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II GLA / SSP B
Ecological backlash and its management
Ecological backlash involves the counter-responses of pest populations or other biotic factors in the environment that diminish the effectiveness of pest management tactics. Many of these counter responses result from heavy mortality burdens imposed by the pest management tactics. Other responses arise from disruption of ecological processes or changes in resource levels of the biotic community. Ecological backlash mainly manifests in the form of resistance, resurgence, and replacement- the three "R" s of pest management awareness. In this lecture the following aspects of ecological backlash will be discussed: Resistance of populations to management tactics - principles of resistance - resistance to conventional insecticides, mechanisms of resistance, cross-resistance. - resistance to other management tactics - management of resistance Pest population resurgence and replacement - causes for resurgence and replacements - managing resurgence and replacement Other forms of ecological backlash
Resistance of populations to pest management tactics
Resistance is defined as the ability of certain individuals to tolerate or avoid a dose that would prove lethal or reproductively degrading to majority of individuals in a normal population. Roman Sawicki (1987) proposed an improved definition: "Resistance is a genetic change in response to selection by toxicants that may impair control in the field".
and 3) behavioral resistance. In 1946. Selection for pesticide resistant genotypes is a similar process. house flies were discovered resistant to DDT in Sweden. Mechanisms of resistance to insecticides Insects have evolved three major mechanisms to overcome toxicants. This total includes 375 cases or 75% among agricultural insects and 125 or 25% among pests of medical importance to humans or animals. time required for the development of resistance depends on . Magnitude of the insecticide resistance problem: The first widely recognized case of pesticide resistance among agricultural arthropod pests was reported in the early 1900s. At least 17 species have developed resistance to all major groups of insecticides. 2) physiological resistance. more than 500 species of arthropod pests are known to have evolved resistance to one or more major groups of insecticides. and synthetic pyrethroids.mortality burden imposed on the population by the management tactic . The prevalence of this phenomenon reflects the widespread effectiveness of these compounds in causing pest mortality. Natural selection or darwinian selection. is a selection of the fittest genotype for a given set of environmental conditions. Quadraspidiotus perniciosus.e. in Washington State. Resistance in 31 species of predators and parasitoid species has also been documented. Monogenic and polygenic resistance Resistance to conventional insecticides Resistance to insecticides is the most preeminent form of resistance in insects. organo phosphates (OPs). when lime sulfur failed to control the San Jose scale. The rate of resistance development i. including organochlorines. 1) biochemical resistance. carbamates. .Principles of resistance Resistance in a population can be explained by the same principles that explain evolution by natural selection. Since then.genetic factors.
Acetylcholinesterase that is less sensitive to inhibition by OP and carbamate insecticides has been documented in resistant strains of several insect. and carbamates in 1970s . . e. OPs. Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Mixed-function oxidases or other enzymes are involved.g. Cross-resistance necessitates changing from one insecticide to another to obtain pest suppression. has developed resistance to . tick and mite species. e. In this form of resistance. 2.altered acetylcholinesterase. In mosquito. Anopheles mosquito s resistant to OP and carbamates have been shown to have an altered acetylcholinesterase. is most effective. E. an insecticide is detoxified by one or more enzymes before it can reach its site of action. imidacloprid. DDT storage in body fat. knockdown resistance (kdr) in house flies to DDT and pyrethroids.decreased penetration of the insecticide through the body wall through modification of the structure or composition of the cuticle. This may involve . Behavioral resistance: involves changes in behavior by which insects avoid insecticides.g. An exophillic strain not inhabiting indoors became dominant because its behavior allowed it to avoid exposure to the insecticide.arsenicals in the 1940s . Cross-resistance: ability of an insect with resistance to one insecticide to resist other insecticides.. Colorado potato beetle. the chemical is not broken down into a less toxic form.reduced neuronal sensitivity to insecticides e. an endophillic strain (indoor dwelling) was susceptible to DDT sprays applied to the indoor walls.1.chlorinated hydrocarbons.synthetic pyrethroids in 1980s .g.g. rather the insect accommodates the chemical by altering one or more physiological functions. additional waxy layers in resistant strains. . Ex. . 3. Physiological resistance: Physiological resistance is any form of resistance that reduces toxicity through changes in basic physiology. preventing it from reaching the site of action.increased excretion or sequestration of insecticide.. Anopheles gambiae.currently the chloronicotinyl insecticide. . Biochemical resistance: In this form of resistance.
