate to parliament and require all trade with them to be in English ships. Africa. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Not only the weather improves.The Royal Academy of Music* is founded as the home of opera in England. English Prosperity Begins to Mushroom 1720 In England there is a startling. Problems with investment speculation make news this year with the bursting of the "South Sea Bubble" speculation craze. They also contract to supply slaves for the entire Spanish South American empire.The Jesuits are expelled from Russia. profitable turn in the weather. 1721 In this year it becomes possible to secure patents on inventions in England. Spain occupies Texas.) 1720's During this time in Germany a literary critic. the East and West Indies. Trade is booming with the import. The plague drops off to almost nothing with a change in the rat population (the kind of rat that carries the plague is pushed out by another kind). Opera is never a financial success but continues to attract patronage from the aristocracy (who want to keep up with the Italians and Austrians. He wants to reform the German stage along the lines of the French neoclassical theatre. One of the results of all this abundance is earlier marriages and more children and the population begins to rise.pdffactory. In England the Old Haymarket* Theatre opens. The development of trade leads to the development of insurance to protect against loss and new ways to loan out the excess money to make still more money. America. but it is here that it will impact social conditions in a dramatic way. Russia. as it turns out. Of course the weather change isn't confined to England.) With the turn to warmer weather landowners are soon rolling in profits. London is England's chief port and home to the bulk of the trading interests. Johann Christoph Gottsched * (1700-66).com . export business taking off like a rocket. Forts are built on the Gold Coast of Africa to protect the African slavers. This year also marks the establishment of regular postal service between London and New England.

The trend in English comedy toward middle class characters and sentimentality reaches its height in The Conscious Lovers* by Sir Richard Steele * (1672-1729). copper. The whole thing is governed by forty departments of state. who have developed into a hereditary conservative class. Within each of these there are fourteen classes with promotion based strictly on merit. He simplifies the Russian alphabet.In Russia. civil and judicial. engineering and military affairs. He is now ready to make enlightened social changes in his country. to fuel industry. He introduces promotion based on merit and establishes new class structure. He also introduces three parallel categories of state servants: military. and six thousand miles from east to west. sets up colleges specializing in languages. There is a small (22. gives priority to finding and mining iron. the theatre raises the ticket prices. 1722 . they are often more popular than the play they accompany. Comedy is no longer funny or intended to amuse. All these are only the beginning and Peter* only starts the ball rolling. This particular trend in comedy is about to cross over and continue to flourish in tragedy. Although they are only afterpieces to the main play. 1723 . This means that a commoner reaching the top level can achieve the status of a hereditary noble. Peter the Great* concludes a peace treaty with Sweden. All physically able men of the landed class are required to serve in the military or civil bureaucracy in order to retain their position and lands. Unfortunately. Wealth is determined exclusively by land where the boyars* (illiterate nobility) hold hereditary landed estates and the lesser nobles have life-time estates and where the peasant serfs* are bound by law to the same patch of land in perpetuity. The country runs from the Arctic Circle in the north to the Caspian Sea in the south. but this is in keeping with the Age of Reason* view that humans are good by nature and can be redeemed from any bad behavior if their "hearts" are touched. Loosely based on a play by Terence*. established in the sixteenth century as a personal guard for the czar and his family. The audience loves it partly because pantomime exploits spectacle.By this year the English pantomime* becomes the most popular form of theatrical entertainment in England. with such a huge and diverse population. He sends a large number of students to study abroad. promotes the publication of textbooks. giving Russia access to the Baltic. To deal with the appalling lack of education in Russia Peter* promotes education along secular lines instead of leaving it in the hands of the church. The characters seem to us unnaturally good and they manage to make their problems melt away.pdffactory. It will take another enlightened ruler to raise the country to a level where theatre becomes a possibility. and coal.Peter the Great* Peter* is the absolute ruler of a country where the sheer size and ethnically divided population defy change. he isn't able to reach very many people. The feudal obligations of serf to landowner and landowner to czar are now changed so that the first service owed is to the state. Peter* abolishes the Patriarchate of Moscow as head of the Church and replaces it with a Holy Governing Synod. we find the penniless heroine braving endless trials to discover in the end that she is the daughter of a rich merchant. Instead it is intended to arouse noble sentiments in the hearts of the audience. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. establishes a navy. When a new pantomime* is put on.000) military called the streltsy. This reduces the church to a government department of spiritual affairs. 1721 . Peter* builds up the army. mining.com .

* In England the first Goodman's Fields Theatre* opens. her work is very important because all the major actors and heads of prominent German theatre companies will work with and learn their basic theatrical ideas from Carolina Neuber. Vitus Behring discovers the Behring (or Bering) Strait between Alaska and Russia. It is produced by Rich** and will be revived frequently down to today. The superiority of training given the German troops makes them sought after. he doesn't speak English and puts Hanover's interests before England's. He plays at Lincoln's Inn PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.The first English ballad opera*. the Italian Commedia del'Arte* company called the Com‚die-Italienne* since 1680. 1727 . innovations in costuming and company discipline. acquiring the right to play the annual fair at Leipzig. This year the Dutch explorer. Unfortunately the audiences don't want more refined theatre. gin drinking becomes popular. The story of low-life in London includes satirical comments on the political situation of the time. 1728 . However.pdffactory. He will become involved in wars on the continent to protect Hanover. both North and South Carolina become colonies. All this means that there are now three legitimate companies and some semi-legitimate fair companies.com .This is the year when the Irish actor. 1724 In England. in Scotland. Like his father. theatre is confined to the court. 1725-50 . 1727 England first begins the use of Hessian mercenaries. the intellectual capital of Germany and the home of Gottsched*. He had tried it in 1725 but returned to the provinces. In France. He will also have to deal with the biggest Jacobite* rebellion yet. The Beggar's Opera* by John Gay* (1685-1732) opens. George* I dies and his son George* II comes to the English and Hanover throne.] 1728 North American exploring is still going on. It won't last long and another of the same name will open soon. 1730 . This same year the theatrical fair companiesare permitted to resume their productions.In Russia. Charles Macklin* (c. The piece uses operatic conventions but has spoken dialogue and lyrics set to popular tunes. He will rule 1727-1760.This year Carolina Neuber* and Johann form their own theatre company.This progress into scenic extravagance will begin to change the size of the stage so that more and more scenery can be used. 1700-97) comes back to London. [Much later Bertolt Brecht* will use this work as the basis for his Threepenny Opera*. He meets them and they agree to work together to reform the German theatre. [see below 1732] 1727 In England. 1729 In America. is made into a state theatre company called the com‚diens ordinaires du roi**. These are the guys who will show up working for England in the American Revolution. In Brazil they are planting coffee for the first time. Gottsched* provides translations and imitations of French neoclassic plays and Carolina Neuber* raises the standard of performances by requiring careful rehearsals.

The Neuber* troupe also comes to Russia on Anna's* watch and leaves shortly after her death. 1732 . more famous. La Fausse Antipathie*. Edward Shepherd. but it will. comes out. an apprentice who is led astray by a hooker.1692-1754. he founds Savannah.pdffactory. Jean-Baptiste Landet*. Another.The London Merchant* by George Lillo* (1693-1739) comes out in England this year. 1731 . This play is a landmark in signaling a change of direction in playwrighting. Covent Garden* (the land had once been part of a convent garden) is designed by the architect.com . He has a very naturalistic style which doesn't impress the audiences at first. It will encourage playwrighting.In Russia Empress Anna* (niece of Peter the Great and daughter of Ivan V." The chief exponent of this style is La Chaussee* (Pierre Claude Nivelle de . Comedie Larmoyante* 1733 France: There is a new kind of play developing. His plays become very popular and are translated into English. as time goes on. Philadelphia to be precise. This will serve the Russians much like the French Academy served the French. Georgia. [see below 1741] 1730 . These plays mingle pathos and comedy and are the beginning of the move toward "domestic drama. 1732 This year James Oglethorpe* (1696-1785) gets an English charter to establish a colony in Georgia.In England the popularity of the works of Henry Fielding* (1707-54) reaches its height in the 1730s and then begins to wane. It will come to be known as Comedie Larmoyante*. This play is revived well into the nineteenth century.* to seat 1. opera and a French dance master.) This year his first play. It is under the management of Rich**. In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin* starts bringing out "Poor Richard's Almanack. Dutch and Italian. He will later turn to novel writing.897. 1732 .Fields* in comedy and in 1732 he goes to work for Drury Lane*. 1731 In America. 1733." It will continue publication through 1757. He is known for comedies and satires attacking political and literary follies. 1730s . repentant.England: This year the old Goodman's Fields Theatre* closes and a new one with the same name opens. reigns 1730-40) continues her uncle's cultural interests and imports Commedia del'Arte*. The hero is drawn from everyday life. What is of interest to us is that there is a Society of Lovers of Russian Literature founded in connection with the College. but on the gallows. The poor guy goes on to kill his uncle and ends. He will be made a member of the French Academy in 1736. His major plays include: Le Prejuge a la mode* (1735) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Next year. This dance master will turn out to be the founder of the Russian ballet.Russia: They open the Cadet College for the education of sons of the nobility. Benjamin Franklin* founds a subscription library. patent (that is it is legal) theatre opens.

Melanide* (1741) Pamela* (1743) (adapted from Richardson*'s novel .pdffactory. The Servant of Two Masters* (1743) The Wily Widow* (1748) The Good Wife* (1749) The Liar* (1750) The Coffee House* (1750) The Mistress of the Inn* (1751) is regarded as his masterpiece. Pirandello*. about 1761. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) He is busy doing his engravings and paintings from 1718-64. in Verona. Alexander Pope. His notion of reform includes writing full scripts instead of relying on improvisation.* which is getting pretty dull and monotonous. engraver and painter.) Since a number of Goldoni*'s plays become classics and are produced with great regularity somewhere in the world every year to this day.] Back to England and America 1735 This year William Hogarth* (1697-1764) the English artist. Carlo Goldoni* (1709-93) comes out with his first play. The Boors* (1760) The Impresario of Smyrna* (1760) The Fan* (1763) Squabbles in Chioggia* (1770) The Kindly Curmudgeon* (1773) [He dies leaving 150 plays and three volumes of memoirs.see above) La Gouvernante* (1747) 1733 The British author. Belisario*. best known as a supreme pictorial satirist.) Later Goldoni* will give up on Italy and move to Paris (see below 1761. we will list the major ones here. He is trying to reform the commedia dell'arte. His work has a great affect on a much later Italian playwright. gets the government to pass legislation protecting designers from piracy (Hogarth's Act*.* comes out with his Essay on Man*. He meets with a lot of opposition and hostility from actors and the other Italian playwright who is trying reform in a different way (we will get to him later. Goldoni* 1734 .An Italian playwright.com .

1737 . We need to take a moment here to take notice of the English trend in doing Shakespeare's plays. Johann Friederich Schonemann* (1704-82) leaves to form his own company. and the next year they build a theater there.Carolina Neuber* breaks with Gottsched* and both their careers begin to decline. This year William Byrd founds Richmond. It has a big effect on plays and on all theatre activity. 1741 . This year Charles Macklin* (see above 1730) persuades the management of Drury Lane* to let him play the role differently. for the rest of the century. there is a really startling production of Shakespeare's* The Merchant of Venice*. There will be a whole range of clever ways of getting around the law.pdffactory. The validity of Charles II*'s patents has been questioned for about ten years and during the 1730's there are four unlicensed theatres operating in London. and the opportunity to produce plays. The role of Shylock* in this play has been being played by low comedians ever since the Restoration began. 1740 . These powers will not be modified until 1843. Strolling players are heard of throughout the colonies. Virginia. Her influence will eventually show up in the first national German theatre. Ekhof* will develop a more natural acting style and become the first professional theatrical theorist on German dramatic art. One of the results of the law will be to send English actors off to America to make a living. 1737 Things are getting organized in America with all this immigration.In England the authority of the Lord Chamberlain to intervene directly in regulating theatres and in acting as censor (mainly in religious and political references) of the plays permitted to be performed is legally spelled out in the Licensing Act of 1737.1735 . England: Samuel Richardson* (1689-1761) comes out with his domestic novel Pamela: or Virtue Rewarded* which will be adapted for the theatre and achieve phenomenal popularity. This puts Drury Lane* and Covent Garden* in the legitimate area and the others outside. He will stay for 27 years. However.com . The law doesn't make any provisions for theatre troupes outside London. as well as local amateur troupes. and will last until 1748. Another result is to reduce the demand for new plays.America: Amateurs give a season of three performances in Charleston. Neuber* takes her troupe to Russia where they replace the Commedia del'Arte * company. Prime Minister Walpole* is very annoyed by the theatrical attacks of the political satires put on at the unlicensed theatres so he rushes a bill through parliament. This war comes out of the crisis created when the male Hapsburg* line dies out.In England this is the year of great acting. He tries to claim some territory and gets into the War of Austrian Succession* immediately. South Carolina. He becomes famous overnight playing Shylock* as a dignified and tragic figure.Germany: One of the actors in Neuber*'s troupe. 1739 . Sophia Carlotta Schroder* (1714-92) who debuts this year in a German version of Racine's* Mithridate* with terrific success. It isn't very well thought out. First. perpetuated and extended by other troupes. He will use her methods and repertory and continue the reform of professional theatre. her principles are picked up. The actor Konrad Ekhof* (1720-78) joins the troupe this year too. 1740 In Prussia Frederick II ( later to be called the Great*) comes to the throne. The law prohibits acting for "gain" in any play not licensed by the Lord Chamberlain and it restricts authorized theatres to the City of Westminster. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He takes with him the actress.

By this time England is using light ladders to hold lights on either side of the stage. One thing that changes is the length of time for rehearsals. Of course all the other actors on the stage are still wearing their contemporary clothes. He embarks on an exceptional career as one of the greatest English actors ever. many of whom are acting with Garrick* in Shakespeare's* plays. This time the "Young Pretender" (Charles Edward Stuart. This year he gets a chance to appear as Richard III in Shakespeare's play at Goodman's Fields Theatre*. grandson of James II*. Frances Abington* (1737-1815) is best known for her work in high comedy.* She. too. 1744 .com . especially Quin*). 1745-51 In France the bickering between the fair companies and the legitimate Opera leads to an injunction against all performances of Comic Opera. 1745 The last Jacobite revolt occurs this year.In Russia Empress Elizabeth* overthrows the government of Anna* and rules as regent for Ivan VI. In order to fill the entertainment gap the English pantomime is introduced and audiences love it. [see below] 1741 . His successes will last until his retirement in 1776. It is becoming usual for actors to make a career of playing a few choice roles over and over. raises the Stuart standard and leads an army south where they are defeated by George* II in the famous battle at Culloden. what with those licensing laws. 1714-60) plays spirited heroines in comedy and "breeches" parts (where the girls get to wear men's clothes and show off their legs. He sometimes takes as long as eight weeks to get a show ready. She rules from 1741-62 and real theatre progress will be made during her reign. Macklin* will play this one off and on until 1789. continues cultural pursuits. This fracas will send another batch of Scots emigrating to the American colonies (mostly into the Carolinas. and the period it takes place in. especially importing Italians for opera and French for plays. The second instance of great acting this year involves David Garrick* (1717-79. 1742 . He will join the management and introduce many reforms. It's a terrific success and soon he is drawing crowds to the theatre. However.) Kitty Clive* (1711-85) is terrific in farce and spirited comedy. so it stays. Peg Woffington* (c.) 1747 .pdffactory. He gradually changes just about everything related to production. the theatre soon closes and Garrick* gets hired on at Drury Lane* in 1742.) He has been acting ever since he started at the age of eleven.Lighting keeps improving to keep up with all that spectacle. At this time in England there is a range of fine actors.In Germany the actor Konrad Ernst Ackermann* (1712-71) joins Schonemann's acting troupe.This is the year Garrick* joins the management of Drury Lane* where he will later become sole manager. But it is a step in the direction that will come with the next period. also known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie"*) lands in Scotland. His acting style is natural (in contrast to his competition. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.One of the startling things he does is get a costume for the merchant Jew that looks more like both the character.

and his first play. This time it's Russian. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing* (1729-81).1750 French players have replaced Neuber*'s troupe in Russia. Scenery has become so important in English theatre that Rich** (the pantomime guy at Covent Garden*) imports a designer from the continent. His major plays are: 1755 .In America. get a bunch of their friends and relatives together. especially in the role of Lady Macbeth*. and on to Virginia and Maryland.Emilia Galotti* 1779 . Walter Murray* and Thomas Kean* put together a theatrical company in Philadelphia.In Germany there is a new playwright. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing* 1748 . Spranger Barry* (1719-77.com . Like Alexander Hardy* in France and Christopher Marlowe* in England. Montesquieu. 1748 The French author and theorist. fix up a barn. begins in Irish theatre) is Garrick*'s biggest rival.Nathan the Wise* 1749 . Covent Garden* and with Garrick* at Drury Lane*. In England Henry Fielding* comes out with his best remembered novel.* comes out with his Spirit of Laws* which profoundly influences political thought in Europe and America. French and Germans.) He will be the driving force in forming the first professional Russian theatre company.Minna von Barnhelm* 1772 . performed by Neuber*'s company. Khorev* came out last year (in 1749. become the first dramaturg* (see below. Hannah Pritchard* (1711-68) becomes known as the finest tragic actress of her time. daughter-in-law of Colley) specializes in tragic roles and learns to tone down her declamatory style while working with Garrick*. and start giving plays. and translate the plays and theatre writing of Diderot* into German. One of their best actors is a guy named Ivan Afanasyevich Dmitrevsky* (1733- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Now an amateur Russian group starts up in Yaroslavl.pdffactory.Miss Sara Sampson* 1767 .Susanna Cibber* (1714-66. Russian playwrighting begins around this time with Alexei Petrovich Sumarokov* (1718-77. He appears at the rival theatre. They seem to be ready to begin doing their own thing now.) He writes in the style of the German and French neoclassical plays but his subject matter is Russian history. He's been a student at that Cadet College [see above] since it wss founded in 1732. then move to New York in 1750. He will go on to write a number of plays. Tom Jones*. he is refining and purifying the language. 1767). By now the Russian court and nobility have been entertained regularly by Italians. A couple of sons of a merchant. They play the City of Brotherly Love for a year. who has his first play The Young Scholar*. The Beginnings Of Russian Theatre . Feodor Grigoryevich Volkov* and his brother Grigori.

the rivers don't go everywhere they are needed. and other of the company to school at the Cadet College for more actor training and a good general education. and a troupe of 12 other professional actors to leave London and its restrictive laws to set up shop in the New World. but in a changed form. three children. Also in America.pdffactory. Settings are so nonspecific and anonymous that they can be used in very different plays. and the weather doesn't affect travel on water like it does on dirt roads. Charleston and Philadelphia. likes what she sees. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1750 By the middle of this century England is beginning to solve its transportation crisis. the ways of getting around the Licensing Act lead to the passage of a new bill which requires all places of entertainment within a twenty mile radius of London to get licenses from local magistrates. so England begins building canals to connect the waterways.com . However. Virginia. 1750 .1821. to a range of locations. prisons. the Murray*-Kean* theatrical company seems to die out after this year. They still don't define what counts as "entertainment. There are temples. comic and pastoral. German and Russian Theatre Continues 1750's in England there is a decline in burlesque and domestic tragedy and a brief resurgence of comedy. gardens and rural scenes. Dmitrevsky*. tombs. city walls and gates.Ekhof* opens an Academy of Acting in Germany but it doesn't pan out. along with his wife. A stock of scenery is accumulated and is reused regularly. gives them permission to perform publicly and sends the Volkov* brothers. palace exteriors and interiors. They fix up and open the first professional theater in America in Williamsburg." The laws still don't say anything about the rest of England and provincial theatre continues to operate and develop a number of regular circuits. bulky material over water by barge. American Theatre Begins 1752 . In England. Scenery has grown from the basic three.America: The restrictions on theatre activity in England stimulate the English actor.In France. 1751 . 1753 . chambers. These will also be used in America where stocks of this sort will be found in regional theatres down into the 1940's. Russia: The Empress Elizabeth* summons the amateur Volkov* company to court. There is now regular use of an act drop to cover scenery changes up stage where the depth is growing from the earlier 30 feet deep to 50 feet deep. tragic. They now drop the commedia dell'arte* characters and have new and original music. Lewis Hallam*. streets. It is lots easier to move heavy. the Comic Opera reappears. From there they travel to perform in New York.) This company builds a terrific reputation and will soon attract the attention of the Empress. Ekhof*. has become the leading man in Schonemann*'s company.Germany: By this time the German actor. 1752 .In England we begin to see significant changes in theatre scenery.

America: The Hallam* company sails to Jamaica for a year.* as leading man.1754 The French philosopher. virtuous.America: The American company leader Hallam* dies. In India the Mughal Empire has fallen apart and the English and French are forced to intervene in the conflicts of rival princes to protect their flourishing commerce. Such plays attract a large middle class audience for the first time.) France. The war sets back theatrical development in Central Europe. in A Dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind. Ackermann* goes to East Prussia to build a permanent theatre for a dramatic company.pdffactory. but the troupe has already joined the troupe of David Douglass* from Jamaica and in 1758 Mrs. he picks a bad time. Jr. 1756 This is the beginning of the Seven Year's War* (1756-1763) between Prussia and Austria. Later. Douglass. and Russia now establishes its first professional acting company which also includes actresses. The war will also enable England to take colonial territory away from the French (who are too preoccupied with events in Europe.) These plantations are making money hand over fist and their main problem is what to do with all that money. Rousseau's* ideas about the naturally virtuous nature of man will provide the basis for the next century's theatrical heroes. Miss Sara Sampson*. Sumarokov* is appointed head of the Russian theatre in St. Petersburg. the Seven Year's War* is fought in the colonies and drags the native Indians into battle on both sides. However. Russia: The Empress establishes a State Theatre which will do Russian plays. She will continue as leading lady of the company with Lewis Hallam.com . The English are into big sugar planntations all over the West Indies. is produced this year by Ackermann*'s company. who will have to be "nature's noblemen. Jean Jacques Rousseau*. Next year Robert Clive* (now governor in India and known to history as the founder of the British Empire of India) will win a significant victory over the French and ensure British dominance in India. Saxony and Russia side with Austria.Germany: Lessing*' first major play. a domestic tragedy. (the islands of the Caribbean." This idea will become clearer as time goes on but basically."* 1755 . Later they will do comedies and light operas. and the war will end with Prussia as the leader of the German states. England sides with Prussia (which is logical considering England's rulers are related to the Prussian ones. this play will be seen as the earliest "realistic" effort. a war is about to start. Obviously this is a lucrative place to do some theatre touring. too. Russia: The Empress has the Volkov* company appear at court again in Sumarokov*'s Sinav and Truvor*. The repertory of the company is full of adaptations and imitations of French and German models. 1756 .* is beginning to outline "nature's nobleman*.) In America. The Cadets at the College no longer appear in plays for the court. It's soon the most popular and widely imitated play in Germany. he puts forth the view that man is. The superiority of British naval power enables England to oust the French from many of their trading concessions. Hallam* will become Mrs. British naval forces take control of the Atlantic and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. by nature.

Now that ironmasters no longer have to be near forests for their fuel they begin to build their furnaces on the plains of Lancashire. By the end of the war the English take over French Canada and Spanish Florida. These mix virtue.) 1757 In England the first major canal is built to move coal from the pits to the growing population centers.In America the Douglass* theatre company sails from Jamaica to play the mainland colonies until 1764.In Germany. rather than the French neoclassical. 1761 . 1760 . 1758 In France Rousseau* reflects on manners and morals on the stage in his An Epistle to Mr.pdffactory. Over the next fifty years canals will be built to connect all the major ports with coal fields. 1759 The Seven Year's War* is pretty savage in Canada where the English under General James Wolfe attack the French under General Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham.This year Carlo Goldoni* leaves Venice and moves to Paris where he will write in Italian and in French for the Comedie Italienne*. The middle-class audiences are crazy about this stuff. sentiment and priggishness. d'Alembert*. provides the best model for German drama and he breaks with Gottsched*. he will also write: King Stag* (1762) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. During the 1760's in England every theatre starts having scene painters on their staff to handle all that spectacle that pantomime uses. Carlo Gozzi* (1720-1806) who also tries to reform the commedia dell'arte* but his changes involve changing the subject matter and keeping the characters and improvisational methods. although his son will have to serve as regent from 1811 on. Lessing* believes that English drama. This year he comes out with The Love of Three Oranges* and The Raven*. He will remain in Paris until his death. These two are an important expression of the "Enlightenment" and have considerable influence on the German playwright Lessing. Diderot* is an exponent of bourgeois drama* (the drame*) which is an offshoot of Comedie Larmoyante*. Paradoxe sur le comedien* (Paradox of the Actor*. and when George* II dies this year the throne goes to his grandson. near the ports. This one still doesn't speak English and will suffer from mental illness. His plays are not much good but his observations on theatre are very useful.prevent the French from reinforcing their colonies in Canada.France: The philosopher and man of letters. ending up blind and permanently deranged. The other Italian playwright. 1758 . George III*.* and European drama in general. 1757 . who married the daughter of the duke of SaxeCoburg-Gotha. especially his dialogue on acting. George III* will rule from 1760-1820. Among his best. Diderot* (1713-84) comes out with the first of his two plays. Les Fils Naturel*. miraculous animals and magicians. His subject matter is a mixture of fantasy and foolery with stories that are full of fairytale characters.com . The upshot is that the English take Quebec. 1760 George* II has quarreled with his son.

Between these productions and the plays of Goldoni* they are so successful that they quit putting on any French plays. Under Catherine*. Russia: Sumarokov* is too liberal and outspoken for the current court political climate. 1762 Rousseau* comes out with his most influential work.) These plays appeal to musicians particularly and they will be widely used as librettos for opera. In 1762 Volkov*'s company is attached to the political party supporting Catherine* (see below). which turns out to be a smart move. based on a Chinese fairytale. He spends the rest of his life as the leading actor and highest theatrical administrator. She continues the enlightenment reforms of Peter* the Great. She calls a commission to discuss the needed reforms and makes them read her sixty page Instruction in which she PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Catherine* (1729-1796) heads a palace coup and deposes Peter in her favor. In Paris the Comedie Italienne* is given a monopoly on producing the Comic Opera. There are at least four important troupes that relocate on the Boulevard and this location will give rise to the term for theatres that cater to popular audiences. In 1763 Dmitrevsky* (see above) takes over Volkov* 's company and is appointed Inspector of State Theatres. theatre will spread all over Russia under state control. Peter III* (and his wife Catherine) comes to the throne. [see the 1920's] 1761-62 . in any case it refers to satirical lyrics sung to popular tunes and vaudeville* comes to mean a play that is light or satirical and is interspersed with songs. The Russian theatre will continue to develop mainly in the "serf" theatres on the estates of the nobility. They get put in charge of the celebrations in honor of her coronation. the first professional performances given in New England. He takes a leading part in running them in. This enables the companies to play year round. His plays are banned and he is thrown out as head of the Russian Theatre. between trips to Paris to improve his acting skills. Now he can really get on with improving productions. Unfortunately Feodor Volkov* catches cold while directing a street masquerade and dies. Catherine* the Great In 1762 in Russia. The theatrical fair companies are forced to return to using songs set to popular tunes for their shows. 1762 .In England Garrick* finally gets to forbid audience seating on the stage.Turandot* (1765). The Social Contract* in which he lays some of the ground work for the political revolutions that will soon follow. She becomes Empress Catherine* II (known as Catherine* the Great) and will rule Russia 176296. Very soon after this event.pdffactory. the boulevard theatres*.America: The Douglass*-Hallam* company gives a presentation of "moral dialogues" in Rhode Island.] The fair companies also relocate to the Boulevard du Temple (a popular recreation area) as well as playing at the fairs. These are now called comedies-en-vaudevilles* [the term vaudeville* seems to mean either songs of the valley or songs of the city streets. The Beautiful Green Bird* (1765) His plays influence a number of playwrights in Germany and France (especially Alfred de Musset*.com . (regarded his best work).

