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BaoCaoThongTinVeTinh

BaoCaoThongTinVeTinh

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Satellite communication

05DT2 ‡ H Ng c Thanh Th y ‡ Tr n Lê Anh Th ‡ Nguy n V n Tín ‡D ng Th H ng Trang

Content
j Overview of Satellite Communication.

(H ng Trang) j Polarization. (V n Tín) j Attenuation. (Anh Th ) j Noise. (Thanh Th y)

Overview of Satellite communication

Satellite communication
j Earth station:

+Transmit and receive signals from a satellite +Send information in the form of high powered, high frequency (GHz range) signals to satellites
j Satellite:

+Receive and retransmit the signals back to earth. j Uplink : the transmission from the earth station to the satellite j Downlink : the transmission from the satellite to the earth station

The advantages jProvide high-capacity communications over long ranges jThe coverage area of a satellite greatly exceeds that of a terrestrial system jAbility to multiple access jGood quality. reliability .

easy to locate and destroy .25s j Security Ground station are generally large.The disadvantages j Cost + Satellite systems are expensive + Launching satellites into orbit is costly j Delay ex : A geostationary satellite 36000km above the surface has an uplink/downlink delay of 0.

Applications j Telephony j Satellite television j Fixed Service Satellite j Direct broadcast satellite j Mobile satellite technologies j Satellite radio j Satellite Internet j Military uses j Navigation .

Some new applications j Monitoring Greenhouse gas with Ibiki satellite j GPS satellites (Global Positioning System): -Control traffic system GPS combine with GIS (Geographic Information System) -Study terrain and create maps -Protect nature .

2009 Weight: Approx 1.2009: sent data successfully . Launch Date : 12:54. a Greenhouse gas.750kg Ibuki : breath(Japanese) Location :Tanegashima Space Center j February 9th.IBUKI satellite j Monitoring the j j j j distribution of the density of carbon dioxide. January 23th.

.Kepler's laws of planetary motion j The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus.

Kepler's laws of planetary motion j A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time .

a3 Q! 2 n Kepler's laws of planetary motion j The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. With: is the gravitational constant (h ng s h p d n c a t) a is semi-major axis (m) n is the orbital period of a planet (rad/s) Orbital period : qu .

the Earth is a sun. +The first law shows that satellite orbit is an elip or circle (especial case of elip) +The second law shows that we can see satellite in the longest time at the position ± satellite is farthest from the Earth.Kepler's laws of planetary motion These laws are bases to describe the orbit of satellite around the Earth. +Base on the third law. Satellite is a planet. we can determine semi-major axis of satellite orbit if we have the orbital period of a satellite. .

Satellite orbit j Polar orbit j Geosynchronous orbit j Highly elliptical orbit Molniya orbit .

j This allows the satellite to see virtually every part of the Earth as the Earth rotates underneath it.Polar orbit j These orbits have an inclination near 90 degree. . j It takes approximately 90 minute for the satellite to complete one orbits.

there is a constant force of gravity from all directions ± Circling the Earth at the same rate as the Earth spins (23 hours. or cyclones and also used for communication satellites ± The disadvantage : + have poor resolution + have trouble monitoring activities near the poles . 56 minutes.Geosynchronous orbit ± Located near the equator since at this latitude.09 seconds) ± Used to study large scale phenomenon such as hurricanes. and 4.

790 km above the Earth WHY? .Geosynchronous orbit j put the satellite at approximately 35.

j The gravitational constant: j The orbital period of a planet: n (rad/s) j Semi-major axis: a(m) j Distance from the Earth to satellite: H= a-R = 42164± 6378 = 35786 (km) .09 seconds = 86164 s.n! 24 P Geosynchronous orbit j Orbital period: P= 23 hours 56 minutes 4.

4 degrees j Orbital period of about 12 hours j Is named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya (Russian :´Lighting´) communication satellites since the mid 1960s j Useful in near polar regions .Molniya orbit j Is a type of highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.

Satellite orbits j MEO j LEO .

Multiple access methods j FDMA (Frequency Division Multiplex Access) j TDMA (Time Division Multiplex Access) j CDMA (Code Division Multiplex Access) .

and is divided in to smaller channels j Disadvantage: +The number of sub-channels is limited +Requires high-performing filters j Performed in two ways: + FAMA (Fixed-assignment multiple access) used for broadcast + DAMA (Demandassignment multiple access) used for point to point communication .Frequency Division Multiplex Access j Satellite frequency is already divided into bands.

each one dedicated to a different transmitter j Require : synchronous .Time Division Multiplex Access j Divide a transmission into multiple time slots.