there are reports of resistance development to parasites and to sterile-male release technique in screwworm fly. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis products has been reported in Indianmeal moth.. . Resistance appears to be due to reduced penetration and increased metabolism of the compounds.Cross-resistance to insecticides can be within a class of insecticides or between classes with similar modes of action. hessian fly. Cross-resistance in various insecticide-resistant strains has been a major factor in IGR resistance. In addition to resistance development to the above pest management tactics. receive this trait through inheritance of the codominant AChE-R gene. Plodia interpunctella. Virulence to resistant plants: We already talked about biotype formation in the last class. and diflubenzuron. House flies which are cross-resistant to OPs and carbamates through altered acetylcholinesterase. Resistance has been documented so far to methoprene. The occurrence of insect biotypes has been documented in several species of aphids. 4. Coleoptera. diamondback moth. Resistance to other pest management tactics 1. This resistance is conferred by the recessive kdr gene. Resistance to insect growth regulators (IGRs): IGRs disrupt development processes of insects and other arthropods. kinoprene. Plutella xylostella. Resistance to microbial insecticides: Resistance has been reported against bacterial and viral insecticides. House flies resistant to knockdown by DDT are also resistant to pyrethroids. a major pest of corn. E. at least 13 insect species representing Diptera. 3. Homoptera. Resistance to viral insecticides have been observed in several Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Currently. Diabrotica barberi.g. and Lepidoptera show cross-resistance to IGRs. Resistance to plant rotations: This form of resistance has been documented in northern corn rootworm. hydroprene. reported resistance in spruce budworm to viral insecticides. and brown planthopper. 2.
greater the rate of resistance development 2) Number of generations of the insect exposed. However.is insecticide applied against every generation? 3) High mortality burden. Conditions that promote resistance: The basic cause of resistance development is the high mortality (or reduced reproduction) rate placed on the insect population.high selection pressure 4) Coverage by the insecticide. the same principles of insecticide management used to slow resistant development apply generally to other types of resistance.greater probability of exposure Slowing the process of resistance development: Resistance development inevitable if mortality burdens are high.longer the exposure time to a single insecticide or to a single slow-release insecticide. resulting in an inadvertent selection for individuals capable of overcoming the burden. we will mainly consider resistance management to insecticides because of its widespread occurrence.are any parts of the crop not covered by the sprays 5) Geographical area covered. Some of the factors that influence the rate of resistance development are as follows: Operational factors: 1) Exposure time to a single insecticide.Management of resistance In this section.are all populations in an area are treated? 6) The insecticide is closely related to the one used before 7) Low economic threshold is employed 8) Insecticide is inherently irritating and/or repellent Biological factors: 1) Extent of migration 2) Species is a monophagous insect 3) Short generation time 4) Numerous offspring per generation are produced 5) Highly mobile species. .
and is commonly added to insecticides to enhance suppression at low to moderate levels of resistance. piperonyl butoxide is an oxidase inhibitor. propoxur. 1. Mixture of temephos. Management by saturation: this is accomplished by the following tactics: 1. . except that only insecticides are employed here. Management by multiple attack: This approach is very similar to the integrated system discussed earlier.Rate of resistance development can be slowed by considering the operational factors that enhance it and modifying the management tactics accordingly. preserving some of the susceptible genotypes. Integration of several tactics Passive tactics Other methods suggested to disrupt or slow resistance development include: A. Use insecticide mixtures: mechanisms of resistance are different for each member chemical. Suppress detoxification mechanisms with the use of synergists: Synergists function by inhibiting specific detoxification enzymes. Management by moderation: Some of the elements involved in this approach are as follows: 1) Use of low doses of insecticides. For example. Render the resistance gene "functionally" recessive with extremely high doses of the insecticide 2. C. and that the mechanisms required to overcome resistance are not present in any one individual. 2) Less frequent insecticide applications 3) Use chemical with short residual activity 4) Avoid slow release formulations 5) Apply selection against adults after reproduction 6) Make local applications 7) Leave some generations or populations untreated 8) Treat only parts of the crop 9) Use higher economic thresholds B. and permethrin for the control of mosquito s.
