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NO. 41.2
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Veritasveien 1, N1322 Høvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11
CALCULATION OF GEAR RATING FOR
MARINE TRANSMISSIONS
MAY 2003
© Det Norske Veritas 2003
Data processed and typeset by Det Norske Veritas
Printed in Norway
04/07/2003 3:13 PM  CN41.2.doc
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FOREWORD
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the environment at sea and ashore.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS is a fully owned subsidiary Society of the Foundation. It undertakes classification and certifica
tion of ships, mobile offshore units, fixed offshore structures, facilities and systems for shipping and other industries. The So
ciety also carries out research and development associated with these functions.
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Classification Notes
Classification Notes are publications that give practical information on classification of ships and other objects. Examples of
design solutions, calculation methods, specifications of test procedures, as well as acceptable repair methods for some compo
nents are given as interpretations of the more general rule requirements.
A list of Classification Notes is found in the latest edition of the Introduction booklets to the ”Rules for Classification of
Ships”, and the ”Rules for Classification of High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft”. In “Rules for Classification of
Fixed Offshore Installations”, only those Classification Notes that are relevant for this type of structure, have been listed.
The list of Classification Notes is also included in the current “Classification Services – Publications” issued by the Society,
which is available on request. All publications may be ordered from the Society’s Web site http://exchange.dnv.com.
Provisions
It is assumed that the execution of the provisions of this Classification Note is entrusted to appropriately qualified and
experienced people, for whose use it has been prepared.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
CONTENTS
1. Basic Principles and General Influence Factors ... 4
1.1 Scope and Basic Principles ........................................ 4
1.2 Symbols, Nomenclature and Units ............................ 4
1.3 Geometrical Definitions............................................. 5
1.4 Bevel Gear Conversion Formulae and Specific
Formulae.................................................................... 6
1.5 Nominal Tangential Load, F
t
, F
bt
, F
mt
and F
mbt
.......... 6
1.6 Application Factors, K
A
and K
AP
............................... 7
1.6.1 K
A
.............................................................................. 7
1.6.2 K
AP
............................................................................. 7
1.6.3 Frequent overloads..................................................... 8
1.7 Load Sharing Factor, K
γ
............................................ 8
1.7.1 General method.......................................................... 8
1.7.2 Simplified method ..................................................... 8
1.8 Dynamic Factor, K
v
................................................... 8
1.8.1 Single resonance method ........................................... 8
1.8.2 Multiresonance method .......................................... 10
1.9 Face Load Factors, K
Hβ
and K
Fβ
.............................. 10
1.9.1 Relations between K
Hβ
and K
Fβ
................................ 10
1.9.2 Measurement of face load factors............................ 10
1.9.3 Theoretical determination of K
Hβ
............................. 11
1.9.4 Determination of f
sh
................................................. 12
1.9.5 Determination of f
defl
................................................ 13
1.9.6 Determination of f
be
................................................. 13
1.9.7 Determination of f
ma
................................................ 13
1.9.8 Comments to various gear types.............................. 13
1.9.9 Determination of K
Hβ
for bevel gears ...................... 13
1.10 Transversal Load Distribution Factors, K
Hα
and K
Fα
14
1.11 Tooth Stiffness Constants, c´ and c
γ
........................ 14
1.12 Runningin Allowances ........................................... 15
2. Calculation of Surface Durability......................... 17
2.1 Scope and General Remarks .................................... 17
2.2 Basic Equations ....................................................... 17
2.2.1 Contact stress........................................................... 17
2.2.2 Permissible contact stress ........................................ 17
2.3 Zone Factors Z
H
, Z
B,D
and Z
M
.................................. 18
2.3.1 Zone factor Z
H
......................................................... 18
2.3.2 Zone factors Z
B,D
..................................................... 18
2.3.3 Zone factor Z
M
......................................................... 18
2.3.4 Inner contact point ................................................... 18
2.4 Elasticity Factor, Z
E
................................................. 18
2.5 Contact Ratio Factor, Z
ε
........................................... 18
2.6 Helix Angle Factor, Z
β
............................................. 18
2.7 Bevel Gear Factor, Z
K
.............................................. 18
2.8 Values of Endurance Limit, σ
Hlim
and Static
Strength,
5
H10
σ ,
3
H10
σ ............................................ 18
2.9 Life Factor, Z
N
......................................................... 19
2.10 Influence Factors on Lubrication Film, Z
L
, Z
V
and
Z
R
............................................................................. 19
2.11 Work Hardening Factor, Z
W
.................................... 20
2.12 Size Factor, Z
X
......................................................... 20
2.13 Subsurface Fatigue................................................... 20
3. Calculation of Tooth Strength .............................. 22
3.1 Scope and General Remarks .................................... 22
3.2 Tooth Root Stresses ................................................. 22
3.2.1 Local tooth root stress.............................................. 22
3.2.2 Permissible tooth root stress .................................... 22
3.3 Tooth Form Factors Y
F
, Y
Fa
.................................... 23
3.3.1 Determination of parameters................................... 23
3.3.2 Gearing with ε
αn
> 2 ................................................ 24
3.4 Stress Correction Factors Y
S
, Y
Sa
............................ 24
3.5 Contact Ratio Factor Y
ε
........................................... 25
3.6 Helix Angle Factor Y
β
............................................. 25
3.7 Values of Endurance Limit, σ
FE
.............................. 25
3.8 Mean stress influence Factor, Y
M
............................ 26
3.8.1 For idlers, planets and PTO with ice class .............. 26
3.8.2 For gears with periodical change of rotational
direction .................................................................. 26
3.8.3 For gears with shrinkage stresses and unidirectional
load.......................................................................... 26
3.8.4 For shrinkfitted idlers and planets.......................... 26
3.8.5 Additional requirements for peak loads .................. 27
3.9 Life Factor, Y
N
........................................................ 27
3.10 Relative Notch Sensitivity Factor, Y
δrelT
................. 28
3.11 Relative Surface Condition Factor, Y
RrelT
............... 28
3.12 Size Factor, Y
X
........................................................ 28
3.13 Case Depth Factor, Y
C
............................................ 28
3.14 Thin rim factor Y
B
................................................... 29
3.15 Stresses in Thin Rims.............................................. 29
3.15.1 General .................................................................... 29
3.15.2 Stress concentration factors at the 75º tangents....... 30
3.15.3 Nominal rim stresses ............................................... 30
3.15.4 Root fillet stresses ................................................... 30
3.16 Permissible Stresses in Thin Rims .......................... 31
3.16.1 General .................................................................... 31
3.16.2 For >3·10
6
cycles..................................................... 31
3.16.3 For ≤ 10
3
cycles ....................................................... 31
3.16.4 For 10
3
< cycles < 3·10
6
.......................................... 32
4. Calculation of Scuffing Load Capacity ............... 33
4.1 Introduction............................................................. 33
4.2 General Criteria....................................................... 33
4.3 Influence Factors..................................................... 34
4.3.1 Coefficient of friction.............................................. 34
4.3.2 Effective tip relief C
eff
............................................. 34
4.3.3 Tip relief and extension........................................... 34
4.3.4 Bulk temperature..................................................... 35
4.4 The Flash Temperature
fla
ϑ ................................... 35
4.4.1 Basic formula .......................................................... 35
4.4.2 Geometrical relations .............................................. 35
4.4.3 Load sharing factor X
Γ
............................................ 36
Appendix A. Fatigue Damage Accumulation................. 40
A.1 Stress Spectrum....................................................... 40
A.2 σ−Ncurve ............................................................... 40
A.3 Damage accumulation............................................. 40
Appendix B. Application Factors for Diesel Driven
Gears ...................................................................... 41
B.1 Definitions............................................................... 41
B.2 Determination of decisive load ............................... 41
B.3 Simplified procedure............................................... 41
Appendix C. Calculation of PinionRack....................... 42
C.1 Pinion tooth root stresses......................................... 42
C.2 Rack tooth root stresses........................................... 42
C.3 Surface hardened pinions ........................................ 42
4 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
1. Basic Principles and General Influence
Factors
1.1 Scope and Basic Principles
The gear rating procedures given in this Classification Note
are mainly based on the ISO6336 Part 15 (cylindrical
gears), and partly on ISO 10300 Part 13 (bevel gears) and
ISO Technical Reports on Scuffing and Fatigue Damage
Accumulation, but especially applied for marine purposes,
such as marine propulsion and important auxiliaries onboard
ships and mobile offshore units.
The calculation procedures cover gear rating as limited by
contact stresses (pitting, spalling or case crushing), tooth root
stresses (fatigue breakage or overload breakage), and scuff
ing resistance. Even though no calculation procedures for
other damages such as wear, grey staining (micropitting), etc.
are given, such damages may limit the gear rating.
The Classification Note applies to enclosed parallel shaft
gears, epicyclic gears and bevel gears (with intersecting
axis). However, open gear trains may be considered with
regard to tooth strength, i.e. part 1 and 3 may apply. Even
pinionrack tooth strength may be considered, but since such
gear trains often are designed with noninvolute pinions, the
calculation procedure of pinionracks is described in Appen
dix C.
Steel is the only material considered.
The methods applied throughout this document are only
valid for a transverse contact ratio 1 < ε
α
< 2. If ε
α
> 2, either
special considerations are to be made, or suggested simplifi
cation may be used.
All influence factors are defined regarding their physical
interpretation. Some of the influence factors are determined
by the gear geometry or have been established by conven
tions. These factors are to be calculated in accordance with
the equations provided. Other factors are approximations,
which are clearly stated in the text by terms as «may be cal
culated as». These approximations are substitutes for exact
evaluations where such are lacking or too extensive for prac
tical purposes, or factors based on experience. In principle,
any suitable method may replace these approximations.
Bevel gears are calculated on basis of virtual (equivalent)
cylindrical gears using the geometry of the midsection. The
virtual (helical) cylindrical gear is to be calculated by using
all the factors as a real cylindrical gear with some exceptions.
These exceptions are mentioned in connection with the ap
plicable factors. Wherever a factor or calculation procedure
has no reference to either cylindrical gears or bevel gears, it
is generally valid, i.e. combined for both cylindrical and
bevel.
In order to minimise the volume of this Classification Note
such combinations are widely used, and everywhere it is
necessary to distinguish, it is clearly pointed out by local
headings such as:
Cylindrical gears
Bevel gears
The permissible contact stresses, tooth root stresses and
scuffing load capacity depend on the safety factors as re
quired in the respective Rule sections.
Terms as endurance limit and static strength are used
throughout this Classification Note.
Endurance limit is to be understood as the fatigue strength in
the range of cycles beyond the lower knee of the σ–N curves,
regardless if it is constant or drops with higher number of
cycles.
Static strength is to be understood as the fatigue strength in
the range of cycles less than at the upper knee of the σ–N
curves.
For gears that are subjected to a limited number of cycles at
different load levels, a cumulative fatigue calculation applies.
Information on this is given in Appendix A.
When the term infinite life is used, it means number of cy
cles in the range 10
8
–10
10
.
1.2 Symbols, Nomenclature and Units
The symbols are generally from ISO 701, ISO/R31 and ISO
1328, with a few additional symbols. Only SI units are used.
The main symbols as influence factors (K, Z, Y and X with
indeces) etc. are presented in their respective headings.
Symbols which are not explained in their respective Secs. are
as follows:
a = centre distance (mm).
b = facewidth (mm).
d = reference diameter (mm).
d
a
= tip diameter (mm).
d
b
= base diameter (mm).
d
w
= working pitch diameter (mm).
h
a
= addendum (mm).
h
a0
= addendum of tool ref. to m
n
.
h
fp
= dedendum of basic rack ref. to m
n
(= h
a0
).
h
Fe
= bending moment arm (mm) for tooth root
stresses for application of load at the outer point
of single tooth pair contact.
h
Fa
= bending moment arm (mm) for tooth root
stresses for application of load at tooth tip.
HB = Brinell hardness.
HV = Vickers hardness.
HRC = Rockwell C hardness
m
n
= normal module.
n = rev. per minute.
N
L
= number of load cycles.
q
s
= notch parameter.
R
a
= average roughness value (um).
R
y
= peak to valley roughness (um).
R
z
= mean peak to valley roughness (um).
s
an
= tooth top land thickness (mm).
s
at
= transverse top land thickness (mm).
s
Fn
= tooth root chord (mm) in the critical section.
s
pr
= protuberance value of tool minus grinding stock,
equal residual undercut of basic rack, ref. to m
n
.
T = torque (Nm).
u = gear ratio (per stage).
v = linear speed (m/s) at reference diameter.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 5
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
x = addendum modification coefficient.
z = number of teeth.
z
n
= virtual number of spur teeth.
α
n
= normal pressure angle at ref. cylinder.
α
t
= transverse pressure angle at ref. cylinder.
α
a
= transverse pressure angle at tip cylinder.
α
wt
= transverse pressure angle at pitch cylinder.
β = helix angle at ref. cylinder.
β
b
= helix angle at base cylinder.
β
a
= helix angle at tip cylinder.
ε
α
= transverse contact ratio.
ε
β
= overlap ratio.
ε
γ
= total contact ratio.
ρ
a0
= tip radius of tool ref. to m
n
.
ρ
fp
= root radius of basic rack ref. to m
n
( = ρ
a0
).
ρ
C
= effective radius (mm) of curvature at pitch point.
ρ
F
= root fillet radius (mm) in the critical section.
σ
B
= ultimate tensile strength (N/mm
2
).
σ
y
= yield strength resp. 0.2% proof stress (N/mm
2
).
Index 1 refers to the pinion, 2 to the wheel.
Index n refers to normal section or virtual spur gear of a heli
cal gear.
Index w refers to pitch point
Special additional symbols for bevel gears are as follows:
Σ = angle between intersection axis.
K
ϑ = angle modification (Klingelnberg)
m
0
= tool module (Klingelnberg)
δ = pitch cone angle.
x
sm
= tooth thickness modification coefficient (mid
face).
R = pitch cone distance (mm).
Index v refers to the virtual (equivalent) helical cylindrical
gear.
Index m refers to the midsection of the bevel gear.
1.3 Geometrical Definitions
For internal gearing z
2
, a; d
a2
, d
w2
, d
2
and d
b2
are negative, x
2
is positive if d
a2
is increased, i.e. the numeric value is de
creased.
The pinion has the smaller number of teeth, i.e.
1
1
2
≥ =
z
z
u
For calculation of surface durability b is the common face
width on pitch diameter.
For tooth strength calculations b
1
or b
2
are facewidths at the
respective tooth roots. If b
1
or b
2
differ much from b above,
they are not to be taken more than 1 module on either side of
b.
Cylindrical gears
tan α
t
= tan α
n
/ cos β
tan β
b
= tan β cos α
t
tan β
a
= tan β d
a
/ d
cos α
a
= d
b
/d
a
d = z m
n
/ cos β
m
t
= m
n
/cos β
d
b
= d cos α
t
= d
w
cos α
wt
a = 0.5 (d
w1
+ d
w2
)
d
w1
/d
w2
= z
1
/ z
2
inv α = tan α  α (radians)
inv α
wt
= inv α
t
+ 2 tan α
n
(x
1
+ x
2
)/(z
1
+ z
2
)
z
n
= z / (cos
2
β
b
cos β)
1
aw1 fw1
α
T
ξ ξ
ε
+
=
where ξ
fw1
is to be taken as the smaller of :
•
wt fw1
α tan ξ =
•
soi1
b1
wt fw1
d
d
acos tan  tanα ξ =
•
1
2
wt
a2
b2
fw1
z
z
tanα
d
d
acos tan ξ


.

\

− =
and
2
1
fw2 aw1
z
z
ξ ξ = , where ξ
fw2
is calculated as ξ
fw1
substituting the values for the wheel by the values for the
pinion and visa versa.
1
1
z
2π
T =
( ) +

.

\

⋅ + − − ⋅ = −
2
sinα ρ ρ x h m
2
d
2 d
n fp fp 1 fp n soi1
2
1
t
n fp fp l fp n
2
tanα
) sinα ρ ρ x (h m


.