They begin to build permanent playhouses. He reforms stage lighting and insists that scenery be more particularized. Boards of public welfare are set up to supervise schools. The Hamburg National Theatre* opens in April. Thomas Godfrey's* The Prince of Parthia*. subsidized. 1766 .com . the theatre is a break-through in noncommercial. Germany's first national comedy. non-profit theatre to be run by a salaried manager.pdffactory.(or possibly 1767) In Germany the actor Ekhof* leaves Schonemann*'s troupe to join Ackermann*'s. Lessing* comes out with his admirable prose comedy. It is called the John Street Theatre*. the English. It's a great idea but it will last only two years. It is the first American play to be produced by a professional company. Lowen. is the Southwark Theatre* in Philadelphia. an academy to train actors and a pension system (like France) to attract the best performers. They will continue to build others in major towns between New York and Charleston. advisor and edit a theatrical journal to promote the enterprise. national theatre. The job Lessing* holds comes PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.The great English actor. Douglass* and his company put it on. founding the empire of British India. has been off to the continent checking out the theatres and comes back this year with a bunch of new ideas for scenery and staging. Garrick*. The profits from this segment of British territories soar. That means that new settings have to be made for each production. Schonemann*'s son-in-law. He advocates prizes to encourage dramatists.The German. Sophia Schroder* has married Ackermann.advocates humane laws. bringing her son. In Germany.* (see above. hospitals. the French give up all their territory east of the Mississippi to Prussia's ally. Johann Friedrich Lowen* *(1729-71). In America the Douglass* theatre company sails off to Jamaica again for a two year stint. which they build this year. They also build another theatre. This troupe had been playing in Prussia but the war forced it to move to Switzerland and this year it arrives in Hamburg*. He further insists on high salaries. religious toleration and reform. Friedrich Schroder* (1744-1816) with her. 1766) persuades twelve businessmen to back his idea of a theatre. 1764 . He tries to improve costuming in the same direction. publishes the first history of German theatre and proposes a permanent. In America. this time in New York. 1765 . Despite its failure. Robert Clive* is again governor and commander in chief of Bengal. where he obtains sovereignty over the whole province for the East Indian Company. poorhouses and correctional institutions. Ackermann*'s company is to perform and Lessing* is hired to be resident critic. 1766 . the Douglass* company returns from their sojourn in Jamaica and finds the colonies hungry for theatre. 1764 In India. She will do much more later 1763 The Seven Years War comes to an end and Prussia is the winner. but it doesn't get much farther than an idea.The German. The first. 1767 .In America.In the American colonies we find playwrighting getting a start with a play in the classical mold. 1767 . Minna von Barnhelm*. Friedrich will learn everything Ekhof* knows about acting.

) as a major critical work. enabling profits from one part of the country to be available in other parts. and the rest of his career. Americans. They want to create new forms based on the doctrine of the rights of man and Rousseau*'s plea for a return to nature. 1768 Captain James Cook* (1728-1779) charts the coasts of New Zealand. The way in which western Europeans. In France there is a new and important playwright.com . Domestic drama and comedy are becoming the most popular form of theatre throughout Europe and in America. social drama available. All this and more will be reflected in the theatre of the next period. 1769 . 1770 This is an historic year for modern development because James Watt* comes up with the steam engine. He'll write another in this style before he has his first success. Eugenie*. the London Stock Exchange will enable investment and production to flourish. We will pick up it. fostering what comes to be called "melodrama" and providing the seeds for the later Realistic form. in countries like Russia. play reader. in the next chapter where it properly belongs. seems to be set. 1767-87 In Germany there is a group of young dramatists who are in revolt against the formal. It will revolutionize transportation and industry. repertory advisor and in-house critic) which European theatres regard as an essential position now. Absolute monarchies are dropping like flies. This trend will continue.1770 In France the neoclassic era is over.The Hamburg National Theatre* closes this year. Afterword . and in 1771. the drama of the past. shape their ideas of society is changing profoundly. in Diderot* 's style of domestic drama. Australia and New Guinea. leaving an ideal to aim for and Lessing*'s publication Hamburg Dramaturgy* (his theatrical journal promoting the enterprise. Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais* (1732-99). and consequently.to be known as dramaturg* (resident literary and artistic advisor. This year he writes a play. We will hear a great deal about these guys later since they launch the next period of Romanticism*. The ground work for the industrial revolution is being laid. The fruits of trade are raising a wealthy middle class which wants to participate in the cultural life of their world. This rather loose and sprawling period is eclipsed around 1775 by a rising tide of national revolutions and the developing movement of Romanticism*. Fortunately the money is available for industrial progress because English banks have proliferated and by now there are at least fifty. Scientific discoveries and theories are changing how we perceive the world. 1773 The other necessary ingredient for industrial development comes into being this year. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. with beginnings in national historical neoclassic works. The pattern of development in playwrighting. followed by expansion into currently popular genres.

As with other artistic movements it is in part a reaction against the past and in part a way of expressing the central preoccupations of the times. Rousseau* [remember him from the previous PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. a sort of inborn. being good and noble by nature. Society is looking for heroes to lead it into the future. The important aspect of this view is that man is capable. history is a record of human errors. The world of nations he regards as a product of human activity in history.next Chapter 12 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TWELVE Romanticism* 1770-1830 Introduction In theatre the period between 1770 and 1830 covers the Romantic* movement which rises in Germany and spreads to France and England. The ideas of the Age of Reason* engender a belief in the rights and powers of the people (the "Rights of Man") to have a social contract with their rulers so that the individual (the noble savage) can flourish. relies on instinct rather than on learned societal behavior to rise to fulfill his destiny. of re-evoking the past and coming up with "poetic" constructs which become the basis of human institutions. The new obsession sweeping the western world is passionate nationalism and a desire to throw off the old authoritarian way of doing things. The Enlightenment*. An Italian scholar. has provided little in the way of exciting theatre fare. some Christian view of the struggle for salvation. (which can only be understood by God. The noble savage. Some of the thinkers of the preceding Age of Reason* are particularly significant in laying the basis for this aspect of the new movement. becomes a guiding light for the rising Romantic movement. In previous views. Giambattista Vico* (1688-1744). This view exalts history as the record of human knowledge and excellence. Another thinker. Vico* separates the world of nature. native. The artistic past of French Neoclassicism* has grown stale in endless repetition and imitation across the earthier and more robust culture of Germanic cities and towns. with its preoccupation with reason. put forth a new way of looking at history.pdffactory.) from the world of nations (which is made by men). The more logical structures of reason follow along behind these leaps of imagination.com .* "Folk genius" The notion of "folk genius". or. through his powers of imagination. has an even stronger role in laying the groundwork for this important corner stone of Romanticism. intuitive ability to do magnificent things. this time a Frenchman.

] An example of the essence of the Romantic hero can be found at the beginning of Rousseau*'s Confessions* (written 1770-1778 and published 1781 and 1788. Because of the nature of a quest. Rousseau* lets people know that they can take control of their destinies by looking back to the simple "natural" origins of humans and comparing that with the present. the hunt. [Two of Kant*'s major works are Critique of Pure Reason* (1781) and The Critique of Judgement* (1790).com . The preoccupation with court manners and morals is not reality for artisans and traders. in this period. in a very central way. humans go on a quest. that matters." No one can be more individual than that. This is why theatre constantly changes both the subject matter and how it is shown. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. [We use the term hero as a sex neutral one whether it refers to Joan of Arc or Napoleon.. feelings. or the comic in which the hero can bargain with reality to gain advantage.) and its relation to reason stimulates a younger man. Immanuel Kant* (1724-1804) to devote his career in philosophy to logical critique. The Romantic Hero The Romantic movement is one of extreme individuation where emphasis must fall on the Romantic hero.. Napoleon* will stand as the epitome of this romantic characteristic. is often more important than what is being hunted. The experience is essentially historical.) In Kant*'s view art is indispensable in the quest for reality.pdffactory. He goes on at great length to investigate both reason and intuition. it may be to create it. especially aesthetic intuition (the experience of the sublime.chapter?] insists that scientific and artistic progress have corrupted rather than improved mankind. Turning to the Age of Reason helps in understanding the Romantic hero for we find Voltaire* saying "I don't like heroes.) The quest may not be to find something. So it is that this new period of Romanticism is concerned. The object of this quest is always important to the human spirit although what it is in a concrete sense can vary enormously (it can even be unknown." This dislike is well founded. an experience of change and a passing of everything through time. Reflecting the reality of kings to kings is hardly reality for the merchant class. But now the very nature of reality has come into question. The meaning derives from the heroic nature of the individual and of their actions. a quest for reality. be widely found in political revolutions. or search. He popularizes the notion that the present is an outgrowth of the past. for the hero threatens to burst the confines of orderly society and will.] This business about the quest for reality is central to theatre because theatre is always primarily concerned with searching for reality. It is a quest rather than a simple search because it is always a mystery rather than a clear hunt for a specific thing in a world of a fixed order. whether in terms of the tragic world in which reality destroys the hero. Classic theatre has been a question of coming to terms with reality. What goes on on the stage is always some attempt to portray a vision of reality for the audience of that time and place. He idealizes the primitive past and claims that feeling and intuition are far more important than calculating reason. they make too much noise. and the idea of the quest. with re-examining the nature of reality. etc. not the destination. I even venture to believe that I am not made like anyone now alive. Actually. All this ferment about instinct (and emotion. It is the journey. "Quest"* In all forms of romance (the basis of Romanticism).) He writes "I am not made like anyone I have ever met.

cultural traditions are slowly being revealed (the Celtic.com . the Norse Eddas*. [Consider Faust.pdffactory. This leads the characters to live in a world of emotions where sadness is more evident than happiness. In looking into the Hellenistic. Rousseau*'s characters contribute two traits that seem to be central. more like the chilvalric notions of the middle ages. The Romantic hero is often melancholy. The "Gothic" While earlier generations had called the period between the fall of Rome and the rise of the Middle Ages the Dark Ages. The "tender passion". less known. The man (or woman) of feeling The groundwork (referred to above) which emphasizes intuition and emotion needs to be more particularized to give us the characteristics of the Romantic hero. [see Rousseau* above] The Middle Ages had been virtually ignored by the preceding Age of Reason as had the pagan and early Christian North (Vikings and such like. giving rise to passionate interest in the past.) Being great and a genius seems to carry with it a sense of isolation and suffering. dominates all other feelings and Romanticism is essentially very romantic.] In 1820 Claudius Rich*.) In the 1750's Johann Joachim Winckelmann* (1717-1768) had explored these excavations [in 1764 he published the first systematic descriptions of Greek and Roman art in History of the Art of Antiquity*. prone to feelings of despair. this "dark" period is now emerging as a fascinating pagan world. Teutons. and. Scandinavian and Teutonic North. Joan of Arc and Napoleon for examples. love. will go looking for the biblical city of Nineveh* and write extensively on his Mesopotanian studies.] The time is one in which traditional beliefs about the world of nature and the world of society (or nations) is being questioned. Physical remains of ancient societies are popping up all over the place. especially by the Germans who have felt excluded from the European heritage. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. or condition. he (or she) is not cast in the aristocratic mold of past heroes. This means that love is a state of being. he (or she) will have to go down before the collective attack of society and his fellow men. But the romantic hero must have other characteristics as well (other than talent.) There is an enthusiastic rise in popularity of Scandinavian mythology. Love becomes something like Dante*'s notion of a route by which the time-bound individual might learn a vision of ultimate truth. an English consul in Bagdad. These heroes also have an awareness of not belonging to the existing social order. All Romantic heroes have an acute emotional sensibility which makes them significantly different from their fellows. These other. Still later (beginning in 1876. in the end. While the Greek and Roman past has been the object of investigation since the beginning of the Renaissance.) The "new" science of archaeology has been busy this century digging up the past (the Herculaneum in 1738 and Pompeii ten years later. the Hellenistic period between the two is only now being distinguished. Saxons. downright miserable. The Romantic Past and Exotic Lands One of the hallmarks of the Romantic movement is its preoccupation with the past.Not only is the romantic hero unique. Social hierarchies are about to crumble and careers will be built on talent rather than inherited social class. The Romantic notion of love moves from being earthy and lusty to something spiritual. The romantic hero is an egotist and.) Heinrich and Sophia Schielmann* (1822-90) will unearth Mycenae and Troy. to be eagerly sought because it affirms a universe better than the one we inhabit. they find that the irrational and emotional Dionysiac* has greater appeal than the rational Appolonian*. frankly. and tales and songs in which ancient Celts.

becomes the focus of the "cult of nature. Whatever the specifics of the voyage it is always from the known (which is seen as conventional and dull) into the unknown (which is strange. however. the Bhagavad-Gita* (1823) and the Ramayana* (1829). Europe and America in Social Ferment PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Whatever the roots may be of the attitudes of the Romantic artist. The Schlegel** brothers (August* 1767-1845 and Friedrich* 1772-1829) will found a literary journal (the Athenaeum*) which will become the organ of German literary romantic writers. the artist claims his/her connection to society and becomes linked to revolution and social change. We now have what will come to be called the "Gothic revival. society usually scorns its saviours. sea and mountains provide an appropriate domain for the tortured and isolated Romantic hero. but. just now. So. as Rousseau* claims.com .pdffactory. Historically. It may be a real. However." one can see God in the clouds. It does not. mankind was better in a state of nature. for the Greeks and Italians) but in their own historical heroes. Theatre. The final goal has to be death. ever provide the fulfillment of that promise.) Romantic Nature Nature. Now. as in the world apart from human activity and achievement. has always seen the connection but now others are taking up this view. The philosophic attitude of many Romantics is Pantheism * in which an immanent God is manifested through all forms of nature and. The Orient is the first to provide literary works through the active trade with India. it is clear that he is convinced that the artist is a guide to society. social upheavals present a problem (we still haven't solved this one) that seems to point to a necessary relation between art and society." In addition to a rediscovery of European past there is a rising interest in strange and exotic lands and cultures that are only. countryside. [No wonder they are melancholy and depressed about it. but the Romantics put a new twist on it. The "citizen of the world" of the Enlightenment is changing into a nationalistic patriot whose roots lie not in ancient Greece and Rome (except. however. like Pope's "poor Indian. for the first time.] The Romantic Revolutions and Artists Up to this point in the history of Western society there has been no necessary connection between intellectuals and artists and their political stands. of course. The Romantic Voyage The poetic notion of the "voyage" is as old as human literature. in this period. exotic and mysterious. of course.) The notion of the voyage always holds the promise of peace after struggle. If. Plato has Socrates (in the Phaedrus*) describe this divine madness of the poet as the artist who is driven by godly inspiration to achieve beauties that can't be obtained by other mortals." The landscape. August* edits translations of oriental literature (including the great Indian epics.Vikings and Northmen fight and struggle just as actively and as poetically as the Greeks and Trojans. Plato banned many poets from his Republic on the grounds that they were a menace to civil order. The Romantic Voyage is the journey undertaken by the Romantic hero. physical journey or an internal and spiritual one. becoming accessible through the increase in world trade. then it seems logical for the romantic to move out from the salon and the boudoir into the natural world.

Britain runs a colonial empire that circles the globe but makes the mistake of keeping their English colonies out of representation in Parliament. however.com . of Revolution will spread as the years pass. The final ingredient is cotton.) The idea. which is flowing in from the colonial empire in India. By 1775 a network of canals will connect all the major English ports with all the large coalfields.pdffactory. are forbidden to hold positions in local government. Although many duties (taxes) are repealed in 1770 the one on tea remains in force (remember the Boston Tea Party?). France has experienced a good deal of economic progress and expansion but no political change. (They will also have to defend British interests in India and Africa at the same time. The final straw will come with the Coercive Acts of 1774 (against Massachusetts) and closing the port of Boston. France. in response. The Stamp Act (1765) taxes the American colonies and. civil service or at the universities. By 1770 there are all the ingredients in England for an industrial quantum leap forward. The American colonies will call a Continental Congress* to meet in Philadelphia in 1774. Most of Europe will regard the American effort as a minor ripple on world affairs. finance and industry are driven by the industrious "Dissenters" or Nonconformists. In America the Seven Year's War* (1754-1761) was played out over control of the Ohio Valley and culminated in the capture in 1758 of the French forts Dusquesne (later Fort Pitt and then Pittsburgh) and Ticonderoga. however. Textile work is beginning to take off. The Dissenters. the long reign of Louis XV* (1715-74) is drawing to an end. always open for a chance to beat up on the English. In England at this time the social ferment is economic. This education prepares the students for success in industry. In 1769 a machine called the water-frame is produced and for the first time all textile workers are put to work under one roof. They are. These are members of the non-Catholic. The only thing delaying a real factory system is the problem of power and that will come along soon. The need for good transportation is being solved by those canals (see the previous chapter) which supplement the river system and provide the ideal route to move large. A new weaving technique has been developed in the 1760's and the spinning jenny in 1767. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The advances in technology. and French ships and troops will help finish the revolution. practical curriculum. will sign the Franco-American alliance. The effective machine of French government is rapidly becoming obsolete.By 1770 a number of social and political revolutions are brewing. non-Anglican Christian sects who. At the end of the Seven Year's War* (1763) there is a drop in interest on loans and more capital can be borrowed to build canals. In France. and process. Holland and Spain will jump on the American side of the Revolution* bandwagon and England will find herself besieged at Gibraltar. The French threat disappears from America and the British colonies no longer need British protection. The Age of Enlightenment has raised expectations among the intellectuals in Europe. What with the new use of coal and coke to fuel things there has been a rise in small manufacturing which draws people in to the cities. the Caribbean and America. heavy loads (like coal. nine colonies draw up a declaration of rights and liberties.) The first major canal was dug in 1757. The following year the American Revolution* will break out. particularly the Quakers and Unitarians. as a result of Cromwell and the civil war. permitted to work in trade and finance. are strong on education and set up a number of Dissenting Academies with modern.

Historical costuming becomes the usual thing. (strongly influenced by their admiration for Shakespeare*). as do the extensive colonization of resource rich areas (the Americas. Australia. 1770 .One other factor is evident in this period. Rolf Krage*. More appropriate and more detailed sets which can be changed easily are now necessary. The agricultural advances (noted in the previous chapter) since the 1720's encourage population growth. named for a play of that title [written in 1776 by Friedrich M. In England Gainsborough* (1727-1788) paints the "The Blue Boy. etc. emotionalism runs rampant and the plots are anything but simple.com . discovers Botany Bay Australia and the Scots explorer. production failure doesn't seem to matter and the plays are read and discussed all over Germany. Much of this development will grow out of the establishment of state theatres (this will begin in 1776. Thomas Chippendale* (1719-79) has produced his major work. Interest in historical accuracy shows up in Goetz von Berlichingen* and the plays it inspired. Most of the group's plays are not even produced.] The group includes Goethe* [see below] who will write the first German play in the Shakespearian style (Goetz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand*) which will be produced in Berlin in 1773. who will later be known as the Sturm und Drang* (Storm and Stress) movement. The world population will almost double in the nineteenth century.The first important Danish playwright.pdffactory." Sir Joshua Reynolds* is also busy painting. There is no clear philosophical direction and the plays are very diverse. But. The 1774 production of this play is the first time anybody uses sets and costumes to show a particular historical time and place. Germany and the Beginnings of Romanticism Romanticism begins with the work of a bunch of young German intellectuals.). Johannes Ewald* (1743-1781) comes out with the first significant Danish tragedy. All this lays a foundation for the really good stuff that will come out after 1785. but reaches its height in the 1800s. In the 1770s all those domestic plays are written with specific costume descriptions which encourages costume design for particular characters. James Bruce is zipping around the interior of Africa discovering the source of the Blue Nile. There is enormous population growth. The master cabinetmaker. One of the most relevant features of the period is that the hold of French dramatic models is broken and English models replace them. others more ordered. like Goetz von Berlichingen* with its fiftyfour scenes. For the first time we can see attempts to have authentic sets and costumes. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He calls attention to the rich heritage of the folklore and legend of North Europe and lays the foundation there for the coming romantic movement. are mostly not well received. Klinger*. The ones that are. English explorer. In America they are busy with the "Boston Massacre" which is basically a brawl between drunken civilians and British troops. Some are episodic. The primary object seems to be breaking all previous rules.) In the 1770s in Germany the growing number of permanent theatre buildings means that the set designs will become more important. 1770 James Cook*. The Sturm und Drang* movement covers roughly 1767-1787. especially Shakespeare*. The unities* (remember? back in the French neoclassic period) are ignored.

Goetz von Berlichingen*. is Faust*. 1773 . 1772 . He will stay here for the rest of his life. As a result he rewrites Iphigenie auf Tauris* (in 1802 there is a production of his new version) and writes Torquato Tasso* in 1807." Gluck* (1714-87. The Boston Assembly demands rights for the colonies and threatens secession.1771 In Sweden Gustav III* starts his reign (r. Stella* 1776 Clavigo* 1779 Iphigenie auf Tauris* 1779 Egmont* 1787 In 1786 he takes a much needed vacation in Italy and gives up Romanticism in favor of classicism. directs and acts. He will go on to a lengthy and extremely influential and productive career spanning the entire period. [Very little of his theatrical output has been seen on English speaking stages. but a brief outline of his major work might be helpful here. We will look at his achievements as they occur. Lessing* comes out with his tragedy.pdffactory. Totally disregarding the Unities*.In Germany. Goethe* becomes the leader of the young Romantics. Goethe* In the early 1770's he makes a start on his lifetime preoccupation which shows up in a work called Ur-Faust. In 1775 he goes to Weimar* on invitation from the reigning Duke. it kicks off the Romantic movement and is the spearhead of the "Storm and Stress*" guys.In Germany this year the Sturm und Drang* playwright. although several of his works have been very popular in Russia. This year brings the first German performance of Handel*'s (1685-1759) "Messiah. found an academy. of course. 1773 Britain is busy expanding in India and this year they pass a Regulating Act* to put Indian acquisitions under parliamentary control. Part I comes out in 1808 and Part II isn't completed until 1832 and not produced until 1853. His biggest hit. write plays himself and generally encourage art. 1772 The American colonies are getting serious about their problems with England. the idealized story of a historical figure.) Haydn* (1732-1809) and Mozart* (1756-91) are busy turning out great music.) comes out with his first success. He writes plays. His job includes organizing Ducal entertainments. providing a model for the movement. Johann Wolfgang Goethe* (1749-1832.] Goldsmith* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) He will give a boost to theatre. after his death. With the success of his short novel next year. a robber baron.com . Samuel Adams* (1722-1803) forms Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts for action against Great Britain. Emilia Galotti*. In 1773 he will start a national theatre. 1771-1792.

On the political front in America. but Robert Munford* writes a play called The Patriots*. In America Anne Lee* (1736-1784) moves from Manchester England to New York to begin a spiritual revival that becomes the Shakers (they are the "Shaking Quakers. In England there is a technological breakthrough when the high-grade steel (produced by Benjamin Huntsman's invention of crucible steel in the 1750's) enables the great ironmaster James Wilkinson* to cut iron accurately to within a few millimeters.1773 . Richard Brinsley Sheridan* (1751-1816) gets his first play. generally against the British. He is a professional theatre man and will buy a share in Garrick*'s Drury Lane* where the rest of his theatrical output will be produced. He writes farces. Douglass* moves his troupe to Jamaica (remember him? He runs The American Company* of English actors. The Rivals*. This is the real beginning of the industrial revolution which will change the make-up of society by shifting production from families. but both British and American soldiers entertain themselves with plays. the steam engine.) Amateur playwrights flourish. especially in England.com . the masterpiece of the English Comedy of Manners*. 1775 .pdffactory.This is the time during which machinery is introduced into textile (1780) factories. the Virginia House of Burgesses calls a Continental Congress in Philadelphia. He is mainly a poet and novelist. The PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. penning mostly propaganda. and their homes or farms. performed at the Comedie Francaise*. put on at Covent Garden*. 1775 . This kind of precision will make possible the next important step in producing power.In England an Irish-born dramatist. an immediate success which will continue to please and amuse to the present day. hires 29. of course. The Barber of Seville*. but their leading player thought it made fun of him (he had been a barber) so that didn't work. He is succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI*. 1774.In England. the Continental Congress calls for a cessation of theatrical entertainments. During the Revolution there are no professional performances. in 1777 (see below).) In England the last development needed for the steam engine becomes available when the dissenter John Wilkinson's boring mill becomes able to manufacture close tolerance cylinders. is equally well known. The Vicar of Wakefield* (1766). comic operas and. 1774 In France Louis XV* dies.In France Beaumarchais* (1732-99) finally gets a production of his comedy. American Revolutionary Times Begin 1775 This is the year the American Revolution* breaks out (which. It was originally supposed to be a play with music for the Italian company. After Beaumarchais* reworks the piece it is finally seen on the stage. and his novel. It is a terrific success.000 German mercenaries to cope with the Americans. 1775 . puts a crimp in American theatrical activities. It is an immediate success and will continue to be popular. Oliver Goldsmith* (1730-74) comes out with She Stoops to Conquer*. which satirizes the "super patriots" who see every opponent as an enemy agent.) England. being busy with international mercantile affairs.With the outbreak of the Revolution. to factories in the cities.