Code Division Multiplex Access j Allow several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel j Each transmitter is assigned a code j CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling. since the modulated coded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated. .

Polarization .

Linear polarized wave j There are two kind of linear polarized wave: j vertical polarization: the electric field was perpendicular to the earth¶s surface. . j Horizontal polarization: the electric field was parallel to the earth¶s surface.

j A vertically and horizontally polarized electric field can be described as: E y ! â y E y1 sin [t E x ! â x E x1 sin [t E ! arctan Ey Ex .

The equations are: E y ! â y E sin [t E x ! âx E cos [t E ! sin [t .Circular polarization j when two fields of ware are equal in magnitude (E). but one leads the other by 90° in phase.

j There are two kind of Circular polarization: j right-hand circular (RHC) polarization as a rotation in the clockwise direction. . j Left-hand circular (LHC) polarization as the rotation is in the counterclockwise direction.

Elliptical polarization j This occurs when the two linear components are: Ey ! y E y si [t E x ! âx E x si ( [t  H ) E y1 ! 1 E x ! / 3 H 30r .

Antenna Polarization j The polarization of a receiving antenna will decided that it receives maximum power transfer or not: .

j When the range of frequency are higher 10Ghz. the ware is attenuated by rain. . the ware is absorb by Ionospheric.Frequency windows j When the range of frequency are lower than 1Ghz.

100 50 10 Attenuation by inospheric Attenuation by rain 5 1 0. when the range of frequency are between 1->10Ghz. the effectiveness of Ionospheric and rain can be inogned.5 1 5 10 100 Frequency(Ghz) .j So.1 0.

Frequency using in satellite communication j In satellite communication. the frequency is SHF (super high frequency) from 3 to 30Ghz. We have a table below: .

Frequency using in satellite communication j Band C(4/6Ghz) lie in frequency windows. . national satellite and between companies. using in intelsat system. using in public communication. area satellite system and national satellite j Band Ku(12/14. so it has low attenuation by rain.11/14).

Attenuation of Satellite Communications .

Antenna Doppler misalignment effect.Attenuation Strength of signal falls off with the distance over transmission medium. . Atmospheric Free Rain and space attenuation. ionospheric losses. path loss. Feeder losses. losses.

45  20 log 10 c ( MHz )  20 log 10 d (km) . Pr fc d Pt Free space loss ! Pr Pt FSL (dB) 32 .Free space loss j The loss resulting from the spreading of the signal in space.

Example Vinasat -1 in Ku band.000Km Uplink f§ 14. MHz FSL= 207 dB FSL= 204 dB .Free space loss .000MHz Downlink f . d § 36.

Atmospheric losses Gas molecules interact with the Electromagnetic field. The most significant gases up to 300GHz are Water vapor and Oxygen. . This may cause energy loss. the concentration of that Gas in the atmosphere and the length of the path. The amount of loss depends on the resonant frequency.

Effect of Water Vapor and Oxygen .

5g/m3) Where is the water vapor concentration in g/m3 and f is the frequency in GHz. for 57-63 GHz.Atmospheric loss ± Formula (At sea level with 1013 mB.9 dB/km is used . 15C. an averaged value of 14. Water vapor concentration 7. For Oxygen.

mainly by solar radiation.Ionospheric effects ™ Ionosphere is a upper region of the earth¶s atmosphere. j With f > 600MHz Ignore . which has been ionized.

Rain attenuation .

) L ± effective path length.specific attenuation. b E ! aR p (dB/km) (Rp: rain rate that would be exceeded for p percent of a year a. b: depend on frequency and polarization.Rain attenuation j Total attenuation: A = EL (dB) With: E . .

Rain attenuation j Calculate L: L ! LS .rp hR  h0 LS sin El rp : reduction factor Actual length Antenna angle of elevation Rain height LG ! LS cos El .

often approximate 3dB. .Feeder and Antenna misalignment losses j Feeder and Antenna misalignment losses are rather small.

. named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842. is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave.Doppler effect The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift).