\
 ⋅ + − −
n
m
sin b
π
β
= ε
β
(for double helix, b is to be taken as the width of one helix).
ε
y
=
β α
ε ε +
ρ
C
=
( )
2
b
wt
u 1 β cos
α sin u a
+
v =
3
1 1
10 d n
60
π
−
6 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
p
bt
=
β cos
α cos m π
t n
s
at
=
− +
+
a t
n
invα α inv
z
α tan x 2
2
π
d
a
s
an
=
a
β cos s
at
1.4 Bevel Gear Conversion Formulae and Specific
Formulae
Conversion of bevel gears to virtual equivalent helical cylin
drical gears is based on the bevel gear midsection. The con
version formulae are:
Number of teeth:
z
v1.2
= z
1,2
/ cos δ
1,2
(δ
1
+ δ
2
= Σ)
Gear ratio:
u
v
=
1 v
2 v
z
z
tan α
vt
= tan α
n
/ cos β
m
tan β
bm
= tan β
m
cos α
vt
Base pitch:
p
btm
=
m
vt nm
β cos
α cos m π
Reference, pitch, diameters:
d
v1.2
=
2 , 1
2 , 1 m
cos
d
δ
Centre distance:
a
v
= 0.5 (d
v1
+ d
v2
)
Tip diameters:
d
va 1.2
= d
v 1,2
+ 2 h
am 1,2
Addenda:
for gears with constant addenda (Klingelnberg):
h
am 1,2
= m
mn
(1 + x
m 1,2
)
for gears with variable addenda (Gleason):
h
am 1,2
= h
a 1,2
– b/2 tan (δ
a 1,2
– δ
1,2
)
(when h
a
is addendum at outer end and δ
a
is the outer cone
angle).
Addendum modification coefficients:
x
m 1,2
=
mn
1 , 2 am 2 , 1 am
m 2
h h −
Base circle:
d
vb 1,2
= d
v 1,2
cos α
vt
Transverse contact ratio:
*)
ε
α
=
btm P
α sin a d d 0.5 d d 0.5
vt v
2
2 vb
2
2 va
2
1 vb
2
1 va
− − + −
Overlap ratio
*)
(theoretical value for bevel gears with no
crowning, but used as approximations in the calculation pro
cedures):
ε
β
=
nm
m
m π
β sin b
Total contact ratio:
*)
ε
γ
=
2
β
2
α
ε ε +
(* Note that index «v» is left out in order to combine formu
lae for cylindrical and bevel gears.)
Tangential speed at midsection:
v
mt
=
3
m1 1
10 d n
60
π
−
Effective radius of curvature (normal section):
ρ
vc
=
( )
2
v bm
vt v v
u 1 β cos
α sin u a
+
Length of line of contact:
l
b
=
( )( ) ( )
1 ε if
ε
ε 1 ε 2 ε
β cos
ε b
β
2
γ
2
β α
2
γ
bm
α
<
− − −
l
b
= 1 ε if
β cos ε
ε b
β
bm γ
α
≥
1.5 Nominal Tangential Load, F
t
, F
bt
, F
mt
and F
mbt
The nominal tangential load (tangential to the reference cyl
inder with diameter d and perpendicular to an axial plane) is
calculated from the nominal (rated) torque T transmitted by
the gear set.
Cylindrical gears
d
T 2000
F
t
=
t
t
bt
α cos
F
F =
Bevel gears
m
mt
d
T 2000
F =
vt
mt
mbt
α cos
F
F =
Classification Notes No. 41.2 7
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.6 Application Factors, K
A
and K
AP
The application factor K
A
accounts for dynamic overloads
from sources external to the gearing.
It is distinguished between the influence of repetitive cyclic
torques K
A
(1.6.1) and the influence of temporary occasional
peak torques K
AP
(1.6.2).
Calculations are always to be made with K
A
. In certain cases
additional calculations with K
AP
may be necessary.
For gears with a defined load spectrum the calculation with a
K
A
may be replaced by a fatigue damage calculation as given
in Appendix A.
1.6.1 K
A
For gears designed for long or infinite life at nominal rated
torque, K
A
is defined as the ratio between the maximum re
petitive cyclic torque applied to the gear set and nominal
rated torque.
This definition is suitable for main propulsion gears and most
of the auxiliary gears.
K
A
can be determined by measurements or system analysis,
or may be ruled by conventions (ice classes). (For the pur
pose of a preliminary (but not binding) calculation before K
A
is determined, it is advised to apply either the max. values
mentioned below or values known from similar plants.)
a) For main propulsion gears K
A
can be taken from the
(mandatory) torsional vibration analysis, thereby con
sidering all permissible driving conditions.*)
Unless specially agreed, the rules do not allow K
A
in
excess of 1.35 for diesel propulsion.*) With turbine or
electric propulsion K
A
would normally not exceed 1.2.
However, special attention should be given to thrusters
that are arranged in such a way that heavy vessel
movements and/or manoeuvring can cause severe load
fluctuations. This means e.g. thrusters positioned far
from the rolling axis of vessels that could be susceptible
to rolling. If leading to propeller air suction, the condi
tions may be even worse.
The above mentioned movements or manoeuvring will
result in increased propeller excitation. If the thruster is
driven by a diesel engine, the engine mean torque is
limited to 100%. However, thrusters driven by electric
motors can suffer temporary mean torque much above
100% unless a suitable load control system (limiting
available emotor torque) is provided.
b) For main propulsion gears with ice class notation (see
Rules Pt.5 Ch.1 Sec J500) K
A ice
has to be taken as the
higher value of the applicable (rule defined) ice shock
torque referred to nominal rated torque and the value
under a).
The Baltic ice class notations refer to a few millions ice
shock loads. Thus the life factors may be put
Y
N
=1 and Z
N
=1.2 (except for nitrided gears where
Z
N
= 1 applies).
Additionally, the calculations with the normal K
A
(no
ice class) are to fulfil the normal requirements.
For polar ice class notations, K
A ice
applies to all criteria
and for long or infinite life.
c) For a power take off (PTO) branch from a main propul
sion gear with ice class, ice shocks result in negative
torques. It is assumed that the PTO branch is unloaded
when the ice shock load occurs.
The influence of these reverse shock loads may be taken
into account as follows:
The negative torque (reversed load), expressed by
means of an application factor based on rated forward
load (T or F
t
), is K
Areverse
= K
A ice
–1 (the minus 1 be
cause no mean torque assumed). K
Aice
to be calculated
as in the ice class rules.
This K
Areverse
should be used for back flank considera
tions such as pitting and scuffing.
The influence on tooth bending strength (forward di
rection) may be simplified by using the factor
Y
M
= 1 − 0.3 · K
Areverse
/K
A
.
d) For diesel driven auxiliaries K
A
can be taken from the
torsional vibration analysis, if available. For units
where no vibration analysis is required (< 200 kW) or
available, it is advised to apply K
A
as the upper allow
able value 1.35.
*)
e) For turbine or electro driven auxiliaries the same as for
c) applies, however the practical upper value is 1.2.
*)
For diesel driven gears, more information on K
A
for mis
firing and normal driving is given in Appendix B.
1.6.2 K
AP
The peak overload factor K
AP
is defined as the ratio between
the temporary occasional peak overload torque and the
nominal rated torque.
For plants where high temporary occasional peak torques can
occur (i.e. in excess of the above mentioned K
A
), the gearing
(if nitrided) has to be checked with regard to static strength.
Unless otherwise specified the same safety factors as for
infinite life apply.
The scuffing safety is to be specially considered, whereby
the K
A
applies in connection with the bulk temperature, and
the K
AP
applies for the flash temperature calculation and
should replace K
A
in the formulae in 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 4.4.1.
K
AP
can be evaluated from the torsional impact vibration
calculation (as required by the rules).
If the overloads have a duration corresponding to several
revolutions of the shafts, the scuffing safety has to be consid
ered on basis of this overload, both with respect to bulk and
flash temperature. This applies to plants with ice class nota
tions (Baltic and polar), and to plants with prime movers
which have high temporary overload capacity such as e.g.
electric motors (provided the driven member can have a con
siderable increase in demand torque as e.g. azimuth thrusters
during manoeuvring).
For plants without additional ice class notation, K
AP
should
normally not exceed 1.5.
8 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.6.3 Frequent overloads
For plants where high overloads or shock loads occur regu
larly, the influence of this is to be considered by means of
cumulative fatigue, (see Appendix A).
1.7 Load Sharing Factor, K
γ
The load sharing factor K
γ
accounts for the maldistribution of
load in multiplepath transmissions (dual tandem, epicyclic,
double helix etc.). K
γ
is defined as the ratio between the max.
load through an actual path and the evenly shared load.
1.7.1 General method
K
γ
mainly depends on accuracy and flexibility of the
branches (e.g. quill shaft, planet support, external forces
etc.), and should be considered on basis of measurements or
of relevant analysis as e.g.:
K
γ
=
δ
+ δ f
δ = total compliance of a branch under full load (assuming
even load share) referred to gear mesh.
f = − − − − + + +
2
3
2
2
2
1
f f f where f
1
, f
2
etc. are the
main individual errors that may contribute to a maldis
tribution between the branches. E.g. tooth pitch errors,
planet carrier pitch errors, bearing clearance influences
etc. Compensating effects should also be considered.
For double helical gears:
An external axial force F
ext
applied from sources outside the
actual gearing (e.g. thrust via or from a tooth coupling) will
cause a maldistribution of forces between the two helices.
Expressed by a load sharing factor the
β ⋅
± =
γ
tan F
F
1 K
t
ext
If the direction of F
ext
is known, the calculation should be
carried out separately for each helix, and with the tangential
force corrected with the pertinent K
γ
. If the direction of F
ext
is unknown, both combinations are to be calculated, and the
higher σ
H
or σ
F
to be used.
1.7.2 Simplified method
If no relevant analysis is available the following may apply:
For epicyclic gears:
K
γ
=
3 25 . 0 1 − +
pl
n
where n
pl
= number of planets ( >3 ).
For multistage gears with locked paths and gear stages sepa
rated by quill shafts (see figure below):
Figure 1.0 Locked paths gear
K
γ
= ( ) φ / 2 . 0 1+
where φ = quill shaft twist (degrees) under full load.
1.8 Dynamic Factor, K
v
The dynamic factor K
v
accounts for the internally generated
dynamic loads.
K
v
is defined as the ratio between the maximum load that
dynamically acts on the tooth flanks and the maximum ex
ternally applied load F
t
K
A
K
γ
.
In the following 2 different methods (1.8.1 and 1.8.2) are
described. In case of controversy between the methods, the
next following is decisive, i.e. the methods are listed with
increasing priority.
It is important to observe the limitations for the method in
1.8.1. In particular the influence of lateral stiffness of shafts
is often underestimated and resonances occur at considerably
lower speed than determined in 1.8.1.1.
However, for low speed gears with v·z
1
< 300 calculations
may be omitted and the dynamic factor simplified to
K
v
=1.05.
1.8.1 Single resonance method
For a single stage gear K
v
may be determined on basis of the
relative proximity (or resonance ratio) N between actual
speed n
1
and the lowest resonance speed n
E1
.
N =
1 E
1
n
n
Note that for epicyclic gears n is the relative speed, i.e. the
speed that multiplied with z gives the mesh frequency.
1.8.1.1 Determination of critical speed
It is not advised to apply this method for multimesh gears for
N > 0.85, as the influence of higher modes has to be consid
ered, see 1.8.2. In case of significant lateral shaft flexibility
(e.g. overhung mounted bevel gears), the influence of cou
pled bending and torsional vibrations between pinion and
wheel should be considered if N ≥ 0.75 , see 1.8.2
n
E1
=
red
m
γ
c
1
z π
3
10 30⋅
where:
c
γ
is the actual mesh stiffness per unit facewidth, see 1.11.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 9
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
For gears with inactive ends of the facewidth, as e.g. due to
high crowning or end relief such as often applied for bevel
gears, the use of c
γ
in connection with determination of natu
ral frequencies may need correction. c
γ
is defined as stiffness
per unit facewidth, but when used in connection with the
total mesh stiffness, it is not as simple as c
γ
·b, as only a part
of the facewidth is active. Such corrections are given in
1.11.
m
red
is the reduced mass of the gear pair, per unit facewidth
and referred to the plane of contact.
For a single gear stage where no significant inertias are
closely connected to neither pinion nor wheel, m
red
is calcu
lated as:
m
red
=
2 1
2 1
m m
m m
+
The individual masses per unit facewidth are calculated as
m
1,2
=
2
2 , 1 b
2 , 1
) 2 / d ( b
I
where I is the polar moment of inertia (kgmm
2
).
The inertia of bevel gears may be approximated as discs with
diameter equal the midface pitch diameter and width equal to
b. However, if the shape of the pinion or wheel body differs
much from this idealised cylinder, the inertia should be cor
rected accordingly.
For all kind of gears, if a significant inertia (e.g. a clutch) is
very rigidly connected to the pinion or wheel, it should be
added to that particular inertia (pinion or wheel). If there is a
shaft piece between these inertias, the torsional shaft stiffness
alters the system into a 3mass (or more) system. This can
be calculated as in 1.8.2, but also simplified as a 2mass
system calculated with only pinion and wheel masses.
1.8.1.2 Factors used for determination of K
v
Nondimensional gear accuracy dependent parameters:
( )
b / K K F
y f ' c
B
A t
p pt
p
γ
−
=
( )
b / K K F
y F ' c
B
A t
f
f
γ
α
−
=
Nondimensional tip relief parameter:
/b K K F
c' C
1 B
γ A t
a
k
⋅ ⋅
⋅
− =
For gears of quality grade (ISO 1328) Q = 7 or coarser,
B
k
= 1.
For gears with Q ≤ 6 and excessive tip relief, B
k
is limited to
max. 1.
For gears (all quality grades) with tip relief of more than
2·C
eff
(see 4.3.2) the reduction of
α
ε has to be considered
(see 4.4.3).
where:
f
pt
= the single pitch deviation (ISO 1328),
max. of pinion or wheel
F
α
= the total profile form deviation (ISO
1328), max. of pinion or wheel (Note: F
α
is p.t. not available for bevel gears, thus
use F
α
= f
pt
)
y
p
and y
f
= the respective runningin allowances and
may be calculated similarly to y
α
in 1.12,
i.e. the value of f
pt
is replaced by F
α
for y
f
.
c´ = the single tooth stiffness, see 1.11
C
a
= the amount of tip relief, see 4.3.3. In case
of different tip relief on pinion and wheel,
the value that results in the greater value
of B
k
is to be used. If C
a
is zero by design,
the value of runningin tip relief C
ay
(see
1.12) may be used in the above formula.
1.8.1.3 K
v
in the subcritical range:
Cylindrical gears: N ≤ 0.85
Bevel gears: N ≤ 0.75
K
v
= 1 + N K
K = C
v1
B
p
+ C
v2
B
f
+ C
v3
B
k
C
v1
accounts for the pitch error influence
C
v1
= 0.32
C
v2
accounts for profile error influence
C
v2
= 0.34 for
γ
ε ≤ 2
C
v2
=
0.3 ε
0.57
γ
−
for
γ
ε > 2
C
v3
accounts for the cyclic mesh stiffness variation
C
v3
= 0.23 for
γ
ε ≤ 2
C
v3
=
1.56 ε
0.096
γ
−
for
γ
ε > 2
1.8.1.4 K
v
in the main resonance range:
Cylindrical gears: 0.85 < N ≤ 1.15
Bevel gears: 0.75 < N ≤ 1.25
Running in this range should preferably be avoided, and is
only allowed for high precision gears.
K
v
= 1 + C
v1
B
p
+ C
v2
B
f
+ C
v4
B
k
C
v4
accounts for the resonance condition with the cyclic
mesh stiffness variation.
C
v4
= 0.90 for
γ
ε ≤ 2
C
v4
=
1.44 ε
ε 0.05 0.57
γ
γ
−
−
for
γ
ε > 2
10 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
1.8.1.5 K
v
in the supercritical range:
Cylindrical gears: N ≥ 1.5
Bevel gears: N ≥ 1.5
Special care should be taken as to influence of higher vibra
tion modes, and/or influence of coupled bending (i.e. lateral
shaft vibrations) and torsional vibrations between pinion and
wheel. These influences are not covered by the following
approach.
K
v
= C
v5
B
p
+ C
v6
B
f
+ C
v7
C
v5
accounts for the pitch error influence.
C
v5
= 0.47
C
v6
accounts for the profile error influence.
C
v6
= 0.47 for ε
γ
≤ 2
C
v6
=
1.74 ε
0.12
γ
−
for ε
γ
> 2
C
v7
relates the maximum externally applied tooth loading to
the maximum tooth loading of ideal, accurate gears operating
in the supercritical speed sector, when the circumferential
vibration becomes very soft.
C
v7
= 0.75 for ε
γ
≤ 1.5
C
v7
=   875 . 0 ) 2 ( sin 0.125 + −
β
ε π for 1.5 < ε
γ
≤ 2.5
C
v7
= 1.0 for ε
γ
> 2.5
1.8.1.6 K
v
in the intermediate range:
Cylindrical gears: 1.15 < N < 1.5
Bevel gears: 1.25 < N < 1.5
Comments raised in 1.8.1.4 and 1.8.1.5 should be observed.
K
v
is determined by linear interpolation between K
v
for N =
1.15 respectively 1.25 and N = 1.5 as
Cylindrical gears
( ) ( ) ( )
 
5 . 1 N v 15 . 1 N v 5 . 1 N v v
K K
35 . 0
N 5 . 1
K K
= = =
− ⋅ 
.

\
 −
+ =
Bevel gears
( ) ( ) ( )
 
5 . 1 N v 25 . 1 N v 5 . 1 N v v
K K
25 . 0
N 5 . 1
K K
= = =
− ⋅ 
.