School For Scandal*, as well as one of the best burlesques, The Critic: or, a Tragedy Rehears'd* (1779.) 1775 - In Germany the first state theatre is founded at Gotha* from the leftover members of the earlier Hamburg National Theatre* company. 1776 In England the new process for producing iron (Darby's reverberatory furnace) is so successful that this year the first cast-iron bridge is built at Coalbrookdale, over the River Severn. 1776 - In Germany Emperor Joseph II* establishes the Imperial and National theatre in Vienna, better known as the Burgtheater*. They use the organization and procedures of the Comedie Francaise* as a pattern for running it. Generous state support means that they can hire the best people for this company. This is the year that Friedrich M. Klinger* comes out with his play, Sturm und Drang* .In Russia, Catherine II* starts a pension system for actors in the state theatres. The French painter, Jean Honore Fragonard* (1732-1806) is busy turning out his work. 1777 - In England this is the year Richard Brinsley Sheridan* comes out with The School For Scandal*. It has all of the wit of the Restoration comedies but leaves out the coldly calculated hanky-panky and pride in fooling around. The role of Lady Teazle* becomes one of the plums for every English actress to aspire to. True love and respect triumph and wickedness is punished. 1777 - The German actor and dramatist, August Wilhelm Iffland* (1759-1814) joins the actor-manager Ekhof in Gotha. He goes with the company the following year to Hamburg and the National Theatre. There his early plays are terrifically successful but not memorable. He is more influential as an actor and training actors in serious acting style. 1778 The Franco-American alliance is signed this year (to be followed next year by another alliance between America and Spain and some help from Holland.) This brings French troops and ships into the American Revolution and puts England in the position of being threatened in her dominance of the seas. The French are exposed to the liberating ideas of Locke*'s philosophy of natural right being put into practice. They will go home and try something similar in France. 1779 - In Germany, the third state theatre, the Court and National theatre, is started up in Mannheim (The ruler becomes the Elector of Bavaria and moves his court to Munich. Establishing the theatre is sort of a consolation prize to the city to compensate for losing the court there.) This theatre will become one of Germany's best. After this (throughout the 1780s,) state theatres pop up all over Germany. Some of the most prominent ones will be in Cologne, Mainz, Salzburg, Weimar and Passau. In Russia Catherine The Great* establishes an acting school. 1781 The American Revolution* is over this year with the British forces surrendering at Yorktown. It will take two years to hammer out a treaty.

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1779 - The German playwright, Lessing,* comes out with his blank verse effort, Nathan the Wise*. 1780s In Italy Luigi Galvani* is exploring electricity and animals. 1782 - With the American war over, professional performances resume. John Henry* (who had been with The American Company* earlier) does a single act in Philadelphia, but it will take a few years to overcome the antitheatre resolution of The Continental Congress. 1782 In music, Haydn* and Mozart* are busy composing. In France the Montgolfier* brothers construct an air balloon. In England, the woman novelist, Fanny Burney* (17521840,) comes out with her second novel, Cecilia*. 1780's - In England new actors are coming along. These actors will affect theatrical production in the United States as well as at home. In order to rise economically, the normal way of doing things is to have the whole family involved in the same trade or profession. It is less usual to find this in the theatre since the profession is notoriously risky financially. One of the prominent theatrical families to descend on London at this time are the Kembles. 1782 marks the London debut (as "Hamlet" at Drury Lane*) of John Philip Kemble* (17571823). He will have a long and impressive career acting tragic roles as well as managing both Drury Lane* and Covent Garden*. His parents (Roger and Sarah) are players and manage a company in the provinces. He has three brothers and four sisters who are also on the stage. His sister, Sarah Siddons* (1755-1831, she had married actor William Siddons while playing with her parents' company) makes her successful London appearance this year, too. The other theatrical Kemble siblings are brothers Charles*, Stephen, and Henry and sisters, Frances, Anne, and Elizabeth*. The only one of these who makes a significant mark is Elizabeth* (or Eliza) Whitlock* (1761-1836,) who emigrates with her husband to America. John Philip Kemble* and Sarah Siddons* lead in establishing a restrained, classical mode of acting that, through Elizabeth* Whitlock* will affect American theater for years. In France, the pantomimes have become more melodramatic and include dialogue. They have mood music under scenes of innocence persecuted and rescued from villainy. Schiller* 1782 - This year one of the most prominent playwrights of German Romanticism has his first success. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller* (1759-1805) has his first play, The Robbers*, produced at Mannheim*. It's an immediate success and will be constantly revived. He will go on to be appointed official dramatist of this theatre in 1783. He writes several more of these melodramatic plays [Fiesko* 1783, Intrigue and Love* 1784] before turning to historical tragedy with Don Carlos* (1789). He, like Goethe*, reexamines his values and aims in the 1780's. His historical studies lead to two books [The Revolt of the Netherlands* and A History of the Thirty Years War*] which gain him a reputation as a historian. This leads to a job as history professor at the University of Jena*, which is only five miles from Goethe* at Weimar. They establish a strong friendship [about 1794] and begin to influence each other [their letters to each other are really informative about their artistic goals.] In 1799 Schiller* moves to Weimar and works regularly in the theatre. His best works are done after he moves to Weimar*. Together they create what comes to be known as "Weimar classicism."

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These works of Schiller*'s are: Wallenstein* (1799), Maria Stuart* (Mary Stuart, 1800), Die Jungfrau von Oreleans* (The Maid of Orleans, 1801), Die Braut von Messina* (The Bride of Messina, 1803), Wilhelm Tell* (1804). All Schiller*'s works are translated into English. The Robbers* is the most influential at this time and reinforces the Sturm und Drang* movement. 1782 James Watt* (inventor of the steam engine in 1763-4) [actually it is his assistant, William Murdock,* who develops it] comes up with a new improvement, the rotative engine. This is monumentally significant. The original steam engine has been used just to work pumps, mainly in the mines. Now he has a machine that can turn a drive shaft and drive machinery. This will really change things, first of all in the textile business. Textile machinery has been run by water power, which requires that the factories be built on the edge of swiftflowing waters that can turn the water wheel which powers everything. With the steam engine, there is more power and the factories can be built anywhere. In England the first change brought about by the rotative steam engine shows up immediately. It is a system of producing large quantities of high quality wrought iron at such a low price that machines can now be made out of metal instead of wood. There is a concurrent development in textiles with widespread use of the new invention, the Cromptom 'mule' (1779.) This machine improves the speed and variety of spinning yarns. More machines are rapidly developed to handle other aspects of the textile process. The cotton industry is launching the Industrial Revolution*. 1783 - In France Beaumarchais* comes out with The Marriage of Figaro*. 1783 The Treaty of Versailles* sets up the borders of the new United States* as the Great Lakes in the north and the Mississippi in the west. England continues to expand in India and this year passes the Younger Pitt*'s India Act* to further control through parliament the new Indian territories. These are now under Richard Wellesley*, (soon to be the first Marquis Wellesley, see 1799.) He begins Indian consolidation and the beginnings of an imperial realm. This year Beetoven*'s (1770-1827) first works are printed. In France, they are trying out a paddle-wheel steamboat on the Saone River. Theatre Progresses

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1784 - Lewis Hallam, Jr.* brings a small company to the new American republic. In 1785, John Henry* (see above,) who has gone back to Jamacia for more actors from The American Company*, brings his new troupe to Philadelphia. The two (Hallam and Henry) join forces and call their united troupe "The Old American Company*" (since it is made up of a number of actors from the earlier The American Company*.) This troupe will become the foundation of New York theater where they settle in the John Street Theatre*. In Germany, Iffland* comes out with his Crimes of Ambition* which finally brings him fame as a playwright. He is now the most influential member of the Mannheim company. 1784 In England Pitt's* India Act puts the East India Company under the control of the government. The first hot air balloon ascent takes place in England. A Scots millwright (Andrew Meikle) invents the threshing machine. Frederick VI* completes the abolishment of serfdom in Denmark. 1785 By this time, statistical analysis is growing in popularity. This year the French philosopher, Marquis de Condorcet*, writes an essay, The application of mathematics to the theory of decision-making.* Statistics, probability and census-taking, all seem useful tools for rulers to plan and organize the regulation of their societies. The process of reducing people to nembers begins here. 1786 The earliest attempts at using gas for illuminating are taking place in England and Germany. 1786 - In Germany another state theatre is started in Berlin (Prussia.) This one will be very important. This year Frederick William II* replaces Frederick The Great* as the Prussian ruler. He wants to be a cultural leader (as well as the dominant political force,) so he establishes a subsidized state theatre troupe. The idea is that theatre is a cultural institution that can be used to unify Germany. Even towns that have troupes of their own are busy building theatre buildings. In the 1790s there will be more than seventy companies to move into these buildings. 1787 - Royall Tyler* (1757-1826) presents the first American comedy to be professionally produced, The Contrast*. 1787 - In Germany there is a new playwright who will become the most popular dramatist in the world. August Friedrich von Kotzebue* (1761-1819) gets his first success this year with Misanthropy and Repentance*. For the next ninety years his plays will make up one-quarter of the Burgtheater*'s performances (Vienna.) We will look at him more closely a little later. 1788 There are bread riots in France. Trouble is brewing. 1788 - In England, the use of spectacle is increasing and this year Robert Barker* (17391806) shows off his invention of the panorama* at Edinburgh. His associate Robert Fulton* (1765-1815) [the guy who will invent the steamboat] will get a French patent for it and the

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circular spectacle will be displayed in London (1799) and by James Thayer (who buys the patent) in America and Paris (1800.) 1789 The mutineers of the H.M.S. "Bounty" settle on Pitcairn Islands in the East Pacific. In England the first steam-driven cotton factory opens in Manchester. French Revolution 1789 In France, Louis XVI* continues the absolute rule he inherited but he is not a competent ruler and there is a terrific financial crisis. The middle class takes advantage of this and establishes a parliamentary type government based on wealth. The peasants (who are still living in a feudal society) really object to this as even greater exploitation of them. This makes for widespread rioting and the end of feudal society in France. The riots cause food shortages in the city of Paris. This food shortage arouses the Parisian working class to storm the strategic fortress of the Bastille* preventing Louis XVI* from recovering his despotic power to intimidate the city. The French Revolution* is now up and running. The middle class manages to hang on to control of the political end of things for the next two years. They reorganize the civil, religious and military institutions and try to work in cooperation with some of the liberal aristocracy and the king but eventually the counter-revolutionary forces inside and outside France change the revolution. [see below 1792.] With the outbreak of civil disorder, theatre, of course, doesn't flourish. What does change in France, as a result of the revolution, is medicine. This is because the physicians, as elsewhere, are a small, powerful elite serving the aristocracy. Surgeons, on the other hand, are mere craftsmen. With the revolution, the doctors, as members of the upper class, have to be re-educated and the surgeons elevated. Only surgeons have studied anatomy, and dealt with battlefield wounds, and, being kept out of city practice by the physicians, they went to work in the villages and countryside. When the revolution breaks out there are more surgeons than physicians, which is good, since what is needed now is battlefield care. A new category, called 'health officer' grows up in which both physicians and surgeons are put and have to get used to working together. In America, exploration goes on. Alexander MacKenzie crosses Canada to the Pacific. There is still a lot of unknown territory out there. In the United States they elect the first president, George Washington* (1732-1799.) In England the poet, artist and mystic, William Blake* (1757-1827,) comes out with Songs of Innocence*. 1789 - A comedy, The Father*, introduces William Dunlap* as a new American writer. He continues to write for the Old American Company* for many years, including the tragedy Andre*, based on an incident in the Revolutionary War. 1790 In Russia, Catherine The Great* opens a second state theatre in St. Petersburg. From Vienna, a man named Johann Peter Frank* is becoming the first great practical exponent of the science of public health. He is a hospital administrator, clinician and teacher who travels extensively throughout Europe working for the rulers of small states and teaching as he goes. He will produce seven volumes under the title A System of Medical Police*

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teaching administrators how to deal with public health. He deals with everything from care in childbirth, through food, housing, sewage, garbage and water supply. Medicine and health are about to begin to move out of the dark ages. The Scots poet, Robert Burns* (1759-1796,) puts out his poems, Tam o' Shanter* and Auld Lang Syne*. The English romantic writer, Ann (nee Ward) Radcliffe*, originator of the school of romance characterized by vivid scenic descriptions, comes out with her A Sicilian Romance*. In England, the first steam-powered rolling mill (rolls wrought iron) is built and the building of the Firth-Clyde and Oxford-Birmingham canals are started. Lavoisier* (1743-1794) comes out with his "Tables of Thirty-one Chemical Elements." Mozart* writes Cosi fan tutte* in Vienna. In the United States, Washington, D.C. is founded. 1790 - In England and, consequently, in America, most of the major theater companies have abandoned the shareholder arrangement and actors now work for straight salaries under a manager. In Russia, many nobles select serfs* and train them as performers. The next twenty years will see the operation of the most important serf theatres. Some nobles [such as Prince Yusopov who owns some 21,000 serfs] set up separate ballet, opera and dramatic companies, complete with training schools. In Moscow there will be fifteen serf theatres by 1797. 1791 - Thomas Wignell,* a member of the The Old American Company*, leaves them and with Alexander Reinagle*, a musician, starts building the Chestnut Street Theatre* in Philadelphia. 1791 - In Weimar* (Thuringia, Germany) the duke appoints Goethe* director of the Weimar Court Theatre. Now, Goethe* has been producing plays for the court with courtiers as amateur actors from 1775 to 1783. By this time the court (and Goethe*) are tired of amateurs and in 1784 a new Court theatre opened with a resident professional company. This year (1791) Goethe* finally gets to exercise his artistic ideas with professionals and with good financial backing. He will put his own plays and those of Schiller* into a repertory that will grow to include all the best plays. Guest appearances by leading German actors will strengthen the company. Soon, (1799) he will bring in Schiller* to help. Stimulated by a visit from Iffland*'s acting company (1796) and encouraged by Schiller*, Goethe* will begin to take an active interest in the theatre company's work. This will lead him to write at some length on acting and other aspects of producing. He insists on strict discipline and requires the actors to follow his direction. He achieves the most integrated ensemble of the time and will be remembered as one of the earliest "directors." After his death the members of his company will spread his methods around Germany. 1791 Over in central Europe, Catherine The Great* has been extending Russia's boundaries. This year a Polish rebellion is crushed by Russian troops and we have one of those partitions of Poland. It is divided up between Russia and Prussia and by 1794 Poland ceases to exist.

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In the United States the first ten amendments to the Constitution* (the Bill of Rights*) are ratified. In England, Boswell* (1740-1795) comes out with his Life of Samuel Johnson*, which will be regarded as a masterpiece of biography. 1791 - In France, theatre monopolies are abolished by the revolutionary government and a lot of new companies are started up in Paris. In the next ten years there will be more than fifty. Most provide popular entertainment. The Comedie Francaise* splits into two troupes. One branch, with the famous actor Talma* (Francois-Joseph, 1763-1826), is pro-revolution and next year will take the name Theatre de la Republique*. Talma* is the leading actor in France, known for his careful study of roles and attention to historical costume. He is usually known as the greatest French actor ever. 1792 In France the French Revolution* is in trouble. Louis XVI*'s Austrian relations are mobilizing armies. So is Prussia. Between internal counter-revolutionary forces and this threat of armed invasion, the revolutionaries declare war on Austria and Prussia. Soon France is at war with the greater part of Europe. The French Revolution* is a decisive turning point in European history so we will spend a little more time following the flow of events. Early on there are a series of defeats which causes panic. Reaction to this panic leads to the execution of the king and a lot of slaughter of political suspects. The nation is unified against foreign invasion by the leadership of the Girondins*, Danton* (Georges Jacques Danton, 1759-1794) and Carnot* (Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot, known as "le grand Carnot",* 1753-1823). But the common people rally to a more extreme group, the Jacobins* (Maximelien Fran‡ois Marie Isadore de Robespierre,* 1758-1794, and others.). This group puts the government on a more democratic basis and takes a terrorist approach against anybody who disagrees with them. The guillotine is busy chopping off heads. There is a total military call-up which produces a really dandy and enthusiastic army, well organized by Carnot.* The tide turns and the invaders are not only expelled but are attacked on their home turf. France takes over Belgium and other territories to establish "natural frontiers." In the army there is a revolutionary doctrine of advancement based on merit, that is, army careers are now open to talent instead of money or aristocratic standing. This makes it possible for France to extend its power into Holland, Switzerland and Italy. It also brings onto the scene a brilliant military leader named Napoleon Bonaparte* (1769-1821.) 1792 - The Old American Company* has been struggling on, but does not have the intelligent management that will characterize the Chestnut Street Theatre* in Philadelphia. John Henry* is replaced as manager (of the John Street Theatre*) by John Hodgkinson*. This year yellow fever reaches America (from Africa by way of the West Indies.) Theatres are closed and the disease rages over two thirds of the United States. 1792 Health and medicine take a step forward this year when a French doctor, Phillippe Pinel*, is put in charge of the biggest asylum in Europe for the aged and infirm. It has 8000 patients. and Pinel* advocates strict and repeated observation, recording of findings and

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comparison of data over time. This, he claims, will provide some useful information for treatment. It certainly does. Illuminating gas is used for the first time in England and the Libel Act is passed. In the United States dollar coinage is minted. Exploration is still going on. This year American merchants, sailing out of Boston, are exploring the Pacific northwest coast of the American continent and find the mouth of the Columbia River (up there in what is now Washington state.) This may not seem like much but it makes a lot of people think there may be a "northwest passage" by water from the east to the west. This will prime the pump for northwest exploration (despite the fact that this territory belongs to somebody else.) 1793 - The prohibition against acting in Boston is rescinded and the Federal Street Theatre* is built. Frequented with management problems, it will never have a big impact on American theater, but Boston becomes a major theatrical center. 1793 In the United States they re-elect Washington* president. The portrait painter, Gilbert Stuart* (1755-1828) opens his studio in New York. He is, of course, remembered for his portraits of Washington* among many others. In France, the Marquis de Sade* (1740-1814) is writing a novel, La Philosophie dans le boudoir*. This is the year the violin virtuoso, Paganini* (1782-1840,) makes his debut at Genoa (at age 11.) He will later tour Europe and compose for the violin. 1794 - This year two new theatres open. The first, the Federal Street Theatre,* opens in Boston with an independent company. The second, and more important, opens in Philadelphia. Wignell* has gone to England for actors and brings back some of the best talent yet seen in the New World to play here. Among them is the great actress' Sarah Siddons*' sister, Elizabeth Whitlock*. Wignell* opens Chestnut Street Theatre* with this impressive group. The theatre building is modeled on the Theatre Royal* at Bath, England, and seats about 1200 with a stage 71 feet deep by 36 feet wide. The audience seating includes three tiers of galleries. Philadelphia will be a theatrical center for the new country for many years. The Chestnut Street Theatre* company is the only real challenger to the New York based The Old American Company*, which will remain the leading company in America well into the 19th century. 1794 In France they are beginning to be revolted by the excesses of the revolutionary terror. With the Revolution of the 9th of Thermidor (July 27, they renamed all the months) and the resultant execution of Robespierre,* the Reign of Terror* is over and the French return to a more middle-class government. The practice of medicine, however, is improving by leaps and bounds, what with having so many medical cases to deal with. This year all hospitals become state property and facilities continue to expand. At the medical college (Ecole de Sante) surgeons are in charge and there is an extensive curriculum including external, internal and advanced clinical. The ideas of the Enlightenment are adapted to medicine and careful attention is now being given to looking, examining and dealing with immediate causes. Clinical observation becomes central to medical practice. Slavery is abolished in French colonies.

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In the United States they establish the U.S. Navy. In the arts, Goya* (1746-1828) is painting in Spain. Later he will move to France (1814.) 1795 This is the time when the first attempt to quantify electricity and magnetism are taking place. The first horse-drawn railway shows up in England. This notion of rails to run transport on will be the second big step in the industrial revolution. 1795 - Charleston, South Carolina also becomes a major center for American theater. John Joseph Sollee* is the manager of the City Theatre* (or French Theatre*) where many plays are performed in French. Charleston has a large French population due to the refugees from the French Revolution and slave uprisings in Santo Domingo. In England, the romantic poets keep trying to write plays. Most of them are pretty bad plays. This year William Wordsworth* (1770-1850) comes out with The Borders*. 1796 - Thomas Abthorpe Cooper* (1776-1849) one of England's most promising young actors, comes to the Chestnut Street Theatre* in America because he is unable to find a suitable engagement at home. Within a few years he is considered America's leading actor, popularizing the Kemble style of acting in the New World. Hodgkinson* and Hallam*, both give up their managerial positions at the John Street Theatre* and William Dunlap* takes over management. But Hallam* and Hodgkinson* remain as actors in the company, even though they still remain rivals. 1796 The French Armies are on the march, especially in Italy where Napoleon Bonaparte* is sent by the Directory*. In the United States George Washington* refuses a third term as President and John Adams* narrowly beats out Thomas Jefferson* as the next president. Jefferson* serves as Vicepresident. In Russia Catherine The Great* dies and her son Paul I* succeeds. Melodrama,* Popular Theatre, and Napoleon MELODRAMA* In 1797 in France, the man who coins the word "Melodrama"* produces his first successful play. Rene-Charles Pixerecourt* (1773-1844) will write (or collaborate on) nearly 100 plays. For thirty years he will provide the second rate theatre with their main fare. His work typifies the mixture of ferocity and idealism of the French Revolution which permeates the plays produced for illiterate audiences. He is influenced by German writers and his own work will strongly influence the rise of French Romanticism. He will also strongly influence the English where most of his plays appear soon after they are done in France. By this time the works of Kotzebue* are being translated, adapted and performed in England, France and the United States. Kotzebue* is busy writing over 200 melodramas. The popularity of his works keeps the plays of better writers from becoming highly visible.

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Although Kotzebue* and Pixerecourt* are the most prominent authors of melodrama, English and American playwrights will follow. Melodrama* comes from several sources: incidental music used in spoken drama in Germany; the French melodrama* which was pantomime with music; the Gothic tales of mystery, horror, vice, virtue triumphant; the early works of Goethe* and Schiller*. Gradually the music becomes less important and the settings less Gothic, but the music will continue to be included throughout this period. Typically melodramas* of this period combine sensational subjects, striking spectacles and humanitarian sentiments. The plots require a virtuous hero/heroine be relentlessly pursued by a dastardly villain. The pursuit includes every imaginable threat to life and limb, reputation and happiness. All actions are shown on the stage (preferably catastrophic like earthquakes, battles and floods.) Lots of local color is included, such as festivals, dances, strange and interesting working or living conditions. A sort of formula develops to shape these plots elements. The play begins with a short expository scene to explain who's who and what's what. The scenes are episodic with lots of plot devices like disguises, mistaken identities, abductions and fortunate coincidences. There are three acts and each ends with a terrific climax. The ending is always a happy one with strict poetic justice in which virtue is rewarded and villainy defeated and punished. There is comic relief provided by servants, confidants or companions. Music is always woven in through songs, dances and underscoring of emotional scenes. Melodramas* contain all kinds of popular entertainment plus a simple, strong story with strict moral codes. Everybody can understand them and so they are enormously popular and will dominate the nineteenth-century stage. For the first time since the Renaissance, theatre is serving a large popular audience. In England, the craze for "Gothic" melodrama* is served by the dramatization of two novels by Matthew Gregory Lewis* (1775-1818), Ambrosio, or the Monk* (1795) and The Castle Spectre* (1797) as well as translations of thirty-two plays of Kotzebue* and numerous adaptations of Pixerecourt*'s plays. 1798 - The first use of Romanticism* as a descriptive term for the new movement shows up in the literary journal, Das Athenaeum* [see above.] The writers are attempting to clarify and develop concepts from Sturm und Drang*, the works of Goethe* and Schiller*, the writings of Kant* and other philosophers. They are trying to formulate the theoretical bases of "romantic" art. In the United States, the John Street Theatre,* which houses The Old American Company,* has become inadequate and it is replaced. The first really important theatre, the Park Theatre*, opens in New York. It is built and managed by Hallam*, Dunlap* and Hodgkinson* who sell off the old John Street Theatre*. The Park Theatre* will have its ups and downs, but over the rest of this century every player of any importance in America will appear here. 1798 The French are still on the march. This time Napoleon Bonaparte* is off to conquer Egypt (he has in mind taking it as a first step toward India.) He will be here another year until he begins to hear about the political mess at home.

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He will rule as First Consul 1799-1804. One of the by-products of Napoleon*'s excursion into Egypt is the discovery this year of the Rosetta Stone* which enable scholars eventually to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics. This play earns Pixerecourt* the nickname "the Corneille* of the boulevards. Dunlap* manages the theater until bankruptcy is declared in 1805. He not only re-establishes the revolutionary institutions in France (with some of his own modifications) but exports them all over as he conquers various pieces of Europe. 1800 . Richard Wellesley* is honored for his progress in bringing English control to those parts by being created Marquis Wellesley (Irish peerage. states. Wellesley* has practically a free hand in India. will enter the picture and Cooper* will start touring companies which include major stars. George Frederick Cooke* (1756-1812) who favors realistic acting." In England there is a new actor.Pixerecourt* produces Coelina. provinces. 1799 In France the corruption of the Directory* (the current government. but after ten years in London with great success he will tour the United States.pdffactory. ou l'Enfant du Mystere*. 1799 .* It is translated into English (by Thomas Holcraft) and appears in 1802 as the first melodrama* on the English stage. reuniting the fragments of the Comedie Francaise*. At this point Napoleon Bonaparte* seizes power.) exhibits the first picture of a naval engagement. In 1807 Cooper* will take over management and the theater will begin to prosper.) He appoints his brother. (later to be created the Duke of Wellington* and known as "the Iron Duke") as supreme military and political commander of the Deccan (the southern half of India. "Battle of the Nile. He will be busy in India for some years. Xavier Bichat* invents pathological anatomy and comes out with his systematic view of disease as a localized PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. political discontent and military defeats.One of the first plays produced in the new theater is Andre* with Hodgkinson* in the lead. Administrative law reorganizes the revolutionary "departments" (counties.) Since the Napoleonic Wars* are about to keep Britain busy in Europe. He does a terrific job of getting the country out of the grip of chaos and introduces a whole range of measures that form the basis for most contemporary French institutions.1798 . 1800 In France the business of medical knowledge is forging ahead. He fixes up the quarrel that the revolution caused between the French government and the Church (Concordant of 1801) and gets state control of all the temporal aspects of the French Church while the Pope gets to look after the spiritual. the landscape artist. Arthur*." A perfectly preserved mammoth is found in Siberia and Russia grants a monopoly on Alaska trade to the Russia-America Company. and Cooper* as supporting actor. Turner* (1775-1851. 1799 Off in India. In 1808.When Napoleon* comes to power he brings some order out of the theatrical chaos. whatever) which make up France and assigns "prefects" to be sure that centralized authority reaches all parts of the country. a new partner. This will set an important precedent. the most successful of his melodramas. we get the Directoire* style from this period) and a relaxation in the nation as a result of winning leads to economic crisis. He is a little past his prime by this year.com . his London debut. In England. Stephen Price*.