T p âm trong h th ng thông tin T p âm h th ng T p âm do các tuy n thông tin .

Nhi t t p âm h th ng TS  TA  TF Tsys !  TR LF j j j j j j Tsys Nhi t t p âm h th ng TS TA T TR L Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài Nhi t t p âm anten Nhi t t p âm h th ng feeder Nhi t t p âm hi u d ng u vào máy thu Suy hao c a h th ng feeder .

Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài j Nhi t t p âm v tr j Nhi t t p âm c a dãy ngân hà j Nhi t t p âm c a m t tr i j Nhi t t p âm do khí quy n j Nhi t t p âm do m a .

Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài
Nhi t t p âm v tr
j Tác

ng t n s vô tuy n j Do b c x t v tr còn d l i j Kho ng 2,76 0 K

Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài
Nhi t t p âm j Th ng r t nh c a dãy ngân j N u h ng anten vào vùng có s hà sao c c i trong vùng t n s 0,3GHz n 2GHz thì nhi t t p âm có th lên g n 100 0 K

Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài
Nhi t t p âm j Ph thu c h ng anten c am t j D i 500 K n u m t tr i n m ngoài tr i búp chính anten j Có th lên 100000 K n u m t tr i chi u th ng vào anten j Ph thu c t n s công tác, kích th c m t ph n x và s v t en c a m t tr i

Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài
Nhi t t p âm j Ph thu c t n s và góc ng ng do khí j Góc ng ng b ng 0 thì nhi t nhi u quy n có th sánh v i nhi t bao quanh trái t j Bi u gi ng nh ng h p th

.

57) j Tm : nhi t trung bình c a c n 1 TM Tm (1  ) m a L M Tm ! 1.12Txq  50( 0 K ) .Nhi t t p âm bên ngoài Nhi t t p âm do j TM : nhi t t p âm do m a m a j LM: suy hao do m a (=16.

Nhi t t p âm anten j Nhi t t p âm vô tuy n j Nhi t v t lý c a các thành ph n gây suy gi m .

Nhi t t p âm anten j Ta :Nhi t t p âm anten t ng Ta Tr L  T  L L c ng j Tr :Nhi t t p âm vô tuy n j L : suy gi m ohmic t ng c ng j T0 :Nhi t v t lý c a các thành ph n gây suy gi m .

dU .Nhi t t p âm anten Nhi t t pj Ph thu c góc ng ng. J ) : 1 4T 2T T ´ ´ D(U . J ) :nhi t chi u sáng c a môi tr ng .dJ nh h TB (U . t n s âm vô công tác tuy n j Bi u th c toán h c: Tr D(U . J ) sin U . i u ki n th i ti t. J )T ng B (U .

Nhi t t p âm anten Nhi t t p j âm vô tuy n Công th c tính g n úng nhi t t p âm do m i búp ph gây ra Ti Gi Gi v TD t do m t tr i t o ra 0 :h s t ng ích c a búp ph chi u sáng c a m t 0 TD :nhi t =150 K khi góc ng ng t 0 n 100 =10 0 khi góc ng ng t 100 n 90 0 K .

Nhi t t p âm anten th c tr ng c a nhi t t p âm anten ph thu c vào góc ng ng Nhi t t p âm vô tuy n .

các b ph n c n tr trong anten nh âm vô các thanh .Nhi t t p âm anten Ngoài ra nhi t t p âm anten còn do các ch ng ng i g n nh tòa nhà. b ti p sóng và b suy hao tuy n búp ph gây ra . các mái Nhi t t p che.

Nhi t t p âm h th ng feeder TF TF T0 LF T ( LF  1)( K ) :nhi t t p âm h th ng feeder :nhi t môi tr ng(K) :suy hao c a h th ng feeder .

khi ó có th xem nhi t t p âm feeder là nhi t môi tr ng 290K .Nhi t t p âm h th ng feeder j H th ng feeder có suy hao càng l n thì nhi t t p âm c a nó càng cao j C n thi t k h th ng feeder có suy hao nh nh t.

.Nhi t t p âm máy thu j B ng t ng nhi t t p âm gây ra trong m i ph n máy thu j Công th c: T T TK TR ! T     G GG G G GK  TR T1 ... T2 .. G2 ... TK G1 ... G K :nhi t t p âm máy thu :nhi t t p âm u vào m i t ng K :h s khu ch â t ng t ng .