\
 −
+ =
1.8.2 Multiresonance method
For high speed gear (v>40 m/s), for multimesh medium
speed gears, for gears with significant lateral shaft flexibility
etc. it is advised to determine K
v
on basis of relevant dy
namic analysis.
Incorporating lateral shaft compliance requires transforma
tion of even a simple pinionwheel system into a lumped
multimass system. It is advised to incorporate all relevant
inertias and torsional shaft stiffnesses into an equivalent (to
pinion speed) system. Thereby the mesh stiffness appears as
an equivalent torsional stiffness:
c
γ
b (d
b1
/2)
2
(Nm/rad)
The natural frequencies are found by solving the set of dif
ferential equations (one equation per inertia). Note that for a
gear put on a laterally flexible shaft, the coupling bending
torsionals is arranged by introducing the gear mass and the
lateral stiffness with its relation to the torsional displacement
and torque in that shaft.
Only the natural frequency (ies) having high relative dis
placement and relative torque through the actual pinion
wheel flexible element, need(s) to be considered as critical
frequency (ies).
K
v
may be determined by means of the method mentioned in
1.8.1 thereby using N as the least favourable ratio (in case of
more than one pinionwheel dominated natural frequency).
I.e. the Nratio that results in the highest K
v
has to be consid
ered.
The level of the dynamic factor may also be determined on
basis of simulation technique using numeric time integration
with relevant tooth stiffness variation and pitch/profile er
rors.
1.9 Face Load Factors, K
Hβ
and K
Fβ
The face load factors, K
Hβ
for contact stresses and for scuff
ing, K
Fβ
for tooth root stresses, account for nonuniform load
distribution across the facewidth.
K
Hβ
is defined as the ratio between the maximum load per
unit facewidth and the mean load per unit facewidth.
K
Fβ
is defined as the ratio between the maximum tooth root
stress per unit facewidth and the mean tooth root stress per
unit facewidth. The mean tooth root stress relates to the con
sidered facewidth b
1
respectively b
2
.
Note that facewidth in this context is the design facewidth b,
even if the ends are unloaded as often applies to e.g. bevel
gears.
The plane of contact is considered.
1.9.1 Relations between K
Hβ
and K
Fβ
K
Fβ
=
exp
β H
K
2
(h/b) h/b 1
1
exp
+ +
=
where h/b is the ratio tooth height/facewidth. The maximum
of h
1
/b
1
, and h
2
/b
2
is to be used, but not higher than 1/3 . For
double helical gears, use only the facewidth of one helix.
If the tooth root facewidth (b
1
or b
2
) is considerably wider
than b, the value of K
Fβ(1or2)
is to be specially considered as it
may even exceed K
Hβ
.
E.g. in pinionrack lifting systems for jack up rigs, where
b = b
2
≈ m
n
and b
1
≈ 3 m
n
, the typical K
Hβ
≈ K
Fβ2
≈ 1 and
K
Fβ1
≈ 1.3.
1.9.2 Measurement of face load factors
Primarily,
K
Fβ
may be determined by a number of strain gauges distrib
uted over the facewidth. Such strain gauges must be put in
Classification Notes No. 41.2 11
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
exactly the same position relative to the root fillet. Relations
in 1.9.1 apply for conversion to K
Hβ
.
Secondarily,
K
Hβ
may be evaluated by observed contact patterns on vari
ous defined load levels. It is imperative that the various test
loads are well defined. Usually, it is also necessary to evalu
ate the elastic deflections. Some teeth at each 90 degrees are
to be painted with a suitable lacquer. Always consider the
poorest of the contact patterns.
After having run the gear for a suitable time at test load 1
(the lowest), observe the contact pattern with respect to ex
tension over the facewidth. Evaluate that K
Hβ
by means of
the methods mentioned in this section. Proceed in the same
way for the next higher test load etc., until there is a full face
contact pattern. From these data, the initial mesh misalign
ment (i.e. without elastic deflections) can be found by ex
trapolation, and then also the K
Hβ
at design load can be found
by calculation and extrapolation. See example.
Figure 1.1 Example of experimental determination of K
Hβ
It must be considered that inaccurate gears may accumulate a
larger observed contact pattern than the actual single mesh to
mesh contact patterns. This is particularly important for
lapped bevel gears. Ground or hard metal hobbed bevel
gears are assumed to present an accumulated contact pattern
that is practically equal the actual single mesh to mesh con
tact patterns. As a rough guidance the (observed) accumu
lated contact pattern of lapped bevel gears may be reduced
by 10% in order to assess the single mesh to mesh contact
pattern which is used in 1.9.9.
1.9.3 Theoretical determination of K
Hβ
The methods described in 1.9.3 to 1.9.8 may be used for cy
lindrical gears. The principles may to some extent also be
used for bevel gears, but a more practical approach is given
in 1.9.9.
General: For gears where the tooth contact pattern cannot be
verified during assembly or under load, all assumptions are
to be well on the safe side.
K
Hβ
is to be determined in the plane of contact.
The influence parameters considered in this method are:
• mean mesh stiffness c
γ
(see 1.11) (if necessary, also
variable stiffness over b)
• mean unit load F
m
/b = F
bt
K
A
K
γ
K
v
/b
(for double helical gears, see 1.7 for use of K
γ
)
• misalignment f
sh
due to elastic deflections of shafts and
gear bodies (both pinion and wheel)
• misalignment f
defl
due to elastic deflections of and work
ing positions in bearings
• misalignment f
be
due to bearing clearance tolerances
• misalignment f
ma
due to manufacturing tolerances
• helix modifications as crowning, end relief, helix correc
tion
• running in amount y
β
(see 1.12).
In practice several other parameters such as centrifugal ex
pansion, thermal expansion, housing deflection, etc. contrib
ute to K
Hβ
. However, these parameters are not taken into
account unless in special cases when being considered as
particularly important.
When all or most of the a.m. parameters are to be considered,
the most practical way to determine K
Hβ
is by means of a
graphical approach, described in 1.9.3.1.
If c
γ
can be considered constant over the facewidth, and no
helix modifications apply, K
Hβ
can be determined analyti
cally as described in 1.9.3.2.
1.9.3.1 Graphical method
The graphical method utilises the superposition principle,
and is as follows:
• Calculate the mean mesh deflection
M
δ as a function of
γ m
c and /b F , see 1.11.
• Draw a base line with length b, and draw up a rectangu
lar with height δ
M
. (The area δ
M
b is proportional to the
transmitted force).
• Calculate the elastic deflection f
sh
in the plane of contact.
Balance this deflection curve around a zero line, so that
the areas above and below this zero line are equal.
Figure 1.2 f
sh
balanced around zero line
• Superimpose these ordinates of the f
sh
curve to the previ
ous load distribution curve. (The area under this new
load distribution curve is still δ
M
b.)
• Calculate the bearing deflections and/or working posi
tions in the bearings and evaluate the influence f
defl
in
the plane of contact. This is a straight line and is bal
anced around a zero line as indicated in Fig. 1.4, but
with one distinct direction. Superimpose these ordinates
to the previous load distribution curve.
12 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
• The amount of crowning, end relief or helix correction
(defined in the plane of contact) is to be balanced around
a zero line similarly to f
sh
Figure 1.3 Crowning C
c
balanced aound zero line
• Superimpose these ordinates to the previous load distri
bution curve. In case of high crowning etc. as e.g. often
applied to bevel gears, the new load distribution curve
may cross the base line (the real zero line). The result is
areas with negative load that is not real, as the load in
those areas should be zero. Thus corrective actions must
be made, but for practical reasons it may be postponed
to after next operation.
• The amount of initial mesh misalignment,
be ma
f f + (defined in the plane of contact), is to be bal
anced around a zero line. If the direction of
be ma
f f + is
known (due to initial contact check), or if the direction
of f
be
is known due to design (e.g. overhang bevel pin
ion), this should be taken into account. If direction un
known, the influence of
be ma
f f + in both directions as
well as equal zero, should be considered.
Figure 1.4 f
ma
+f
be
in both directions, balanced around
zero line.
Superimpose these ordinates to the previous load distri
bution curve. This results in up to 3 different curves, of
which the one with the highest peak is to be chosen for
further evaluation.
• If the chosen load distribution curve crosses the base
line (i.e. mathematically negative load), the curve is to
be corrected by adding the negative areas and dividing
this with the active facewidth. The (constant) ordinates
of this rectangular correction area are to be subtracted
from the positive part of the load distribution curve.
It is advisable to check that the area covered under this
new load distribution curve is still equal δ
M
b.
• If c
γ
cannot be considered as constant over b, then cor
rect the ordinates of the load distribution curve with the
local (on various positions over the facewidth) ratio
between local mesh stiffness and average mesh stiffness
c
γ
(average over the active facewidth only).
Note that the result is to be a curve that covers the same
area δ
M
b as before.
• The influence of running in y
β
is to be determined as in
1.12 whereby the value for F
βx
is to be taken as twice the
distance between the peak of the load distribution curve
and δ
M
.
• Determine
K
Hβ
=
M
β
δ
y curve of peak −
1.9.3.2 Simplified analytical method for cylindrical gears
The analytical approach is similar to 1.9.3.1 but has a more
limited application as c
γ
is assumed constant over the face
width and no helix modification applies.
• Calculate the elastic deflection f
sh
in the plane of contact.
Balance this deflection curve around a zero line, so that
the area above and below this zero line are equal, see
Fig. 1.2. The max. positive ordinate is ½∆f
sh
.
• Calculate the initial mesh alignment as
F
βx
=
defl be ma sh
f f f f ± ± ± ∆
The negative signs may only be used if this is justified
and/or verified by a contact pattern test. Otherwise, al
ways use positive signs. If a negative sign is justified,
the value of F
βx
is not to be taken less than the largest of
each of these elements.
• Calculate the effective mesh misalignment as
F
βy
= F
βx
 y
β
(y
β
see 1.12)
• Determine
2 K for
F 2
b F c
1 K
β H
m
βγ γ
H
≤ + =
β
or
2 K for
F
b F c 2
K
Hβ
m
βγ γ
H
> =
β
where c
γ
as used here is the effective mesh stiffness, see
1.11.
1.9.4 Determination of f
sh
f
sh
is the mesh misalignment due to elastic deflections. Usu
ally it is sufficient to consider the combined mesh deflection
of the pinion body and shaft and the wheel shaft. The calcu
lation is to be made in the plane of contact (of the considered
gear mesh), and to consider all forces (incl. axial) acting on
the shafts. Forces from other meshes can be parted into
components parallel respectively vertical to the considered
plane of contact. Forces vertical to this plane of contact have
no influence on f
sh
.
It is advised to use following diameters for toothed elements:
d + 2 x m
n
for bending and shear deflection
d + 2 m
n
(x – h
a0
+ 0.2) for torsional deflection
Usually, f
sh
is calculated on basis of an evenly distributed
load. If the analysis of K
Hβ
shows a considerable maldis
Classification Notes No. 41.2 13
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
tribution in term of hard end contact, or if it is known by
other reasons that there exists a hard end contact, the load
should be correspondingly distributed when calculating f
sh
.
In fact, the whole K
Hβ
procedure can be used iteratively. 23
iterations will be enough, even for almost triangular load
distributions.
1.9.5 Determination of f
defl
f
defl
is the mesh misalignment in the plane of contact due to
bearing deflections and working positions (housing deflec
tion may be included if determined).
First the journal working positions in the bearings are to be
determined. The influence of external moments and forces
must be considered. This is of special importance for twin
pinion single output gears with all 3 shafts in one plane.
For rolling bearings f
defl
is further determined on basis of the
elastic deflection of the bearings. An elastic bearing deflec
tion depends on the bearing load and size and number of
rolling elements. Note that the bearing clearance tolerances
are not included here.
For fluid film bearings f
defl
is further determined on basis of
the lift and angular shift of the shafts due to lubrication oil
film thickness. Note that f
be
takes into account the influence
of the bearing clearance tolerance.
When working positions, bearing deflections and oil film lift
are combined for all bearings, the angular misalignment as
projected into the plane of the contact is to be determined.
f
defl
is this angular misalignment (radians) times the face
width.
1.9.6 Determination of f
be
f
be
is the mesh misalignment in the plane of contact due to
tolerances in bearing clearances. In principle f
be
and f
defl
could be combined. But as f
defl
can be determined by analy
sis and has a distinct direction, and f
be
is dependent on toler
ances and in most cases has no distinct direction (i.e. + toler
ance), it is practicable to separate these two influences.
Due to different bearing clearance tolerances in both pinion
and wheel shafts the two shaft axis will have an angular mis
alignment in the plane of contact that is superimposed to the
working positions determined in 1.9.5. f
be
is the facewidth
times this angular misalignment. Note that f
be
may have a
distinct direction or be given as a + tolerance, or a combina
tion of both. For combination of + tolerance it is adviced to
use
f
be
= ........
2
2 be
2
1 be
f f + + ±
f
be
is particularly important for overhang designs, for gears
with widely different kinds of bearings on each side, and
when the bearings have wide tolerances on clearances. In
general it shall be possible to replace standard bearings with
out causing the real load distribution to exceed the design
premises. For slow speed gears with journal bearings, the
expected wear should also be considered.
1.9.7 Determination of f
ma
f
ma
is the mesh misalignment due to manufacturing toler
ances (helix slope deviation) of pinion f
Hβ1
, wheel f
Hβ2
and
housing bore .
For gear without specifically approved requirements to as
sembly control, the value of f
ma
is to be determined as
f
ma
=
2
2 Hβ
2
1 Hβ
f f +
For gears with specially approved assembly control, the
value of f
ma
will depend on those specific requirements.
1.9.8 Comments to various gear types
For double helical gears, K
Hβ
is to be determined for both
helices. Usually an even load share between the helices can
be assumed. If not, the calculation is to be made as de
scribed in 1.7.1.
For planetary gears the free floating sun pinion suffers only
twist, no bending. It must be noted that the total twist is the
sum of the twist due to each mesh. If the value of 1 K
γ
≠ ,
this must be taken into account when calculating the total sun
pinion twist (i.e. twist calculated with the force per mesh
without K
γ
, and multiplied with the number of planets).
When planets are mounted on spherical bearings, the mesh
misalignments sunplanet respectively planetannulus will be
balanced. I.e. the misalignment will be the average between
the two theoretical individual misalignments. The faceload
distribution on the flanks of the planets can take full advan
tage of this. However, as the sun and annulus mesh with
several planets with possibly different lead errors, the sun
and annulus cannot obtain the above mentioned advantage to
the full extent.
1.9.9 Determination of K
Hβ
for bevel gears
If a theoretical approach similar to 1.9.31.9.8 is not docu
mented, the following may be used.
test
eff
H
K
b
b
85 . 1 85 . 1 K ⋅ 
.

\

− ⋅ =
β
b
eff
/ b represents the relative active facewidth (regarding
lapped gears, see 1.9.2 last part).
Higher values than b
eff
/ b = 0.90 are normally not to be used
in the formula.
For dual directional gears it may be difficult to obtain a high
b
eff
/ b in both directions. In that case the smaller b
eff
/ b is to
be used.
K
test
represents the influence of the bearing arrangement,
shaft stiffness, bearing stiffness, housing stiffness etc. on the
faceload distribution and the verification thereof. Expected
variations in length and heightwise tooth profile is also
accounted for to some extent.
a) K
test
= 1
For ground or hard metal hobbed gears with the
specified contact pattern verified at full rating or at full
torque slow turning at a condition representative for the
thermal expansion at normal operation.
14 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
It also applies when the bearing arrangement/support has
insignificant elastic deflections and thermal axial
expansion. However, each initial mesh contact must be
verified to be within acceptance criteria that are cali
brated against a type test at full load. Reproduction of
the gear tooth length and heightwise profile must also
be verified. This can be made through 3D measurements
or by initial contact movements caused by defined axial
offsets of the pinion (tolerances to be agreed upon).
b) K
test
= 1 + 0.4·(b
eff
/b–0.6)
For designs with possible influence of thermal expansion
in the axial direction of the pinion. The initial mesh
contact verified with low load or spin test where the
acceptance criteria are calibrated against a type test at
full load.
c) K
test
= 1.2
if mesh is only checked by toolmaker’s blue or by spin
test contact. For gears in this category b
eff.
/b > 0.85 is not
to be used in the calculation.
1.10 Transversal Load Distribution Factors, K
Hα
and K
Fα
The transverse load distribution factors, K
Hα
for contact
stresses and for scuffing, K
Fα
for tooth root stresses account
for the effects of pitch and profile errors on the transversal
load distribution between 2 or more pairs of teeth in mesh.
The following relations may be used:
Cylindrical gears:
( )


.

\
 −
+ = =
tH
α pt γ γ
Hα Fα
F
b y f c
0.4 0.9
2
ε
K K
valid for 2 ε
γ
≤
( ) ( )
tH
α pt γ
γ
γ
Hα Fα
F
b y f c
ε
1 ε 2
0.4 0.9 K K
− −
+ = =
valid for 2 ε
γ
>
where:
F
tH
= F
t
K
A
K
γ
K
v
K
Hβ
c
γ
= See 1.11
γ
α
= See 1.12
f
pt
= Maximum single pitch deviation (µm) of pinion
or wheel, or maximum total profile form devia
tion F
α
of pinion or wheel if this is larger than
the maximum single pitch deviation.
Note: In case of adequate equivalent tip relief adapted
to the load, half of the above mentioned f
pt
can
be introduced.
A tip relief is considered adequate when the
average of C
a1
and C
a2
is within ±40% of the
value of C
eff
in 4.3.2:
Limitations of K
Hα
and K
Fα
:
If the calculated values for
K
Fα
= K
Hα
< 1, use K
Fα
= K
Hα
= 1.0
If the calculated value of K
Hα
>
2
ε α
γ
Z ε
ε
, use K
Hα
=
2
ε α
γ
Z ε
ε
If the calculated value of K
Fα
>
ε α
γ
Y ε
ε
, use K
Fα
=
ε α
γ
Y ε
ε
where Y
ε
=
αn
ε
0.75
0.25+ (for ε
αn
see 3.3.1.c)
Bevel gears:
For ground or hard metal hobbed gears K
Fα
= K
Hα
= 1
For lapped gears K
Fα
= K
Hα
= 1.1
1.11 Tooth Stiffness Constants, c´ and c
γ
The tooth stiffness is defined as the load which is necessary
to deform one or several meshing gear teeth having 1 mm
facewidth by an amount of 1 µm, in the plane of contact.
c´ is the maximum stiffness of a single pair of teeth.
c
γ
is the mean value of the mesh stiffness in a transverse
plane (brief term: mesh stiffness).
Both valid for high unit load. (Unit load = F
t
· K
A
· K
γ
/b).
Cylindrical gears
The real stiffness is a combination of the progressive
Hertzian contact stiffness and the linear tooth bending stiff
nesses. For high unit loads the Hertzian stiffness has little
importance and can be disregarded. This approach is on the
safe side for determination of K
Hβ
and K
Hα
. However, for
moderate or low loads K
v
may be underestimated due to
determination of a too high resonance speed.
The linear approach is described in A.
An optional approach for inclusion of the nonlinear stiffness
is described in B.
A. The linear approach.
B R
C C
q
β cos 0.8
´ c =
and
( ) 0.25 ε 0.75 c c
α γ
+ ′ =
where:
( )  
n
02 a 01 a
B
α 20 0.02 1
2
h h
1.2 0.5 1 C − −

.

\
 +
− + =
1
2 n 1 n
x 0.00635
z
0.25791
z
0.15551
0.04723 q − + + =
1
2
2 n
2
2
1 n
1
x
00529 . 0
z
x 0.24188
x 0.00193
z
x 0.11654
+ − − −
+ 0.00182 x
2
2
Classification Notes No. 41.2 15
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
(for internal gears, use z
n2
equal infinite and x
2
= 0).
h
a0
= h
fp
for all practical purposes.
C
R
considers the increased flexibility of the wheel teeth if the
wheel is not a solid disc, and may be calculated as:
( )
( )
n R
m 5 / s
s
R
e 5
/b b ln
1 C + =
where:
b
s
= thickness of a central web
s
R
= average thickness of rim (net value from tooth
root to inside of rim).
The formula is valid for b
s
/ b ≥ 0.2 and s
R
/m
n
≥ 1. Outside
this range of validity and if the web is not centrally posi
tioned, C
R
has to be specially considered.
Note:
C
R
is the ratio between the average mesh stiffness over the
facewidth and the mesh stiffness of a gear pair of solid discs.
The local mesh stiffness in way of the web corresponds to
the mesh stiffness with C
R
= 1. The local mesh stiffness
where there is no web support will be less than calculated
with C
R
above. Thus, e.g. a centrally positioned web will
have an effect corresponding to a longitudinal crowning of
the teeth. See also 1.9.3.1 regarding K
Hβ
.
B. The nonlinear approach.
In the following an example is given on how to consider the
nonlinearity.
The relation between unit load F/b as a function of mesh
deflection δ is assumed to be a progressive curve up to 500
N/mm and from there on a straight line. This straight line
when extended to the baseline is assumed to intersect at
10um.
With these assumptions the unit force F/b as a function of
mesh deflection δ can be expressed as:
( ) 10 δ K
b
F
− = for 500
b
F
>


.

\

− =
500
F/b
10 δ K
b
F
for 500
b
F
<
with
γ A
t
K K
b
F
b
F
⋅ ⋅ = etc. (N/mm), i.e. unit load incorporat
ing the relevant factors as:
K
A
· K
γ
for determination of K
v
.
K
A
· K
γ
· K
v
for determination of K
Hβ
.
K
A
· K
γ
· K
v
· K
Hβ
for determination of K
Hα
.
δ = mesh deflection (µm)
K = applicable stiffness (c
'
or c
γ
)
Use of stiffnesses for K
V
, K
Hβ
and K
Hα
For calculation of K
v
and K
Hα
the stiffness is calculated as
follows:
When F/b < 500,
the stiffness is determined as
δ ∆
∆ b / F
where the increment is chosen as e.g. ∆ F/b = 10 and thus
500
10 F/b
10
K
10 F/b
∆δ
+
+
+
=
When F / b > 500, the stiffness is c' or c
γ.
For calculation of K
Hβ
the mesh deflection δ is used directly,
or an equivalent stiffness determined as
δ ⋅ b
F
.
Bevel gears
In lack of more detailed relationship between stiffness and
geometry the following may be used.
b 0.85
b
13 c´
eff
=
b 0.85
b
16 c
eff
γ
=
b
eff
not to be used in excess of 0.85 b in these formulae.
Bevel gears with heightwise and lengthwise crowning have
progressive mesh stiffness. The values mentioned above are
only valid for high loads. They should not be used for de
termination of C
eff
(see 4.3.2) or K
Hβ
(see 1.9.3.1).
1.12 Runningin Allowances
The runningin allowances account for the influence of run
ningin wear on the various error elements.
y
α
respectively y
β
are the runningin amounts which reduce
the influence of pitch and profile errors, respectively influ
ence of localised faceload.
C
ay
is defined as the runningin amount that compensates for
lack of tip relief.
The following relations may be used:
For not surface hardened steel
pt
Hlim
α
f
σ
160
y =
y
β
=
βx
lim H
f
320
σ
with the following upper limits:
V < 5 m/s 510 m/s > 10 m/s
y
α max
none
lim H
12800
σ
lim H
6400
σ
y
β max
none
lim H
25600
σ
lim H
12800
σ
For surface hardened steel
y
α
= 0.075 f
pt
but not more than 3 for any speed
y
β
= 0.15 F
βx
but not more than 6 for any speed
16 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
For all kinds of steel
5 . 1 45 . 18
97 18
1
C
2
lim H
ay
+ 
.

\

−
σ
=
When pinion and wheel material differ, the following ap
plies:
• Use the larger of f
pt1
 y
α1
and f
pt2
 y
α2
to replace f
pt
 y
α
in the calculation of K
Hα
and K
v
.
• Use ( )
2 β 1 β β
y y
2
1
y + = in the calculation of K
Hβ
.
• Use ( )
2 ay 1 ay a
C C
2
1
C + = in the calculation of K
v
.
• Use ( )
2 ay 1 ay 2 a 1 a
C C
2
1
C C + = = in the scuffing
calculation if no design tip relief is foreseen.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 17
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
2. Calculation of Surface Durability
2.1 Scope and General Remarks
Part 2 includes the calculations of flank surface durability as
limited by pitting, spalling, case crushing and subsurface
yielding. Endurance and time limited flank surface fatigue is
calculated by means of 2.2 – 2.12. In a way also tooth frac
tures starting from the flank due to subsurface fatigue is in
cluded through the criteria in 2.13.
Pitting itself is not considered as a critical damage for slow
speed gears. However, pits can create a severe notch effect
that may result in tooth breakage. This is particularly im
portant for surface hardened teeth, but also for high strength
through hardened teeth. For highspeed gears, pitting is not
permitted.
Spalling and case crushing are considered similar to pitting,
but may have a more severe effect on tooth breakage due to
the larger material breakouts, initiated below the surface.
Subsurface fatigue is considered in 2.13.
For jacking gears (selfelevating offshore units) or similar
slow speed gears designed for very limited life, the max.
static (or very slow running) surface load for surface hard
ened flanks is limited by the subsurface yield strength.
For case hardened gears operating with relatively thin lubri
cation oil films, grey staining (micropitting) may be the lim
iting criterion for the gear rating. Specific calculation meth
ods for this purpose are not given here, but are under consid
eration for future revisions. Thus depending on experience
with similar gear designs, limitations on surface durability
rating other than those according to 2.2  2.13 may be ap
plied.
2.2 Basic Equations
Calculation of surface durability (pitting) for spur gears is
based on the contact stress at the inner point of single pair
contact or the contact at the pitch point, whichever is greater.
Calculation of surface durability for helical gears is based on
the contact stress at the pitch point.
For helical gears with 0 < ε
β
< 1, a linear interpolation be
tween the above mentioned applies.
Calculation of surface durability for spiral bevel gears is
based on the contact stress at the midpoint of the zone of
contact.
Alternatively for bevel gears the contact stress may be cal
culated with the program “BECAL”. In that case, K
A
and K
v
are to be included in the applied tooth force, but not K
Hβ
and
K
Hα
. The calculated (real) Hertzian stresses are to be multi
plied with Z
K
in order to be comparable with the permissible
contact stresses.
The contact stresses calculated with the method in part 2 are
based on the Hertzian theory, but do not always represent the
real Hertzian stresses.
The corresponding permissible contact stresses σ
HP
are to be
calculated for both pinion and wheel.
2.2.1 Contact stress
Cylindrical gears
( )
Hα Hβ v γ A
1
t
β ε E H D B, H
K K K K K
bu d
1 u F
Z Z Z Z Z σ
+
=
where:
Z
B,D
= Zone factor for inner point of single pair contact
for pinion resp. wheel (see 2.3.2).
Z
H
= Zone factor for pitch point (see 2.3.1).
Z
E
= Elasticity factor (see 2.4).
Z
ε
= Contact ratio factor (see 2.5).
Z
β
= Helix angle factor (see 2.6).
F
t
, K
A
, K
γ
, K
v
, K
Hβ
, K
Hα
, see 1.5 – 1.10.
d
1
, b, u, see 1.2 – 1.5.
Bevel gears
( )
Hα Hβ v γ A
v 1 v
v mt
K E M H
K K K K K
bu d
1 u F
Z Z Z 1.05 σ
+
⋅ =
where:
1.05 is a correlation factor to reach real Hertzian stresses
(when Z
K
= 1)
Z
E
, K
A
etc. see above.
Z
M
= midzone factor, see 2.3.3.
Z
K
= bevel gear factor, see 2.7.
F
mt
, d
v1
, u
v
, see 1.2 – 1.5.
It is assumed that the heightwise crowning is chosen so as to
result in the maximum contact stresses at or near the mid
point of the flanks.
2.2.2 Permissible contact stress
X W R v L
H
N Hlim
HP
Z Z Z Z Z
S
Z σ
σ =
where:
σ
H lim
= Endurance limit for contact stresses (see 2.8).
Z
N
= Life factor for contact stresses (see 2.9).
S
H
= Required safety factor according to the rules.
Z
L
,Z
v
,Z
R
= Oil film influence factors (see 2.10).
Z
W
= Work hardening factor (see 2.11).
Z
X
= Size factor (see 2.12).
18 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
2.3 Zone Factors Z
H
, Z
B,D
and Z
M
2.3.1 Zone factor Z
H
The zone factor, Z
H
, accounts for the influence on contact
stresses of the tooth flank curvature at the pitch point and
converts the tangential force at the reference cylinder to the
normal force at the pitch cylinder.
wt t
2
wt b
H
sinα α cos
cosα cosβ 2
Z =
2.3.2 Zone factors Z
B,D
The zone factors, Z
B,D
, account for the influence on contact
stresses of the tooth flank curvature at the inner point of sin
gle pair contact in relation to Z
H
. Index B refers to pinion D
to wheel.
For ε
β
≥ 1, Z
B,D
= 1
For internal gears, Z
D
= 1
For ε
β
= 0 (spur gears)
( )
π
− ε − −


.

