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Lectures on the Geometry of Quantization|Views: 173|Likes: 5

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/59048595/Lectures-on-the-Geometry-of-Quantization

10/27/2013

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The aim of deformation quantization is to describe the family* ∗** * of quantum products on a

Poisson algebra** A** as an asymptotic series (in

introductory remarks above, the zeroth and ﬁrst order terms of this series are determined

by the Poisson algebra structure of** A**; the role of the higher-order terms is roughly speaking

to give a more precise* *-dependent path from classical to quantum mechanics.

Deﬁnition 8.3* Let A be a complex vector space equipped with a commutative associative
*

*algebra structure, and let ∗ be a family of associative multiplications onAgiven by a formal
*

*power series
*

*f ∗ g* =

*∞
*

j=0

*B*j(*f,g*)* *j

*where each B*j:*A×A→A** is a bilinear map. Then ∗ is called a ∗-*deformation

112

*1. B*0(*f,g*)* equals the product in A.
*

*2. B*j(*g,f*) = (** −**1)j

*B*(*f,g*)

*3. B*j(1*,f*) = 0* for j ≥*1

*4. B*j* is a diﬀerential operator in each argument.
*

*5.* (*f ∗ g*)

For condition (5) to make sense, we must extend the product* ∗** * in the obvious way from* A
*

to the space** A**[[

in general assumed to converge for* *= 0. Instead it should be viewed as an “asymptotic

expansion” for the product, and manipulations of this series will be purely formal.

In any case, conditions (1-5) imply that

*{**f,g }*def

= 1

2*iB*1(*f,g*)

deﬁnes a Poisson algebra structure on** A**. This observation suggests the question of whether

every Poisson structure on a function algebra* C∞*(*P*) can be realized as the ﬁrst order term

in a** ∗**-deformation of

Example 8.4 If* V* is a ﬁnite-dimensional real vector space and* π* :* V∗ × V∗ → R* is a

skew-symmetric bilinear form on* V∗*, then the Hessian of* π* at 0* ∈** V∗ ×V∗* is a linear map

*A* =* H**π* :* V∗ ×V∗ → V ×V*. We deﬁne the Poisson operator associated to

second-order diﬀerential operator on* C∞*(*V ×V*)

** D**π =

where (*y,z*) are linear coordinates on* V ×V* arising from a single set of linear coordinates on

*V*, and (*y∗,z∗*) are dual to (*y,z*). The Moyal-Weyl operator is then the pseudodiﬀerential

operator given by exponentiation:

** M**π,

Pointwise multiplication of functions in* f,g ∈C∞*(

) can be deﬁned as the pull-back

*f ·g* = ∆

where ∆ :* R*2n

*→** R*2n

*×**R*2n

is the diagonal embedding, and (*f* *g*)(*y,z*) =* f*(*y*)*g*(*z*) for

*f,g ∈ C∞*(

). Similarly, a straightforward computation shows that the Poisson operator

is related to the Poisson bracket induced by* π* via the equation

*{**f,g }*= ∆

The diagonal pull-back

*f ∗ g* = ∆

113

of the Moyal operator deﬁnes a** ∗**-deformation of the Poisson algebra

Moyal-Weyl product. In terms of the linear coordinates (*y,z*) on* V ×V*, the operator

in the expansion of the Moyal-Weyl product is

*B*j(*f,g*) = 1

*j*!

*i
*

2

r,s

*π*r,s

*∂
*

*∂y*r

*∂
*

*∂z*s

j

*f*(*y*)*g*(*z*)

y=z=x

*.
*

If* π* is nondegenerate, then an application of the principle of stationary phase shows that

an integral expression for* f ∗ g* is given by

(*f ∗ g*)(

* e*i* *Q(y*−*x,z*−*x)

*f*(*y*)*g*(*z*)*dydz,
*

where* Q* is the skew-symmetric bilinear form on* V* induced by* π*.

*
*

A Poisson manifold* P* is called regular if its Poisson tensor* π* has constant rank, in

which case a theorem of Lie [39] asserts that* P* is locally isomorphic to a vector space with a

constant Poisson structure. In view of Example 8.4, any regular Poisson manifold is* locally
*

deformation quantizable. To construct a** ∗**-product on all of

attempt to “patch together” the local deformations to arrive at a global** ∗**-product.

This technique has succeeded. A theorem of DeWilde and Lecomte [19] asserts that the

Poisson algebra of any ﬁnite-dimensional symplectic manifold admits a** ∗**-deformation. Using

similar techniques, M´elotte [44] extended their result to arbitrary regular Poisson manifolds.

A simpliﬁed proof of these results has recently been given by Fedosov [23] (see [68] for a

survey of deformation quantization, emphasizing Fedosov’s construction).

O Introduce Re in Geometrie - Turtoi, Ornea - 2000

Genki I - Integrated Elementary Japanese Course - Banno, Ohno, Sakane, Shinagawa 1999

Precizari Privind Admiterea La Doctorat Sept Em Brie 2010 a

A Guide to Writing Kanji and Kana Book2

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