6dBW / Hz.38 .K .0 K 228 .10 23 W / Hz.Công su t t p âm h th ng j Công su t t p âm h th ng gây ra trong r ng b ng t n B(Hz): N ! kTsys B Tsys k :Nhi t t p âm h th ng :H ng s Boltzman 1.

Công su t t p âm h th ng j Công su t t p âm h th ng gây ra trong r ng b ng t n 1Hz. g i là m t ph t p âm: N ! kTsys ! N B W Hz .

Can nhi u t các tuy n j Can nhi u khác tuy n j Nhi u cùng tuy n j T p âm méo xuyên i u ch .

Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác j Can nhi u t n tr m m t t ng vi ba m t t .

Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác n tr m m t t: + x y ra do các v tinh t g n nhau + nh h ng n t s công su t sóng mang trên sóng can nhi u C/I tr m m t t + xét can nhi u t v tinh 2 tác ng lên tr m m t t 1 nh hình v .

.

Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác n tr m m t t: Công su t sóng mang C thu c tr m 1( tính b ng dBW): [C ] [ EIRP ]1   [G1 ]  [ FSL] [C ] [EIRP ]1 [G1 ] :công su t sóng mang :công su t phát : ng h ng t ng ng c a v tinh 1 l i c a anten thu 1 do [dB] [FSL ] :m t mát không gian t .

Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác n tr m m t t: Công su t sóng can nhi u tr m 1( tính b ng dBW): [ I ] [ EIRP ]   [G1 (U )]  [ FSL]  [Y ] [I ] [EIRP ] 2 :công su t sóng can nhi u :công su t phát : ng h ng t ng ng ng c a v tinh 2 [G1 (U )] [FSL ] [Y ] l i c a anten thu 1 theo h do [dB] :m t mát không gian t :kh n ng phân bi t phân c c .

Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác n tr m m t tr m 1: t: T s công su t sóng mang trên sóng can nhi u C I C I EIRP 1 EIRP  G1 G1  Y .

t s công su t c a sóng mang trên sóng can nhi u C/I gi a các v tinh có th l n h n ho c b ng 30dB khi 2 v tinh t cách nhau kho ng 3 ngay trên qu o. ngay c n u các anten c a chúng cùng chi u vào 1 v trí .Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t v tinh thông tin khác n tr m m t t: Trong th c t .

b i v y u vào máy thu tr m m t t c ng b tr n v i tín hi u c a ng thông tin viba m t t .Can nhi u khác tuy n j Can nhi u t ng vi ba m t t: ng thông tin vi ba m t t có t n s b ng t n s ng xu ng c a h th ng thông tin v tinh.

Nhi u th ng không ánh giá c b ng tính toán. b ng cách s d ng anten có các c c tính búp ph t t. ph i t tr m m t t sao cho nhi u x y ra ít nh t. ví d nh trong thành ph có nhi u v t c n ph n x quanh n i t tr m m t t.Can nhi u khác tuy n Trong thi t k th c t . Vì th ph i dung ph ng pháp o th c t o nhi u . N u không th lo i b nhi u thì trong thi t k tuy n ph i bao hàm c l ng nhi u cho phép.

có cùng phân c c v i b chi ph i b i các c tuy n v tinh ang xét tính anten +dùng b l c có c tính +ch n anten có XDP(kh c t nh n kh nhi u n ng phân c c chéo) l n này j T p ân nhi u kh phân j T p âm nhi u kênh lân .Nhi u cùng tuy n c c: c n: +th ng trong h th ng +gây ra b i kênh lân c n thông tin phân c c kép.

hi n t ng này g i là bão hòa. c tuy n c a TWT không tuy n tính: khi m c vào v t quá m t giá tr nào ó thì m c ra c a TWT không t ng c n a m c dù m c vào v n t ng áng k . TWT ph i làm vi c m c th p h n i m bão hòa i ng th i nhi u sóng . méo xuyên i u ch nh h n giá tr cho phép. i u này gây ra méo xuyên i u ch .T p âm méo xuyên i u ch j Sinh ra khi b phát áp c a nó khu ch j j j j mang. Nguyên nhân: do các c tuy n phi tuy n vào ra c a b phát áp Th ng s d ng èn sóng ch y TWT( b ph n chính c a b phát áp) Trong th c t .

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