\

π
− −


.

\

α
=
α
2
2
2 b
2 a
1
2
1 b
1 a
wt
B
z
2
1 1
d
d
z
2
1
d
d
tan
Z
( )
π
− ε − −


.

\

π
− −


.

\

α
=
α
1
2
1 b
1 a
2
2
2 b
2 a
wt
D
z
2
1 1
d
d
z
2
1
d
d
tan
Z
If Z
B
< 1, use Z
B
= 1
If Z
D
< 1, use Z
D
= 1
For 0 < ε
β
< 1
Z
B,D
= Z
B,D
(for spur gears) – ε
β
(Z
B,D
(for spur gears) – 1)
2.3.3 Zone factor Z
M
The midzone factor Z
M
accounts for the influence of the
contact stress at the mid point of the flank and applies to spi
ral bevel gears.

.

\

ε − −

.

\

ε − −
α β
=
α α btm
2
2 vb
2
2 va btm
2
1 vb
2
val
2 v 1 v vt bm
M
p d d p d d
d d tan cos 2
Z
This factor is the product of Z
H
and Z
MB
in ISO 10300 with
the condition that the heightwise crowning is sufficient to
move the peak load towards the midpoint.
2.3.4 Inner contact point
For cylindrical or bevel gears with very low number of teeth
the inner contact point (A) may be close to the base circle.
In order to avoid a wear edge near A, it is required to have
suitable tip relief on the wheel.
2.4 Elasticity Factor, Z
E
The elasticity factor, Z
E
, accounts for the influence of the
material properties as modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s
ratio on the contact stresses.
For steel against steel Z
E
= 189.8
2.5 Contact Ratio Factor, Z
ε
The contact ratio factor Z
ε
accounts for the influence of the
transverse contact ratio ε
α
and the overlap ratio ε
β
on the
contact stresses.
α
ε
1
Z =
ε
for 1 ε
β
≥
( )
α
β
β
α
ε
ε
ε
ε 1
3
ε 4
Z + −
−
= for ε
β
< 1
2.6 Helix Angle Factor, Z
β
The helix angle factor, Z
β
, accounts for the influence of helix
angle (independent of its influence on Z
ε
) on the surface du
rability.
cosβ Z
β
=
2.7 Bevel Gear Factor, Z
K
The bevel gear factor accounts for the difference between the
real Hertzian stresses in spiral bevel gears and the contact
stresses assumed responsible for surface fatigue (pitting). Z
K
adjusts the contact stresses in such a way that the same per
missible stresses as for cylindrical gears may apply.
The following may be used:
Z
K
= 0.80
2.8 Values of Endurance Limit, σ
Hlim
and Static
Strength,
5
H10
σ ,
3
H10
σ
σ
Hlim
is the limit of contact stress that may be sustained for
5·10
7
cycles, without the occurrence of progressive pitting.
For most materials 5·10
7
cycles are considered to be the be
ginning of the endurance strength range or lower knee of the
σN curve. (See also Life Factor Z
N
). However, for nitrided
steels 2·10
6
apply.
For this purpose, pitting is defined by
• for not surface hardened gears: pitted area ≥ 2% of total
active flank area.
• for surface hardened gears: pitted area ≥ 0.5% of total
active flank area, or ≥ 4% of one particular tooth flank
area.
5
10 H
σ and
3
10 H
σ are the contact stresses which the given
material can withstand for 10
5
respectively 10
3
cycles
without subsurface yielding or flank damages as pitting,
spalling or case crushing when adequate case depth applies.
The following listed values for σ
Hlim
,
5
10 H
σ and
3
10 H
σ may
only be used for materials subjected to a quality control as
Classification Notes No. 41.2 19
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
the one referred to in the rules.
Results of approved fatigue tests may also be used as the
basis for establishing these values.
The defined survival probability is 99%.
σ
Hlim
σ
H10
5
σ
H10
3
Alloyed case hardened steels (surface hardness 5863 HRC):
 of specially approved high grade:
 of normal grade:
1650
1500
2500
2400
3100
3100
Nitrided steel of approved grade, gas nitrided (surface hardness 700800 HV): 1250 1.3 σ
Hlim
1.3 σ
Hlim
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel, bath or gas nitrided
(surface hardness 500700 HV):
1000
1.3 σ
Hlim
1.3 σ
Hlim
Alloyed, flame or induction hardened steel (surface hardness 500650 HV): 0.75 HV + 750 1.6 σ
Hlim
4.5 HV
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel: 1.4 HV + 350 1.6 σ
Hlim
4.5 HV
Carbon steel: 1.5 HV + 250 1.6 σ
Hlim
1.6 σ
Hlim
These values refer to forged or hot rolled steel. For cast steel the values for σ
Hlim
are to be reduced by 15%.
2.9 Life Factor, Z
N
The life factor, Z
N
, takes account of a higher permissible
contact stress if only limited life (number of cycles, N
L
) is
demanded or lower permissible contact stress if very high
number of cycles apply.
If this is not documented by approved fatigue tests, the fol
lowing method may be used:
For all steels except nitrided:
7
L
10 5 N ⋅ ≥ : Z
N
= 1 or
0157 . 0
L
7
N
N
10 5
Z


.

\

⋅
=
I.e. Z
N
= 0.92 for 10
10
cycles.
The Z
N
= 1 from 5·10
7
on, may only be used when the mate
rial cleanliness is of approved high grade (see Rules Pt.4
Ch.2) and the lubrication is optimised by a specially
approved filtering process.
10
5
< N
L
< 5·10
7
:
5
10 N
logZ 0.37
L
7
N
N
10 5
Z


.

\

⋅
=
N
L
= 10
5
:
W X R V L Hlim
Wst
X10 H10
10 N
N
Z Z Z Z Z σ
Z Z σ
Z Z
5 5
5 =
10
3
< N
L
< 10
5
:
) /Z (Z log 0.5
L
5
10 N
N
5
N10
3
N10
5
N
10
Z Z


.

\

= =
3
L
10 N ≤ :
W X R V L lim H
Wst
10 X 10 H
10 N
N
Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
3 3
3
σ
σ
= =
(but not less than Z
N10
5
)
For nitrided steels:
6
L
10 2 N ⋅ ≥ : Z
N
= 1 or
0098 , 0
L
6
N
N
10 2
Z


.

\

⋅
=
I.e. Z
N
= 0.92 for 10
10
cycles.
The Z
N
= 1 from 2·10
6
on, may only be used when the mate
rial cleanliness is of approved high grade (see Rules Pt4
Ch2) and the lubrication is optimised by a specially approved
filtering process.
10
5
< N
L
< 2·10
6
:
5
10 N
Z log 7686 . 0
L
6
N
N
10 2
Z


.

\

⋅
=
5
L
10 N ≤ :
X W R V L
10 X
Wst
10 N
N
Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z 1.3
Z Z
5
5 = =
Note that when no index indicating number of cycles is used,
the factors are valid for 5·10
7
(respectively 2·10
6
for nitrid
ing) cycles.
2.10 Influence Factors on Lubrication Film, Z
L
, Z
V
and Z
R
The lubricant factor, Z
L
, accounts for the influence of the
type of lubricant and its viscosity, the speed factor, Z
V
, ac
counts for the influence of the pitch line velocity and the
roughness factor, Z
R
, accounts for influence of the surface
roughness on the surface endurance capacity.
The following methods may be applied in connection with
the endurance limit:
20 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Surface hardened steels Not surface hardened
steels
Z
L
( )
2
40
/ 134 2 . 1
36 . 0
91 . 0
ν +
+
( )
2
40
/ 134 2 . 1
68 . 0
83 . 0
ν +
+
Z
V
( ) v / 32 8 . 0
14 . 0
93 . 0
+
+
( ) v / 32 8 . 0
30 . 0
85 . 0
+
+
Z
R
08 . 0
Zrel
R
3


.

\

15 . 0
Zrel
R
3


.

\

where:
ν
40
= Kinematic oil viscosity at 40ºC (mm
2
/s).
For case hardened steels the influence of a high
bulk temperature (see 4. Scuffing) should be con
sidered. E.g. bulk temperatures in excess of
120ºC for long periods may cause reduced flank
surface endurance limits.
For values of ν
40
> 500, use ν
40
= 500.
R
Zrel
= The mean roughness between pinion and wheel
(after running in) relative to an equivalent radius
of curvature at the pitch point ρ
c
= 10mm.
R
Zrel
= ( )
3
1
c
Z2 Z1
ρ
10
R R 5 . 0


.

\

+
R
Z
= Mean peak to valley roughness (µm) (DIN defini
tion) (roughly R
Z
= 6 R
a
)
For
5
L
10 N ≤ : Z
L
Z
V
Z
R
= 1.0
2.11 Work Hardening Factor, Z
W
The work hardening factor, Z
W
, accounts for the increase of
surface durability of a soft steel gear when meshing the soft
steel gear with a surface hardened or substantially harder
gear with a smooth surface.
The following approximation may be used for the endurance
limit:
Surface hardened steel against not surface hardened steel:
15 . 0
Zeq
W
R
3
1700
130 HB
2 . 1 Z
−
− =
where:
HB = the Brinell hardness of the soft member
For HB > 470, use HB = 470
For HB < 130, use HB = 130
R
Zeq
= equivalent roughness
0.33
c 40
0.66
ZS
ZH
ZH ZEQ
ρ v ν
15000
R
R
R R


.

\



.

\

=
If R
Zeq
> 16 , then use R
Zeq
= 16
If R
Zeq
< 1.5 , then use R
Zeq
= 1.5
where:
R
ZH
= surface roughness of the hard member before run
in.
R
ZS
= surface roughness of the soft member before run
in
ν
40
= see 2.10.
If values of Z
W
< 1 are evaluated, Z
W
= 1 should be used for
flank endurance. However, the low value for Z
W
may indi
cate a potential wear problem.
Through hardened pinion against softer wheel:
( )


.

\

− ⋅ − + = 0.00829
HB
HB
0.00898 1 u 1 Z
2
1
W
For 2 . 1
HB
HB
2
1
≤ use Z
W
= 1
For 7 . 1
HB
HB
2
1
> use 1.7
HB
HB
2
1
=
For u > 20 , use u = 20
For static strength (< 10
5
cycles):
Surface hardened against not surface hardened
Z
Wst
= 1.05
Through hardened pinion against softer wheel
Z
Wst
= 1
2.12 Size Factor, Z
X
The size factor accounts for statistics indicating that the
stress levels at which fatigue damage occurs decrease with an
increase of component size, as a consequence of the influ
ence on subsurface defects combined with small stress gradi
ents, and of the influence of size on material quality.
Z
X
may be taken unity provided that subsurface fatigue for
surface hardened pinions and wheels is considered, e.g. as in
the following subsection 2.13.
2.13 Subsurface Fatigue
This is only applicable to surface hardened pinions and
wheels. The main objective is to have a subsurface safety
against fatigue (endurance limit) or deformation (static
strength) which is at least as high as the safety S
H
required
for the surface. The following method may be used as an
approximation unless otherwise documented.
The high cycle fatigue (>3·10
6
cycles) is assumed to mainly
depend on the orthogonal shear stresses. Static strength
(<10
3
cycles) is assumed to depend mainly on equivalent
Classification Notes No. 41.2 21
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
stresses (von Mises). Both are influenced by residual
stresses, but this is only considered roughly and empirically.
The subsurface working stresses at depths inside the peak of
the orthogonal shear stresses respectively the equivalent
stresses are only dependent on the (real) Hertzian stresses.
Surface related conditions as expressed by Z
L
, Z
V
and Z
R
are
assumed to have a negligible influence.
The real Hertzian stresses σ
HR
are determined as:
For helical gears with ε
β
> 1 :
σ
HR
= σ
H
For helical gears with ε
β
< 1 and spur gears:
ε
α
β
β
ε
ε
+ ε −
⋅ σ = σ
Z
1
H HR
For bevel gears:
K
H HR
Z
1
σ σ ⋅ =
The necessary hardness HV is given as a function of the net
depth t
z
(net = after grinding or hard metal hobbing, and per
pendicular to the flank).
The coordinates t
z
and HV are to be compared with the de
sign specification, such as:
• for flame and induction hardening; t
HVmin
, HV
min
• for nitriding; t
400min
, HV = 400
• for case hardening; t
550min
, HV = 550; t
400min
, HV = 400
and t
300min
, HV = 300 (the latter only if the core hardness
< 300. If the core hardness > 400, the t
400
is to be re
placed by a fictive t
400
= 1.6 · t
550
).
In addition the specified surface hardness is not to be less
than the max necessary hardness (at t
z
= 0.5·a
H
). This applies
to all hardening methods.
For high cycle fatigue (>3 · 10
6
cycles) the following applies:





.

\

⋅
+
−
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
o
90
0.5
a
z
t
0.5
a
z
t
cos S σ 0.4 HV
H
H
H HR
applicable to 0.5
a
z
t
H
≥
For 0.5
a
t
H
z
< the value for 0.5
a
t
H
z
= applies
56300
ρ S σ
1.2 a
c H HR
H
⋅ ⋅
⋅ =
Where a
H
is half the hertzian contact width multiplied by an
empirical factor of 1.2 that takes into account the possible
influence of reduced compressive residual stresses (or even
tensile residual stresses) on the local fatigue strength.
If any of the specified hardness depths including the surface
hardness is below the curve described by HV = f (t
z
), the
actual safety factor against subsurface fatigue is determined
as follows:
reduce S
H
stepwise in the formula for HV and a
H
until all
specified hardness depths and surface hardness balance
with the corrected curve. The safety factor obtained
through this method is the safety against subsurface
fatigue.
For static strength (<10
3
cycles) the following applies:




.

\

⋅
+
−
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
o
90
0.7
a
t
0.6
a
z
t
cos S σ 0.19 HV
Hst
z
Hst
H HR
applicable to 0.6
a
t
Hst
z
≥
56300
ρ S σ
a
c H HR
Hst
⋅ ⋅
=
In the case of insufficient specified hardness depths, the
same procedure for determination of the actual safety factor
as above applies.
For limited life fatigue (10
3
< cycles < 3·10
6
):
For this purpose it is necessary to extend the correction of
safety factors to include also higher values than required. I.e.
in the case of more than sufficient hardness and depths, the
safety factor in the formulae for both high cycle fatigue and
static strength are to be increased until necessary and speci
fied values balance.
The actual safety factor for a given number of cycles N be
tween 10
3
and 3·10
6
is found by linear interpolation in a dou
ble logarithmic diagram.
− ⋅
−
=
⋅
logN
3.477
logS logS
logS
3
10 H
6
10 3 H
HN
3 6
10 H 10 3 H
S log 8628 . 1 S log 8628 . 0 ⋅ + ⋅
⋅
22 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3. Calculation of Tooth Strength
3.1 Scope and General Remarks
Part 3 include the calculation of tooth root strength as limited
by tooth root cracking (surface or subsurface initiated) and
yielding.
For rim thickness s
R
≥ 3.5·m
n
the strength is calculated by
means of 3.2 – 3.13. For cylindrical gears the calculation is
based on the assumption that the highest tooth root tensile
stress arises by application of the force at the outer point of
single tooth pair contact of the virtual spur gears. The
method has, however, a few limitations that are mentioned in
3.6.
For bevel gears the calculation is based on force application
at the tooth tip of the virtual cylindrical gear. Subsequently
the stress is converted to load application at the mid point of
the flank due to the heightwise crowning.
Bevel gears may also be calculated with the program
BECAL. In that case, K
A
and K
v
are to be included in the
applied tooth force, but not K
Fβ
and K
Fα
.
In case of a thin annulus or a thin gear rim etc, radial crack
ing can occur rather than tangential cracking (from root fillet
to root fillet). Cracking can also start from the compression
fillet rather than the tension fillet. For rim thickness s
R
<
3.5·m
n
a special calculation procedure is given in 3.15 and
3.16, and a simplified procedure in 3.14.
A tooth breakage is often the end of the life of a gear trans
mission. Therefore, a high safety S
F
against breakage is re
quired.
It should be noted that this part 3 does not cover fractures
caused by:
• oil holes in the tooth root space
• wear steps on the flank
• flank surface distress such as pits, spalls or grey staining
Especially the latter is known to cause oblique fractures
starting from the active flank, predominately in spiral bevel
gears, but also sometimes in cylindrical gears.
Specific calculation methods for these purposes are not given
here, but are under consideration for future revisions. Thus,
depending on experience with similar gear designs, limita
tions other than those outlined in part 3 may be applied.
3.2 Tooth Root Stresses
The local tooth root stress is defined as the max. principal
stress in the tooth root caused by application of the tooth
force. I.e. the stress ratio R = 0. Other stress ratios such as
for e.g. idler gears (R ≈ 1.2), shrunk on gear rims (R > 0),
etc. are considered by correcting the permissible stress level.
3.2.1 Local tooth root stress
The local tooth root stress for pinion and wheel may be as
sessed by strain gauge measurements or FE calculations or
similar. For both measurements and calculations all details
are to be agreed in advance.
Normally, the stresses for pinion and wheel are calculated as:
Cylindrical gears:
Fα Fβ v γ A β S F
n
t
F
K K K K K Y Y Y
m b
F
σ =
where:
Y
F
= Tooth form factor (see 3.3).
Y
S
= Stress correction factor (see 3.4).
Y
β
= Helix angle factor (see 3.6).
F
t
, K
A
, K
γ
, K
v
, K
Fβ
, K
Fα
, see 1.5 – 1.10.
b, see 1.3.
Bevel gears:
Fα Fβ v γ A Sa Fa
mn
mt
F
K K K K K Y Y Y
m b
F
σ
ε
=
where:
Y
Fa
= Tooth form factor, see 3.3.
Y
Sa
= Stress correction factor, see 3.4.
Y
ε
= Contact ratio factor, see 3.5.
F
mt
, K
A
, etc., see 1.5 – 1.10.
b, see 1.3.
3.2.2 Permissible tooth root stress
The permissible local tooth root stress for pinion respectively
wheel for a given number of cycles, N, is:
C X RrelT relT
F
N M FE
FP
Y Y Y Y
S
Y Y
δ
σ
= σ
Note that all these factors Y
M
etc. are applicable to 3·10
6
cycles when used in this formula for σ
FP
. The influence of
other number of cycles on these factors is covered by the
calculation of Y
N
.
where:
σ
FE
= Local tooth root bending endurance limit of
reference test gear (see 3.7).
Y
M
= Mean stress influence factor which accounts
for other loads than constant load direction,
e.g. idler gears, temporary change of load di
rection, prestress due to shrinkage, etc. (see
3.8).
Y
N
= Life factor for tooth root stresses related to
reference test gear dimensions (see 3.9).
S
F
= Required safety factor according to the rules.
Y
δrelT
= Relative notch sensitivity factor of the gear to
be determined, related to the reference test
gear (see 3.10).
Y
RrelT
= Relative (root fillet) surface condition factor
of the gear to be determined, related to the
reference test gear (see 3.11).
Classification Notes No. 41.2 23
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Y
X
= Size factor (see 3.12).
Y
C
= Case depth factor (see 3.13).
3.3 Tooth Form Factors Y
F
, Y
Fa
The tooth form factors Y
F
and Y
Fa
take into account the in
fluence of the tooth form on the nominal bending stress.
Y
F
applies to load application at the outer point of single
tooth pair contact of the virtual spur gear pair and is used for
cylindrical gears.
Y
Fa
applies to load application at the tooth tip and is used for
bevel gears.
Both Y
F
and Y
Fa
are based on the distance between the con
tact points of the 30˚tangents at the root fillet of the tooth
profile for external gears, respectively 60˚ tangents for inter
nal gears.
Figure 3.1 External tooth in normal section
Figure 3.2 Internal tooth in normal section
Definitions:
n
2
n
Fn
en F
n
Fe
F
α cos
m
s
α cos
m
h
6
Y


.