Paradigm for resurgence: Populations of both natural enemies and the pest species are reduced simultaneously as a result of insecticide application. .2. 3. During secondary pest outbreaks. but has no effect on the secondary pest. and c) repellency of the insecticide. Apply insecticides in a rotation scheme: use of dissimilar insecticides in a rotation will result in reduced frequency of resistant individuals between the times the "resistant " chemical is used. pest population growth accelerates and growth exceeds previous levels. opposite walls of a house are treated with different chemicals to suppress horn flies. but is replaced by another pest previously with minor pest status. but because the natural enemies must wait for adequate food supplies. Apply insecticides in a mosaic pattern across an area: unrelated chemicals are applied in different parts of the pest population range. Insects not killed by one chemical in a sector will get killed when they move into another sector treated with a different chemical. E. b) death from secondary poisoning due to feeding on contaminated prey. Three major causes have been suggested to explain resurgence and replacement. As the residual effects of the insecticide wane. Unencumbered by natural enemies. 1) Reduction of natural enemies along with the pest 2) Direct favorable influences on physiology and behavior of pests 3) Removal of competitive species 1) Upsets from reduction of natural enemies: Mortality in natural enemies is caused by direct exposure to toxicants and also indirectly due to a) starvation as a result of host removal.g. occurs when a major pest is suppressed and is continued to be suppressed by a pest management tactic. their populations lag in regrowth. rebounds to numbers greater than before suppression occurred. Pest population resurgence and replacement Resurgence: is defined as a situation where a population. the tactic has an effect on the primary pest. Replacement: also referred as secondary pest outbreak. the pest population grows. after having been suppressed .
irrespective of changes in natural enemy populations. and minimize drift. Another approach is to use nonselective chemicals in a selective manner. Selectivity is the use of pesticides to kill plant-feeding arthropods while not affecting their entomophagous natural enemies. sublethal doses of pesticides have been shown to have favorable effects on arthropod physiology and/or behavior. and other non target species. Example: Michigan apple system . and its mite predator. at the same time natural enemies of the secondary pests are also destroyed.spider mite resurgence. Tephlodromus reticulatus system on strawberries in California. Avoiding natural enemy destruction: Most of the approaches are based on insecticide selectivity. Insecticide selectivity can be achieved in one of the following two ways. 3) Upsets from removal of competitors: If two or more species are competing in an area for the same requisite and one species is dominant. but causes little mortality of the secondary pest itself. This form of selectivity is referred to as physiological selectivity.An example of resurgence: Cyclamen mite. apply on target. Managing resurgence and replacement The fundamental objective of programs designed to reduce resurgence and replacement is to avoid hormoligosis and reduce destruction of natural enemies in the agroecosystem. This form of selectivity has been called ecological selectivity. oligo = small quantities) to describe this phenomenon. 2) Favorable effects of pesticides on arthropod physiology and behavior: In many instances. Luckey provided data to support that sublethal doses of several insecticides increased the growth rate of the cricket. Luckey in 1968 proposed the term "hormoligosis" (from the Greek hormo = excite. First approach is to use selective chemicals that have stronger suppressive effects on the pest population than on its natural enemies. Avoiding hormoligosis: Follow all specifications on the label. Paradigm for pest replacement: Insecticide application reduces the populations of the key pest. the secondary pest population multiplies and attains a key pest status. removal of the dominant species may result in replacement by the subordinate species. Acheta domesticus. Another approach is to restore natural enemy populations through inoculative releases. . Steneotarsonemus pallidus. Lacking the natural enemy check.
and certain miticides. . insect growth regulators. Some of the more important examples of physiological selectivity are found with nonconventional materials like. Ecological selectivity: Major approaches to ecological selectivity are as follows: 1) Use economic threshold levels 2) Treat with lowest rates possible 3) Avoid treating broad areas 4) Time treatments to avoid natural enemy destruction 5) Use the most selective formulation Inoculative releases of natural enemies: Another management approach that has been used to prevent pest upsets is to repopulate an area with inoculative releases of natural enemies after insecticide application. Screwworm fly-White-tailed deer-tick parasite. Insectary reared natural enemies are made after insecticide residues have subsided to enhance natural control. Ex. realizing that natural enemy population will also be destroyed. Upsets in community balance: Community upsets occur when we change status quo by applying pest suppression tactics. Release of insectary reared resistant natural enemiesOther forms of ecological backlash Enhanced microbial degradation: This phenomenon has been documented against carbofuron applied to control corn rootworm in corn fields. nonsteroidal ecdysone mimics like tebufenozide etc. pirimicarb. Pyrethroids also may offer a degree of selectivity with certain pest-natural enemy systems. This tactic involves application of insecticides when pest populations cannot be regulated by natural enemies.Physiological selectivity: Most conventional insecticides. with few exceptions such as trichlorfon. are nonselective. microbial insecticides like Bts.
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