* Actually it is an adaptation of Pixerecourt*'s Coelina* by Thomas Holcroft* (1745-1809) which he calls A Tale of Mystery*. The Union Jack becomes the official flag of the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Kaiser Octavianus*.phenomenon in his Treatise on Membranes.com . The English pass the "Health and Morals of Apprentices" Act to protect labor in factories. [There is a tie in the popular vote with Aaron Burr. In the United States what had been known as the 'back country' is now referred to as the 'frontier.' a sort of primitive battery. 1803 France needs money and the United States buys a big hunk of the American continent France claims to own." (see below 1818)] Down in Italy Count Alessandro Volta* (1745-1827) invents the voltanic 'pile.In Germany this year. Thomas Jefferson*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In England the romantic writer. No doubt all this will inform the author of "Frankenstein. It carries a pension. the deceased goes to the dissecting room for pathological study. In England the social reformer Robert Owen* takes over New Lanark mills and begins social reforms. Hospital doctors are now dominant and are the elite of the profession. 1802 Napoleon* creates the Order of the Legion of Honor* to reward both soldiers and civilians for outstanding service to the state. Indiana. He also writes a lot of "fantastic comedies. This view means that you treat the disease and not the patient. 1825-28) with little success.' The political scene sees the Federalist John Adams* beaten by the Republican candidate. another German romantic playwright. Later he will try to export his cooperative communities" to the United States (New Harmony." In England the public is crazy about melodrama* and finally there is an English play labeled as a melodrama. three volumes of Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border*. Students flock to France from all over to take advantage of the availability of hands-on pathological anatomy. 1802 . If a patient's relatives couldn't come up with the large sum charged for burial. The prologue of this play is regarded by his contemporaries as characteristic of the romantics. Melodramas* are rapidly becoming the mainstay of the minor theatres in London. The Louisiana Purchase* covers all that territory from the Gulf of Mexico (New Orleans) north and west of the Mississippi River to some vague spot in the Rocky mountains. 1801 Thomas Jefferson* (1743-1826) becomes the third president of the United States (18011809) in a close battle that is decided in the House of Representatives.] A Frenchman makes use of the voltanic pile to come up with electroplating. Teaching medicine becomes much easier since most of the patients are poor and destitute and are neither able or willing to object to being used as objects of study. Sir Walter Scott* (1771-1832.) comes out with his first important work. Lugwig Tieck* (17731853) comes out with his best known tragedy. [In England the only way to get a body for study is to buy it from grave robbers.pdffactory.

Austria. Schlegel* also. Each of the eastern countries. Napoleon* is a big fan of classical drama and beginning this year he offers annual prizes for new comedies and tragedies. He also makes Talleyrand* (1754-1838) his grand chamberlain. becomes closely associated with Madame de Stael* (1766-1817. She is now keeping out of Napoleon*'s way. Austria. After the fall of his empire she will go back to France and take all this German romantic stuff with her (more on her later.By this year August Schlegel* (see above in introduction) is formulating and disseminating romantic theory in Germany (and elsewhere) through his lectures in Vienna and his published essays. Spain. Coleridge* had visited in Germany 1798-99 and translated Schiller*'s Wallenstein* into English in 1800. England is busy coping with events in Europe and in India. Prussia and Russia. At one time or another France is fighting England. [This crafty politician will survive all political changes and be a powerful force in Europe.) She is married to the Swedish minister at Paris but left France during the Revolution and was exiled by Napoleon*. Some of those opposing France switch sides and fight beside her. Unfortunately it also results in putting efficiency ahead of individual rights and turns the country over to administrative activity and bureaucracy.com . nee Necker. Samuel Taylor Coleridge* (1772-1834). actually she is Anne Louise Germaine.) court painter.pdffactory. Jacques Louis David* (1748-1825. In France Robert Fulton* (1765-1815. At home in France Napoleon* makes the general Jean Bernadotte* (1763-1840) Marshal of France. The only thing that makes it drag on so long is that "one time or another" business. In America that business of a northwest passage* is so intriguing that President Jefferson* sends out an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis* (1774-1809) and William Clark* (17701838) to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase and find the headwaters of the Missouri and the Columbia rivers.) an American inventor. By this time the brief era of peace and consolidation is over and France is once more at war. emotion and character are Schlegel*'s idea of the main ingredients of drama. Meanwhile he has invented a submarine but nobody is interested. will adapt Schlegel*'s ideas. at one time or another side with Napoleon* when it seems in their own interest to do so. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. is hired by his government to come up with an affordable.] This year Napoleon* appoints the founder of the French classical school of painting.) This year he also hammers out a civil code (later it will be known as the Code Napoleon* or Napoleonic Code) that confirms the legal and property rights that grew out of the revolution. 1804 In France Napoleon* is proclaimed Emperor by the Senate and Tribunate and crowned in the presence of the Pope (Pius VII*. Prussia and Russia.Meanwhile.) In England. He is one of the first to use classicism and romanticism as polar terms. workable steamboat. but we'll call her by the shorter form. These translations become the mainstay of German repertory productions into the twentieth century. He regards Shakespeare* as the greatest dramatist ever and translates seventeen of his plays into German. This consolidates much of the concrete achievements of the revolution. Mood. 1804 . Baronne de StaelHolstein. He is trying it out. From 1803 to 1814 the French will be continuously at war. but it's a nice idea. Most of the winners are not memorable. this year.

by conquest. At the end of the battle.) 1806 .In Russia they finally open a state theatre in Moscow. Napoleon* sets up a Confederation of the Rhine and makes a kingdom out of Saxony. 1807 .) 1805 . a few will PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and has a play.com . especially since it also brings terrific career opportunities under the Napoleonic institutions based on advancement by merit. Three years later he makes his debut as an actor.) It also lays the groundwork for the eventual union of Germany (it would have happened sooner under the Austrian Emperor but the Prussians wouldn't go along. All plays have to be passed by censors. He makes a decree that all the works in the repertories of the state troupes can't be performed by anybody else.pdffactory. In 1813 he goes to England where he becomes renowned as a dramatist and critic. It is staffed by the serfs which the crown purchases from other successful serf theatres belonging to several nobles. He writes the song. 1805-6 . a sharpshooter gets a bead on Nelson* and kills him. [With Germany such a fragmented area there is little national feeling and this fusing of tiny states into larger territorial units is much appreciated. an artillerist and not to be confused with the playwright) are reintroduced as weapons into the British army. Arthur. while continuing to write successful plays. control over most of the subcontinent. These are determined by the kind of productions they get to put on. a critical journal. Next. No new theatres can open without special permission.) The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope (Africa. This year his brother Joseph Bonaparte* is named King of Naples and brother Louis*. annexation and making alliances. 1758-1805) wipes out the French and Spanish fleets in the battle at Trafalgar*. but the state theatres haven't been straightened out yet. "Home. This is all very well. The Congreve rockets (originally constructed by Sir William Congreve*. when it is won. Anything regarded as "lesser" drama goes on at the Theatre de l'Imperatice* [later it will be called the Odeon*.] This wipe-out in Germany brings a final end to the Holy Roman Empire (which has been neither Holy nor Roman for a very long time. Comic ballet and light opera goes on at the Opera-Comique*.* with him. Regular tragedy and comedy can only be done by the Comedie Francaise*. Sweet Home"* for one of his plays. Julia*. all but four of the minor theatres in Paris are closed (this won't last long. These divisions and troupes will continue into the next century. He is the first internationally famous American dramatist. produced at the Park Theatre*. 1806 Napoleon* puts his relatives on various thrones to consolidate his conquests. This will prove a significant visual image for Francis Scott Key* (see below 1814.Napoleon* deals with the dilemma of who gets to be a state theatre.1805 Wellesley* (that Englishmen rolling up India for the merchants back home) has acquired.In America John Howard Payne* (1791-1852) at age 14 publishes The Thespian Mirror*.In France Napoleon* puts his organizing talents to the French theatres. Arthur* will now start fighting in the Napoleonic Wars*. Back in Europe The English aren't about to put up with Napoleon*'s closing all of Europe to British trade and Nelson* (Horatio Nelson. Prussia declares war on France.] Grand opera and serious ballet are performed at the Opera*. King of Holland. On the war front it is a busy year: Britain blockades the French coast. Napoleon* is marching into Germany and issues a decree beginning the "Continental System" which closes continental ports to British vessels. He comes home bringing his brother. He authorizes four state-supported theatres.

keeping regular drama exclusively in the patent houses (the original Drury Lane*. 1807 Another brother of Napoleon*. His system will come to be known as Hegelianism*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. John Constable* (1776-1837) is working. Two of them will perform melodramas* and pantomimes.pdffactory. the Earl of Dartmouth. In Germany the philosopher Hegel* (1770-1831) comes out with one of his major works. In the art world the English landscape painter.com .) He interprets the Licensing Act (which governs what plays may be produced) in a liberal fashion and encourages the establishment of minor theatres in the City of Westminster (a part of London. In England there is a new Lord Chamberlain. Fulton* has his workable and affordable steamboat. steaming up to Albany and back on the Hudson River. France invades Portugal and the royal Portuguese family runs off to Brazil. The northern one is led by Simon Bolivar *. The Haymarket* and Covent Garden*) these three have trouble keeping audiences in the face of the new competition. Obviously what happens is there is less and less difference between what goes on at the patent houses and the minor theatres. the Clermont*.* have the good sense to lead Brazil to self-government. becomes King of Westphalia.) These "minor" theatres get to put on what are regarded as "minor" genres. They will write this into law in 1843. The United States Embargo Act against Britain and France is enacted to combat the taking of American sailors and their "impressment" into British naval service. Phanomenologie des Geistes*. who are already in Brazil to escape Napoleon. He is a metaphysician with a philosophy of the Absolute. Jerome*. in operation.) The Latin American colonies are cut off from Spain and Portugal by Napoleon*'s subjection of the mother countries. the Theatre de la Gaite* and the Ambigu-Comique*. The remaining two. This leads to Latin American wars of independence with Spain. This is a good idea since the population of the city is growing by leaps and bounds and audiences are increasing. get to do short plays. Mexico runs its own revolution. 1808 Napoleon* invades Spain and puts brother Joseph* on the Spanish throne and replaces Joseph* in Naples with another guy (Jochin Murat*. Regular plays can be billed as melodramas* if they are divided into three acts (instead of the traditional five) and some musical accompaniment added. These four get to divide up the minor genres. While England tries something similar to France. (who got the job in 1804. In 1800 there were only six theatres in the London area and by 1843 there will be twenty-one. Portugal's rulers. the Theatre des Varietes* and the Vaudeville*. comedies-en-vaudevilles (these are oneact plays with new lyrics set to popular tunes) and parodies. The southern revolution is spearheaded by San Martin's army of the Andes. they just do popular stuff. Gradually they start adding minor drama to the regular stuff and sometimes as many as three plays will be included in an evening's bill.) This year he starts issuing permits for a number of new theatres.creep back later. The minor theatres counter with all kinds of devices (like changing Macbeth* into a "ballet of action" and adding songs to regular plays) to get around the prohibition against their performing regular drama. That means they don't have artistic pretensions. who has a much harder time of it with the Spanish troops.

This does not apply to internal domestic trade in slaves. La Belle Sauvage* by James Nelson Barker* (1784-1858) is produced at the Park Theatre*. it's terrifically popular. The Indian Princess. English machines. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He will be an active player in European politics for years.com . To show how loyal to the French they are. on a small scale in capital cities like Paris and Berlin. especially the effect of France on Spain and Portugal.) It will take him. In Germany Metternich* (1773-1859. In the north (out of Venezuela) a vigorous revolution begins. Sambre. South American areas start breaking off from Spain. In Russia the government sets up a theatrical training school in conjunction with the Moscow state theatre. It is produced at Wiemar and helps spread the influence of Schiller*. Jean Bernadotte* (Marshal of France) is elected Crown Prince of Sweden. In the United States the first indigenous American drama. In Sweden King Gustavus IV is deposed and Charles XIII* succeeds. The Portuguese royal family agrees with this and leads Brazil peacefully toward nationhood (Brazil will become an independent kingdom in 1815) but Spain tries to crush her colonies.pdffactory. 1809 In the United States James Madison* becomes the fourth president. France and Belgium) and. and Meuse valleys in Germany. and. The Twenty-Fourth of February*.The romantic movement includes what is called "fate tragedy. also known as the Liberator. Noted for his skillful diplomacy he will be largely responsible for a policy of stability of European governments and suppressing liberal ideas and revolutionary movements.In America. This year the American author. What with all this revolution business.) comes out with Rip Van Winkle*. and others. Washington Irving* (1783-1859. Constitution requires that the slave trade end this year. (whose full name is Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich so you see why everybody calls him by his last name) is named chief Minister of Austria.S. including getting Napoleon* his second wife. 1809 ." This is started this year by Zacharias Werner* (1768-1823) with his play. This year Ecuador begins to get its independence. By this date the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution* are showing up in the coalfields of central Europe (the Ruhr. led by Simon Bolivar (1783-1830. or. a lot of other writers start imitating Schiller. quite a while to make the Spanish give up. plans and engines stream into Europe along with English skilled artisans and entrepreneurs. administrative autonomy and economic self-determination. the U. but it does demand that President Jefferson* and the United States prohibit the importation of slaves from Africa (or anywhere else). They want political freedom. Since Werner*'s play is inspired by one of Schiller's. it will be the first American play to be produced in England at Drury Lane*. Later.

Jane Austen* (1775-1817. European Russians emigrate to Siberia and North Africa. He will remain almost totally unknown until Tieck* publishes his collected works in 1826. The Prince of Homburg*.) English novelist. In the United States Madison* is reelected president and Louisiana becomes a state. which is written in French and. the rising number of "skirmishes" on the Canadian borders and other problems. provide him with safe passage through their territory. Heinrich von Kleist* (1777-1811) comes out with his masterpiece. [This one may be remembered as the War of 1812*. Indiana.pdffactory. who think this is a neat idea. Later he will run his political campaign on this military effort ("Tippecanoe and Tyler. 1810 By this time New York city is the most dynamic urban center in the New World. From this date he is head designer for the Opera* but he works for just about all the other Parisian theatres too. and. This year he makes the mistake of trying to invade Russia. by 1900 he will be better regarded than most of his contemporaries and some of his plays are still prominent in German repertory. So far they just produce iron. Of Germany*. There are enormous population shifts as Europeans emigrate to the Americas. Even then it will take a while for his works to become popular."). 1811 . Australia and New Zealand. Paraguay becomes independent of Spain. together with her later personal efforts. William Henry Harrison* (1773-1841). comes out with Sense and Sensibility*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but. later they will move into armaments.000 and in sixty years it will pass 1. Africa. This year the population is 100. A future president. will introduce Schlegel's ideas and German Romanticism to France and Italy. This year Argentina becomes independent. In reaction to the high-handedness of the British who take American sailors and "impress" them into British naval service. 1812 In Europe Napoleon* controls most of western Europe.This year a German dramatist. In France Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri* (1782-1868) has become the top designer of this period. Too. This poor guy has had little connection with the romantics and nobody encouraged him.] This year Louisiana becomes a state. In Germany the Krupp* works open at Essen.com . More than two-thirds of the immigrants to the United States will pass through here. 1811 The English finally figure out that George III* is insane and the Prince of Wales becomes the Prince Regent.Madame de Stael* puts out her work.000. defeats Tecumseh and his Indian troops at Tippecanoe. Indians emigrate to Indochina and Africa.000. The Prussians. the United States declares war on Britain. The British occupy the island of Java. African slaves are moved to the Americas and Arabia.1810 .

but he won't. The French statesman. is instrumental in rebuilding the government after Napoleon's* defeat earlier this year. 1754-1838.In England this year Edmund Kean* (1789-1833) makes his debut at Drury Lane* in a major role. This encourages Austria. The French people urge Napoleon* to make peace. In England. Tancredi*. or absent entirely. He will have a checkered career. Prussia and England converge on France. Now this endeavor raises some perplexing religious and philosophical questions. He will go on to write 39 operas in all. One of the great English critics. In Italy the prolific operatic composer. Prussia and Britain to form an alliance and try to defeat France in Europe.) come out with what is known in English as Grimm's Fairy Tales* 1813 Napoleon* is defeated in Russia and begins the long trek home. Samuel Taylor Coleridge* (1772-1834. One is the strata (layers of different kinds of rock and soil) and the other are fossils.) His play is called Remorse*. This seems PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. what with all that canal building and digging coal. The audiences love his new version. This year another German philosopher. 1813 . a terrific temper and a habit of drinking to excess. Arthur Schopenhauer* (1788-1860. and Wilhelm 1786-1859.) As a reward for his efforts in leading the British forces on their drive into France through Spain. but often he is drunk. plus many other musical works. (Jacob 1785-1863. 1814 .The brothers Grimm*.) the chief expounder of pessimism. some people have been noticing two interesting things that show up. but plagued by undisciplined behavior. 1814 The armies of Austria. mediocre. Russia. It seems that there are some fossils of things that are no longer around and there are also fossils in upper layers that aren't there in deeper layers. Rossini* (1792-1868) comes out with his opera. Russia.Another English romantic poet tries writing a play. Talleyrand* (Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-P‚rigord. Talleyrand* helps in restoring the Bourbons to the French throne and when Louis XVIII* takes the French throne as his hereditary right Talleyrand* becomes his minister for foreign affairs. This time it is the major theorist of romanticism in England. Arthur Wellesley* is created the Duke of Wellington*. William Hazlitt* (1778-1830) begins reviewing plays for the London papers this year.pdffactory. The waltz sweeps European ballrooms. appearing at his best in murderous villain parts. When he is good he is unbeatable. comes out with a major work. He is defeated and sent into exile on the island of Elba (off the west coast of Italy. Uber die Vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom Zureichenden Grunde. A canal-builder named William Smith* writes up his conclusions on the relationship between strata and fossils in a work called Strata Identified By Organized Fossils* published this year. He appears as Shylock* in The Merchant of Venice* in untraditional costume and a villainous character. a fascinating chap who plays a leading role in French governments from the revolution through 1830).com .

A French Professor of Vertebrate Zoology at the Paris Museum of Natural History.pdffactory. There is a big economic crisis in England which gives rise to large-scale emigration to Canada and the United States. 1816 This year a French doctor comes up with the idea of a stethoscope. together with the Viennese idea of checking the condition of the heart and lungs by tapping the chest. especially dinosaurs. This is the year of the Battle of New Orleans* where the Americans defeat the British after the war is officially over. This. what with all those British Congreve rockets flying around.C. This year the first practical locomotive runs at the collier at Killingworth. romanticism begins to be picked up in other countries and becomes out of fashion in Germany. He is finally defeated by Wellington* at Waterloo* (near Brussels in Belgium) and this time is exiled to the island of St.com . But. Medicine takes a step forward when England forbids unqualified doctors to practice. We will follow the mainstream theatre to other countries. McHenry (Baltimore harbor).) This seems to do for the moment. leads to a more detailed examination of the patient. the War of 1812* is still going on and during the British siege of Ft. D.) In the United States the War of 1812* is finally over and the country can get down to expansion and growth. but before the confirming news of the treaty of Ghent arrives there. comes up with a possible solution. It will reach parts of Europe in 1829. but more geologic and paleontologic investigations will cause more problems in the near future. British forces also burn Washington. he suggests. Indiana becomes a state. In the United States. England. Post-Napoleonic World Once the map of Europe is cleaned up after Napoleon* and the influence of his ideas. even though the war is over. Francis Scott Key* (1779-1843) writes the Star Spangled Banner*. Railways will follow rapidly and the nature of transportation will change. 1817 The United States inaugurates its fifth president. James Monroe* and Mississippi becomes a state. 1815 Napoleon* escapes from Elba and rules France again for one hundred days. In December the Treaty of Ghent ends the war. Georges Cuvier*. Helena* (a British possession off the coast of southwest Africa. He also finds fossils of extinct animals. shows that extinction is due to catastrophic floods (both the biblical one and an earlier one before the creation of man.. This. there are a few tardy battles. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Revolution will rise up in an abortive attempt in Germany in 1830. A cholera epidemic breaks out in the Ganges delta in India and spreads toward Europe at about five miles a day. The Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar grants the first German constitution.to imply that God must have changed his mind about retaining some animals he had originally created but which are now extinct. together with marine life.

com . they are improving transportation by getting into the canal digging business just like the British. Holy Night*. with the support of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and those of Macready*. the Bride of the Isles*. He will become best known for his knowledge and expertise in costume and setting (see 1823). one of the finest tragedians of his day. (see below 1823) 1818 This is the year Mary Wollstonecraft (nee Godwin) Shelley* (1797-1851) comes out with her novel Frankenstein*. In America the actor.) and Percy Bysshe Shelley* (1792-1822) are writing plays this year. A perennial favorite of the Gothic romantics and obviously influenced by the rise of pathological anatomy in France.In England a prolific writer of burlesques.) He will write a History of British Costume* (1834) and be instrumental in stimulating new legislation governing dramatic copyright laws and giving greater protection to British dramatists. 1819 . The first steamship (the "Savannah") crosses the Atlantic in 26 days. In Sweden Bernadotte* becomes Charles XIV* on the death of the old king. is appearing at Philadelphia's's Walnut Street Theatre*.] Two more English romantic poets. extravaganzas and pantomimes also produces melodramas. Amoroso.In America. or. John Keats* (1795-1821. He'll be big in the next period. He is regarded as a 'ranting' actor.S.) 1817 . King of Little Britain*. In Austria a schoolteacher (Franz Xaver Huber*) writes the music for a curate's (Joseph Mohr*) words and we get Silent Night.James Robinson Planche* (1796-1880) playwright and antiquarian. 1820 . William Charles Macready* (1793-1873) is firmly established both at Covent Garden* and at Drury Lane*. His career is devoted primarily to spectacular extravaganzas. They start building the Erie Canal between Albany and Buffalo (New York.) Illinois becomes a state. The Vampire.In England.In Austria a new playwright.pdffactory.) comes out with his first play. Keats*' play is Otho the Great*. Franz Grillparzer* (1791-1872.* One of Planche*'s best known works comes out this year. He is regarded as the only real rival to Edmund Kean*. 1819 The U. Edwin Forrest* (1806-72). A later work will be regarded as one of the masterpieces of the German-speaking theatre. produces his first play this year. He is a musician and a serious student of art and history (see below. which is a lot like the old Jacobean drama with lots of revenge action. Like other major English actors he will tour to America and France. The border between the United States and Canada is agreed upon (the 49th parallel. Edwin Forrest*. buys Florida from Spain and Alabama becomes a state. Shelley* writes The Cenci*. He will have a running feud with Macready* and. Later he will tour to England with some success. by this date. without much subtlety but full of passion and fire. [In 1849 he will be embroiled in the famous Astor Place* Riot in New York (one of those big fights between fans of the American actor. The Ancestress*. He will become the leading American actor of this period. 1818 . Transportation is improving by leaps and bounds.

It will be bloody. Ever since the United States was founded there has been an argument over slavery. James Sheridan Knowles* (1784-1862) gets his first big hit with Virginius*. his anti-British fans will lead the Astor Place* Riot in 1849. Helena*. using translucent cloth and light to make things appear and disappear. These and other discoveries will lead to the generation of electric power and electric motors and other such electric marvels. 1788-1824) gets the only one of his plays produced in his lifetime put on the stage. which no doubt helps him know what works on stage. and east to the eastern edge of present day Texas. be regarded as the American champion in response to the theatrical domination of the English. but not often.] It shows the audience two different paintings. Peru is now independent. That top designer. Specialists begin to concentrate on the behavior of particular organs. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This year the "Missouri Compromise" permits Maine to become a free state (1820) while Missouri enters the union as a slave state (1821. Marino Faliero*. [He will later invent the daguerreotype*. Monroe* begins a second term as U.S. each of which change in appearance by varying the lighting. In the field of physics Andre Amphere* comes out with Laws of the Electrodynamic Action and (1821) Michael Faraday* discovers the fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation.More advancements in scenery are made this year with Daguerre* (Louis Jacques Mande. it's best to take note of it here. and the riot is really part of the Romantic movement. This year Lord Byron* (George Gordon. This year one of the most popular dramatists. This play will soon be playing regularly in England and America. 1789-1851) opening his diorama* in Paris. With this innovation independent scenic studios begin to replace those attatched to individual theatres. Now the argument takes place in Congress and centers around whether or not new states should be allowed to have slavery.passionate fans.com . with 22 people killed and another 36 wounded by gunfire from the militia trying to stop the riot. Ciceri*. It shows great effects of changing weather and time of day. [As noted above. Since the date 1849 falls in the next period. is so busy that this year he opens one of the first scenic design studios in Paris to better handle all this business.) 1821 . 1820s A number of medical journals appear in Paris encouraging specialization in medical labor.] The English are having trouble writing memorable plays. He is better at playwriting than the other English romantic poets. 1822 . 1821 Napoleon* dies in exile on the island of St.Still another romantic English poet is writing plays. president. He is good at putting melodramatic stories together with a sort of Shakespearian form. He is an actor. but that isn't saying much. All of his plays will eventually be performed. Mexico becomes an independent state with a northern border running east and west in a line north of Utah's Great Salt Lake.pdffactory.

The best known form of Pushkin*'s work comes to us by way of the 1874 opera when Musorgski* (or Mussorgsky. Pushkin* is the leader of the new romantic style in Russia.) However.) This production is the first to attempt costuming with complete historical accuracy for each and every character in the play. Planche* designs and supervises the costumes for Charles Kean*'s production of King John* (Shakespeare*.) the leader of the romantic school.) 1823 .pdffactory. is painting Les Massacres de Chinos. 1824 In the United States no one gets a majority in the presidential election so the House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams* as the next (sixth) president. 8 in B minor. This idea will take a little time to catch on but it marks the beginning of a trend. known as the greatest master of song in musical history. comes out with some enormously popular romantic novels and. This work fuels the fire of controversy between the neoclassical French and the French Romantic movement.) the Hungarian pianist and composer makes his debut (age 11) at the piano in Vienna. It won't appear on the stage for almost fifty years (1870. folklore and themes as subject matter for a truly Russian theatre.) the Austrian composer.This is a landmark year in scenic design and staging. In France. Boris Gugonov*.The year the new Opera* building opens with all the latest technical devices including gas lighting and lots of systems to pipe water around for fountains and other aquatic stage effects. Franz Peter Schubert* (1797-1828. In England British workers are now legally allowed to unionize. It won't be allowed to be published for six more years. 1823 Mexico becomes a republic. a writer. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Franz von Liszt* (1811-1886. In England. this year. For the Russians the important thing is to return to Russian history. 1822 Brazil becomes an independent Empire. Modest Petrovich 1835-1881) uses this play as the libretto. In France a new artist. 1798-1863. In Austria Grillparzer* writes Konig Ottokars Gluck und Endde*. In America James Fenimore Cooper* (1789-1851) comes out with the first of his LeatherStocking* novels. Marie-Henri Beyle Stendhal* (1783-1842). Charles X* becomes king of France. 1825 .com .An interesting year in Russia as Alexander Sergeivich Pushkin* finishes his historical play. Delacroix* (Ferdinand Victor Eugune. This historical play in the style of Schiller* is banned for two years (it smacks of Napoleon*) but will eventually be well produced and hailed as a masterpiece. Racine and Shakespeare*. comes out with his "Unfinished" Symphony (Symphony No. and they will.