\

=
n
2
n
Fn
an F
n
Fa
Fa
α cos
m
s
α cos
m
h
6
Y


.

\

=
In the case of helical gears, Y
F
and Y
Fa
are determined in the
normal section, i.e. for a virtual number of teeth.
Y
Fa
differs from Y
F
by the bending moment arm h
Fa
and α
Fan
and can be determined by the same procedure as Y
F
with
exception of h
Fe
and α
Fan
. For h
Fa
and α
Fan
all indices
e
will
change to
a
(tip).
The following formulae apply to cylindrical gears, but may
also be used for bevel gears when replacing:
m
n
with m
nm
z
n
with z
vn
α
t
with α
vt
β with β
m
with undercut without undercut
Fig. 3.3 Dimensions and basic rack profile of the teeth
(finished profile)
Tool and basic rack data such as h
fP
, ρ
fp
and s
pr
etc. are re
ferred to m
n
, i.e. dimensionless.
3.3.1 Determination of parameters
( )
n
n
pr n fP
n fP
m
α cos
s α sin 1 ' ρ
α tan h
4
π
E
− −
− − =
For external gears
fP fP
ρ ' ρ =
For internal gears
( )
0
z
1.95
fP fP 0
fP fP
1.036 3.156
ρ h x
ρ ' ρ
⋅
− +
+ =
where
z
0
= number of teeth of pinion cutter
x
0
= addendum modification coefficient of pinion cutter
h
fP
= addendum of pinion cutter
ρ
fP
= tip radius of pinion cutter
x h ' ρ G
fp fp
+ − =
24 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
τ
m
E
2
π
z
2
H
n n
−


.

\

− =
with
3
π
τ = for external gears
6
π
τ = for internal gears
H tan
z
G
2
n
− ϑ = ϑ
(to be solved iteratively, suitable start value
6
π
= ϑ for exter
nal gears and
3
π
for internal gears).
a) Tooth root chord s
Fn
:
For external gears


.

\

−
ϑ
+ 
.

\

ϑ − = ' ρ
cos
G
3
3
π
sin z
m
s
fp n
n
Fn
For bevel gears with a tooth thickness modification:
x
sm
affects mainly s
Fn
, but also h
Fe
and α
Fen
. The total
influence of x
sm
on Y
Fa
Y
sa
can be approximated by only
adding 2 x
sm
to s
Fn
/ m
n
.
For internal gears

.

\

−
ϑ
+ 
.

\

ϑ − = ' ρ
cos
G
6
π
sin z
m
s
fP n
n
Fn
b) Root fillet radius ρ
F
at 30º tangent:
( ) G 2 cos z cos
G 2
' ρ
m
ρ
2
n
2
fp
n
F
− ϑ ϑ
+ =
c) Determination of bending moment arm h
F
:
d
n
= z
n
m
n
b
2
α
αn
β cos
ε
ε =
d
an
= d
n
+ 2 h
a
p
bn
= π m
n
cos α
n
d
bn
= d
n
cos α
n
( )
4
d
1 ε p
z
z
2
d d
z
z 2
d
2
bn
2
αn bn
2
bn
2
an
en
+



.

\

− −
−
=
en
bn
en
d
d
cos arc α =
en n n
n
e
α inv α inv α x tan 2
2
π
z
1
− + 
.

\

+ = γ
α
Fen
= α
en
– γ
e
For external gears
( )
− =
n
en
Fen e e
n
Fe
m
d
α tan sin γ γ cos
2
1
m
h
 ' ρ
cos
G
3
π
cos z
fp n
+
ϑ
− 
.

\

ϑ − −
For internal gears
( ) −
⋅ ⋅ − =
n
en
Fen e e
n
Fe
m
d
α tan γ sin γ cos
2
1
m
h

.

\

−
ϑ
− 
.

\

ϑ − ⋅ ' ρ
cos
G
3
6
π
cos z
fP n
3.3.2 Gearing with ε
αn
> 2
For deep tooth form gearing ( ) 2.5 ε 2
αn
≤ ≤ produced with a
verified grade of accuracy of 4 or better, and with applied
profile modification to obtain a trapezoidal load distribution
along the path of contact, the Y
F
may be corrected by the
factor Y
DT
as:
2.50 ε 2.05 for 0.666ε 2.366 Y
αn αn DT
≤ ≤ − =
2.05 ε for 1.0 Y
αn DT
< =
3.4 Stress Correction Factors Y
S
, Y
Sa
The stress correction factors Y
S
and Y
Sa
take into account the
conversion of the nominal bending stress to the local tooth
root stress. Thereby Y
S
and Y
Sa
cover the stress increasing
effect of the notch (fillet) and the fact that not only bending
stresses arise at the root. A part of the local stress is inde
pendent of the bending moment arm. This part increases the
more the decisive point of load application approaches the
critical tooth root section.
Therefore, in addition to its dependence on the notch radius,
the stress correction is also dependent on the position of the
load application, i.e. the size of the bending moment arm.
Y
S
applies to the load application at the outer point of single
tooth pair contact, Y
Sa
to the load application at tooth tip.
Y
S
can be determined as follows:
( )


.

\

+
+ =
/L 2.3 1.21
1
s S
q L 0.13 1.2 Y
where:
Fe
Fn
h
s
L = and
F
Fn
s
ρ 2
s
q = (see 3.3).
Y
Sa
can be calculated by replacing h
Fe
with h
Fa
in the above
formulae.
Note:
a) Range of validity 1 < q
s
< 8
In case of sharper root radii (i.e. produced with tools having too
sharp tip radii), Y
S
resp. Y
Sa
must be specially considered.
b) In case of grinding notches (due to insufficient protuberance of
the hob), Y
S
resp. Y
Sa
can rise considerably, and must be
multiplied with:
Classification Notes No. 41.2 25
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
g
g
ρ
t
0.6 1.3
1.3
−
where:
t
g
= depth of the grinding notch
ρ
g
= radius of the grinding notch
c) The formulae for Y
S
resp. Y
Sa
are only valid for α
n
= 20˚.
However, the same formulae can be used as a safe
approximation for other pressure angles.
3.5 Contact Ratio Factor Y
ε
The contact ratio factor Y
ε
covers the conversion from load
application at the tooth tip to the load application at the mid
point of the flank (heightwise) for bevel gears.
The following may be used:
Y
ε
= 0.625
3.6 Helix Angle Factor Y
β
The helix angle factor Y
β
takes into account the difference
between the helical gear and the virtual spur gear in the nor
mal section on which the calculation is based in the first step.
In this way it is accounted for that the conditions for tooth
root stresses are more favourable because the lines of contact
are sloping over the flank.
The following may be used (β input in degrees):
Y
β
= 1 – ε
β
β/120
When ε
β
> 1, use ε
β
= 1 and when β > 30° , use β = 30° in the
formula.
However, the above equation for Y
β
may only be used for
gears with β > 25° if adequate tip relief is applied to both
pinion and wheel (adequate = at least 0.5 · C
eff
, see 4.3.2).
3.7 Values of Endurance Limit, σ
FE
σ
FE
is the local tooth root stress (max. principal) which the
material can endure permanently with 99% survival prob
ability. 3·10
6
load cycles is regarded as the beginning of the
endurance limit or the lower knee of the σ – N curve. σ
FE
is
defined as the unidirectional pulsating stress with a minimum
stress of zero (disregarding residual stresses due to heat
treatment). Other stress conditions such as alternating or
prestressed etc. are covered by the conversion factor Y
M
.
σ
FE
can be found by pulsating tests or gear running tests for
any material in any condition. If the approval of the gear is
to be based on the results of such tests, all details on the
testing conditions have to be approved by the Society. Fur
ther, the tests may have to be made under the Society's su
pervision.
If no fatigue tests are available, the following listed values
for σ
FE
may be used for materials subjected to a quality con
trol as the one referred to in the rules.
σ
FE
Alloyed case hardened steels
1)
(fillet
surface hardness 58 – 63 HRC):
• of specially approved high grade:
1050
• of normal grade:
− CrNiMo steels with approved
process:
1000
− CrNi and CrNiMo steels generally: 920
− MnCr steels generally: 850
Nitriding steel of approved grade,
quenched, tempered and gas nitrided
(surface hardness 700 – 800 HV):
840
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel,
bath or gas nitrided (surface hardness 500
– 700 HV):
720
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel,
flame or induction hardened
2)
(incl. entire
root fillet) (fillet surface hardness 500 –
650 HV):
0.7 HV + 300
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel,
flame or induction hardened (excl. entire
root fillet) (σ
B
= u.t.s. of base material):
0.25 σ
B
+ 125
Alloyed quenched and tempered steel: 0.4 σ
B
+ 200
Carbon steel: 0.25 σ
B
+ 250
Note:
All numbers given above are valid for separate forgings
and for blanks cut from bars forged according to a
qualified procedure, see Pt. 4 Ch. 2 Sec. 3. For rolled
steel, the values are to be reduced with 10%. For blanks
cut from forged bars, that are not qualified as mentioned
above, the values are to be reduced with 20%, For cast
steel, reduce with 40%.
1) These values are valid for a root radius
• being unground. If, however, any grinding is made in
the root fillet area in such a way that the residual
stresses may be affected, σ
FE
is to be reduced by 20%.
(If the grinding also leaves a notch, see 3.4).
• with fillet surface hardness 58 – 63 HRC. In case of
lower surface hardness than 58 HRC, σ
FE
is to be
reduced with 20·(58 – HRC) where HRC is the
detected hardness. (This may lead to a permissible
tooth root stress that varies along the facewidth. If so,
the actual tooth root stresses may also be considered
along facewidth.)
• not being shot peened. In case of approved shot
peening, σ
FE
may be increased by 200 for gears where
σ
FE
is reduced by 20% due to root grinding.
Otherwise σ
FE
may be increased by 100 for
6
n
m ≤ and 100 – 5 (m
n
 6) for m
n
> 6.
However, the possible adverse influence on the flanks
regarding grey staining should be considered, and if
necessary the flanks should be masked.
2) The fillet is not to be ground after surface hardening.
Regarding possible root grinding, see 1).
26 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3.8 Mean stress influence Factor, Y
M
The mean stress influence factor, Y
M
, takes into account the
influence of other working stress conditions than pure pulsa
tions (R = 0), such as e.g. load reversals, idler gears, planets
and shrinkfitted gears.
Y
M
(Y
Mst
) are defined as the ratio between the endurance (or
static) strength with a stress ratio R ≠ 0, and the endurance
(or static) strength with R = 0.
Y
M
and Y
Mst
apply only to a calculation method that assesses
the positive (tensile) stresses and is therefore suitable for
comparison between the calculated (positive) working stress
σ
F
and the permissible stress σ
FP
calculated with Y
M
or Y
Mst
.
For thin rings (annulus) in epicyclic gears where the "com
pression" fillet may be decisive, special considerations apply,
see 3.16.
The following method may be used within a stress ratio
–1.2 < R < 0.5:
3.8.1 For idlers, planets and PTO with ice class
M 1
M 1
R 1
1
Y or Y
Mst M
+
−
−
=
where:
R = stress ratio = min. stress divided by max. stress.
For designs with the same force applied on both forward
and backflank, R may be assumed to – 1.2.
For designs with considerably different forces on forward
and backflank, such as e.g. a marine propulsion wheel with
a power take off pinion, R may be assessed as:
branch main the of facewidth unit per force
p.t.o. of facewidt unit per force
2 . 1 −
For a power take off (PTO) with ice class, see 1.6.1 c.
M considers the mean stress influence on the endurance (or
static) strength amplitudes.
M is defined as the reduction of the endurance strength am
plitude for a certain increase of the mean stress divided by
that increase of the mean stress.
Following M values may be used:
Endurance
limit
Static
strength
Case hardened 0.8 – 0.15 Y
s
1)
0.7
If shot peened 0.4 0.6
Nitrided 0.3 0.3
Induction or flame
hardened
0.4 0.6
Not surface hardened steel 0.3 0.5
Cast steels 0.4 0.6
1)
For bevel gears, use Y
s
=2 for determination of M.
The listed M values for the endurance limit are independent
of the fillet shape (Y
s
), except for case hardening. In princi
ple there is a dependency, but wide variations usually only
occur for case hardening, e.g. smooth semicircular fillets
versus grinding notches.
3.8.2 For gears with periodical change of rotational
direction
For case hardened gears with full load applied periodically in
both directions, such as side thrusters, the same formula for
Y
M
as for idlers (with R = – 1.2) may be used together with
the M values for endurance limit. This simplified approach
is valid when the number of changes of direction exceeds
100 and the total number of load cycles exceeds 3·10
6
.
For gears of other materials, Y
M
will normally be higher than
for a pure idler, provided the number of changes of direction
is below 3·10
6
. A linear interpolation in a diagram with loga
rithmic number of changes of direction may be used, i.e.
from Y
M
= 0.9 with one change to Y
M
(idler) for 3·10
6
changes. This is applicable to Y
M
for endurance limit. For
static strength, use Y
M
as for idlers.
For gears with occasional full load in reversed direction,
such as the main wheel in a reversing gear box, Y
M
= 0.9
may be used.
3.8.3 For gears with shrinkage stresses and
unidirectional load
For endurance strength:
FE
fit
M
σ
σ
M 1
M 2
1 Y
+
− =
σ
FE
is the endurance limit for R = 0.
For static strength, Y
Mst
= 1 and σ
fit
accounted for in 3.9.b.
σ
fit
is the shrinkage stress in the fillet (30˚ tangent) and may
be found by multiplying the nominal tangential (hoop) stress
with a stress concentration factor:
n
F
. fit
m
ρ 2
1.5 scf − =
3.8.4 For shrinkfitted idlers and planets
When combined conditions apply, such as idlers with shrink
age stresses, the design factor for endurance strength is:
( ) ( )
FE
fit
M
σ
σ
R 1 M 1
M 2
M 1
M 1
R 1
1
Y
− ⋅ +
−
+
−
−
=
Symbols as above, but note that the stress ratio R in this par
ticular connection should disregard the influence of σ
fit
, i.e. R
normally equal – 1.2.
For static strength:
M 1
M 1
R 1
1
Y
Mst
+
−
−
=
The effect of σ
fit
is accounted for in 3.9 b.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 27
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3.8.5 Additional requirements for peak loads
The total stress range (σ
max
– σ
min
) in a tooth root fillet is not
to exceed:
F
y
S
σ 2.25
for not surface hardened fillets
F
S
HV 5
for surface hardened fillets
3.9 Life Factor, Y
N
The life factor, Y
N
, takes into account that, in the case of
limited life (number of cycles), a higher tooth root stress can
be permitted and that lower stresses may apply for very high
number of cycles.
Decisive for the strength at limited life is the σ – N – curve
of the respective material for given hardening, module, fillet
radius, roughness in the tooth root, etc. I.e. the factors Y
δrelT
,
Y
RelT
, Y
X
and Y
M
have an influence on Y
N
.
If no σ – N – curve for the actual material and hardening etc.
is available, the following method may be used.
Determination of the σ – N – curve:
a) Calculate the permissible stress σ
FP
for the beginning of
the endurance limit (3·10
6
cycles), including the influ
ence of all relevant factors as S
F
, Y
δrelT
, Y
RelT
, Y
X
, Y
M
and Y
C
,
i.e.
σ
FP
= σ
FE
·Y
M
·Y
δrelT
·Y
RelT
·Y
X
·Y
C
/ S
F
b) Calculate the permissible «static» stress ( ≤ 10
3
load cy
cles) including the influence of all relevant factors as
S
Fst
, Y
δrelTst
, Y
Mst
and Y
Cst
:
( )
fit
σ
Cst
Y
δrelTst
Y
Mst
Y
Fst
σ
Fst
S
1
FPst
σ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
where σ
Fst
is the local tooth root stress which the
material can resist without cracking (surface hardened
materials) or unacceptable deformation (not surface
hardened materials) with 99% survival probability.
σ
Fst
Alloyed case hardened steel
1)
2300
Nitriding steel, quenched,
tempered and gas nitrided (surface
hardness
700 – 800 HV)
1250
Alloyed quenched and tempered
steel, bath or gas nitrided (surface
hardness 500 – 700 HV)
1050
Alloyed quenched and tempered
steel, flame or induction hardened
(fillet surface hardness 500 – 650
HV)
1.8 HV + 800
Steel with not surface hardened
fillets, the smaller value of
2)
1.8 σ
B
or 2.25 σ
y
1)
This is valid for a fillet surface hardness of 58 – 63 HRC.
In case of lower fillet surface hardness than 58 HRC, σ
Fst
is to
be reduced with 30·(58 – HRC) where HRC is the actual
hardness. Shot peening or grinding notches are not considered
to have any significant influence on σ
Fst
.
2)
Actual stresses exceeding the yield point (σy or σ0.2) will
alter the residual stresses locally in the “tension” fillet re
spectively “compression” fillet. This is only to be utilised for
gears that are not later loaded with a high number of cycles at
lower loads that could cause fatigue in the “compression”
fillet.
c) Calculate Y
N
as:
N
L
> 3·10
6
Y
N
= 1 or
0.01
L
6
N
N
10 3
Y


.

\

⋅
= i.e. Y
n
= 0.92 for 10
10
The Y
N
= 1 from 3·10
6
on may only be used
when special material cleanness applies, see
rules Pt.4 Ch.2.
10
3
<N
L
<3·10
6
exp
L
6
N
N
10 3
Y


.

\

⋅
=
cycles
6
10 3 for σ
cycles
3
10 for σ
log 0.2876 exp
FP
FPst
⋅
=
N
L
< 10
3
cycles
6
10 3 for σ
cycles
3
10 for σ
N
Y
FP
FPst
⋅
=
or simply use σ
FPst
as mentioned in b)
directly.
Guidance on number of load cycles N
L
for various applica
tions:
• For propulsion purpose, normally N
L
= 10
10
at full load
(yachts etc. may have lower values).
• For auxiliary gears driving generators that normally
operate with 7090% of rated power, N
L
= 10
8
with rated
power may be applied.
28 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3.10 Relative Notch Sensitivity Factor, Y
δrelT
The dynamic (respectively static) relative notch sensitivity
factor, Y
δrelT
(Y
δrelTst
) indicate to which extent the theoreti
cally concentrated stress lies above the endurance limits (re
spectively static strengths) in the case of fatigue (respectively
overload) breakage.
Y
δrelT
is a function of the material and the relative stress gra
dient. It differs for static strength and endurance limit.
The following method may be used:
For endurance limit:
for not surface hardened fillets:
( )
0.2
4
s 0,2
4
relT
σ 10 3 1.33
q 2 1 σ 10 1.22 0.135 1
Y
⋅ ⋅ −
+ ⋅ ⋅ − +
=
−
−
δ
for all surface hardened fillets except nitrided:
( )
1.06
q 2 1 0.0245 1
Y
s
relT
+ +
=
δ
for nitrided fillets:
( )
1.347
q 2 1 0.142 1
Y
s
relT
+ +
=
δ
For static strength:
for not surface hardened fillets
1)
:
( )( )
( )
0.25
0.2
0.25
0.2 s
relTst
/σ 300 0.82 1
/σ 300 1 Y 0.82 1
Y
+
− +
=
δ
for surface hardened fillets except nitrided:
Y
δrelTst
= 0.44 Y
S
+ 0.12
for nitrided fillets:
Y
δrelTst
= 0.6 + 0.2 Y
S
1)
These values are only valid if the local stresses do not
exceed the yield point and thereby alter the residual stress
level. See also 3.9b footnote 2.
3.11 Relative Surface Condition Factor, Y
RrelT
The relative surface condition factor, Y
RrelT
, takes into ac
count the dependence of the tooth root strength on the sur
face condition in the tooth root fillet, mainly the dependence
on the peak to valley surface roughness.
Y
RrelT
differs for endurance limit and static strength.
The following method may be used:
For endurance limit:
Y
RrelT
= 1.675 – 0.53 (R
y
+ 1)
0.1
for surface hardened steels and alloyed quenched and
tempered steels except nitrided
Y
RrelT
= 5.3 – 4.2 (R
y
+ 1)
0.01
for carbon steels
Y
δrelT
= 4.3 – 3.26 (R
y
+ 1)
0.005
for nitrided steels
For static strength:
Y
RrelTst
= 1 for all R
y
and all materials.
For a fillet without any longitudinal machining trace,
R
y
≈ R
z
.
3.12 Size Factor, Y
X
The size factor, Y
X
, takes into account the decrease of the
strength with increasing size. Y
X
differs for endurance limit
and static strength.
The following may be used:
For endurance limit:
Y
X
= 1 for m
n
≤ 5 generally
Y
X
= 1.03 – 0.006 m
n
for 5 < m
n
< 30
Y
X
= 0.85 for m
n
≥ 30
for not
surface hard
ened steels
Y
X
= 1.05 – 0.01 m
n
for 5 < m
n
≥ 25
Y
X
= 0.8 for m
n
≥ 25
for surface
hardened
steels
For static strength:
Y
Xst
= 1 for all m
n
and all materials.
3.13 Case Depth Factor, Y
C
The case depth factor, Y
C
, takes into account the influence of
hardening depth on tooth root strength.
Y
C
applies only to surface hardened tooth roots, and is dif
ferent for endurance limit and static strength.
In case of insufficient hardening depth, fatigue cracks can
develop in the transition zone between the hardened layer
and the core. For static strength, yielding shall not occur in
the transition zone, as this would alter the surface residual
stresses and therewith also the fatigue strength.
The major parameters are case depth, stress gradient, permis
sible surface respectively subsurface stresses, and subsurface
residual stresses.
The following simplified method for Y
C
may be used.
Y
C
consists of a ratio between permissible subsurface stress
(incl. influence of expected residual stresses) and permissible
surface stress. This ratio is multiplied with a bracket con
taining the influence of case depth and stress gradient. (The
empirical numbers in the bracket are based on a high number
of teeth, and are somewhat on the safe side for low number
of teeth.)
Y
C
and Y
Cst
may be calculated as given below, but calculated
values above 1.0 are to be put equal 1.0.
For endurance limit:


.

\

+
+ =
n F FE
C
m 0.2 ρ
t 3
1
σ
. const
Y
Classification Notes No. 41.2 29
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
For static strength:


.

\

+
+ =
n F Fst
Cst
m 0.2 ρ
t 3
1
σ
. const
Y
where const. and t are connected as:
Hardening
process
t = endurance
limit const =
static strength
const =
t
550
640 1900
t
400
500 1200
Case hard
ening
t
300
380 800
Nitriding t
400
500 1200
Induction or
flame
hardening
t
HVmin
1.1 HV
min
2.5 HV
min
For symbols, see 2.13.
In addition to these requirements to minimum case depths for
endurance limit, some upper limitations apply to case hard
ened gears:
The max. depth to 550 HV should not exceed
1) 1/3 of the top land thickness s
an
unless adequate tip relief
is applied (see 1.10).
2) 0.25 m
n
. If this is exceeded, the following applies addi
tionally in connection with endurance limit:


.

\

− − = 0.25
m
t
1 Y
n
max 550
C
3.14 Thin rim factor Y
B
Where the rim thickness is not sufficient to provide full sup
port for the tooth root, the location of a bending failure may
be through the gear rim, rather than from root fillet to root
fillet.
Y
B
is not a factor used to convert calculated root stresses at
the 30° tangent to actual stresses in a thin rim tension fillet.
Actually, the compression fillet can be more susceptible to
fatigue.
Y
B
is a simplified empirical factor used to derate thin rim
gears (external as well as internal) when no detailed calcula
tion of stresses in both tension and compression fillets are
available.
Figure 3.4 Examples on thin rims
Y
B
is applicable in the range 1.75 < s
R
/m
n
< 3.5.
Y
B
= 1.15 · ln (8.324 · m
n
/s
R
)
(for s
R
/m
n
≥ 3.5 , Y
B
= 1)
(for s
R
/m
n
≤ 1.75 , use 3.15)
σ
F
as calculated in 3.2.1 is to be multiplied with Y
B
when
s
R
/m
n
< 3.5. Thus Y
B
is used for both high and low cycle
fatigue.
Note: This method is considered to be on the safe side for
external gear rims. However, for internal gear rims without
any flange or web stiffeners the method may not be on the
safe side, and it is advised to check with the method in
3.15/3.16.
3.15 Stresses in Thin Rims
For rim thickness s
R
< 3.5 m
n
the safety against rim cracking
has to be checked.
The following method may be used.
3.15.1 General
The stresses in the standardised 30º tangent section, tension
side, are slightly reduced due to decreasing stress correction
factor with decreasing relative rim thickness s
R
/m
n
. On the
other hand, during the complete stress cycle of that fillet, a
certain amount of compression stresses are also introduced.
The complete stress range remains approximately constant.
Therefore, the standardised calculation of stresses at the 30º
tangent may be retained for thin rims as one of the necessary
criteria.
The maximum stress range for thin rims usually occurs at the
60º – 80º tangents, both for «tension» and «compression»
side. The following method assumes the 75º tangent to be
the decisive. Therefore, in addition to the a.m. criterion ap
plied at the 30º tangent, it is necessary to evaluate the max.
and min. stresses at the 75º tangent for both «tension»
(loaded flank) fillet and «compression» (backflank) fillet.
For this purpose the whole stress cycle of each fillet should
be considered, but usually the following simplification is
justified:
Figure 3.5 Nomenclature of fillets
Index «T» means «tensile» fillet, «C» means «compression»
fillet.
σ
FTmin
and σ
FCmax
are determined on basis of the nominal rim
stresses times the stress concentration factor, Y
75
.
σ
FCmin
and σ
FTmax
are determined on basis of superposition of
nominal rim stresses times Y
75
plus the tooth bending stresses
at 75º tangent.
30 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
3.15.2 Stress concentration factors at the 75º tangents
The nominal rim stress consists of bending stresses due to
local bending moments, tangential stresses due to the tan
gential force F
t
, and radial shear stresses due to F
r
.
The major influence is given by the bending stresses. The
influence of the tangential stresses is minor, and even though
its stress concentration factor is slightly higher than for
bending, it is considered to be safe enough when the sum of
these nominal stresses are combined with the stress concen
tration factor for bending. The influence of the radial shear
stress is neglected.
The stress concentration factor relating nominal rim stresses
to local fillet stresses at the 75º tangent may be calculated as:
75
n
R
75
n
R
75
ρ
m
s
ρ 1.85
m
s
3
Y
+
⋅
=
where ρ
75
is the root radius at the 75º tangent ref. to m
n
.
Usually ρ
75
is closed to the tool radius ρ
ao
, and
ρ
75
= ρ
ao
is a safe approximation compensating for the a.m. simplifi
cations to the «unsafe» side.
The tooth root stresses of the loaded tooth are decreasing
with decreasing relative rim thickness, approximately with
the empirical factor
1.5
R
n
corr
s
m
3
1
1 Y


.

\

− =
3.15.3 Nominal rim stresses
The bending moment applied to the rim consists of a part of
the tooth tilt moment F
t
(h
F
+ 0.5 s
R
) and the bending caused
by the radial force F
r
.
The sectional modulus (first moment of area) which is used
for determination of the nominal bending stresses is not nec
essarily the same for the 2 a.m. bending moments. If flanges,
webs, etc. outside the toothed section contribute to stiffening
the rim against various deflections, the influence of these
stiffeners should be considered. E.g. an end flange will have
an almost negligible influence on the effective sectional
modulus for the stresses due to tooth tilt as the deflection
caused by the tilt moment is rather small and would not
much involve the flange. On the other hand, the radial
forces, as for instance from the meshes in an annulus, would
cause considerable radial deflections that the flange might
restrict to a substantial amount. When considering the stiff
ening of such flanges or webs on basis of simplified models,
it is advised to use an effective rim thickness s
R
' = s
R
+ 0.2
m
n
for the first moment of area of the rim (toothed part) cross
section.
For a high number of rim teeth, it may be assumed that the
rim bending moments in the fillets adjacent to the loaded
tooth are of the same magnitude as right under the applied
force. This assumption is reasonable for an annulus, but
rather much on the safe side for a hollow pinion.
The influence of F
t
on the nominal tangential stress is simpli
fied by half of it for compressive stresses (σ
1
) and the other
half for tensile stresses (σ
2
). Applying these assumptions,
the nominal rim stresses adjacent to the loaded tooth are:
( ) ( )
A 2
F
W
f R F
W
s 0.5 h F 0.5
t
R
r
T
R F t
1
−
ϑ
−
+ −
= σ
( ) ( )
A 2
F
W
f R F
W
s 0.5 h F 0.5
t
R
r
T
R F t
2
+
ϑ
−
+
= σ
where σ
1
, σ
2
see Fig. 3.5.
A = minimum area of cross section (usually b
R
s
R
).
W
T
= the sectional modulus of rim with respect to tooth
tilt moment (usually 6 / s b
2
r R
).
W
R
= the sectional modulus of the rim including the
influence of stiffeners as flanges, webs etc. (W
R
≥
W
T
).
b
R
= the width of the rim.
R = the radius of the neutral axis in the rim, i.e. from
wheel centre to midpoint of rim.
( ) ϑ f = a function for bending moment distribution
around the rim.
For a rim (pinion) with one mesh only, the ( ) ϑ f
at the position of load application is 0.24.
For an annulus with 3 or more meshes, ( ) ϑ f at
the position of each load application is approx.:
3 planets ( ) ϑ f = 0.19
4 planets ( ) ϑ f = 0.14
5 planets ( ) ϑ f = 0.11
6 planets ( ) ϑ f = 0.09
It must be checked if the max. (tensile) stress in the compres
sion fillet really occurs when the fillet is adjacent to the
loaded tooth. In principle, the stress variation through a
complete rotation should be considered, and the max. value
used. The max. value is usually never less than 0. For an
annulus, e.g. the tilt moment is zero in the mid position be
tween the planet meshes, whilst the bending moment due to
the radial forces is half of that at the mesh but with opposite
sign.
If these formulae are applied to idler gears, as e.g. planets,
the influence of nominal tangential stresses must be cor
rected by deleting F
t
/(2 A) for σ
1
, and using F
t
/A for σ
2
.
Further, the influence of F
r
on the nominal bending stresses
is usually negligible due to the planet bearing support.
3.15.4 Root fillet stresses
Determination of min. and max. stresses in the «tension»
fillet:
Classification Notes No. 41.2 31
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Minimum stress:
75 1 FTmin
Y σ K σ =
Maximum stress:
corr F 75 2
Y σ 0.3 Y σ K σ
FTmax
+ =
where:
0.3 is an empirical factor relating the tension stresses (σ
F
) at
the 30º tangent to the part of the tension stresses at the 75º
tangent which add to the rim related stresses. (0.3 also takes
into account that full superposition of nominal stresses times
stress concentration factors from both «sides of the corner
fillet» would result in too high stresses.)
α β γ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
F F v A
K K K K K K
Determination of min. and max. stresses in the «compres
sion» fillet:
Minimum stress:
corr F 75 1 FCmin
Y σ 0.36 Y σ K σ − =
Maximum stress:
75 2 FCmax
Y σ K σ =
where:
0.36 is an empirical factor relating the tension stresses (σ
F
) at
the 30º tangent to the part of the compression stresses at the
75º tangent which add to the rim related stresses.
For gears with reversed loads as idler gears and planets there
is no distinct «tension» or «compression» fillet. The mini
mum stress σ
Fmin
is the minimum of σ
FTmin
and σ
FCmin
(usually
the latter is decisive). The maximum stress σ
FTmax
is the
maximum of σ
FTmax
and σ
FCmax
(usually the former is deci
sive).
3.16 Permissible Stresses in Thin Rims
3.16.1 General
The safety against fatigue fracture respectively overload
fracture is to be at least at the same level as for solid gears.
The «ordinary» criteria at the 30º tangent apply as given in
3.1 through 3.13.
Additionally the following criteria at the 75º tangent may
apply.
3.16.2 For >3·10
6
cycles
The permissible stresses for the «tension» fillets and for the
«compression» fillets are determined by means of a relevant
fatigue diagram.
If the actual tooth root stress (tensile or compressive) ex
ceeds the yield strength to the material, the induced residual
stresses are to be taken into account.
For determination of permissible stresses the following is
defined:
R = stress ratio, i.e.
FTmax
FTmin
σ
σ
respectively
FCmax
FCmin
σ
σ
∆σ = stress range, i.e. σ
FTmax
– σ
FTmin
resp. σ
FCmax
– σ
FCmin
.
(For idler gears and planets
Fmax
Fmin
σ
σ
R =
and ∆σ = σ
Fmax
− σ
Fmin
).
The permissible stress range ∆σ
ρ
for the «tension» respec
tively «compression» fillets can be calculated as:
For R > −1
FP p
σ
R 1
R 1
0.3 1
1.3
∆σ
−
+
+
=
For − ∞ < R < −1
FP p
σ
R 1
R 1
0.15 1
1.3
∆σ
−
+
+
=
where:
σ
FP
= see 3.2, determined for unidirectional stresses (Y
M
=
1).
If the yield strength σ
y
is exceeded in either tension or com
pression, residual stresses are induced. This may be consid
ered by correcting the stress ratio R for the respective fillets
(tension or compression).
E.g. if
y FCmin
σ σ > , (i.e. exceeded in compression), the
difference
y FCmin
σ σ ∆ − = affects the stress ratio as
∆ σ
σ
∆ σ
∆ σ
R
FCmax
y
FCmax
FCmin
+
−
=
+
+
=
Similarly the stress ratio in the tension fillet may require cor
rection.
If the yield strength is exceeded in tension, σ
FTmax
> σ
y
, the
difference ∆ = σ
FTmax
– σ
y
affects the stress ratio as
y
FTmin
FTmax
FTmin
σ
∆ σ
∆ σ
∆ σ
R
−
=
−
−
=
Checking for possible exceeding of the yield strength has to
be made with the highest torque and with the K
AP
if this ex
ceeds K
A
.
3.16.3 For ≤ 10
3
cycles
The permissible stress range ∆σ
p
is not to exceed:
For R > −1
FPst pst
σ
R 1
R 1
0.5 1
1.5
∆σ
−
+
+
=
For – ∞ < R < −1
FPst pst
σ
R 1
R 1
0.25 1
1.5
∆σ
−
+
+
=
For all values of R, ∆σ
pst
is limited by:
not surface hardened:
F
y
S
σ 2.25
32 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
surface hardened:
C
F
Y
S
HV 5
Definition of ∆σ and R, see 3.16.2, with particular attention
to possible correction of R if the yield strength is exceeded.
σ
FPst
see 3.2, determined for unidirectional stresses (Y
M
= 1)
and < 10
3
cycles.
3.16.4 For 10
3
< cycles < 3·10
6
∆σ
p
is to be determined by linear interpolation a loglog dia
gram.
∆σ
p
at N
L
load cycles is:
6
L 10 3 p
exp
L
6
N p
∆σ
N
10 3
∆σ
⋅ 

.

\

⋅
=
6
3
10 3 p
10 p
∆σ
∆σ
log 2876 . 0 exp
⋅
=
Classification Notes No. 41.2 33
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
4. Calculation of Scuffing Load Capacity
4.1 Introduction
High surface temperatures due to high loads and sliding ve
locities can cause lubricant films to break down. This sei
zure or welding together of areas of tooth surface is termed
scuffing.
In contrast to pitting and fatigue breakage which show a dis
tinct incubation period, a single short overloading can lead to
a scuffing failure. In the ISOTR13989 two criteria are
mentioned. The method used in this Classification Note is
based on the principles of the flash temperature criterion.
Note:
Bulk temperature in excess of 120ºC for long periods may
have an adverse effect on the surface durability, see 2.11.
4.2 General Criteria
In no point along the path of contact the local contact tem
perature may exceed the permissible temperature, i.e.:
oil
S
oil S
B
S
ϑ +
ϑ − ϑ
≤ ϑ
50
S B
− ϑ ≤ ϑ
where:
B
ϑ = max. contact temperature along the path of
contact.
max fla MB B
ϑ + ϑ = ϑ
MB
ϑ = bulk temperature, see 4.3.4.
max fla
ϑ = max. flash temperature along the path of con
tact, see 4.4.
S
ϑ = scuffing temperature, see below.
oil
ϑ = oil temperature before it reaches the mesh
(max. applicable for the actual load case to be
used, i.e. normally alarm temperature, except
for ice classes where a max. expected tem
perature applies).
S
S
= required safety factor according to the Rules.
The scuffing temperature
S
ϑ may be calculated as:
L
2
wrelT
0.02
40
S
X FZG X
ν
100
1.12 0.857 80


.

\

⋅


.

\

⋅ + + = ϑ
where:
X
wrelT
= relative welding factor.
X
wrelT
Through hardened steel 1.0
Phosphated steel 1.25
Copperplated steel 1.50
Nitrided steel 1.50
Less than 10% retained
austenite
1.15
10 – 20% retained austenite 1.0
Caseharden
ed steel
20 – 30% retained austenite 0.85
Austenitic steel 0.45
FZG = load stage according to FZGTest A/8.3/90.
(Note: This is the load stage where scuffing oc
curs. However, due to scatter in test results, cal
culations are to be made with one load stage less
than the specification.)
X
L
= lubricant factor.
= 1.0 for mineral oils.
= 0.8 for polyalfaolefins.
= 0.7 for nonwatersoluble polyglycols.
= 0.6 for watersoluble polyglycols.
= 1.5 for traction fluids.
= 1.3 for phosphate esters.
ν
40
= kinematic oil viscosity at 40˚C (mm
2
/s).
Application of other test methods such as the Ryder, the
FZGRyder R/46.5/74, and the FZG L42 Test 141/19.5/110
may be specially considered.
For high speed gears with very short time of contact,
S
ϑ may
be increased as follows provided use of EPoils.
Addition to the calculated scuffing temperature
S
ϑ :
If µs 18 t
c
≥ , no addition
If µs 18 t
c
< , add ( )
c wrelT
t 18 X 18 − ⋅ ⋅
where
c
t = contact time ( µs ) which is the time needed to
cross the Hertzian contact width.
( )
  µs
u 1 cosβ n
u σ
340 t
b 1
H
c
+ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
σ
H
as calculated in 2.2.1.
For bevel gears, use
v
u in stead of u.
34 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
4.3 Influence Factors
4.3.1 Coefficient of friction
The following coefficient of friction may apply:
L
0.25
a
0.05
oil
0.2
redC ΣC
Bt
X R η
ρ v
w
0.048 µ
−


.