Samuel Morse* (1791-1872) is busy being an artist and painting Portrait of Lafayette. The ones in Moscow continue to the present and are the ones usually meant by these names. The play is impossible to produce as written (it would take six hours) but the preface to it becomes a rallying point for the advocates of romanticism. behavior and even the personal lives of the actors. Well. mixing the genres and concentrating on historical settings for the plots. [He will invent the Morse code and a working magnetic telegraph by 1837. [Yes. The Bard (Shakespeare* is referred to as the "Bard of Avon") is being widely read aloud and performed in France now which helps advance the position of the romantics. calling for abandoning the unities. In England.) When state theatres were set up in Moscow they were in temporary buildings.The French Romantic* movement starts with a bang this year with the publication of Victor-Marie Hugo*'s (1802-85) Cromwell*." it is replaced in 1832 by the Alexandrinsky* and does mainly drama)." used mostly for opera and ballet).By this date in France even the Comedie Francaise* is using historically accurate settings for their productions. Many of these regulations are based on the French Comedie Francaise* and concern rehearsals. An English company of Charles Kemble* comes to Paris to perform Shakespeare *. Petersburg: the Bolshoi* (which means "large. devises regulations that will govern the state troupes from now until the revolution in 1917.pdffactory. but in 1824 they opened the Moscow Maly*. Since the Russian crown has a monopoly on theatrical production in Moscow and St. and the Mikhailovsky* (where they do foreign plays. the whole thing starts an uproar between romantics and classicists that will rage in Paris for the next three years. This year marks the invention of oxygen-hydrogen limelight* (Sir Goldsworthy Gurney*. Petersburg.By this date the Director of Repertory for the Imperial Theatres (Prince Alexander Shakhovskoy*. the Maly* (which means "small.) a German Jewish lyric poet and literary critic is writing.com . His main emphasis is on showing both the sublime spiritual and the grotesque animal nature in order to provide a more truthful picture of humanity. in charge 1801-26) has visited a number of western theatrical centers and. Petersburg. 1798-1875) which will shed a lot of light on theatrical stars. There are three theatres in St. 1827 . both cities have theatres named the same thing for the same kinds of theatrical production. this sets the tone for Russia. in an attempt to raise the quality level of production in Russian theatres. In ballet and opera foreign influence dominates. The Russians are conservative and their scenic practices lag behind Europe. 1825 Bolivia becomes independent. Soon he will get around to being an inventor. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the first railroad to carry passengers opens between Stockton and Darlington. In 1839 the actors will become part of the civil service. They will continue to hold the lead. and in 1825 the Moscow Bolshoi*. 1827 Heinrich Heine* (1797-1856. In America.] 1826 .] By this date the Moscow theatres have a reputation for being superior to those in St.

In Germany the composer. Still more about electricity is becoming known as George S. Construction of the Baltimore and Ohio. These two events will lead to a radical approach to public health and state intervention by raising the doctor to a place of control over populations.) This new microscope gets rid of the aberrations that have prevented people from seeing clearly through earlier microscopes. By this time the French are publishing prompt books that describe in detail all the special effects and scenery used for the current crop of melodramas* and romantic plays as well as other shows where spectacle is vital. 1828 . He puts out his novel Vivian Grey* this year. 1829 The Cholera epidemic (from India) reaches parts of Austria.) Noah Webster* (1758-1843) comes out with his American Dictionary of the English Language*. Geologic investigations are continuing and this year the Englishman.) later to be a big time politician. The ship's screw propeller is invented (by Joseph Ressel 1793-1857. He attempts to reconstruct the history of earth with an 'adequate' time-scale. This same year also sees the invention of the achromatic microscope by Joseph Jackson Lister* (no." Opus 21. Benjamin Disraeli* (1804-81. His conclusion is that the time frame involves millions of years.) Transportation moves forward. led by John Quincy Adams* (loser in this election) and the Democrat-Republicans led by Andrew Jackson* (who wins the presidential election. Poland. it's his son who will found antiseptic surgery later. Felix Mendelssohn* (1809-47) is composing his Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream.pdffactory. The concern for discovering the mechanism by which disease spreads is particularly strong as cholera moves over Europe. Jackson* is inaugurated as the seventh U. publishes with his three volume Principles of Geology*. Ohm* (1787-1854) comes up with his law defining electrical current potential and resistance. Germany and Sweden this year. 1828 In the United States the Federalist party has disappeared and the Jeffersonians have divided into the National-Republicans. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. is inaugurated this year. pianist and conductor. Charles Lyell*. In England the novelist (and later playwright) Edward George Bulwer-Lytton* (1803-73) comes out with his novel. In Paris 7000 die of cholera in eighteen days. Much more will follow on this in the next period. Pelham*. They even tell how to get the same general effect by taking short cuts if your theatre doesn't have the equipment.In England. the first American railroad for freight and passengers.com . is busy being an author.S.Another English troupe headed by William Charles Macready* performs Shakespeare* and romantic plays in Paris. They have never experienced this disease and the effects are traumatic. president.

of which the second. The Americban poet and story writer. Soon there will be Russian translations of Shakespeare* [Nikolai Polevoy*. Edgar Allen Poe* (1809-1849. is an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello*. They will continue to be produced down to the present time.) The first U.com . In British India the custom of suttee* (burning the widow along with her dead husband) is abolished. is only mildly romantic. (1835) will be one of the great successes of the French Romantic period. He will produce two original plays.) publishes some of his first work this year (Tamerlane and Other Poems.In Russia Ducange*'s (Victor Henri Joseph Brahain.Y. 1829 .] These translations and adaptations of Shakesperian tragedies will become an integral part of the repertories of companies in both capitals and in the provinces. Unfortunately the practice does not disappear and is still with us today. Fortunately he does not stop writing and in 1847 his plays will start being performed. who is better remembered now for his novels. The composer and pianist.) has his professional debut in Vienna as a piano virtuoso. Since he is already a member of the French Academy*. Musset* manages to fuse the new romantic drama with the classical tradition by PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In France the novelist Honore de Balzac* achieves his first success with a historical novel. brings out the first triumph of the French Romantic movement.pdffactory. N. Henri III et sa cour*.S. [He is called pere (father) to distinguish him from his illegitimate son of the same name who will be called fils (son).) Also in America the religious society of Mormons or Latterday Saints is founded by Joseph Smith and his friends at Fayette. Frederic Chopin* (1810-1849. Alexandre Dumas. Le Dernier Chouan. patent on a typewriter is granted (to William B. Chatterton*. translates and adapts Hamlet* and its production in 1837 in Moscow is an event of tremendous importance.In Mexico slavery is abolished. 1783-1833) French melodrama. by Alfred de Vigny*. This discourages him so much that he gives up writing for production.This year romantic plays are showing up at the Comedie Francaise*. This production marks a turning point in Russian Romantic drama. 1829 . Alfred de Musset* has a production of his A Venetian Night* and it flops. The Moor of Venice*. retaining some of the neoclassical form. this romantic effort is significant. a melodrama* writer. 1830 . pere* (1802-70). Burt of Detroit. In Russia classic tragedy is being replaced by romantic drama and Shakespeare* is definitely considered the peak of romanticism. by Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843). This is de Vigny*'s first attempt at playwrighting.The most important author of the French Romantic movement shows up this year.* Thirty Years* is produced and sets off Russian enthusiasm for melodrama* and musical plays.] Marino Faliero*. By this time the concern for historical accuracy dominates the production end of the French theatre.

Musset* writes his tragic No Trifling With Love* and what is probably the finest historical drama of the century. His best known works also include: A Door Should Be Either Open or Shut*. but as you can see it has been going for a while. There is a revolution in Paris [Talleyrand* is involved in this one too] and Charles X* abdicates. which continues into the present day. Romanticism continues. and The Decoy*.pdffactory. but romanticism continues as a mainstream form. French Romanticism is usually dated from this event.centering his plays on the inner feelings of his characters but moving freely through time and space.In Russia another romantic writer. of the Romantic movement. This event. together with the headlong changes brought on by the industrial revolution. 1830 This year both Venezuela and Ecuador become independent." Despite all this turmoil a French tailor comes up with the beginning of the sewing machine. will give rise to widespread social changes in England. Louis Phillipe* (1773-1850) becomes the "Citizen King. 1834 . quality and wide-spread distribution.000 will die. It will gradually fade over the next ten years as the leading movement. This is the first time in theatre history that a stylistic movement does not die out when a new one arises. is writing some plays along with his better known poetry. simply a strong tradition. Lorenzaccio*. He will write most of his work between now and 1840. The supporters of both sides get into a raging battle that drowns out the actors and continues for three nights. ****************************** Afterword The Romantic period in the theatre doesn't so much come to an end as it is overtaken and passed by other movements. In two years 22. This year the first Board of Health is set up in response to the epidemic. In England the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson* (1809-92) publishes some of his early work (Poems.com . The romantics win.) 1830's . Serbia is a fully autonomous state. One of the most enduring and popular romantic writers (Edmund Rostand* ) will show up at the end of this century and be regarded as a neoromantic. This production is actually the high water mark of the Romantic movement. Mikhail Lermontov* (1814-1841). The battle is an important one since both sides realize that the future of the French stage depends on who wins. It's Impossible To Think of Everything*. Les Caprices de Marianne* . It is basically a melodrama* with an unhappy ending. and even grows in quantity. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. One Can Never Be Sure of Anything*. Fantasio*. 1831 The cholera epidemic reaches England where it races through the urban populations." Actually. Chiefly Lyrical. This year also marks the high point of the fight between romantics and classicists when Hugo*'s Hernani* goes on at the Comedie Francaise*. there is no such thing as neo-romantic.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. like classicism. next PART III Introduction back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home PART III Realism and Symbolism . The mysterious and distant East is getting much less distant. through the height of colonial empires into the Second World War. Melodrama. This is a real bombshell for Western thought. All this exploration and discovery is about to run smack up against traditional Christian religious beliefs about the nature of the world. Romanticism. western thought has shaken itself free from being dazzled by the ideas of classic Greece and Rome and launched itself into a frenzy of intellectual and scientific exploration. but it is no longer the leading edge of experiment and the primary font of truth on the stage. 1957) Howard E.com .* too. continues as a viable form. So we will be following the results and ramifications of that revolution.The Romantic period is overwhelmed by the tide of the Industrial Revolution. what with all the advances in transportation. Although the industrial revolution got started in England during the previous period it's only now beginning to spread widely over the European continent. The Europeans don't necessarily understand these Eastern ideas. Hugo provides a succinct discussion of the Romantic movement and its characteristics. and some of their ideas and ways of expression are starting to filter back into European consciousness. A History of the Modern Theater (New York: Delta.* which sweeps the western world into a social change so great and so basic that we have yet to come to terms with it.The Flowering 1830 .1939 Introduction We are now into the really busy period of theatre where things are changing right and left and so is everything in society. 1971). We begin in the middle of the political ferment of rising European nationalism and end in global war. but they get pretty excited about them in all the arts. In his Introduction to The Portable Romantic Reader (New York: Viking.pdffactory. Driver's Romantic Quest and Modern Query. An excellent view of the developments of this period can be found in Tom F. In terms of what society is up to. continues to thrive and provide entertainment for the public at large.

The previous theatrical genre of Romanticism continues to be popular and turns into one of the mainstream genres (the other one still hanging around is classicism). Society is pretty stable since it is basically agricultural (growing all the food and raw materials) and commercial (moving and selling all the stuff). It is the move from a settled agricultural and commercial society to what we call the modern industrial society. You don't "go off to work" for most occupations. but there will soon be a big bunch of others. etc. in other words. with its sidekick. This part of theatre history is difficult to follow because important. and the industrial countries. undeveloped (they didn't make the jump from agriculture to industry). The weather has been terrific (since 1720) and the agricultural side of things is booming. Broadly speaking. we will be using the term Industrial Revolution in the broader sense. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.] In the pre-industrial situation (before the 1750's) the only kinds of power available are muscle power (human and animal). European colonial empires which began in the fifteenth century are now spreading over the farthest corners of the world. bumper crops of kids and a need for lots more household goods. But this brings several problems. For metal smelting. Romanticism. The center of production is in the home. The first new way comes to be called realism. Turning raw materials into finished goods is done by hand. The power of fire is used for heating. are happening in a lot of countries at much the same time.pdffactory. water power (like that used by mills to grind grain) and wind power (sailing ships and wind mills). and that means that it will begin to split up into a lot of different ways of showing different segments of the audience the reality of their own lives. The start of the industrial revolution has begun to revolutionize transportation and both steam shipping and the railroad are starting to make the world seem smaller. But. since this revolution spreads to different countries at different times. For this reason we will be covering the same time frame several times from different points of view. melodrama. The Industrial Revolution Now. This makes for earlier marriages.com . it refers to the biggest change in human society since people quit being nomadic hunters and settled down to start agriculture. and nowhere is this more evident than in theatre. the term "Industrial Revolution" refers to the period of British history covering the hundred years between about 1750 and about 1850 when England is busy starting it and getting it up and running. The Problems The whole change starts with some really severe problems in England. But all this stability changes with the Industrial Revolution. historically speaking.It is. a time of tremendous change. which means it's a family affair with hired hands and apprentices for big time businesses. Theatre is now for everybody. what with more and more colonial possessions around the world all sending back more raw materials. Commerce is also booming. For producing finished goods there are hand looms. the only good fuel is charcoal (made from wood). [You will notice that this gives us the current view of various cultures as nomadic (they didn't settle down to agriculture). cooking and smelting metals. hand printing presses. has attracted really big theatrical audiences from the middle and lower classes. all doing their own thing at the same time. but very different things.

Their religion (Quaker. Solutions begin to pop up like daisies with these entrepreneurs.) advocates hard work. and the cash is just sitting around. however. The cotton can't make a very speedy trip through the cottage spinning wheels and hand looms. These are all the non-Anglican Protestants who are (because of the Civil War of 1640-60) forbidden by law to hold a position in local government. Now there's lots of coal around (actually under) England and this works fine for most heating but it's got impurities that make for lousy iron production. etc.pdffactory. The mills are where the power is. etc. adding canals works wonders. It's a lot easier to move tons of stuff on water than it is to fix all those roads. etc. Unitarian. the surplus finance pouring in from the colonial plantations and expanding international trade and the expanding credit systems (introduced by that Dutchman England brought in as a King. William II of the Netherlands. Since England has lots of navigable rivers.com . The next solution deals with the problem of water in the mines. The coke makes terrific iron and there is an endless supply of it. The roads are lousy and getting the raw materials from point A to point B takes weeks. The earliest solution comes in 1707 when a Quaker named Abraham Darby in a village Shropshire starts to use coke (coal that has impurities burned out of it) for his iron works. An ironmonger from Devon. By 1775 there is a network of canals connecting the major coal fields with the major ports. They also set up their own schools (since they can't attend the universities) where they teach in English (the universities still use Latin) and have practical courses with really terrific science labs and hands-on experience. where they are sold and shipped. The deeper you dig (for coal. This means it is expensive.First there is the transportation problem. another Dissenter named Thomas Newcomen. made more acute by the need to move tons of coal.) coming in from the colonies with not enough to do with them. There isn't much left. The products of the mills are needed in the cities.) there is a real fuel crunch. Third is the problem of water in the mines.) the more water seeps in. iron. later known as the William of William and Mary). Second there is the problem of wood. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Since the Seven Years War is over (in 1763) the government has some surplus cash to put into the infrastructure and canals get top priority. They can go into trade. up in the hills where there is running water. And last there are the problems of surplus cash and raw materials (especially cotton. The engine works by using atmospheric pressure to push the plunger down and steam to raise it up. The Solutions By and large the solutions to all these problems come from an industrious group of Britishers called Dissenters. for tin. civil service or universities. stoves. to make use of the coke. is being solved by building canals. especially if you are digging on an island. What with all that ship building to have transport to distant colonies and turning what's left into charcoal to make iron for a rising population's domestic needs (pots. the ironmasters are putting up permanent furnaces on the plains of Lancaster near the ports where all that coal is showing up in abundance and where finished iron can be shipped out to the colonies or sent back up the canals to local markets. excellence and success in their enterprises which makes them natural entrepreneurs. Meanwhile the transportation problem. uses Darby's iron to cast a cylinder for a pumping engine he designs to take water out of a mine. Presbyterian. It works so well it is still working (in a museum). By 1770.

An English engineer named George Stephenson (1781-1848) builds the first locomotive to run on steam power. the Savannah. This revolution spreads rapidly to the continent and America. the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Watt has been working out improvements on Newcomen's engine to drain the water out of mines. they want to do it too. comes up with his steam-powered Claremont and makes the 150 mile trip from Albany to New York in 32 hours. in turn. developed by James Watt. Everybody jumps on this bandwagon too and in 1819 a combination sail and steam ship. a guy named William Murdock. All this may not seem relevant but it makes better machines possible. building and machines are all changed. is practically an island of coal. iron is cheaper than wood. And. The factory system takes off like a rocket. Canals haven't solved all the transportation problems and. A real speedy trip for the time. An ironmaster named Henry Cort uses it to come up with a new way of producing iron that is better and makes fifteen times as much. a good deal of the financing is undertaken by the various states. In England and America industrial development is financed primarily by private capital. if the steam engine works on moving a machine on land. for example. crosses the Atlantic. Once he develops it they start laying rails everywhere. although roads are being improved. These are all still hand-run but they increase production. Transportation is also changed.pdffactory. Robert Fulton (1765-1815). There are some continental exceptions. Seven years later James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny so yarn-spinners can keep up with the new loom. they only serve as a place to move horse drawn vehicles. He comes up with one because he is able (thanks to Huntsman's steel and Wilkinson's boring technique) to make a piston in a cylinder that is almost air-tight. why not on the water? A number of people experiment with steam for ships but they're not too successful until 1807 when an American. a clock-maker from Doncaster) which. There is a new weaving loom (invented by a Lancashire clock-maker named John Kay) that lets one person weave a double width cloth. The steam engine spins a shaft and belts around the shaft run individual machines in the factory. In Germany. On the continent the Ruhr Valley. for hauling coal. With this technique. Especially one of the first. the possession of either or both of these two natural resources becomes critical in international power. while Sweden rests on iron ore. In Europe. The great ironmaster James Wilkinson invents a new way to bore cannon muzzles with great accuracy. The next step comes about with the development of crucible steel (in the 1750's by Benjamin Huntsman.com . Silesia (in the Carpathian Mountains) and the Saar regions of Germany provide both raw materials. of course. But the use of the steam engine doesn't stop there. The minute people find out about what England is doing. for example. and engineering. England. The Industrial Revolution Spreads Since the ability for industrializing depends on coal and iron ore fields that provide fuel for the power and raw material for all the machinery. In 1781 one of Watt's assistants. His steam engine is a great hit in the mines but the demand for power in the factories requires something different. passenger service can't be far behind. Although railroads begin as a freight hauling business. makes it possible for ironmasters to cut iron with the precision of a few millimeters. Traveling by steam power alone will take a few years to develop [see below 1838]. In 1769 a wig-maker named Richard Arkwright figures out how to use water power to work with people power and comes up with the water-frame machine. He brings all kinds of textile workers together in the first factory.By the 1760's new machines begin showing up to handle all that surplus cotton. develops a way to use Watt's steam engine (which drives a piston up and down) to provide the rotary motion needed for factory machinery.

France and the AustroHungarian Empire. Beginning in 1815. At the end of the Napoleonic wars the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation which was a really loose federation of all those German states. The Political Setting The area of the world we're mostly concerned with (until after 1917) is Europe. This is where we left off with Romanticism and where other experimentation is. She will not lose her place until the Second World War. Italians and Scandinavians. culminating in the Second World War. It is currently under the control of Francis I who quit being Holy Roman Emperor (as Francis II) in 1806 and became Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia and Hungary. Slovenes. among others. Russians (who control most of the Poles). It dominates the peoples from Bohemia through the Balkans. English.com . Some pieces of this colonial empire (like the Americas) have already moved to become nations in their own rights. losing Finland to Russia in 1809) and then by the Danes (who owned Norway until 1815 when they gave it to Sweden). PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. French. and Portuguese have all led in building colonial empires around the world. This is where the action is. and Bulgarians. she will certainly do her best to lead in all other ways. These are all still in a state of flux. In other places (like the Polish parts of Russia) there will be struggles for separation. theatrical center is Paris. on a geometric scale. Denmark and Finland) have been dominated first by Sweden (began a decline in 1721. The struggle for national status will occur among the peoples of the Germans. After the final fall of Napoleon. ending in the staggering industrial production evident in the Second World War. including Czechs. Prussia dominates the German scene where the French borders (especially the districts of Alsace and Lorraine) will be a constant bone of contention. Slovaks. Norway will not become a completely independent country until 1905. Prussia and Austria are rivals for this territory. The primary powers of established nations in Europe are England. The Scandinavians (Norway. Sweden. Which is why they call it the AustroHungarian Empire. Serbs. This is the period of Paris as the center of western culture. scientific and cultural conquests. Eventually it will lead to war [see below 1866]. In Italy and Germany there will be a struggle for unification. France has given up European conquest and turned to intellectual. but these new countries are busy with their own development and internal matters and don't affect the larger movement of events. and will become one of the largest manufacturers of armaments in the world. As we move through this period we will encounter ever growing conflicts over resources and markets. After the final fall of Napoleon (in 1815) we face the rise of nationalism in Europe. cover the world. The Theatre In Its Social Context Throughout this period the first. Dutch. As we move through this period we will see industrial expansion. again. Croats.pdffactory. The Spanish.native entrepreneur Alfred Krupp of Essen starts with coal mining. beginning. German unification will not be resolved until 1871. If France cannot be the center of a geographical and political empire. even now. The Austro-Hungarian Empire is the messy tag-end of the old Holy Roman Empire territory which belongs to the Hapsburgs. Bosnians. then steel. and main.

New styles to fit new content is the order of the day.... technological............ People stream into these new centers of production and families are fragmented as everybody now goes off to work instead of working in the home... As usual theatre will reflect these new audiences and their interests..... These are primarily middle class people who want to see their own lives and preoccupations reflected on the stage.... and social turmoil. well supported companies.................... This period continues the intellectual.... theatre is in private control...............Experiment and Symbolism 1905-14 Chap15 CHAPTER SIXTEEN... CHAPTER THIRTEEN.. theatre is funded and controlled by the government (whether city or state depends on the country)....... Gradually the rest of Europe will add some privately controlled theatre but by and large it will remain in municipal control...... but. This financial arrangement makes it possible to have a large number of well-equipped theatre buildings which house large.The War To End All Wars And After 1914-1925 Chap16 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN... It also accelerates conflict.Jazz Age And Depression 1925-1939 Chap17 next Chap13 back PART II Introduction forward to PartFour first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER THIRTEEN PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com .............. political. the make-up of society is rapidly changing as production shifts from families and their homes or farms to factories in the cities. ending the period in the world-wide cataclysm of the Second World War.....Realism Triumphant 1877 ....... it's expensively lavish in architecture. It takes private enterprise to be willing and able to support theatres trying out new and unusual things.pdffactory.. What with the Industrial Revolution. All this revolution revolutionizes the theatre............. philosophical..... design and production. The trade off is that when theatre is an expression of national esteem it's down right conservative in content.. religious.. A whole new mix of people now makes up theatre audiences........In most of Europe..... In England... scientific....1905 Chap14 CHAPTER FIFTEEN.Realism Begins 1830-1877 Chap13 CHAPTER FOURTEEN..

The chief player is a really tough cookie called Metternich* (1773-1859) who has been the foreign minister since 1809. They are also busy occupying as much territory as they can in Africa. Political State of Affairs It's been fifteen years since the final defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna* (181415) that was supposed to put Europe back in some sort of reasonable order after the Napoleonic Wars (remember. French. Prussia* and Austria will be playing tug-of-war with the Germans. espionage. they will dominate the region. Russia and France) in a London Conference. [see below 1866]. before the century ends.Realism* Begins 1830-1877 Introduction We need to take a little time here to get a grasp of the social and political state of affairs in Europe. The government is supposed to be solved by the "Bourbon Restoration" (181430. Europe is being tidied up by the chief powers (Austria. under Emperor Francis Joseph* (or Franz Joseph. Prussia. At the moment it is known as the Hapsburg empire*. He uses these to maintain the balance of power while helping Austria become top dog in Italy and the German Confederation*. Britain. it will make more sense if we can focus on the turmoil out of which this theatrical movement comes. 18301916). They recognize Greece as an independent nation and order the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands. Prussia* (started way back in the middle ages with a blood-thirsty bunch called the Teutonic Knights*) has been picking up territory right and left and is currently the top dog among the Germans with a really awesome military. Meanwhile France (the aggressor in the Napoleonic wars) is cut back to the borders it had in 1790 (when all this started) and has to pay a bunch of reparations and the costs of the army of occupation for five years. designed to get rid of the Empire and go back to a king) that puts Louis XVIII* on the throne. but. Since theatre reflects society. The British. Unfortunately the liberal middle class and commercial interests resent this guy's ultraroyalist PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. which are currently just about as messy as they are now. Charles X* (rules 1824-30) takes over the French throne. German Confederation* (1815-66) is a bunch of 39 German states put together by the Congress of Vienna* to fill the gap left by the now-defunct Holy Roman Empire. he conquered most of Europe and part of Russia?). He is the guiding force in the Congress of Vienna* and keeps on throughout what is referred to as the age of Metternich* (1814-1848). Dutch. the near and middle East and in the Far East. and suppressing revolutionary and nationalist movements. Later. His methods are heavily into censorship.com . It's a really loose arrangement with its central diet (a sort of legislative group) under the Austrians. Russian and German Empires (colonial possessions and adjacent territory) will continue to grow throughout the nineteenth century. Austria is trying to fill the power vacuum by sneakily working its way up. It will take them a little longer. his brother. It is also pretty messy along the edges of the shrinking Ottoman Turk Empire (centered in Turkey).pdffactory.

1801-77) follows in daddy's footsteps as a social reformer. His premise is that character is molded by environment. But. A whole bunch of theorists and practitioners spring up and. For artists (theatre. His son (Robert Dale Owen. All the powers are busy as little beavers. At this point in time (around 1830) things are something like this: In England . too) Comte*'s ideas leads them to try to make art "scientific. in 1823. Indiana. argue among themselves and break up into different factions. which is an economic unit of 1. Everybody else (especially Britain) keeps doing their best to prevent this from happening. In this little fracas Charles X* is thrown out (he hightails it out of the country) and they put Louis Philippe* (1773-1850. politics being what it is. Russia (which is still recovering from being invaded by Napoleon) is dying to have a nice warm-water port (one that isn't frozen in by the ice most of the year) that will let them sail into the Mediterranean. we are smack up against the July Revolution*. This idea really takes off and there are a lot of these communities popping up all over.) He influences artists as well as scientists and philosophers. over what they regard as their national interests in this part of the world.attempts to turn the clock back to the old style government (the ancien regime*). what are they going to do with the European territory (especially the Balkans. Auguste Comte * (1798-1857) is writing Positive Philosophy* (1830-42) and inventing the term sociology* as the method to achieve this positivism* (living in harmony and comfort. Social State of Affairs Socialism* is a new theory currently springing up as a reaction to all this dislocation and problems coming out of the Industrial Revolution* and the accompanying Capitalism*. He starts up a number of these and spreads it to the United States when he builds New Harmony.com . He is big on selfsufficient agricultural-industrial cooperative communities.pdffactory. converting old mills into a model industrial town. which seem to be a real trouble spot all the time) that is still controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire* (later. and this can be improved by living in a society based on cooperation.Beginning in 1800 a guy named Robert Owen* (1771-1858) pioneered a cooperative movement.The Great Powers (Austria." This gets us to realism* and naturalism*.A similar movement has begun under Charles Fourier* (1772-1837). Essentially it advocates some kind of collective or governmental ownership and management of producing and distributing goods. and often fighting wars. This is. In Eastern Europe . Prussia. in the second (1787-92) the southwest Ukraine and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. One of the prime examples of the Eastern Question* shows up in the Russo-Turkish wars* which have been going on (off and on) since 1697 and will continue until 1878. becomes an American. Socialism* generally covers a theory that is both political and economic. In the first major Russo-Turkish war* (1768-74) she got the Crimea and ports on the Black Sea. As we move into 1830. and is the first to publicly advocate Birth Control (1830). This time the French make it a constitutional monarchy. Russia and France) are all concerned with the Eastern Question*. In France . every nation keeps shifting their position and being allied with some other country at different times. intriguing.] There is also an idea called positivism* kicking around now. known as duc d'Orleans) in as king. [See below. They call him the citizen king*. He claims social harmony can happen with a society based on the "phalanx* ". 1841. These wars enable Russia to nibble away at the Ottoman Empire*. Turkey). We will have to examine some of these as we go along because the theatre (especially the playwrights) pick up these views and run with them.620 people who have communal living with the work divided according to who wants to do what. as usual. Britain.

that is what they should be representing in their art. At about the same time as realism* gets started. We'll pick them up as they enter the mainstream of social reform. In realism. These are anarchism* and communism* (which will grow out of socialism).g. A couple of other social theories that have been hanging around since the Greeks will surface again. costume and the movement of actors. and cause a lot of turmoil." [This is where Comte*'s ideas come in. This means that. It gradually becomes clear that realism. For now we'll take a look at the beginnings of the realistic movement as it gets started in France. the poor and the downtrodden. The eventual Realistic theory (which comes along after the fact." It will give rise to even more trouble as we go along. By this time the Ottoman Empire* is known as the "Sick Man of Europe. See above. This form business includes everything about the way in which it is done. In content. This means that Naturalistic protagonists will come from the lowest classes. Naturalism*. all the elements are in place on the stage before he writes his masterpieces. soon. and natural forces like these. and in 1828-29 (which included the Greek war of independence) the rest of the Caucasus bringing Russia to the height of her power. In order to understand the start of Realism* we need to have some common idea of what is meant by this term. 1830 . in the 1860's) insists that art should truthfully show the real. artists and merchant class. The whole idea is a defense for "scientific" views and the notion that environment and heredity. physical world. Euripides*' work compared with other classical authors). Later we'll add symbolism to this list.] The hero isn't from the upper class nobility anymore. and. artists need to try for impersonal.France PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.the port of Odessa. lighting. Psychological motivation will become the most significant element of the content. The production form* tries to make the stage look like the real world in scenery. begins. are the main determining factors in peoples lives. Although realism* is usually regarded as beginning with the realistic works of Ibsen*.com . But it's pretty brief and not a lot of plays are written in this style. the intellectuals. It includes both the form* of the play or production and the content*. The Theatrical State of Affairs The Industrial Revolution* and Nationalism usher in Realism* which will be followed rapidly by a more extreme variant. hypothesis and experimentation to determine what is "real. We will look at this variant in its own place where it appears for specific reasons. romanticism and classicism seem to have been around throughout theatre history as major ways of expressing ideas on the stage. There is some attempt to apply scientific methods of observation. Once the realistic style becomes recognized we begin to hear how "realistic" a whole bunch of earlier playwrights were (e. a variant.. Naturalism. since only the contemporary world can be known directly. then in 1806-12 Bessarabia. this includes an approximation of the speech and manners of everyday people in everyday life. the plays are about the social and domestic problems that preoccupy the middle class audience. objective observation of the world around them.pdffactory. Naturalism* carries the attempt to show the "real" world to an extreme. Heroes and heroines are now from the upper middle class or the bourgeoisie* [see below].

Well-made plays that are heavy on the moral business are called social plays*. 1830. We'll pick up his best known works as they show up. Other times they are sort of comedy. one of those prolific French playwrights (like many others he often has collaborators). Until the 1880s most of the minor houses specialize in a particular genre (melodrama. The first one to make a real splash is Eugene Scribe* (1791-1861). Technically they call this a "late point of attack.pdffactory. The real action of the play can't start until the audience knows this exposition. He goes on to write 374 theatre pieces (one act vaudeville comedies. [This is where that socialism* business we looked at above becomes important. mixing up the genres (comedy and tragedy) and concentrating on historical settings for the plots. which.The play is really the last part of a long story. It will also "mix the genres" so that realistic plays can't be called tragedies at all.com . This formula will come to be called the well-made play*. but certain characters in the play don't until near the end of the play. 2. By this time.The plot is based on a secret the audience gets to know about. most of which has already happened before the curtain goes up. There are as many as fifty theatres operating at any given time in Paris. problem plays* or thesis plays*. Realism will emphasize this truthful aspect. according to Victor Hugo*. and operetta. His main emphasis is on showing both the sublime spiritual. and it will put a lot more attention on that "animal nature" stuff. In 1815 he has his first success (Une Nuit de la Garde Nationale*). French drama in general. are being translated into English and show up in America as well as England. vaudeville.In France melodrama and Romanticism have taken audiences away from the traditional French neoclassic plays but they don't fulfill all the tenets set out for the Romantic movement. and the grotesque animal nature in order to provide a more truthful picture of humanity.] The well-made play* goes like this: 1. his plays are well known.) Gradually the length of the run of a particular play increases and this will lead to changes." This means the play has to start with a lot of exposition* (telling you what happened before now). The important thing here is the system (which almost amounts to a writing factory) that he develops for how to write plays. comedy. spectacle drama. Either the results of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In doing all this writing. Since there isn't any international copyright yet. full length plays and a lot of librettos for popular composers like Meyerbeer* (1791-1864) and Verdi* (1813-1901) as well as opera ballets. The first steps toward Realism come from these tenets of romanticism. Scribe* comes up with a formula for writing successful plays based on all the plot construction tricks that have been successful throughout theatre history. The Well-Made Play* The early move towards realism comes from the street smart playwrights who know the public and what they want. and Scribe*'s plays in particular. He's been writing for some time and his earliest plays were flops. It is a commercially successful pattern of construction that usually contains at least a smattering of a moral or thesis. a lot of mediocre English playwrights pretend they wrote the plays they translate. called for abandoning the unities. Sometimes they are "serious" plays.

which keep the action moving and suspense high. There are several features of the well-made play* that make it the beginning of realism*. The idea has been kicking around since 1801 when a French naturalist.The overall plot pattern (the ups and downs. It includes both the lowest and highest point in the hero's fortunes. etc. Social Turmoil . Beagle on a world voyage. There are lots of contrived entrances.S.There is also a central misunderstanding which may or may not be connected with the secret. 4. The plots are just as contrived as earlier plays but they are plausible and believable. exits. It also reveals or unmasks the bad character(s). Lamarck's theories paved the way for Darwin and Wallace (Alfred Russel Wallace*. doing comparative biology in the East Indies). This misunderstanding (a quidproquo*. the audience knows about it. came up with his own evolutionary theories (and founded invertebrate paleontology). or adventures. letters and other devices of that sort. 1823-1913. While this can be a serious thing. who's been suffering all kinds of problems throughout the play. The exposition* (telling what happened before the play starts) is very precise and careful. Like the secret. 3.the secret or the revelation of the secret comes in the climactic* (or climax) scene. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. telling just as much as the audience needs to know. The plot devices have been around since theatre began.M. The important thing is that all the characters assume their own interpretations are the same as everybody elses.1831-48 Various things are brewing in society which will soon break out in social action. but Scribe* adds probability. "something for something") involves two or more characters interpreting a word or a situation in different ways. logic and common sense. 6. and who the audience has come to love. This climax includes rewarding the good.The hero's biggest down-turn (peripeteia*) takes place in what is called the obligatory* scene (the scene a faire*). The reversals (denouements)* at the end aren't just tacked on.There's a roller coaster of ups and downs in the hero's (or heroine's) fortunes as a result of conflict* with his/her adversary. They grow out of the events in the plot.The plot proceeds in a pattern of intense action and suspense. This scene is the critical one in the play. but some of the characters don't. while they are obviously (to the audience) very different. it is usually a very comic trick.) are reproduced in the individual acts. Jean Lamarck* (1744-1829).com . because it is in this scene that the secret is revealed to the opposition. 7.pdffactory. 5. What he discovers in his investigations will lead to his theory of organic evolution*. This particular formula for writing successful plays turns out to be just the right form for the social content that is clamoring to be expressed. The first is the work of a young English naturalist named Charles Darwin* (1809-82) who departs this year (1831-36) aboard the H. sympathetic character.

She makes major contributions toward realistic productions. like Nashville.The second thing brewing is a whole batch of reactions to the rise of capitalism* (supply and demand.This year in London a charming actress of light burlesque. 1832. We will be meeting these very soon. New York has four theatres now and they keep adding more. There are now 24 states. Andrew Jackson* is the seventh president (in office 1829-37).com ." which means that all those people who are working their tails off in the factories are not much better off than their agricultural counterparts. She insists on historically accurate costumes. There are now more than twenty resident theatrical troupes and who knows how many traveling groups. the serfs and slaves. Mme Vestris*. the United States is busy expanding and growing." to perform with local companies. The major social by-product of this busy capitalism* is what is usually referred to as the "exploitation of labor. Philadelphia has three theatres and Boston at least two. The Industrial Revolution* has created modern capitalism* and sent it booming. takes over the management of the Olympic Theatre*. introduces real properties (instead of the customary fakes). As the population swells in the United States. A fellow called William Chapman* (1764-1839). These "stars" demand ridiculous salaries and the local company doesn't make very much money for themselves. child stars and speciality PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Each one has audience seating for between two and three thousand. This lowers the quality of the productions since the "stars" often arrive too late for much rehearsal and insist on doing plays that suit them best. 1830 . another English actor come west. He brings "stars" west to tour his theatres. More and more actors are touring as "stars. now dominates the theatre in the Mississippi valley. private ownership of production. These will range from the idealistic Trancendentalism* (influenced by the idealist German philosophers. The period of "Jacksonian democracy" is beginning and audiences are looking for native entertainment fit for the common man. She will go on to run one of the best managements. He controls theatres up and down the river and inland. We find lots of animal acts. While social turmoil is brewing in Europe. all that Northwest Territory* (explored by Lewis and Clark* in 1803-6) and lots of land in the Southwest (claimed by Spain) that is disputed. the river boat theatre.S. especially Kant*).In America theatre is doing very well. outfits a flatboat to give performances at landings from Pittsburgh to New Orleans.pdffactory. The first signs of the effects of the Industrial Revolution on workers in America shows up in the 1830s with the beginning of the development of labor unions.). to the workeroriented communism* and anarchism* (those who want to abolish all government). South of the Rio Grande River Santa Anna* (1794-1876) has been ruling Mexico* since 1828 and is busy beating the Spanish in 1829. An English light comedian named James H. a vast region acquired in the Louisiana Purchase*. sometimes three.) American Theatre 1831 . the demand for entertainment does too. Caldwell* (1793-1863) who came over in 1816. that sort of stuff). and the box set (see below. It will take another five years to work up to getting a steamboat to tow them back up stream. through Christian Socialism* (starts mainly in Great Britain and the U. Socialism* is the first reaction (see above) and it is rapidly spinning off separate movements. regarded as the incarnation of frontier democracy. Another American theatrical invention starts up this year.

but. Rice* (1808-60) with his "Jim Crow*" song and dance around 1828." or physical. George Sand* (the pen name of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin. practical doors and windows (instead of having the actors zip in and out of the old wings). underneath. This is a big departure from the usual perspective scene painted on the back drop. produced at the Olympic Theatre*. Brown* wrote the first known American play by an Afro-American author. complete with ceiling. The Indian is a sympathetic character.) This company gave a start to a celebrated actor. full of democratic principles and not about to put up with pretense or hypocrisy. Pushkin* (1799-1837). Boris Godunov* which Moussorgsky* (1839-91) turns into an opera (produced in 1874). also a specialty role. These white performers in black-face shouldn't be confused with Afro-American performers. Later in the century.com . Vincent Island. is the Afro-American. King Shotaway* (about an insurrection on St. Currently. A. He is a big guy with a really strong voice and his style of acting is called "heroic. or "specialty. the Indian and the Yankee. A third character type." part. Popularized by Thomas D. there are a growing number of imitators. This year it is Indiana*. This comes to be regarded as the "American" acting style in contrast to the more restrained (and convincing) English style.Mme Vestris* introduces the first box-set* on the English stage. and thickness pieces to make everything look real and solid. 1804-76) is professionally busy publishing novels expressing her feminist views. found a more sympathetic reception in London. filled with brilliant choreography and emphasizing the beauty and virtuosity of the leading female dancer (prima ballerina)." The Yankee is a comic. Bernard*'s The Conquering Game*. An Afro-American troupe was put together by James Brown* back in 1821 and had a couple successful years until white rowdies gave them too much trouble. He appears there as Othello*. 1832 In France. the pressure of naturalism in the theatre will bring a decline to the ballet. S. The Yankee is the American common man. the biggest. comes out with a verse drama. Some of his other works will be made into operas by Tchaikovsky* (1840-93). the romantic "noble savage.acts put on as entr'acte* (between the acts). he will become a naturalized British citizen. B. He is a major figure in American plays at this time. He will go on to great European fame. Later (1863). The plays are still mostly imports with American dramatists making up only about ten percent of the authors. American star is Edwin Forrest* (1806-72) who acted a lot around the frontier.pdffactory. is personally busy having affairs with Alfred de Musset* and Chopin* while being a single (divorced) mother and supporting her two children by her pen. apparently simple and naive. She writes over 80 novels. 1831 A Russian poet and author. baronne Dudevant. Ira Aldridge* (180467). In the art of ballet* the romantic period begins this year with La Sylphide*. the American plays are introducing two important native types as characters. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The play this is used in is W. However. who. He had made his New York debut in 1826 and two years later was regarded as the leading American actor. native-born. (made by a continuous series of flats joined together). because of his race. Realistic Elements In Production 1832 . dresses like a man to protest the unequal treatment of women. There are three real walls.

It is centered in Concord. MA with Ralph Waldo Emerson* (1803-82) stating the movements main principles in Nature. 1837 .In America this year a new native-born actress is beginning work at the Park Theatre* in New York. but he quickly regains his Mexican power. The Human Comedy*. American critic and social reformer) and Henry David Thoreau* (1817-62. It is currently the snazziest theatre in the country. He will be better remembered for Pippa Passes*. Strafford*. has his first play produced. Sketches by Boz*. Pere Goriot. naturalist and author) are part of this movement. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. She is Charlotte Cushman* (1816-76.pdffactory. Robert Browning*. 1836 This year Transcendentalism* as a literary movement begins to flourish (1836-60) in New England. She will rule 1837-1901. having beaten the Spanish. Charles Theatre *. the longest reign in English history. Transcendentalism* is an optimistic philosophy that emphasizes individualism. a tragedy. gets to be president of Mexico* this year. They defeat and capture Santa Anna*. This won't be the end of the dispute. Gas lighting is now the in thing. We'll follow her career.1833 Santa Anna*. social critic. Thomas Carlyle* (1795-1881) is busy being a critic of materialism in his book Sartor Resartus*. a fellow who has a great influence on the current literary world.com .In America. but he is about to have problems with the Americans who have settled in Texas. The Inspector General*.The Russian writer. 1836 . Down in the Southwest a bunch of Texas rebels declare Texas independent from everybody.) There she will learn her craft. In Great Britain the novelist Charles Dickens* (1812-70) is just getting started with the publication of his early sketches of London life. a third theatre opens in New Orleans. This entertainment form will keep growing. with the largest stage (90 by 95 feet). self-reliance and the rejection of traditional authority (especially Calvinist orthodoxy and Unitarian rationalism). but this year he comes out with a delightfully satirical play on provincial and bureaucratic folly. Later she will be known as the finest tragic actress in the English-speaking world. 1835 . In Great Britain. Nikolai Gogol* (1809-52) has been writing a number of things. the St. In the United States Arkansas is admitted as the 25th state. that are included in his twenty-year work. Late this year (1836-7) he becomes famous with the publication of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club*. Margaret Fuller* (1810-50. 1835 The French writer Honore de Balzac* (1799-1850) comes out with one of the stories. and become Empress of India. 1837 In Great Britain Victoria* (1819-1901) succeeds William IV* as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland. 1833 . The English poet.Around this year the "Jim Crow" song and dance business is enlarged into Ethiopian Operas* by Rice* (see above).

produces his Twice-Told Tales*. The Lady of Lyons*. Gaetano Donizetti*. real props and a box-set* to the attention of the theatres here.com . publishes his Organization of Work*. It's romantic and sentimental." He claims we should start with a system of "social workshops" controlled by the workers themselves. 1840's . Edward George Bulwer-Lytton* (1803-73). Michigan is admitted as the 26th state this year. This German composer also writes his own librettos and brings the musical and dramatic expression of German romanticism to its height. Greece. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. James Fenimore Cooper* (1789-1851) is still writing. produces a delightful comic opera.This year Mme Vestris* (1797-1856) tours to America and brings historically correct costumes. He embodies all the major characteristics of the romanticists. For the next forty years this system will be refined and improved until electricity begins to be available. An Italian composer. He calls his works "Music-dramas".One of Scribe*'s best known plays. 1840 . In Great Britain.In the United States. This year he does Rienzi*. Denmark and Romania. The Daughter of the Regiment*. Prince Albert*. The master of American fiction. Nathaniel Hawthorne* (1804-64). 1838 Dickens comes out with Oliver Twist*. Some of his ideas will be picked up later and made a part of communism*. They will have nine children who will marry and link the British royal house with the rulers of Russia. Germany. comes out this year. This year he comes out with The Pathfinder* and next year he will publish The Deerslayer*. By this time Richard Wagner* (1813-83) is writing his operas. A Glass of Water*. Martin Van Buren* (1782-1862) takes over as the 8th president (183741). passionate nationalism. This makes for much more flexible and spectacular lighting since the gas flow can be controlled through what are called "gas tables" where each gas jet can be turned up and down by one operator. Queen Victoria* marries her first cousin.pdffactory.In America gas lighting is now the way to go in theatres as gas sources become dependable. to each according to his needs. Social Reform Is Explored 1840 One of those social reformers. The English novelist and playwright. but it will remain popular for many years. a return to native folklore for his stories (German mythology. There will be a lot of economic problems next year. 1838 . In this influential work he outlines an ideal social order based on the notion "From each according to his ability. Later we will have some theatrical design theories come out of productions of his works. In America. brings out his most successful play. a Frenchman named Louis Blanc* (1811-82). in this case) and a fusion of music and text.

This play will be one of the most popular of the rest of the century. Horace Greeley* and Nathaniel Hawthorne* are members or visit here. This makes surgery go much easier and better. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and rejection of traditional authority. 1842 This year Karl Marx* begins his editorship of a radical paper (the Rheinische Zeitung). This guy is busy rejecting idealism for materialism* and his works influence another fellow named Karl Marx* to develop a view of things called dialectical materialism*. a German philosopher. David Livingstone* (1813-73). 1801-85) is busy passing laws to help with the terrible conditions of workers and the poor. 7th earl of Shaftesbury. In England Shaftesbury* (Anthony Ashley Cooper.) Ralph Waldo Emerson*. 1841 . John Tyler takes over the presidency as the first Vice President to succeed to that office.The box-set* is brought to perfection in Mme Vestris*' production of Dion Boucicault*'s (1820-90) London Assurance* at Covent Garden*. or a Life in the Woods* (1854). He is an Irish actor. This year he gets a law limiting child labor. It'll be suppressed next year. Along with Darwin. At the moment Marx* is taking in the ideas of Feuerbach* (see above) and Moses Hess* (1812-75) who introduces him (Marx) to the study of social and economic problems (of which there are a lot around just now). He'll go on to find [that is the conventional way of saying that the white European is discovering for the first time a number of things well known to the native Africans] a lot of spots there [like the Kalahari desert. playwright and theatre manager who first appeared as an actor in 1838. Political Philosophy Moves On 1841 Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach* (1804-72). Its based on shared manual labor and the ideas of Transcendentalism* (a movement in literature that flourishes in New England 1836-60 and emphasizes individualism. self-reliance.] Meanwhile the Europeans are busy exploring the interior of Africa. which he writes up in American Notes*. his works will have the greatest influence on what happens in the world for the next hundred and fifty years. This year a Scottish explorer. Nobody is very happy with him.1840s The medical establishment finally begins to use general anesthesia in surgical procedures. but he dies after only a month in office.com . 1841 William Henry Harrison* (1773-1841) comes in as the 9th President of the United States. that sort of thing]. This year Boucicault* begins acting under his own name because of the success of this play. Margaret Fuller*. director. [more about all this as we go along. We will hear more about him and some of the 250 plays he will write later.pdffactory. goes off as a medical missionary into the wilds of Botswana.S. the Victoria Falls. Dickens* does an American lecture tour and goes back to Great Britain with a very dim view of the U. This year one of those Fourierist (see above in Introduction) cooperative living experiments starts up at Brook Farm*. Its ideas are best expressed in Emerson*'s essays and Henry David Thoreau*'s (1817-62) Walden. This is why we will keep up with these two guys. launches his best known work. He is a German social philosopher who has studied both law and philosophy and has some very definite ideas about how society ought to work. The Essence of Christianity*.

around this time. even though they are still fighting over it there.The Russian. Friedrich Engels* (1820-95). Several guys have been working on this. 1843 This year in Great Britain. He is the stage manager of the troupe at the Boston Museum*. This year Margaret Fuller* publishes her feminist views in Woman in the Nineteenth Century*. It launches the Mexican War* (with the Alamo and all that). They begin a life-long collaboration. James Knox Polk* moves in) is to annex the independent Texas. Engels* is a German social philosopher and a revolutionary. Dead Souls*. Now new theatres can open. a guy named Dan Emmett* (1815-1904) builds on those Ethiopian Operas* (see above) and comes up with a full-length entertainment. 1844 . President Polk has a campaign pledge to get control of California and take Oregon territory from Britain (they settle on the 49th parallel as the northern boundary between the U. comes out this year with his first major work. they raise telegraph lines along side). Texas is admitted as the 28th state. In England. is named poet laureate. Meanwhile. Meanwhile one of the first important communication devices. a good-natured city roughneck. does Santa Anna* object to this.A little Austrian monk. in December. He gets associated with the system and it starts being put into use (especially as the railroads are built.In America the hit play is the melodrama The Drunkard. Later in the year. Gogol*.com . Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol* and spends some of his time managing amateur theatricals. 1844 This is the year when Marx* meets Engels* in Paris. and Canada). The Mexican War* and Nationalism 1845 One of the few important things President Tyler does (before he moves out of office this year and the 11th President. [a still popular item] by William H. This may sound pretty obscure and esoteric. Polk* is very successful in fulfilling his campaign pledges in this war. the romantic nature poet. The Condition of the Working Class in England* (it'll be published next year). Actually the United States is dying to get their hands on California (which Mexico claims) so this is a good excuse.S. 1843 . the "Virginia Minstrels. comes out with his novel. another American character type shows up. The Mexican War* will run from 1846-48. In Great Britain.pdffactory. Florida is admitted to the union as the 27th state. but this year Samuel Morse* (1791-1872) demonstrates his version to Congress. It will take a while for this to make a difference. These two guys will begin working on other works immediately.In America. Smith* (1806-72). This is the "city boy". Shaftesbury* gets a law providing care for the insane. Also. She's the first literary PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the Theatre Regulation Act* puts an end to the old monopoly of the Patent theatres. is being put together. but his findings will provide the basis for genetics. 1843. Gregor Johann Mendel* (1822-84) is busy [between now and 1868] analyzing how peas reproduce. the telegraph*. Boy. William Wordsworth* (1770-1850). who has been managing a factory in England." Also.

It is a collection of their poems. 1847 . Herman Melville* (1819-91). Elizabeth Barrett* (1806-61 originally Elizabeth Moulton. this time a Russian. Next year he will write Omoo*. Another author. political repression. Christy* (1815-62).pdffactory.critic of the New York Tribune. It also leads to some terrifically excessive militarism and Imperialism (like Napoleon. She will marry an Italian and write about the revolution for her paper (see below 1848-49). then her father took the name of Barrett. Feodor Dostoyevsky* (1821-81. Nationalism* will grow as a powerful force in world politics. the American. The second part of the show is the olio*. or ethnic background. whose name is also spelled two or three other ways. P. All over Europe there are really bad crop failures. Still a third author. This year the first publication comes out by the Bronte sisters. published under the pen names of Currer. Charles Kean* (1811-1868) begins directing. language. This is a two-part show in which the first part uses the Interlocutor* (master of ceremonies) and two stand-up comedians Tambo and Bones) to toss jokes around with "end" men (who stand at the ends of a semicircle of the group). This will grow in popularity and reach its peak between 1850 and 1890. later she marries Browning) publishes some poems. The English actor-manager. 1846 Iowa comes into the union as the 29th state. for examples). writes Typee* this year. This is especially important when there is a political need for action and nationalism* becomes a group state of mind where patriotism and loyalty to the country are looked on as each individual's primary duty. remember the Russian alphabet is not the one we use) publishes his first novel. written by Anna Cora Mowatt (1819-70). then touring. religion.One of the most enduring and popular American plays shows up this year. There is a widespread economic crisis and the condition of the working class is getting even worse than it was. He PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These joke sessions trade off with musical numbers.com . is a terrific spoof of New York city manners. Since in this period everybody is preoccupied with it. He will go on to write about 34 more. Poor Folk* and begins to earn a reputation. 1846 . Basically it's a political philosophy where the welfare of the nation (state) is the most important thing. His works mark the beginning of realism in Russia. It is also a state of mind held by people who share a common history. and the British Empire. we'll take a moment to try to understand what is meant here by nationalism*. Emily Jane* (1818-48) and Anne* (1820-49). which is a series of speciality acts and songs. and a rising tide of nationalism*. Ellis and Acton Bell. Ever since the French Revolution (1789) this nationalism* business has (and will) provided the glue that enables countries to interact with each other in a fairly reasonable way. 1846-7 Economic conditions in France are terrible.This year in America the Minstrel Show* is given its definitive form by E. This success will encourage him to go back home and do even better productions. and now he is on his third tour with the most detailed productions yet seen in North America. 1845 . Fashion*.This year in Russia Alexander Ostrovshy* (1823-86) comes out with his first play. Charlotte* (1816-55).