\

=
where:
w
Bt
= specific tooth load (N/mm)
v
ΣC
= sum of tangential velocities at pitch point.
At pitch line velocities > 50 m/s, the limiting
value of v
ΣC
at v = 50 m/s is to be used.
ρ
redC
= relative radius of curvature (transversal plane)
at the pitch point
Cylindrical gears
Hα Hβ v γ A
bt
Bt
K K K K K
b
F
w ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (see 1)
tw ΣC
α sin v 2 v =
b C redC
β cos ρ ρ =
Bevel gears
Hα Hβ v γ A
t mb
Bt
K K K K K
b
F
w ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (see 1)
vt mt ΣC
α sin v 2 v =
bm vC redC
β cos ρ ρ =
η
oil
= dynamic viscosity (mPa s) at
oil
ϑ , calculated as
1000
ρ ν
η
oil
oil
=
where ρ in kg/m
3
approximated as
( ) 7 . 0 15
oil 15
− ϑ − ρ = ρ
and ν
oil
is kinematic viscosity at
oil
ϑ and may
be calculated by means of the following
equation:
( ) ( )+ + = + 0.8 ν log log 0.8 ν log log
100 oil
( )
⋅
−
ϑ + −
313 log 373 log
273 log 373 log
oil
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.8 ν log log 0.8 ν log log
100 40
+ − +
R
a
= composite arithmetic mean roughness (micron) of
pinion an wheel calculated as ( )
2 a 1 a a
R R 0.5 R + =
This is defined as the roughness on the new flanks
i.e. as manufactured.
X
L
= see 4.2
4.3.2 Effective tip relief C
eff
C
eff
is the effective tip relief; that amount of tip relief, which
compensates for the elastic deformation of the gear mesh, i.e.
zero load at the tooth tip. It is assumed (simplified) to be
equal for both pinion and wheel.
Cylindrical gears
for helical:
γ
γ
=
c b
K K F
C
A bt
eff
(see 1)
For spur:
' c b
K K F
C
A bt
eff
γ
= (see 1)
Alternatively for spur and helical gears the nonlinear ap
proach in 1.11 may be used (taking C
eff.
=δ).
Bevel gears
b c
K F
C
A mbt
eff
γ
= (see 1)
where:
γ
α
ε 2
ε 44
c
+
⋅
=
γ
4.3.3 Tip relief and extension
Cylindrical gears
The extension of the tip relief is not to result in an effective
contact ratio 1 < ε
α
when the gear is unloaded (exceptions to
this may only apply for applications where the gear is not to
run at light loads). This means that the unrelieved part of the
path of contact is to be minimum p
bt
. It is further assumed
that this unrelieved part is placed centrally on the path of
contact.
If root relief applies, it has to be calculated as equivalent tip
relief. I.e. pinion root relief (at mesh position A) is added to
C
a2
, and wheel root relief (at mesh position E) is added to
C
a1
.
If no design tip relief or root relief on the mating gear is
specified (i.e. if C
a1
+C
root2
= 0 and visa versa), use the run
ning in amount, see 1.12.
Bevel gears
Bevel gears are to have heightwise crowning, i.e. no distinct
relieved/unrelieved area. This may be treated as tip and root
relief. For calculation purposes the root relief is combined
with the tip relief of the mating member into an equivalent
tip relief. If no resulting tip relieves are specified, the
equivalent tip relives may be calculated, as an approxima
tion, based on the tool crowning C
a tool
(per mille of tool
module m
0
) as follows:
2 root 1 a eq 1 a
C C C + =
1 root 2 a eq 2 a
C C C + =
where:
Classification Notes No. 41.2 35
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
2
0
n 0 1
0 1 atool al
m
) m 2(m A
1 · m C C


.

\
 − +
− ⋅ =
( )

.

\

⋅ − − ⋅ ⋅ − + =
vt vb1
2
vb1
2
1 va vt 1 n 1
α tan d d d α sin 0.5 x 1 m A
2
0
n 0 2
0 atool2 2 a
m
) m m ( 2 A
1 · m C C


.

\
 − +
− ⋅ =
( )

.

\

⋅ − − ⋅ ⋅ − + =
vt vb2
2
vb2
2
va2 vt 2 n 2
α tan d d d α sin 0.5 x 1 m A
2
0
2
0 atool1 root1
m
A
1 m C C


.

\

− ⋅ ⋅ =
2
0
1
0 atool2 root2
m
A
1 m C C


.

\

− ⋅ ⋅ =
If the pressure angles of the cutter blades are modified (and
verified) to balance the tip relieves, the following may be
assumed:
( )
eq 2 a eq 1 a eq 2 a eq 1 a
C and C calculated of sum 5 . 0 C C ⋅ = = .
Throughout the following C
a1
and C
a2
mean the equivalent
tip relieves C
a1eq
and C
a2eq
.
4.3.4 Bulk temperature
The bulk temperature may be calculated as:
flaaverage mp s oil MB
X X 5 . 0 ϑ + ϑ = ϑ
where:
X
s
= lubrication factor.
= 1.2 for spray lubrication.
= 1.0 for dip lubrication (provided both pinion
and wheel are dip lubricated and tip speed <
5 m/s).
= 1.0 for spray lubrication with additional
cooling spray (spray on both pinion and
wheel, or spray on pinion and dip lubrication
of wheel).
= 0.2 for meshes fully submerged in oil.
X
mp
= contact factor, ( )
p mp
n X + = 1 5 . 0
n
p
= number of mesh contact on the pinion (for
small gear ratii the number of wheel meshes
should be used if higher).
flaaverage
ϑ
= average of the integrated flash temperature
(see 4.4) along the path of contact.
( )
A E
E
A y
y y fla
flaaverage
d
Γ − Γ
Γ Γ ϑ
= ϑ
∫
=
For high speed gears (v > 50 m/s) it may be necessary to
assess the bulk temperature on the basis of a thermal rating
of the entire gear transmission.
4.4 The Flash Temperature
fla
ϑ
4.4.1 Basic formula
The local flash temperature
fla
ϑ may be calculated as
( )
4 / 1
redy
y 2
ly
2 / 1
1
4 / 3
Bt corr fla
u
n X w X 325 . 0
y
ρ
ρ
− ρ
u = ϑ
Γ
(For bevel gears, replace u with u
v
)
and is to be calculated stepwise along the path of contact
from A to E.
where:
µ = coefficient of friction, see 4.3.1.
X
corr
= correction factor taking empirically into account
the increased scuffing risk in the beginning of the
approach path, due to mesh starting without any
previously built up oil film and possible shuffling
away oil before meshing if insufficient tip relief.
( )
3
A D
y
a eff
corr
50
C C
1 X
Γ − Γ ε
Γ
−
+ =
α
C
a
= tip relief of driven member.
X
corr
is only applicable in the approach path
and if C
a
< C
eff
, otherwise 1.0.
w
Bt
= unit load, see 4.3.1.
y
X
Γ
= load sharing factor, see 4.4.3.
n
1
= pinion r.p.m.
Γ
y
, ρ
ly
etc. see 4.4.2.
4.4.2 Geometrical relations
The various radii of flank curvature (transversal plane) are:
ρ
1y
= pinion flank radius at mesh point y.
ρ
2y
= wheel flank radius at mesh point y.
ρ
redy
= equivalent radius of curvature at mesh point y.
y 2 y 1
y 2 y 1
redy
ρ + ρ
ρ ρ
= ρ
Cylindrical gears
tw
y
1y
α sin a
u 1
Γ 1
ρ
+
+
=
tw
y
2y
α sin a
u 1
Γ u
ρ
+
−
=
Note that for internal gears, a and u are negative.
36 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Bevel gears
vt v
v
y
1y
α sin a
u 1
Γ 1
ρ
+
+
=
vt v
v
y v
2y
α sin a
u 1
Γ u
ρ
+
−
=
Γ is the parameter on the path of contact, and y is any point
between A end E.
At the respective ends, Γ has the following values:
Root pinion/tip wheel
Cylindrical gears
( )



.

\

−
−
− = 1
α tan
1 /d d
z
z
Γ
tw
2
b2 a2
1
2
A
Bevel gears
( )



.

\

−
−
− = 1
α tan
1 /d d
u Γ
vt
2
vb2 va2
v A
Tip pinion/root wheel
Cylindrical gears
( )
1
α tan
1 /d d
Γ
tw
2
b1 a1
E
−
−
=
Bevel gears
( )
1
α tan
1 /d d
Γ
vt
2
vb1 va1
E
−
−
=
At inner point of single pair contact
Cylindrical gears
tw 1
E B
α tan z
π 2
Γ Γ − =
Bevel gears
vt v1
E B
α tan z
π 2
Γ Γ − =
At outer point of single pair contact
Cylindrical gears
tw 1
A D
α tan z
π 2
Γ Γ + =
Bevel gears
vt v1
A D
α tan z
π 2
Γ Γ + =
At pitch point Γ
C
= 0.
The points F and G (only applicable to cylindrical gears)
limiting the extension of tip relief (so as to maintain a mini
mum contact ratio of unity for unloaded gears) are at
2
B A
F
Γ + Γ
= Γ
2
E D
G
Γ + Γ
= Γ
4.4.3 Load sharing factor X
Γ
The load sharing factor X
Γ
accounts for the load sharing be
tween the various pairs of teeth in mesh along the path of
contact.
X
Γ
is to be calculated stepwise from A to E, using the pa
rameter Γ
y
.
4.4.3.1 Cylindrical gears with β = 0 and no tip relief
Figure 4.1
B y A
A B
A y
for
3
1
3
1
X
y
Γ < Γ ≤ Γ
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ =
Γ
D y B
for 1 X
y
Γ < Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
E y D
D E
y E
for
3
1
3
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ < Γ
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ =
Γ
4.4.3.2 Cylindrical gears with β = 0 and tip relief
Tip relief on the pinion reduces X
Γ
in the range G – E and
increases correspondingly X
Γ
in the range F – B.
Tip relief on the wheel reduces X
Γ
in the range A – F and
increases correspondingly X
Γ
in the range D – G.
Following remains generally:
D y B
for 1 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
2 / 1 X X
G F
= =
Γ Γ
In the following it must be distinguished between C
a
< C
eff
respectively C
a
> C
eff
. This is shown by an example below
where C
a1
< C
eff
and C
a2
> C
eff
.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 37
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Figure 4.2
Note:
When C
a
> C
eff
the path of contact is shortened by A – A'
respectively E' – E. The single pair contact path is extended
into B' respectively D'. If this shift is significant, it is
necessary to consider the negative effect on surface
durability (B') and bending stresses (B' and D').
Range A  F
For
eff a2
C C ≤


.

\

− =
Γ
eff
2 a
C
C
1
3
1
X
A
F y A
eff
2 a
A F
A y
for
C 3
C
6
1
X X
A y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

⋅
+
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ =
Γ Γ
For
eff a2
C C ≥
' A y A
for 0 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
with ( )
2
1
C
C
1
C
C
eff
2 a
eff
2 a
A F A ' A
−
−
Γ − Γ + Γ = Γ
F y ' A
eff
2 a
A F
A y
eff
2 a
for
2
1
C
C
C
C
1 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

−
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ − =
Γ
Range F  B
For
eff a1
C C ≤
B y F
eff
1 a
F B
F y
for
C 3
C
6
1
2
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

⋅
+
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ =
Γ
For
eff a1
C C ≥
' B y F
eff
1 a
F B
F y
for
2
1
C
C
2
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

−
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+ =
Γ
B y ' B
for 1 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
with
1
C
C
2
eff
1 a
F B
F ' B
−
Γ − Γ
+ Γ = Γ
Range D – G
For
eff a2
C C ≤
G y D
eff
2 a
D G
D y
eff
2 a
for
C 3
C
6
1
C 3
C
3
2
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

+
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
− + =
Γ
F
or
eff a2
C C ≥
' D y D
for 1 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
with ( )
2
1
C
C
1
C
C
eff
2 a
eff
2 a
D G D ' D
−
−
Γ − Γ + Γ = Γ
G y ' D
eff
2 a
D G
D y
eff
2 a
for
2
1
C
C
C
C
X Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

−
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
− =
Γ
Range G  E
For
eff a1
C C ≤


.

\

− =
Γ
eff
1 a
C
C
1
3
1
X
E
E y G
eff
1 a
G E
G y
for
C 3
C
6
1
2
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

⋅
+
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
− =
Γ
For
eff a1
C C >
' E y G
eff
1 a
G E
G y
for
2
1
C
C
2
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ


.

\

−
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
− =
Γ
E y ' E
for 0 X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
with
1
C
C
2
eff
1 a
G E
G ' E
−
Γ − Γ
+ Γ = Γ
4.4.3.3 Gears with β > 0, buttressing
Due to oblique contact lines over the flanks a certain but
tressing may occur near A and E.
This applies to both cylindrical and bevel gears with tip relief
< C
eff
. The buttressing X
butt
is simplified as a linear function
within the ranges A – H respectively I – E.
Figure 4.3
1 ε when 1.3 X
β butt
E A,
≥ =
1 ε when ε 0.3 1 X
β β butt
E A,
< + =
38 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Cylindrical gears
b I E A H
β sin 0.2 Γ Γ Γ Γ = − = −
Bevel gears
bm I E A H
β sin 0.2 Γ Γ Γ Γ = − = −
4.4.3.4 Cylindrical gears with 2 ε
γ
≤ and no tip relief
y
X
Γ
is obtained by multiplication of
y
X
Γ
in 4.4.3.1 with
X
butt
in 4.4.3.3.
4.4.3.5 Gears with 2 ε
γ
> and no tip relief
Applicable to both cylindrical and bevel gears.
I y H
for
1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ
ε
=
α
Γ
I y H y butt
and for X
1
X
y
Γ > Γ Γ < Γ
ε
=
α
Γ
Figure 4.4
4.4.3.6 Cylindrical gears with 2 ε
γ
≤ and tip relief
y
X
Γ
is obtained by multiplication of
y
X
Γ
in 4.4.3.2 with X
butt
in 4.4.3.3.
4.4.3.7 Cylindrical gears with 2 ε
γ
> and tip relief
Tip relief on the pinion (respectively wheel) reduces X
Г
in
the range G – E (respectively A – F) and increases X
Г
in the
range F – G.
y
X
Γ
is obtained by multiplication of
y
X
Γ
as described below
with X
butt
in 4.4.3.3.
In the X
Г
example below the influence of tip relief is shown
(without the influence of X
butt
) by means of
eff 2 a eff 1 a
C C and C C < > .
Tip relief > C
eff
causes new end points A' respectively E' of
the path of contact.
Figure 4.5
Range A – F
( ) ( )
( )
eff
a2 α a1 α
A F
A y
eff
2 a eff
C 1 2
C 1 3ε C 1 ε
C
C C
X
y
+ ε ε
+ + −
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
+
ε
−
=
α α α
Γ
eff 2 a F y A
C C if for ≤ Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ
eff 2 a F y ' A
C ifC for and ≥ Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ
eff 2 a ' A y A
C C if for 0 X
y
> Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
a2 α a1 α
α eff a2
A F A ' A
C 1 ε 3 C 1 ε
1 ε 2 C C
with
+ + −
+ −
Γ − Γ + Γ = Γ
Range F – G
( )( )
( )
G y F
eff
2 a 1 a
for
C 1 2
C C 1 1
X
y
Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ
+ ε ε
+ − ε
+
ε
=
α α
α
α
Γ
Range G – E
( ) ( )
( )
eff
2 a 1 a
G E
G y
C 1 2
C 1 C 1 3
X X
G F y
+ ε ε
− ε + + ε
Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
− =
α α
α α
Γ Γ
−
eff a1 E y G
C C if for ≤ Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ
eff a1 ' E y G
C C if Γ for and ≥ Γ ≤ Γ ≤
eff 1 a E y ' E
C C if for 0 X
y
≥ Γ ≤ Γ ≤ Γ =
Γ
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 a 1 a
eff 1 a
G E E ' E
C 1 C 1 3
1 2 C C
with
− ε + + ε
+ ε −
Γ − Γ − Γ = Γ
α α
α
4.4.3.8 Bevel gears with ε
γ
more than approx. 1.8 and
heightwise crowning
For C
a1
= C
a2
= C
eff
the following applies:
Figure 4.6
Classification Notes No. 41.2 39
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
( )
A E M
5 . 0 Γ + Γ = Γ
( )
( )
2
A D
3
2
M y
6
5 . 1
X
y
Γ − Γ ε
Γ − Γ
−
ε
=
α
α
Γ
For tip relief < C
eff
,
y
X
Γ
is found by linear interpolation be
tween
( )
eff a y
C C
X
= Γ
and
( ) 0 C
a y
X
= Γ
as in 4.4.3.5.
The interpolation is to be made stepwise from A to M with
the influence of C
a2
and from M to E with the influence of
C
a1
. (For
2 a 1 a
C C ≠ there is a discontinuity at M.)
E.g. with C
a1
= 0.4 C
eff
and C
a2
= 0.55 C
eff
, then
Range A – M
) C C ( ) 0 C (
eff 2 a y 2 a y y
X 55 . 0 X 45 . 0 X
= Γ = Γ Γ
+ =
Range M – E
) C C ( ) 0 C (
eff 1 a y 1 a y y
X 4 . 0 X 0.6 X
= Γ = Γ Γ
+ =
For tip relief > C
eff
the new end points A' and E' are found as
( )


.

\

− Γ − Γ
ε
+ Γ = Γ
α
1
C
C
6
eff
2 a
A D A ' A
( )


.

\

− Γ − Γ
ε
+ Γ = Γ
α
1
C
C
6
eff
1 a
A D E ' E
Range A – A'
0 X
y
=
Γ
Range A' – M
( )
( )


.

\

Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
−
−
ε
=
α
Γ
2
M ' A
2
M y
eff
2 a
1
C
C
4
3 5 . 1
X
y
Range M – E'
( )
( )


.