Among other things it picks up on Blanc's* ideas (see above 1840). Meanwhile Blanc* has been caught running a workers revolt and he runs off to England. Instead they come up with the view that the laws of history are bound to lead to the triumph of the working class. Wuthering Heights*. (All those doctors running around from one birthing mother to another. The French February Revolution* sets off a rash of revolutionary explosions (fueled by nationalism*) all over Europe.concentrates on characters. and their later works. Engels* and Marx* (who is exiled) settle down in London to study and write. After the revolutionary failures (of 1848). their relationships and how it is affected by the environment they are in. run for president and get the job. 49 1818-65). In the U. A leader in this movement in the current revolution is Giuseppe Mazzini* who. There is a provisional government (made up of a lot of those social reformers like Blanc*) which overthrows the monarchy of Louis Philippe* and establishes the Second Republic*. Emily Jane*. They don't get that either. a Hungarian obstetrician.S. nephew of the great man) to come home. Their careers will be very short (tuberculosis takes Anne and Emily) but brilliant. Agnes Grey*.This period is a landmark for women when Semmelweis* (Ignaz Philipp.pdffactory. They don't get it. Jane Eyre*. The government is headed briefly by the romantic poet. This is a big improvement and the basis of the modern industry. In the Hapsburg empire (see above) the revolutionaries are looking for more autonomy. The 1848 Revolutions and Nationalism 1848 In France we have the February Revolution*. This will really get picked up in a big way by generations of revolutionaries as the way to go. This enables Louis Napoleon* (1808-87. have been killing their patients right and left). In Italy there is a period of cultural nationalism and political activism called Risorgimento* which will lead to Italian unification. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and Anne*. canning food in glass and tin is replaced by tin-plated steel cans. part company with socialist appeals to natural rights to justify social reform. In Italy they are trying to get rid of the Hapsburgs. Now Semmelweis* becomes the pioneer of antisepsis (getting rid of germs) in obstetrics. proves that child-bed (puerperal) fever is contagious. without even washing their hands or their instruments. Alphonse Marie Louis de Lamartine*. Shaftesbury produces another law limiting the work day and promotes building model tenements to house workers. 1847. In almost all cases the old orders get control back where they want it. novelist and statesman. Eventually they hammer out a constitution. 1848 This is the year Engels* (see above 1844) and Marx* come out with their Communist Manifesto*. These revolutions of 1848 include some liberal revolutions in the German States (remember the German Confederation*?) which brings in the Frankfurt Parliament that favors German unification. takes part in the Roman Republic. next year. 1847 In England. It won't be very successful and in June the workers will revolt again. This year the novels of the Bronte sisters are published: Charlotte. More about him later.com . This Manifesto. Lots of street fighting and government troops firing on demonstrators sets it off.

and America (1855).In America the Mexican War ends with a treaty that gives the U.pdffactory. She will become known as one of the finest tragediennes of the French stage. In Great Britain. Wisconsin enters the union as the 30th state. It's a sensation and will influence the next author's first play.S.By this time the operetta* emerges as a distinct form. spoken dialogue. 1849 Zachary Taylor* comes in as the 12th President of the U. besides. Rachel* (1820-58) has been working in the Comedie-Francaise* in classical parts. London (1841). Thoreau *. who will later write Scribe's biography) comes out with his most successful and well remembered play. Civil Disobedience*. of course) will come to see shows at his theatre which will open in 1850 (see below). The Gold Rush* is on and over 40. This is a real boost for English theatre.com . launches her famous novel. This year that most influential figure in American thought and literature. territory which is handy because gold is discovered in California (at Sutter's Mill on the Sacramento River). 1848 . She really triumphs in these (especially as Racine's Phaedre*). Adrienne Lecouvreur*.] Sardinia (that island west of Italy) is ruled this year by Victor Emanuel II* (1820-78). two fifths of Mexico's territory and $15 million. He will get his country involved in the Risorgimento* (see above 1848) struggles to unite Italy. and with particular success on tour in Russia.S. The characters in Scribe*'s PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. comes out with his powerful social criticism. the rising star of the French stage. [This work will continue to influence a number of social movements and such later leaders as Gandhi* and Martin Luther King*.000 prospectors will pour into California in the next two years. He will supply the queen with all kinds of entertainment at Windsor Castle and she (and her court. comes out with Vanity Fair*. Legouve. Scribe* (and a collaborator. In Great Britain.S. Geroge Eliot* (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans. 1819-80). This helps make Adrienne Lecouvreur* a success. It's a fun combination of light pleasant songs. This will really help economic growth out there. The Social Play 1849 There are two French playwrights who take the next step toward realism* by developing the content* of social problems in the form of the well-made play*. Silas Marner*. It has the commercial advantage of having Rachel*. and her role in this play will remain as one of the choice roles for actresses. acting the leading role. In 1849. In Great Britain. fantasy. The southern border is now the Rio Grande River. buffoonery parodying and satirizing just about everything. William Makepeace Thackeray* (1811-63). Queen Victoria* revives the govermental post of Master of Revels* and appoints Charles Kean* to this post. He will do it soon (see 1861). California is a U. the English satirist and novelist.

pere*. Alexander Dumas fils* (1824-95). A demimondaine* is basically a kept woman on the fringes of respectable society. For two and a half years the French censors rant and rave over whether or not to let the play go on the stage. Essentially a courtesans* is a fashionable kept woman who has the education and refinement of a well-born lady. showing the prostitutes and courtesans as they really are. Adultery.plays are not very fully developed. However. He has a more angry reception (than Dumas fils*) from audiences who prefer a touch of romanticism on their social lessons. La Dame aux Camelias*. Since subject matter based on the "S" word hasn't been used on the stage. He (the Duc de Morny*) gives the production his full support. Daniel Webster* (1782-1852) becomes his Secretary of State. They serve the plot. free love and prostitution.Emile Augier* (1820-89) comes out with Gabrielle* attacking adultery. They serve best as social companions rather than mere sexual toys. He tends to be more realistic than his contemporaries. in this new realistic style where characters talked and moved like real people . In 1847 he had written a novel. We will take note of some of his better known works as they come out. The social forces that shape the characters actions are the first target of these authors. The main characters are either courtesans* or demimondaine*. the new plays are real shockers. 1850 The United States welcomes California as the 31st state this year.Well! . It had been OK to have plays and operas about courtesans when they were treated romantically. is rapidly moving from the romantic to the realistic. especially when found hidden by hypocrisy and deceit in outwardly respectable society.it's downright immoral! Enter political expediency. in 1849. But. there is trouble brewing over the question of slavery. It doesn't help anything that President Taylor* dies this year and Millard Fillmore * (1800-74) becomes the 13th president. These women are intelligent and have great capacity for delicacy and devotion which enable them to bring their brilliant social gifts to benefit the men who support them financially. The first minister of France (the Duc de Morny) under Louis Napoleon* has a notion that such a controversial play could be a terrific help in distracting the public's attention from the current political dirty tricks that are causing a lot of agitation. In order to reach the popular audience the social messages are sugar-coated as sheer entertainment and the social problems tend to be sexual. A courtesan seems to differ from a demimondaine* in having more freedom to associate with a number of admirers and having a higher social status. These terms need a little explanation since they are peculiar to European high society. This year the government comes up with the Compromise of 1850* which tries to fix how new states stand in relation to the slavery question. Later. the illegitimate son of the romantic writer Alexander Dumas. many aristocratic but poor widows and daughters of officers killed in the Napoleonic wars turn to amorous entaglements and what are called "doubtful" enterprises. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. that way they didn't seem very real. he turns the novel into a play with the same title. The Compromise doesn't work and things are going down hill. are favorite subjects.com . 1849 . Since there is no respectable way in which upper class women can support themselves. but even this doesn't help. treating the subject of a courtesan frankly. The next step is taken by authors who are concerned with psychological insights into why characters do what they do.

although "stars" come to play with these companies from time to time. almost entirely. Haste to the Wedding and Horse Eats Hat) is a big success. 1851 . The country is so big that each center of population has its own theatre groups. 1850 . He is learning by doing. is busy writing poetry too. writing and producing five of his own plays and helping out with 145 productions. We will take a closer look at him and his plays in the next chapter. bringing fashionable audiences back to the theatre. his earliest period. Her husband. Robert Browning*. Hawthorne* is publishing his masterpiece. for and with Norwegians. 1850 . Meanwhile. myths and fairy-tales). It's about ten years into it in France and just beginning in Germany. These will have a twenty year run as top entertainment until the comic operas (see 1870s) begin to take their audience away. Catilina*. Ibsen* (up in Norway) is invited by the violinist and patriot. He is a master of the dramatic monologue. Norway. The Wedding Guest.In America the resident stock company is the main theatrical organization for the next twenty years. but when they get rolling it will be awesome. He will develop antiquarianism to a fare-thee-well (see 1852). Norway is busy trying to establish a national identity and break the last political ties holding it to Denmark. Norway. to the music halls. Charles Kean*.In England the most popular kind of theatre is burlesque-extravaganza* (lots of low comedy. broad take-offs on popular plays. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. decides to manage a theatre and leases the Princess Theatre* in London. for this. Ibsen* will stay here through 1857. The Scarlet Letter* This year Elizabeth Barrett Browning* (she married in 1846) comes out with her Sonnets from the Portuguese*. This nationalistic climate will stimulate Ibsen* to write historical and nationalistically romantic plays. Henrik Ibsen* (1828-1906) publishes his first drama. The actor-manager. For now we need to pick up the main events in his education as a playwright. like those by Boucicault*.com . America will be a little late getting into it (because of the up coming Civil War). This will become the way to go for regular plays. He starts whipping out a new constitution. The purpose of the new theatre is to get out from under the Danish cultural influence and do plays by. a very important playwright. 1851 The political dirty tricks in France turn into a coup in December as Louis Napoleon*. up in Christiania. He also starts taking out all that incidental music and variety acts move. Ole Bull (1810-80) to work as "dramatic author" at the new Norwegian Theatre* at Bergen. It will now begin a period of glory under Kean*'s management. He begins his performances with a short curtain raiser (to help with the problem of fashionably late arrivals streaming in). supported by powerful conservatives.This year.pdffactory. It is written by Eugene Labiche* (1815-88) who raises French farce to a new height with more than 150 light comedies between 1831-77. His repertory of plays include a number of fairly high quality melodramas. 1850 . mainly in verse. operas. dissolves the legislative assembly.This year An Italian Straw Hat* (also variously called: Un Chapeau de paill d'Italie.By this time the Industrial Revolution is pretty much accomplished in England.

Rigoletto*. The first two acts of the play are based on Dumas' personal experiences with a well-known Parisian courtesan (Marie Duplessis) who was adored by many of the most illustrious personages of her day. This will stimulate immigration and settling the land down under. comes out with his most famous work. however. set and props researched and reproduced with antiquarian care and attention. This is not typical. He helps establish the director as the primary artist in the theatre. this year. Hawthorne* comes out with The House of Seven Gables*.In America we can see the beginning of the long run which will gradually change the theatre production system. make a big step in the direction of a really good realistic play. especially Scribe*'s Adrienne Lecouvreur*. This year Uncle Tom's Cabin* by Harriet Beecher Stowe* 1811-96) comes out. the king of Sardinia. The American. Charles Kean* puts on a production of Shakespeare*'s King John* with every detail of costume. Herman Melville*.In Great Britain. Camille* will have the biggest effect on English and American realistic social drama of any nineteenth-century French play. Uncle Tom's Cabin* will be the most popular play of the period and be adapted by a lot of other authors. Moby Dick*. but he will be rediscovered in 1920 and this work will come to be regarded as one of the greatest novels ever written. led by Gieseppe Garibaldi (1807-82). This year George L. a one-time republican who is now throwing his support behind Victor Emanuel II*. sonatas and symphonic poems). The last three acts are strongly affected by Dumas* knowledge of the contemporary stage. Stowe*) begins a run of 300 consecutive performances. 1852 . Odds and Ends PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Dumas* does. The Hungarian composer. Their love affair lasted two years (1844-46) until shortly before her death. Franz Liszt* (1811-86) has been teaching most of the major pianists of the next generation as well as composing this year six Paganini Etudes (other works include concertos.Finally. realistic portrayals which helps the impact of the play. since the average run of a regular play is between 14 and 40 performances.pdffactory. Aiken*'s (1830-76) Uncle Tom's Cabin* (From the novel by H. Giuseppe Verdi* comes out with his dramatic and melodic opera. This year the Italian. However. Unfortunately he couldn't stop his leading actress (his wife. B.In Australia there is a big Gold Rush* which will last into 1853. 20 Hungarian Rhapsodies. Ellen Tree*.com . including a list for the audience of sources he has consulted. The actors (Eugenie Doche and Charles Fechter) who play the leading roles give sensitive. This work will come to be known in English as Camille* and it doesn't make as much use of the techniques of the well-made play* as later authors will. This will fan the flames of antislavery and provide the theatre with a real favorite piece (see Below 1852). 1852 . Alexander Dumas fils*' La Dame aux Camelias* is allowed to go on stage at the Theatre du Vaudevill* in Paris. 1852 . Nobody thinks much of his work now. 1806-80) from wearing hooped skirts under her costumes. Italy is still struggling to become united.

1852 In November a French plebiscite overwhelmingly supports the establishment of the Second Empire* (or the Third.In Paris there is a theatre man.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. into the plays at his theatre. France and Sardinia will join in. props. fear. He becomes world famous and his students will be teaching his "method" all over the world. This is another piece of the Eastern Question* [remember. in the first one (176874) got the Crimea and ports on the Black Sea. from the introduction. bought from Mexico. It's a useful hunk of real estate since it is the best place to build a railroad across the southern territory. He works out an elaborate scheme to show how each part of the body should be used to express attitudes. DELSARTE Also in Paris is a world famous acting teacher. Adolphe Montigny* (1805-80). etc. photographs) the similarity in the expressions of primates and humans in emotional states like anger. 1853 Franklin Pierce* (1804-69) becomes the 14th president of the United States.pdffactory. This one doesn't solve anything either and the State's Rights doctrine (based on the 10th amendment) is being used to mobilize the pro-slavery southern states. He's best known for the Gadsden Purchase*.com . a tetralogy that most completely embodies his aesthetic principles. This is the theatre where all the realistic playwrights' work starts out. He will have some support from naturalists (like Darwin* ) who point out (with drawings and later. It apparently works extremely well when first taught. He gradually introduces realistic furniture. the Russo-Turkish wars*? Russia. 1853 . Montigny* seems to be the first Frenchman to really work at the art of directing. 1853-56 turns out to be the Crimean War*. 1854 In the United States they try the Kansas-Nebraska Act* to address the slave-state freestate problem. The medical care of the English troops is so bad that Florence Nightingale* (1820-1910) organizes a bunch of 38 women nurses and sets off to the Crimea to make a name for herself. Der Ring des Nibelungen*. [This establishes women in nursing and she is the first woman to get the British Order of Merit. near the Rio Grande River. etc. if you think Napoleon had two) and Louis Napoleon* becomes Napoleon III*. but it tends to become mechanical (somewhere down the line of students) and later it will get a reputation for purely technical and mechanical repetition. in the second (1787-92) the southwest Ukraine and the port of Odessa] It starts out between Turkey and Russia but soon England. In the south the plantation system for agriculture and the concomitant use of slaves to supply the enormous work force needed sets this region apart from other states. adding a strip of land. after the Comedie-Francaise* and the Odeon*). Francois Delsarte (1811-71). He trys to approach acting "scientifically" by looking for the "laws" of expression. emotions and ideas. He analyses emotions and ideas in terms of how they are expressed. joy. In that Crimean War* (down in the Black Sea region) the Russian port of Sevastopol* is under seige for 349 days. who gets the job of director of the Theatre du Gymnase* (the third most important theatre in Paris. From 1853 through 1874 Wagner* is doing his masterwork.

and showing what might happen if a courtesan* married. He is very active in the American theatre in getting copyright laws passed (1857) and ensuring that playwrights get royalties for their work. 1856 . The abolitionists* believe slavery is an unmitigated evil. M. 1856 In the United States this is the year of the infamous Dred Scott Case. Laura Keene (?-1873). Although Dion Boucicault* (1820-90) (an Irish actor. The Poor of New York* 1857. Octoroon. She is the first woman here to become a theatre manager. This makes everybody fighting mad and fuels the growing division among the states. who. after touring here and in Australia. playwright and theatre manager who first appeared as an actor in 1838) is remembered now as a playwright. he uses the name of the local city in this title. director. His earlier adaptation of The Corsican Brothers* (1852) is one of the most popular spectacular production shows and will be kept in theatre repertories for years. and now that he is here. designed as a reply to Dumas*' Camille*. characterization and technical perfection. He writes over 250 plays and adaptations Some of his best known plays: London Assurance* 1841. he is best known in his own day as an excellent actor with great timing.In 1855 the term demimondaine* is retired in favor of the title of this year's Dumas*' play Le Demi-Monde* which is regarded as Dumas*' best work. and runs a school for actors (with A.This year Dion Boucicault* (see above 1841) is in America and comes out with The Poor (or Streets) of New York* (depending on where he does it.pdffactory. He's the first dramatist in England to receive royalties on his plays. after she moves on it will be known as the second Olympic*). His directing shows facility and inventiveness and his management brings in a lot of innovations." The repertory she presents is made up of good foreign and American plays. The upshot of the case is a decision that Afro-Americans have no rights as citizens and no standing in court. American Theatre Blossoms 1857 . to become the first artistic director of the Christiana Norwegian Theatre*. His plays and adaptations are becoming terrifically popular all over. the United States picks up on his work.com . He will write three more plays while he is here in Christiana. Olympe's Marriage*. This is a case before the Supreme Court involving the status of slavery in the federal territories. writes on acting. Palmer in connection with the Madison Square Theatre*). has settled here.American theatre is richer for an English actress. or Life in Louisiana* 1859. This year Laura Keene* opens her own theatre in New York (Laura Keene's Varieties. She will run an excellent stock company without the current disaster of importing "stars. it's flexible). Christiana.Ibsen* (the Norwegian guy) leaves Bergen and goes back to the Norwegian capital. This year Augier* also comes out with a play. Southern plantation owners regard slavery as an economic necessity and a natural social state protected under the states rights doctrine. Both plays become popular favorites. 1857 . Late in his life he lectures. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

PA.. He's really big on helping educate the working classes so this year. publishes his masterpiece. Sothern*) has a resounding success with Our American Cousin* by Tom Taylor*. Laura Keene*'s company (now employing excellent actors. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Wicklow Wedding* 1864. 1858 Minnesota enters the union as the 32nd state. but the best remembered will come in 1881. 1858 .com . 1857 James Buchanan* (1791-1868) comes in as the 15th president of the United States. Scientific thought will never be the same.S). Dot* 1859.This year that operetta* business shows up in its best guise in Orpheus in the Underworld*. Oregon becomes the 33rd state in the union. Meanwhile. in addition to helping get a public school system in New York City. another fellow. 1859 This year the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps* (1805-94) begins building the Suez Canal* (connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea so you don't have to sail all the way around Africa to get from Europe to the East). by Jacques Offenbach* (1819-80). Rip Van Winkle* 1865. Drake* strikes oil this year and the petroleum industry is off and running. This year begins what is called the "Age of Oil". such as Joseph Jefferson III* and A. he founds the Cooper Union.pdffactory.Plays of "authentic" Irish life and character: The Colleen Bawn* 1860. This play will have a long run and help establish New York as the theatre center of the United States. He will be busy trying to keep the "sacred balance" between the proslavery and antislavery factions. It will take ten years to finish the project. A fellow called Edwin L. will really pick up on this and put it into his ethical and social views in numerous works (between now and 1893).E. a free institution of higher learning with an evening engineering and art school. He will write over a hundred. Some of his best known adaptations: The Corsican Brothers* 1852. Darwin* comes out with his book The Origin of Species* this year and his theory of evolution will go buzzing around Europe raising all kinds of reactions. has been inventing devices and processes in the iron industry and making pots of money (on that and owning more than half of the telegraph lines in the U. Madame Bovary*. The coal-oil (kerosene. An English philosopher. a thin oil distilled from petroleum or coal shale) lamp has been invented and the demand for oil leads to drilling near Titusville. Louis XI * 1855. The French novelist. Gustave Flaubert* (1821-80). Herbert Spencer* (1820-1903). The Shaughraun* 1874. Peter Cooper* (1791-1883). He's one of the top composers in this genre.

1859 . Florida. This will be the bloodiest war in the history of the country. too. Abraham Lincoln* (1809-65) is elected the 16th President. will be very popular. In Russia. Louisiana. In Paris. except for Rome.The well-made play* formula is picked up and exploited by another Frenchman. Hawthorne* publishes The Marble Faun*. Obviously theatre will be needed for entertainment where there is no fighting. Abraham Lincoln* finds that by Inauguration Day seven states have seceded. The soon-to-be-popular American actor. a bioligist and educator. where the war is being fought. Charles Francois Gounod*. He also adapts Dickens*' The Cricket on the Hearth*. 1861 Kansas becomes the 34th state. calling his play Dot*. The American Civil War 1860 In America this December. VA their capital and they elect Jefferson Davis* president. This year he does one of his early successful comedies. We'll hear more about him as we go along. Mississippi. which doesn't get taken over. Most of the influence Italy has on the theatre in this period comes through international touring of Italian actors. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Fiery tragic acting is his hallmark and he will influence a Russian we'll be talking about later (Stanislavsky*). Texas. President Buchanan* promises there won't be any hostilities but he sends troops to Fort Sumpter (South Carolina). joins the Comedie-Francaise*. especially Othello*. Petersburg from his exile in Siberia.Another Englishman.com . For a big country like the United States (however temporarily fragmented) this will be a good thing. Sardou* will be busy writing for the next forty years. and. Georgia. four more states secede. The most influential one is Tommaso Salvini* (1829-1915) who begins touring this year. building a reputation for technical proficiency especially in comic roles and flamboyant romantic parts. Alabama. Virginia and Tennessee) makes Richmond. the first play that treats the Afro-American seriously. He does a pretty good job showing current society but lacks any character depth. Sumpter. He is terrific in several Shakespearian roles. A Scrap of Paper*. He will also write extensively on acting. one of the most famous actors of the period. Thomas Henry Huxley* (1825-95). When he summons the militia and Confederate troops fire on Ft. North Carolina.pdffactory. This play. produces Faust*. Dostoyevsky* is out of prison and home in St. it will not do too well. This sends a signal to the South to secede from the Union.Boucicault* (still in the United States) writes Octoroon. Victorien Sardou* (1831-1908). The French composer of romantic operas. He will stay with them for the next 26 years. or Life in Louisiana*. becomes the principle exponent of Darwin*'s theory of evolution. Constant-Benoit Coquelin*. One thing this war will do is give railroads a terrific boost. This year Garibaldi* leads a bunch of "red shirts" in a spectacular conquest of Sicily and Naples. Joseph Jefferson* gets his first serious part in Dot*. He turns it all over to the king. Arkansas. 1860 . The Confederacy* (made up of South Carolina.

This guy will raise Russian ballet to a peak of perfection. however. This year John D.Two months after the outbreak of the American Civil War Laura Keene*'s theatre is the only one open in New York. Sarah Bernhardt* (1844-1923) will spend about ten years performing and learning her art before making a deep impression on the theatrical world. The Nutcracker. 1815-98) who will be known as the Iron Chancellor*. with music by Tchaikovsky*) and give them the form long associated with the later. world-famous. That. is appointed balletmaster of the Imperial Schools. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This leads to great improvements in the canning business (started by Nicolas Appert* and patented in the U. Junius Brutus Booth* Senior (1796-1852) who came over to America in 1821. will come soon. 1861 . dies and the Queen goes into three years of seclusion. This year he becomes the premier of Prussia. 1862 . He will be a busy (and devious) adversary for Austria. of whom we will hear more later) of the English actor. Edwin Booth* (1833-93) takes over as manager of the Winter Garden Theatre* (known as the Metropolitan Theatre* until 1859). 1860s In Great Britain miners and textile workers are getting organized into unions.S. Unfortunately her standards have to be lowered and the company sinks to mainly melodrama and spectacle. the king of Sardinia as the new king of Italy. and.com . in 1815).In Paris this year an actress (who will become the most famous French star of the late nineteenth century) makes her debut. Russian ballet. Prince Albert*. They aren't. 1863 West Virginia is created the 35th state and Lincoln* issues the Emancipation Proclamation* declaring all slaves free. husband of Queen Victoria. The next step will soon follow. of course. This is a guy called Bismark* (Otto von Bismark. Louis Pasteur* (1822-95) is busy developing the process of pasteurization which will make food a lot healthier. He will choreograph 74 long works (including Sleeping Beauty. John Wilkes. the oil industry is taking off. acting for William I* (king of same). Actually he is discovering microorganisms that cause food spoilage and then he works on how to get rid of them. 1864 This year Bismark* (the Prussian guy. Swan Lake. and. In Russia this year a Frenchman. Marius Petipa* (1822-1910). toured Australia and is now a fine tragedian. Rockefeller* starts an oil refinery with some partners. of course.This year Italy is united as a country under Victor Emanuel II*. He (Edwin) made his first stage appearance at 16. In France. Edwin is one of three sons (the others are Junius Junior. We'll hear more of him later.This year a rising star of the American stage. He will be the first American actor to get a European reputation and will do a lot of starring tours all over. he (Bismark) unconstitutionally dissolves the parliament and illegally levies a bunch of taxes to pay for the army. Meanwhile.pdffactory. In Great Britain this year. 1862 This year another powerful player shows up on the European stage. 1863 . see 1862) provokes a war with Denmark as the first step toward getting Austria out of the German Confederation*. in the Confederacy*.

com . becomes the 17th president. almost exclusively. The Confederacy surrender happens on the 9th of April and on the 14th. 1st Baron of Lister) has been studying that germ theory of Pasteur* and comes up with the beginning of antiseptic surgery. The physical and economic devastation of the South sets theatre in that area back to square one [It does't do anything else much good either. pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) becomes widely known for his The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County*. John Wilkes Booth*.] The Vice President. The theatre is closed and never opened again. assinates him. He won't go home for 27 years. makes her New York debut this year. Lotta Crabtree* (1847-1924). In 1954 Congress will vote money to restore the theatre to the way it looks this year. No President will again attend a theatre performance until the 1960s. This year an English playwright. the actor. Andrew Johnson* (1808-75). He will continue to write them throughout the 1860s but he's just about the only one. Jefferson* (the third) comes to be associated primarily with this role which he plays. He's writing about contemporary life in very specific settings with great detail about the place and the stage business. the property will be turned into a Lincoln museum. He has a charming. She has been dancing. Social Turmoil Escalates PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. humorous personality and is typical of the best in America at this time. in 1932. The theatre manager and his brother are thrown in jail for 39 days. Her versatility is legendary. The United States are finally united again with the surrender of Gerneral Robert E. He toured Australia (1861-65) and becomes the recognized head of the American acting profession when he succeeds Edwin Booth* as President of the Players Club (see 1888) in 1893. She is one of the most popular entertainers in America (especially in the mining towns where she tours widely). He lectures. The Civil War* is over and it will take a very long time for the defeated South to recover. put on by Laura Keene*'s company) at Ford's Theatre*. Grant*. while Lincoln* is attending a performance of Our American Cousin* (by Tom Taylor*. Nevada comes in as the 36th state and General Sherman is marching through Georgia. He is one of the few in Great Britain to be interested in this realistic* stuff. writes a delightful autobiography (1890) and generally serves his profession well. Joseph Lister* (1827-1912. has his first big success with David Garrick*. for the next fifteen years. This is the year Mark Twain* (1835-1910. A native American. Travel is broadening and he will learn a great deal more about playwrighting in Europe.In America.Ibsen* (the Norwegian playwright) gets a little traveling scholarship and takes off for Italy.Boucicault* writes Rip Van Winkle* for Joseph Jefferson* 1829-1905).pdffactory.] 1864 . 1865 An English surgeon. This throws the country into a tizzy and gives American theatre a black eye. [Eventually. Thomas William Robertson* (1829-1971). It will open in 1968. He first appeared on the stage at the age of 4 and will spend 71 years acting. but since he worked for Mme Vestris* (see above) it's logical. singing and acting all over the west since she was six. but it turns out they had nothing to do with it. 1865 . Lee* at Appomattox* to General Ulysses S.

Das Kapital*. Nevada becomes the 37th state and William Henry Seward* (1801-72). They establish his European reputation. comes in as the ruler. this year and Peer Gynt*. Mendel*'s genetic findings are published this year. The first is Marxism*. dialectical materialism*. 1867 Marx finally finishes the first volume of his major work. Secretary of State. In America. (Engels* will edit volumes 2 and 3 after Marx dies and publish them in 1894). This will set a pattern of slowly releasing direct governing powers in European-settled colonies. The war is provoked by Bismark* in the second step in getting Austria out of the German Confederation*.2 million (known as "Seward's Folly). Bismark* forms the North German Confederation which excludes Austria and scares the various German states into going along with Prussia* by playing up the bogey-man of France (they still remember what Napoleon did to them). In Russia they finally get full copyright protection for playwrights. creates his first masterpiece.pdffactory. He is a theatre bug and begins to overhaul the court theatre and take a personal interest in everything they do.1866 The Austro-Prussian War* (better known as the Seven Weeks War) breaks out in June and is over in August. By this year we hear about the Marxist philosophical method that will become so popular. Count Leo Tolstoy* (or Tolstoi. These two are instant cultural and commercial successes. This year Great Britain passes the British North America Act which gives Canada internal self-rule as a dominion. War and Peace*. That will come in 1870 (see below). this refers to the ideas of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. persuades the government to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7. He will be very important in future theatre changes. 1828-1910). They are pretty much ignored for years but will resurface in 1900. This year he is doing the German Requiem*. contribute to his getting a government pension this year.* On the practical level. Prussia* comes out on top and makes a definite move toward the eventual unity of Germany under Prussian dominance. thanks largely to the efforts of Ostrovshy* (see 1847) who helps found the Russian Society of Dramatic Authors and Composers this year. if you prefer. now traveling in Italy) devises two verse dramas. Brand*. next year. They also. The German composer. Bismark* still has one more step to take before he succeeds in uniting Germany. In Germany.com . (actually in the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen) Georg II. Johannes Brahms* (1833-97) is busily writing some of the greatest symphonic music ever. This year he comes out with Crime and Punishment*.Ibsen* (The Norwegian. A fellow countryman. 1866 . Dostoyevsky* is rapidly becoming a towering figure in world literature. We'd better take a minute here to look at the main points in two related terms that will be very prevalent in the rest of this period. a German engineer named Nikolaus August Otto* (1832-91) shows up as the co-inventor of the internal-combustion engine. no doubt. Duke of Saxe-Meiningen*. novelist and philosopher. Obviously.

] Dialectical materialism* claims that growth. She will write two sequels later. The working class is now called the proletariat*. This year (May 10th) the Union Pacific Railway meets the Central Pacific at Promontory Point. Marxism* insists that there are contradictions and weaknesses in capitalism* that will make for terrific economic crises that will get increasingly worse. Now the term bourgeoisie* means the capitalist class because the small business people have exploded into factory owners and have filled the power vacuum left by a dwindling nobility. Marxism* claims that the bourgeoisie* will be replaced by the working class. The League of Youth*. theatre once served the nobility as a way to show off their economic power (which led to English theatre being dumped by the British Parliament when they threw out Charles I* ). for example. During the previous age there was the rise of a middle class of small business people called the bourgeoisie*. The starting point is the view that (reversing the Hegalian* dialectical idealism) the primary thing that determines history is economics. This revolution is supposed to result in a classless society where the nasty. 1869 Ulysses S. When things get bad enough the proletariat* will revolt and take over control of the means of production (industry). In the Middle Ages the economic power of the Church enabled it to use theatre to keep populations informed of its views and suitably subdued. 1869 .com . Later people will apply these principles to the study of history and sociology and that will be called historical materialism*. This means that people put together a social life in response to economic needs. In this view every aspect of society reflects economic structure. 1868 Dostoyevsky* publishes The Idiot* in Germany. [For example.Ibsen* (the now famous Norwegian playwright. In the old days class* included the nobility. 1868-9 This is the year Louisa May Alcott* (1832-88) comes out with her ever-popular Little Women*. According to Marxism* the history of society is the history of class* struggle. powerless.pdffactory. That will be a whole different kettle of fish and not at all the same as Communism*. This whole idea will impact the development of Socialism* as well as Communism* from here on out. Dialectical materialism* is the official philosophy of Communism* which holds that everything is material. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. coercive state will be replaced by a benign and rational economic cooperation.Marx*. Utah. [Theatre folk. were poor. Grant* becomes the 18th president of the United States who continues the punitive Reconstruction of the South. Unfortunately his administration will become known for its corruption. finishing the first transcontinental railroad across America. clergy and serfs or slaves. creating a poorer and poorer proletariat*. still tootling around Italy and Germany) abandons writing plays in verse and turns out a lighthearted satire.] Dialectical materialism* claims that the capitalist class is making a profit (surplus value) off the work of the proletariat*. change and development come about through a naturally occurring "struggle of opposites" that individuals don't have any power to influence. rogues and vagabonds until they were able to own their own theatre buildings (beginning in the Renaissance) and take control of the profits of their own production. It also claims that all aspects of society reflect the economic structure.

1839-1921). remember?) provokes the Franco-Prussian War* (187071) as the final step in his plan to put together a unified German Empire. Actors are being hired for the run of the show instead of a seasonal contract. Edward Henry Harriman. etc. 1870 This year Bismark* (Prussian. completing the room illusion of the three walls of the box set) is always respected in Bancroft* productions. with a corresponding decline in the number of provincial resident companies. together with the playwright Robertson* (see above 1864).By this time the population of London is passing four and one-half million and the number of theatres have increased to thirty.). They pay their actors so well (ten times the going rate) that they can insist on not having "benefit" performances for them. Poetic drama and refined melodrama are the in thing. this begins the period in which great fortunes will be made in rail. 1870 . James Fisk. art galleries. universities. A variety of changes in theatrical production are happening. The illusion of a fourth wall* (between the audience and the stage. The Bancroft*s go in for long runs of the plays they put on.Between the rail expansion. Another English author. The Bancroft*s have refurbished an old theatre which they now call the Prince of Wale's (not to be confused with another theatre of the same name which will open later) and it becomes famous for the style of domestic realism they develop. They use the box set* (see above) and give contemporary plays as much care as other managements give to their period pieces. too. while advance sales encourage long runs. J. The royalty system of paying playwrights when their works are produced is beginng to be regular practice. 1841-1926. There are no "stars" in the Bancroft*'s management and actors work on understatement instead of "bravura" acting. John Pierpont Morgan. D. Character and stage business go together for almost the first time. Rockefeller*] These entrepreneurs are relevant to social development since they also choose to become cultural philanthropists. Other managements begin to adopt their attention to modern play production and the over all production quality improves. They will endow museums. libraries and foundations to support the arts. [Collis Potter Huntington. What with all those lovely railroads going to all the important places. The American oil business is building and J. The orchestra seating becomes the best place to sit and chair-style seating (they have just got rid of benches in the ochestra pit) which are numbered and reserved really helps develop advance sales. Jay Gould. This system catches on and touring increases. The French army gives up but Paris holds out. in twenty years they only do thirty long plays (not counting the short curtain raisers. the postwar economic expansion and the general massive settlement of the country. Napoleon III* and in Paris he (Napoleon III*) is deposed and they set up a provisional government (September). the United States depends primarily on private support. The Prussians capture the French emperor. scenery and props. While European countries accomplish their cultural goals by state subsidy. Cornelius Vanderbuilt. D. The forestage* is no longer used and everything takes place behind the proscenium arch*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. The Bancroft*s start touring with a full company. Samuel Butler* (1835-1902) comes out with his satirical novel Erewhon*. The most influential management (between 1860-80) is the Bancroft*'s (Squire Bancroft. and his wife Marie Effie. Rockefeller* organizes Standard Oil. Dickens* dies this year leaving the unfinished The Mystery of Edwin Drood*.com . steel and banking. Andrew Carnegie. the system of touring begins to change.

France has to pay a terrific amount for indemnity to Prussia and give up most of that pesky Alsace and Lorraine territory (mentioned in the Introduction as a bone of contention). Augustin Daly* (1836-99) is a critic who then writes plays and.com . Some of his plays achieve great success (see below). Local managers begin to dismiss their troupes and turn into theatrical landlords. The so-called "free plantation" scenery arrangement will be picked up all over. under the command of the Commune of Paris*. who hold out for five months. statement of this movement's doctrine will come soon (see 1873). By 1876-77 there will be at least 100 combination companies traveling with full productions. He will do more of this training business in the '80s.1870s . The resident stock company is at its peak and about to decline in favor of the combination company* (one that travels with everyting from stars to the smallest prop). The French royalists send a French army against the Parisians. (see below 1884). There are reprisals on both sides and after the defeat PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. naturalism*. who excels in Hamlet* (it ran 100 performances). Booth* will eventually be considered the greatest actor this country has produced. the railroads make theatrical touring with a full company and sets a practical way to go. designer and teacher. in 1869.pdffactory. He works toward making the director a major force in the theatre by being in absolute control of everything in the theatre. Paris resists again. Booth's Theatre* has a level stage floor with no grooves (for sliding scenery). Marxists. gets his own theatre. the Fifth Avenue Theatre*. The notions are that heredity and environment are primary causes of human behavior. 1871 In January. Fortunately he hangs on to some very good ones and becomes known as having the finest ensemble* in America. director. 1870s . Socialism* and the plight of the workers become the focus for the naturalistic movement. as in Great Britain. There is no apron and he uses box sets extensively. These people object to the humiliating conditions Prussia wants and they want economic reforms. MacKaye* opens a series of acting schools and training programs at his St. He is an actor. Paris finally gives up. inventor. too. playwright. He goes over to France to study acting and brings the Delsarte* method (see above) over to America. Edwin Booth*. James' Theatre* in New York. A few managers maintain troupes in this transition period. In part it appears as a logical outgrowth of the theories put forth in Darwin*'s The Origin of Species*. and progress can be made by applying scientific method and new technologies. socialists and anarchists*.In France the movement of naturalism* begins to surface. made up of radical republicans. and starts his own company. Another factor in the rise of naturalism* is the political and economic conditions in France after the Franco-Prussian War* (which isn't quie finished yet). is big on realism. on returning to the theatre in 1869 (after a brief retirement from the shame of his brother's deed) renovates a theatre to his own specifications. several hydraulic elevators to raise sets from the floor below and 76 feet of fly space overhead. speaks of the current idea that human beings are part of nature (not set above it in some superior way. as they believed before).In America. He works so hard on coaching his actors that he attracts a lot of young ones and makes a lot of stars. but his inventions are best remembered (see 1879 in the next Chapter). This is a rebellious government in Paris. Steele MacKaye* (1842-94) is also a man of many talents. The first. He introduces things like the heroine tied to the railroad tracks as the train approaches and the heroine locked in a stateroom on a burning steamboat. and most famous. He. The very name of the movement.

It is possible because they can take as long as they want to rehearse a play. The visual appearance of his productions is both interesting and meaningful in terms of what the play is about.This is the year when Sarah Bernhardt* joins the Comedie-Francaise*. There are Ludwig. so the theatre is only open twice a week for six months of the year. rage.000 people are executed. he went exploring?). real chain mail. The Duke has a very good sense of design and this shows in his sets and the arrangement of the actors and their movement (blocking). Middlemarch. he can rehearse until it looks the way he wants it to. does it stir up a kettle of worms! Everybody uses it to serve their own ideas or to attack someone else's views. 1872 .). The whole enterprise is an ensemble effort. This will be one of the startling things about this troupe. stage presence and technical skill and her portrayals of pain. Ludwig Chronegk* (1837-91). Boy. Soon they will begin to show their work to the rest of Europe (see below 1874). Severe repression follows the Commune's defeat which leaves a festering sore on the body politic of France.000 people in the Duchy. apparently can't be beat. In Russia they finally get around to producing A Month in the Country* by Ivan Turgenev* (1818-83). This makes for really impressive crowd scenes in which the actors really know what they are doing and make the whole scene look good. since other companies just use "extras" to fill in their crowds. She has terrific magnetism. He had written this play back in 1850 but the censorship in Russia is so bad they PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the New York Herald has sent a British journalist. scenery and props using authentic materials instead of cheap substitutes (heavy upholstery. The Descent of Man* comes out.pdffactory. period furniture.* 1871 . In France. adapting the texts and supervising the stage speech. etc.The Duke of Saxe-Meiningen* (see above 1866) hires a director this year. All the great French roles from Phaedre to Camille (and more in the future) provide her with her great success. all designed by the Duke. The company works and builds up authentic costumes. They also build the actors into an ensemble in which there are no stars and every actor who plays a lead in one show has to play a bit part in another.of the Commune of Paris* more than 17. She will spend the next eight years at this theatre attracting a lot of attention and not a little controversy. This is something new in the theatre. Georg II. Since the theatre is the Duke's personal project (not dependent on making a profit). death and seductiveness. In Great Britain. Stanley* finds Livingstone* and everybody is happy and now knows a good deal more about what the interior of Africa is like.com .) and the poet and writer. This guy will be a powerhouse in training the company and arranging the future tours that will make this company world famous. Down in Africa. Geroge Eliot* publishes her masterpiece. There are only 8. This is the year when Darwin*'s (see above 1831) second big book. Every actor in the company has to appear in crowd scenes. Sir Henry Morton Stanley* (1841-1904). his wife (in 1873) Ellen Franz* (1839-1923) (who is an actress and takes over all the choice of plays. the Third Republic* is formed. Friedrich von Bodenstedt* (1819-92). who also makes translations from Russian and English (especially Shakespeare). to find out what happened to Livingstone* (remember back in 1841.

haven't gotten it on stage until now. His plays, particularly this one are an important contribution to realism and the psychological development of characters in Russian theatre. In Germany they finish building Wagner*'s Festival Theatre at Bayreuth*. Since Wagner* is big on having a strong director and a unified production he wants the theatre to make all this possible. His "master art work" (Gesamtkunstwerk*) will be done here and inspire much in the way of architecture and production all over the world. In order to have a "classless: theatre, Wagner* does away with the business of boxex, pit and gallery. There is just one large seating arrangement with a sunken orchestra pit that goes back under the stage.. Golden Years of the Operetta* 1870s Although the operetta* has been around in its present form since about 1848, it reaches memorable heights during these twenty years. After a brief lull, there will be two more, memorable, ten year periods later (1900s and the 1920s). 1873 - The Viennese composer, Johann Strauss* (1825-99), who has been busy writing waltzes and operettas, comes out with Die Fledermaus*. In 1885 he will do The Gypsy Baron*. 1873 - Ibsen* (The Norwegian) hasn't been writing for a while, but this year he produces a ten-act, complex play, Emperor and Galilean*. In France the first major statement of naturalism* occurrs in Emile Zola's (1840-1902) preface to his novel, Therese Raquin*. He'll say more about it later. The major plays in this genre are yet to come. 1874 In Great Britain, Benjamin Disraeli* (1804-81) becomes Prime Minister. He will lead in many domestic reforms and a really aggressive foreign policy. He will be a favorite of Queen Victoria*. 1874 - In France Realism in scenery, in terms of archeological accuracy, reaches its ultimate pinnacle in the production of Sardou*'s spectacle, Hatred* (it's set in medieval Italy and uses tons of costumes, armor and scenery). This is the year the troupe of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen* begins to tour (they will continue into 1890). The Meiningen Players* will be one of the various forces that will change the theatre completely in the coming years. GILBERT* AND SULLIVAN* 1875 - In England the brilliant pair, Gilbert* and Sullivan* (Sir William Schwenck Gilbert* 1836-1911, playwright and poet and Sir Arthur Sullivan* 1842-1900, composer) come out with their hit, Trial by Jury*. It's produced by Richard D'Oyly Carte* (1844-1901), who will later build a theatre (the Savoy* ) to house their plays. They will go on to write (among other things) H.M.S Pinafore* (1878), The Pirates of Penzance* (1879), The Mikado* (1885), Ruddigore * (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard* (1888), and The Gondoliers* (1889). Sullivan's music is delightful and Gilbert*'s lyrics are hysterically funny. The satire of English

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life and pretensions is so exquisitely biting that the playwright is snubbed when the composer is knighted. These works will continue to delight audiences constantly through the present day. The immensely popular grand opera, Carmen*, by Georges Bizet* (1838-75), is launched this year, too. The romantic ballet begins a renaissance in Russia where many of the great standard ballets will be created. 1875 This is the time (1875-77) the Russian, Tolstoy*, writes his second masterpiece, Anna Karenina*. Later we will get to his plays. This year Great Britain buys the Suez Canal*. It is a smart move. 1876 The United States welcomes Colorado as the 38th state. That communication business is taking off and this year Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) gets a patent for a telephone*. That German engineer, Otto*, develops the four-stroke Otto cycle for the internal-combustion engine. This little jewel will show up in the automobile, airplane and other motors. A German bacteriologist, Robert Koch* (1843-1910), discovers the bacterial cause of a lot of infectious diseases (this discovery will continue into the next century). Between improving ways of keeping food healthy and preventing disease, the death rate begins to drop and the beginning of overpopulation is underway. Mark Twain* publishes The Adventures of Tom Sawyer*. 1877 - The English novelist and poet, George Meredith* (1828-1909) this year lectures on On the Idea of Comedy* and Uses of the Comic Spirit* (these won't be published until 1897). 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes* comes in as the 19th president of the United States. It is a pretty dubious election but, at least, he will finally bring an end to the Reconstruction. Another American inventor is busy coming up with useful devices. This year Thomas Alva Edison* (1847-1931) comes out with the carbon michrophone which they use in telephones and later in sound recording, radio, etc. The French novelist, Emile Zola* (1840-1902), is busy writing a whole bunch of novels. This year he comes out with one of his best known, The Dram Shop*. He will be the leader of the naturalism* movement and a vocal supporter of the victim of the Dreyfus* affair (see 1898). ********************** Afterword Realism* in literature and the theatre is now fully up and running and Ibsen* is about to join it. Everybody is doing it and the next step will be to do it really well. Society is busily rushing into what we call the modern world, in all directions. Political, social, economic, philosophical and artistic movements are charging off in all directions and at great speed, gathering momentum and size as they go like a bewildering series of snowballs hurtling down hill at alarming rates. We will try to follow them into the eighties.

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN Realism Triumphant
1877 - 1905 Introduction Since events are moving so rapidly, we need to take a little time here to catch up on the state of world affairs around 1877. Europe is dominating Asia, the French in Indochina, the Russians in the north and the English across the south. Railroads are springing up everywhere, steamships are speeding up travel across the oceans, the telegraph is a reality and transatlantic cable provides communication between Europe and America. Next year the first commercial telephone exchange will go into operation in the U.S. The Ottoman Empire* is shrinking visibly and the European powers are fighting over each piece. Political State of Affairs British Empire - In 1877 Queen Victoria* is proclaimed Empress of India which puts Great Britain in the position of being the most powerful player on the world stage. This is helped along by the fact that Great Britain acquired the Suez Canal* (built by the French 1859-69) in 1875 when Disraeli* (who is now Prime Minister for Queen Victoria* again) gets Great Britain to buy controlling interest in the Canal This is a smart move because it makes it possible for British shipping to take the short route back and forth to India and parts East instead of going all the way around Africa. And, speaking of Africa - This year Great Britain annexes the Transvaal*. [This is that area in north-east South Africa that was put together by the Boers* (a bunch of Dutch and French farmers who had moved north from the coastal area to the veld, a high, mountainous area). In 1848 Paul Kruger* (1825-1904) and Jacobus Pretorius* (1799-1853, the Boer leader who defeated the Zulus and founded the Boer Republic of Natal) created the nucleus of Transvaal*. Pretorius'* son, Martinus*, was the first president of it. Martinus Pretorius* and Paul Kruger* become leaders of the Boers opposed to British rule. There will be a lot of fighting down here in Africa, especially when, in the near future, they find gold and diamonds here.]

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Australia has been attracting settlers ever since that big gold strike (1851). It will have another gold strike in 1892. New Zealand is moving quietly along (being a self-governing colony since 1852). It is a significant leader in social legislation in this period (see below). Ireland, which has been a sticky part of the British Empire for a very long time, is soon going to be a real pain for the government. The Irish will be part of that nationalism movement, which will give rise to some pretty great theatre (see below). India, now a crown colony and ruled from Great Britain (since the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 was put down) is supplying cotton like crazy for British mills. The English are also into Burma and places like that. Europe - In 1877 Russia jumps into a war (which had started in 1875) which began as an antiTurkish uprising by Bosnia and Hercegovina (joined later by Montenegro and Serbia). The Treaty of San Stefano ends this war with so much benefit to Russia (and a large, autonomous Bulgaria is created) that all the other "great powers" get worried. In reaction (1878) they have an international meeting called the Congress of Berlin*. This event is intended to figure out how to stop Russia from eating up all the pieces of the decaying Ottoman Empire* as they break away. All the European powers, as well as Russia and Turkey are there. The whole thing is run by Bismark*(remember the Prussian, now German, chancellor?), as chairman. The result is a definite change in the political situation, including breaking up Bulgaria into three pieces. Everybody gets something, but not necessarily what they wanted. Montenegro, Serbia and Romania are recognized as independent. Russia gets Bessarabia. The British get to occupy Cyprus. Austria-Hungary gets Bosnia and Hercegovina. Russia gets mad at the way Bismark* runs the conference and goes home. This whole Balkan area will continue to be a tinder-box. Africa - All the Europeans with any pretensions to being a power are staking out parts of this continent as "protectorates", "colonies", or some such fancy names. Asia - or, perhaps more clearly, the Far East, is becoming an area of interest and concern for the Europeans. China is not very strong at this time, but Japan is. All the European powers want to carve up and pin down pieces of this marvelous area. It is vitally important for the European "powers" that they should have a nice, big, "sphere of influence" there. France - Is doing quite nicely, thank you, with its Third Republic and all the French Empire in Africa, Indonesia and a few spots in the Americas and the South Pacific. One of the things France will be doing is introducing the culture and arts of the East through a series of International Exhibitions. This will really shake up the arts. United States - is very busy expanding internally and minding its own business. We start this period as a non-player on the world stage with 35 states in the Union and a big silver boom in Leadville* (Colorado) that helps move immigrants west. The country is still not doing well by the native American population. The Nez Perc‚ Indians (living up there in Oregon, Washington and Idaho) were cheated out of land during the 1863 gold rush and this year they have an uprising, led by Chief Joseph. The Reconstruction officially ends this year, leaving a one-party "solid south" and a lasting racial bitterness. We will end this period as a new power on the international scene with 45 states. Social State of Affairs

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Socialism* is gaining wide spread interest and splitting up into a lot of political and economic subdivisions according to where and when someone is talking about it. Communism* is still a part of socialism, but Marxism* (all that stuff published by Marx* and Engels* and still coming off the presses) is, apparently, a distinct view which is now influencing Socialism. There is currently quite a struggle going on among socialists, especially after the First International Workingmen's Association dissolved (1876) over a philosophical split between Marx* and Mikhail Bakunin* (1814-76, the Russian revolutionary and chief exponent of anarchism*). Some of these people will be getting quite violent soon. In England - Almost everybody who is exiled from some other country seems to come to London and set up shop. At the moment Marx* and Engels* are the biggest names, but anyone interested in Socialism* or Marxism* (or any variant of these) comes here too. The local English are working on trade unions and will soon work up something more. In France - and in the other Latin countries of Europe, an economic and political variant of Socialism*, called Syndicalism* is shaping up. This bunch advocates the control of the means of production by organized bodies of workers. They also believe that any form of state is an instrument of oppression, that the trade union should be the basis of society and that direct action (like a strike or industrial sabotage) is the way to go. These guys are pretty close to anarchism* (abolish the government) which is also attracting a pretty big following in these parts. In Eastern Europe - In Russia, Alexander II* (1818-81) has been busy adding central Asia and those pieces now being acquired in the Russo-Turkish Wars* (1877-78) to the Russian Empire. He has made some domestic reforms but they are not enough for the intelligentsia (leading thinkers) who are busy forming all kinds of populist groups. He represses them and we will be getting a good deal of terrorism here. In America - Industrial giants are growing in number and in control of steel, railroads, coal, iron-ore and oil. Millions of immigrants are streaming into the land of opportunity, looking for a better life. Labor is struggling for some power to balance the enormous power of management. Social reform is spreading through private organizations and people like Dorothea Dix* (1802-87) who pioneers special treatment for the insane (in Canada, Europe and the U.S.) and prison reform (also pioneered by Elizabeth Fry* earlier, in the 1820s). There are extremes in radical Socialism* and anarchism* popping up here and there. Education is becoming a very popular thing. In the early part of this century there had been the lyceum*, an American association for popular instruction of adults by lectures, concerts and whatever else worked. The subjects covered included the arts, sciences, history and public affairs. After the Civil War the Chautauqua* movement takes its place. This new version gives eight-week summer programs (kind of half way between a county fair and a revival meeting). This makes a dandy platform for any number of theatre people. These are held all over the country and thousands attend each year. New Ideas We are now into the time when all those scientific discoveries are colliding with the Christian view of how and when the world was made. This creates a great deal of controversy and sends thinkers spinning off in all directions. Some of these people who are thinking and writing will have a monumental impact on society and on theatre.

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One of the philosophers who is currently working is a German named Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche* (1844-1900). He's a sort of individualistic moralist (rather than a systematic philosopher) who has been strongly influenced by Schopenhauer* (with his doctrine of the primacy of the will). He also is a friend of Wagner* (that German composer). He is first an admirer of these two and then rejects their ideas. Basically, Nietzsche* passionately rejects what he calls the "slave morality" of Christianity in favor of a new, heroic morality that will affirm life. He talks about the leaders of this new society as a breed of supermen. These leaders are different from common, garden variety mortals (inferior types) because they have the "will to power". These ideas will cause