\

Γ − Γ
Γ − Γ
−
−
ε
=
α
Γ
2
M ' E
2
M y
eff
1 a
1
C
C
4
3 5 . 1
X
y
Range E' – E
0 X
y
=
Γ
40 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Appendix A. Fatigue Damage Accumulation
The PalmgrenMiner cumulative damage calculation princi
ple is used. The procedure may be applied as follows:
A.1 Stress Spectrum
From the individual torque classes, the torques (T
i
) at the
peak values of class intervals and the associated number of
cycles (N
Li
) for both pinion and wheel are to be listed from
the highest to the lowest torque.
(In case of a cyclic torque variation within the torque classes,
it is advised to use the peak torque. If the cyclic variation is
such that the same teeth will repeatedly suffer the peak
torque, this is a must.)
The stress spectra for tooth roots and flanks (σ
Fi
,
σ
Hi
) with all
relevant factors (except K
A
) are to be calculated on the basis
of the torque spectrum. The load dependent Kfactors are to
be determined for each torque class.
A.2 σ−Ncurve
The stress versus load cycle curves for tooth roots and flanks
(both pinion and wheel) are to be drawn on the basis of per
missible stresses (i.e. including the demanded minimum
safety factors) as determined in 2 respectively 3. If different
safety levels for high cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue are
desired, this may be expressed by different demand safety
factors applied at the endurance limit respectively at static
strength.
A.3 Damage accumulation
The individual damage ratio D
i
at i
th
stress level is defined as
Fi
Li
i
N
N
D =
where:
N
Li
= The number of applied cycles at i
th
stress.
N
Fi
= The number of cycles to failure at i
th
stress.
Basically stresses σ
i
below the permissible stress level for
infinite life (if a constant Z
N
or Y
N
is accepted) do not con
tribute to the damage sum. However, calculating the actual
safety factor S
act
as described below all the σ
i
for which the
product S σ
i
is bigger than or equal to the permissible stress
level for infinite life contribute to the damage sum and thus
to the determination of S
act
. The final value of S is decisive.
(N
Fi
can be found mathematically by putting the permissible
stress σ
pi
equal the actual stress σ
i
, thereby finding the actual
life factor. This life factor can be solved with regard to load
cycles, i.e. N
Fi
.)
The damage sum ΣD
i
is not to exceed unity.
If ΣD
i
≠ 1, the safety against cumulative fatigue damage is
different from the applied demand safety factor. For deter
mination of this theoretical safety factor an iteration proce
dure is required as described in the following flowchart:
S is correction factor with which the actual safety factor S
act
can be found.
S
act
is the demand safety factor (used in determination of the
permissible stresses in the σ – N – curve) times the correc
tion factor S.
The full procedure is to be applied for pinion and wheel,
tooth roots and flanks.
Note:
If alternating stresses occur in a spectrum of mainly pulsating
stresses, the alternating stresses may be replaced by equiva
lent pulsating stresses, i.e. by means of division with the ac
tual mean stress influence factor Y
M
.
Classification Notes No. 41.2 41
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Appendix B. Application Factors for Diesel Driven Gears
For diesel driven gears the application factor K
A
depends on
torsional vibrations. Both normal operation and misfiring
conditions have to be considered.
Normally these two running conditions can be covered by
only one calculation.
B.1 Definitions
Normal operation K
Anorm
=
0
norm v 0
T
T T +
where:
T
0
= rated nominal torque
T
v norm
= vibratory torque amplitude for normal opera
tion (see rules Pt.4, Ch.3, Sec.1 G301 for defi
nition of “normal” irregularity)
Misfiring operation K
A misf
=
0
misf v
T
T T +
where:
T = remaining nominal torque when one cylinder
out of action
T
v misf
= vibratory torque amplitude in misfiring con
dition. This refers to a permissible misfiring
condition, i.e. a condition that does not require
automatic or immediate corrective actions as
speed or pitch reduction.
The normal operation is assumed to last for a very high num
ber of cycles, such as 10
10
.
The misfiring operation is assumed to last for a limited dura
tion, such as 10
7
cycles.
B.2 Determination of decisive load
Assuming life factor at 10
10
cycles as Y
N
= Z
N
= 0.92 which
usually is relevant, the calculation may be performed only
once with the combination having the highest value of appli
cation factor/life factor.
For bending stresses and scuffing, the higher value of
0.92
K
norm A
and
0.98
K
misf A
For contact stresses, the higher value of
0.92
K
norm A
and
1.13
K
misf A
(but
0.97
K
misf A
for nitrided gears)
B.3 Simplified procedure
Note that this is only a guidance, and is not a binding con
vention.
T =
o
T
Z
1 Z
⋅
−
where Z = number of cylinders
( )
ideal V ideal V misf V norm V
T T T
24
Z
T + − =
where T
V ideal
= vibratory torque with all cylinders perfectly
equal. See also rules Pt.4, Ch.3, Sec.1, G300
When using trends from torsional vibration analysis and
measurements, the following may be used:
T
V ideal
/ T
o
is close to zero for engines with few cylinders and
using a suitable elastic coupling, and increases with relative
coupling stiffness and number of cylinders.
T
V misf
/T
o
may be high for engines with few cylinders and
decreases with number of cylinders.
This can be indicated as:
200
Z
T
T
ο
ideal V
≈ and
80
Z
0.4
T
T
o
misf V
− ≈
Inserting this into the formulae for the two application fac
tors, the following guidance can be given:
1.18 1.12 K
misf A
− ≈
1.15 1.10 K
norm A
− ≈
Since K
A norm
is to be combined with the lower life factors,
the decisive load condition will be the normal one, and a K
A
of 1.15 will cover most relevant cases, when a suitable elas
tic coupling is chosen.
42 Classification Notes No. 41.2
May 2003
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Appendix C. Calculation of PinionRack
Pinionracks used for elevating of mobile offshore units are
open gears that are subjected to wear and tear. With normal
specifications such as only a few hundred total operation
cycles (site to site) the tooth bending stresses for static
strength will be decisive for the lay out, however, with ex
ception of surface hardened pinions where case crushing has
to be considered.
In the following the use of part 1 and 3 for pinionracks is
shown, including relevant simplifications.
C.1 Pinion tooth root stresses
Since the load spectrum normally is dominated by high
torques and few load cycles (in the range up to 12000), the
static strength is decisive.
The actual stress is calculated as:
β1 F Sa Fa
n 1
t
F1
K Y Y
m b
F
σ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
b
1
is limited to b
2
+ 2·m
n
.
Y
Fa
and Y
Sa
replace Y
F
and Y
S
because load application at
tooth tip has to be assumed for such inaccurate gears.
Pinions often use a noninvolute profile in the dedendum part
of the flank, e.g. a constant radius equal the radius of curva
ture at reference circle. For such pinions s
Fn
and h
Fa
are to be
measured directly on a sectional drawing of the pinion tooth.
Due to high loads and narrow facewidths it may be assumed
that K
Fβ2
= K
Hβ
= 1.0. However, when b
1
> b
2
, then K
Fβ1
>1.0.
If no detailed documentation of K
Fβ1
is available, the fol
lowing may be used:
K
Fβ1
= 1 + 0.15·(b
1
/b
2
– 1)
The permissible stress (not surface hardened) is calculated
as:
δrelTst
F
Fst1
FP1
Y
S
σ
σ ⋅ =
The mean stress influence due to leg lifting may be disre
garded.
The actual and permissible stresses should be calculated for
the relevant loads as given in the rules.
C.2 Rack tooth root stresses
The actual stress is calculated as:
Sa Fa
n 2
t
F2
Y Y
m b
F
σ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
See C.1 for details.
The permissible stress is calculated as:
δrelTst
F
Fst2
FP2
Y
S
σ
σ ⋅ =
For alloyed steels (Ni, Cr, Mo) with high toughness and duc
tility the value of Y
δrelTst
may be put equal to Y
Sa
.
C.3 Surface hardened pinions
For surface hardened pinions the maximum load is not to
cause crushing of the hardened layer of the flank.
In principle the calculation described in 2.13 may be used,
but when the theoretical Hertzian stress exceeds the ap
proximately 1.8 times the yield strength of the rack material,
plastic deformation will occur. This will limit the peak
Hertzian stress but increases the contact width, and thus the
penetration of stresses into the depth.
An approximation may be based on an assessment of contact
width determined by means of equal areas under the theoreti
cal (elastic range) Hertzian contact and the elastoplastic
contact stress (limited to 1.8 · σ
y
) with the unknown width.
FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS is an autonomous and independent Foundation with the objective of safeguarding life, property and the environment at sea and ashore. DET NORSKE VERITAS AS is a fully owned subsidiary Society of the Foundation. It undertakes classification and certification of ships, mobile offshore units, fixed offshore structures, facilities and systems for shipping and other industries. The Society also carries out research and development associated with these functions. DET NORSKE VERITAS operates a worldwide network of survey stations and is authorised by more than 120 national administrations to carry out surveys and, in most cases, issue certificates on their behalf. Classification Notes Classification Notes are publications that give practical information on classification of ships and other objects. Examples of design solutions, calculation methods, specifications of test procedures, as well as acceptable repair methods for some components are given as interpretations of the more general rule requirements. A list of Classification Notes is found in the latest edition of the Introduction booklets to the ”Rules for Classification of Ships”, and the ”Rules for Classification of High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft”. In “Rules for Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations”, only those Classification Notes that are relevant for this type of structure, have been listed. The list of Classification Notes is also included in the current “Classification Services – Publications” issued by the Society, which is available on request. All publications may be ordered from the Society’s Web site http://exchange.dnv.com. Provisions It is assumed that the execution of the provisions of this Classification Note is entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people, for whose use it has been prepared.
© Det Norske Veritas 2003 Data processed and typeset by Det Norske Veritas Printed in Norway
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04/07/2003 3:13 PM  CN41.2.doc
CONTENTS 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.8 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5 1.9.6 1.9.7 1.9.8 1.9.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 2. 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 3. 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 Basic Principles and General Influence Factors ...4 Scope and Basic Principles ........................................4 Symbols, Nomenclature and Units ............................4 Geometrical Definitions.............................................5 Bevel Gear Conversion Formulae and Specific Formulae....................................................................6 Nominal Tangential Load, Ft, Fbt, Fmt and Fmbt ..........6 Application Factors, KA and KAP ...............................7 KA ..............................................................................7 KAP .............................................................................7 Frequent overloads.....................................................8 Load Sharing Factor, Kγ ............................................8 General method..........................................................8 Simplified method .....................................................8 Dynamic Factor, Kv ...................................................8 Single resonance method ...........................................8 Multiresonance method ..........................................10 Face Load Factors, KHβ and KFβ ..............................10 Relations between KHβ and KFβ................................10 Measurement of face load factors ............................10 Theoretical determination of KHβ .............................11 Determination of fsh .................................................12 Determination of fdefl................................................13 Determination of fbe .................................................13 Determination of fma ................................................13 Comments to various gear types ..............................13 Determination of KHβ for bevel gears ......................13 Transversal Load Distribution Factors, KHα and KFα14 Tooth Stiffness Constants, c´ and cγ ........................14 Runningin Allowances ...........................................15 Calculation of Surface Durability.........................17 Scope and General Remarks ....................................17 Basic Equations .......................................................17 Contact stress ...........................................................17 Permissible contact stress ........................................17 Zone Factors ZH, ZB,D and ZM ..................................18 Zone factor ZH .........................................................18 Zone factors ZB,D .....................................................18 Zone factor ZM .........................................................18 Inner contact point ...................................................18 Elasticity Factor, ZE .................................................18 Contact Ratio Factor, Zε...........................................18 Helix Angle Factor, Zβ .............................................18 Bevel Gear Factor, ZK ..............................................18 Values of Endurance Limit, σHlim and Static Strength, σ H105 , σ H103 ............................................18 Life Factor, ZN .........................................................19 Influence Factors on Lubrication Film, ZL, ZV and ZR .............................................................................19 Work Hardening Factor, ZW ....................................20 Size Factor, ZX .........................................................20 Subsurface Fatigue...................................................20 Calculation of Tooth Strength ..............................22 Scope and General Remarks ....................................22 Tooth Root Stresses .................................................22 Local tooth root stress..............................................22 Permissible tooth root stress ....................................22 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 Tooth Form Factors YF, YFa .................................... 23 Determination of parameters ................................... 23 Gearing with εαn > 2 ................................................ 24 Stress Correction Factors YS, YSa ............................ 24 Contact Ratio Factor Yε........................................... 25 Helix Angle Factor Yβ ............................................. 25 Values of Endurance Limit, σFE .............................. 25 Mean stress influence Factor, YM............................ 26 For idlers, planets and PTO with ice class .............. 26 For gears with periodical change of rotational direction .................................................................. 26 3.8.3 For gears with shrinkage stresses and unidirectional load.......................................................................... 26 3.8.4 For shrinkfitted idlers and planets.......................... 26 3.8.5 Additional requirements for peak loads .................. 27 3.9 Life Factor, YN ........................................................ 27 3.10 Relative Notch Sensitivity Factor, YδrelT ................. 28 3.11 Relative Surface Condition Factor, YRrelT ............... 28 3.12 Size Factor, YX ........................................................ 28 3.13 Case Depth Factor, YC ............................................ 28 3.14 Thin rim factor YB ................................................... 29 3.15 Stresses in Thin Rims.............................................. 29 3.15.1 General .................................................................... 29 3.15.2 Stress concentration factors at the 75º tangents....... 30 3.15.3 Nominal rim stresses ............................................... 30 3.15.4 Root fillet stresses ................................................... 30 3.16 Permissible Stresses in Thin Rims .......................... 31 3.16.1 General .................................................................... 31 3.16.2 For >3·106 cycles..................................................... 31 3.16.3 For ≤ 103 cycles ....................................................... 31 3.16.4 For 103 < cycles < 3·106 .......................................... 32 4. Calculation of Scuffing Load Capacity ............... 33 4.1 Introduction............................................................. 33 4.2 General Criteria....................................................... 33 4.3 Influence Factors..................................................... 34 4.3.1 Coefficient of friction.............................................. 34 4.3.2 Effective tip relief Ceff ............................................. 34 4.3.3 Tip relief and extension........................................... 34 4.3.4 Bulk temperature..................................................... 35 4.4 The Flash Temperature ϑfla ................................... 35 4.4.1 Basic formula .......................................................... 35 4.4.2 Geometrical relations .............................................. 35 4.4.3 Load sharing factor XΓ ............................................ 36 Appendix A. Fatigue Damage Accumulation................. 40 A.1 Stress Spectrum....................................................... 40 A.2 σ−Ncurve ............................................................... 40 A.3 Damage accumulation ............................................. 40 Appendix B. Application Factors for Diesel Driven Gears ...................................................................... 41 B.1 Definitions............................................................... 41 B.2 Determination of decisive load ............................... 41 B.3 Simplified procedure............................................... 41 Appendix C. Calculation of PinionRack ....................... 42 C.1 Pinion tooth root stresses......................................... 42 C.2 Rack tooth root stresses........................................... 42 C.3 Surface hardened pinions ........................................ 42
DET NORSKE VERITAS
4
Classification Notes No. 41.2 May 2003
1. Basic Principles and General Influence Factors
1.1 Scope and Basic Principles
The gear rating procedures given in this Classification Note are mainly based on the ISO6336 Part 15 (cylindrical gears), and partly on ISO 10300 Part 13 (bevel gears) and ISO Technical Reports on Scuffing and Fatigue Damage Accumulation, but especially applied for marine purposes, such as marine propulsion and important auxiliaries onboard ships and mobile offshore units. The calculation procedures cover gear rating as limited by contact stresses (pitting, spalling or case crushing), tooth root stresses (fatigue breakage or overload breakage), and scuffing resistance. Even though no calculation procedures for other damages such as wear, grey staining (micropitting), etc. are given, such damages may limit the gear rating. The Classification Note applies to enclosed parallel shaft gears, epicyclic gears and bevel gears (with intersecting axis). However, open gear trains may be considered with regard to tooth strength, i.e. part 1 and 3 may apply. Even pinionrack tooth strength may be considered, but since such gear trains often are designed with noninvolute pinions, the calculation procedure of pinionracks is described in Appendix C. Steel is the only material considered. The methods applied throughout this document are only valid for a transverse contact ratio 1 < εα < 2. If εα > 2, either special considerations are to be made, or suggested simplification may be used. All influence factors are defined regarding their physical interpretation. Some of the influence factors are determined by the gear geometry or have been established by conventions. These factors are to be calculated in accordance with the equations provided. Other factors are approximations, which are clearly stated in the text by terms as «may be calculated as». These approximations are substitutes for exact evaluations where such are lacking or too extensive for practical purposes, or factors based on experience. In principle, any suitable method may replace these approximations. Bevel gears are calculated on basis of virtual (equivalent) cylindrical gears using the geometry of the midsection. The virtual (helical) cylindrical gear is to be calculated by using all the factors as a real cylindrical gear with some exceptions. These exceptions are mentioned in connection with the applicable factors. Wherever a factor or calculation procedure has no reference to either cylindrical gears or bevel gears, it is generally valid, i.e. combined for both cylindrical and bevel. In order to minimise the volume of this Classification Note such combinations are widely used, and everywhere it is necessary to distinguish, it is clearly pointed out by local headings such as: Cylindrical gears Bevel gears
The permissible contact stresses, tooth root stresses and scuffing load capacity depend on the safety factors as required in the respective Rule sections. Terms as endurance limit and static strength are used throughout this Classification Note. Endurance limit is to be understood as the fatigue strength in the range of cycles beyond the lower knee of the σ–N curves, regardless if it is constant or drops with higher number of cycles. Static strength is to be understood as the fatigue strength in the range of cycles less than at the upper knee of the σ–N curves. For gears that are subjected to a limited number of cycles at different load levels, a cumulative fatigue calculation applies. Information on this is given in Appendix A. When the term infinite life is used, it means number of cycles in the range 108–1010.
1.2 Symbols, Nomenclature and Units
The symbols are generally from ISO 701, ISO/R31 and ISO 1328, with a few additional symbols. Only SI units are used. The main symbols as influence factors (K, Z, Y and X with indeces) etc. are presented in their respective headings. Symbols which are not explained in their respective Secs. are as follows: a b d da db dw ha ha0 hfp hFe hFa HB HV HRC mn n NL qs Ra Ry Rz san sat sFn spr T u v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = centre distance (mm). facewidth (mm). reference diameter (mm). tip diameter (mm). base diameter (mm). working pitch diameter (mm). addendum (mm). addendum of tool ref. to mn. dedendum of basic rack ref. to mn (= ha0). bending moment arm (mm) for tooth root stresses for application of load at the outer point of single tooth pair contact. bending moment arm (mm) for tooth root stresses for application of load at tooth tip. Brinell hardness. Vickers hardness. Rockwell C hardness normal module. rev. per minute. number of load cycles. notch parameter. average roughness value (µm). peak to valley roughness (µm). mean peak to valley roughness (µm). tooth top land thickness (mm). transverse top land thickness (mm). tooth root chord (mm) in the critical section. protuberance value of tool minus grinding stock, equal residual undercut of basic rack, ref. to mn. torque (Nm). gear ratio (per stage). linear speed (m/s) at reference diameter.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
tan acos ξ fw1 = tan acos where ξfw1 is to be taken as the smaller of : • • Index 1 refers to the pinion. i. cylinder. helix angle at ref. Index m refers to the midsection of the bevel gear.e. a. da2. to mn ( = ρa0).3 Geometrical Definitions For internal gearing z2. tooth thickness modification coefficient (midface). Index w refers to pitch point Special additional symbols for bevel gears are as follows: Σ d b1 d soi1 • and d b2 d a2 − tanα wt z2 z1 ϑK m0 δ xsm R = = = = = = angle between intersection axis. they are not to be taken more than 1 module on either side of b. transverse contact ratio. helix angle at tip cylinder. angle modification (Klingelnberg) tool module (Klingelnberg) pitch cone angle.2 May 2003 x z zn αn αt αa αwt β βb βa εα εβ εγ ρa0 ρfp ρC ρF σB σy = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = addendum modification coefficient. to mn. cylinder. 0. virtual number of spur teeth. u = z2 z1 ≥1 ( ) 2 + 1 2 2 m n (h fp − x l − ρ fp + ρ fp ⋅ sinα n ) tanα t εβ = b sin β πm n For calculation of surface durability b is the common facewidth on pitch diameter. εy = ε α + ε β ρC = cos β b (1 + u ) π n1 d1 10 − 3 60 a u sin α wt 2 v = DET NORSKE VERITAS . ultimate tensile strength (N/mm2). i. If b1 or b2 differ much from b above. overlap ratio. number of teeth. root radius of basic rack ref. yield strength resp. transverse pressure angle at pitch cylinder.α (radians) inv αt + 2 tan αn (x1 + x2)/(z1 + z2) z / (cos2 βb cos β) = ξ fw1 + ξ aw1 T1 ξ fw1 = tan α wt ξ fw1 = tanα wt . tip radius of tool ref. 41.e. transverse pressure angle at ref. The pinion has the smaller number of teeth.Classification Notes. total contact ratio. transverse pressure angle at tip cylinder. ξ aw1 = ξ fw2 z1 Index v refers to the virtual (equivalent) helical cylindrical gear. pitch cone distance (mm). tan βa cos αa d mt db a dw1/dw2 inv α inv αwt zn εα 5 = = = = = = = = = = tan β da / d db/da z mn / cos β mn /cos β d cos αt = dw cos αwt 0.No. Cylindrical gears tan αt tan βb = = tan αn / cos β tan β cos αt (for double helix. effective radius (mm) of curvature at pitch point. dw2. T1 = 2π z1 d d soi1 = 2 ⋅ − m n h fp − x1 − ρ fp + ρ fp ⋅ sinα n 2 1. x2 is positive if da2 is increased. 2 to the wheel. b is to be taken as the width of one helix). where ξfw2 is calculated as ξfw1 z2 substituting the values for the wheel by the values for the pinion and visa versa.5 (dw1 + dw2) z1 / z2 tan α . helix angle at base cylinder.2% proof stress (N/mm2). . For tooth strength calculations b1 or b2 are facewidths at the respective tooth roots. the numeric value is decreased. Index n refers to normal section or virtual spur gear of a helical gear. d2 and db2 are negative. root fillet radius (mm) in the critical section. cylinder. normal pressure angle at ref.
Addendum modification coefficients: lb = b εα ε γ cos β bm if ε β ≥ 1 1.2 = ha 1.5 d 2 2 − d 2 2 − a v sin α vt va vb va vb Pbtm 1. diameters: dv1.2 − h am 2.2/ cos δ1. The conversion formulae are: Number of teeth: zv1.2 cos δ 1.2) for gears with variable addenda (Gleason): ham 1.2 + 2 ham 1.) Tangential speed at midsection: vmt = π n 1 d m1 10 − 3 60 tan αvt = tan αn/ cos βm tan βbm = tan βm cos αvt Base pitch: pbtm = π m nm cos α vt cos β m Effective radius of curvature (normal section): ρvc = cos β bm (1 + u v )2 a v u v sin α vt Reference.2 Addenda: for gears with constant addenda (Klingelnberg): ham 1.2 = dv 1.6 Classification Notes.5 (dv1 + dv2) ( ( ))2 if ε β < 1 Tip diameters: dva 1.2 = Base circle: h am1.5 d 2 1 − d 2 1 + 0. 41.2 Length of line of contact: bεα lb = cos β bm ε 2 − (2 − ε α ) 1 − ε β γ ε2 γ Centre distance: av = 0.2 = mmn (1 + xm 1. pitch.5 Nominal Tangential Load.4 Bevel Gear Conversion Formulae and Specific Formulae Conversion of bevel gears to virtual equivalent helical cylindrical gears is based on the bevel gear midsection. Fmt and Fmbt The nominal tangential load (tangential to the reference cylinder with diameter d and perpendicular to an axial plane) is calculated from the nominal (rated) torque T transmitted by the gear set.2 – b/2 tan (δa 1.2 = z1.No.2 May 2003 pbt = π m n cos α t cos β xm 1.2 = dv 1.1 2 m mn π 2 + 2 x tan α n sat = d a + inv α t − invα a z san = s at cos β a dvb 1.2 – δ1. but used as approximations in the calculation procedures): εβ = b sin β m π m nm Total contact ratio:*) εγ = 2 2 ε α + εβ (* Note that index «v» is left out in order to combine formulae for cylindrical and bevel gears. Fbt. Cylindrical gears Ft = 2000 T d Fbt = Ft cos α t Bevel gears Fmt = 2000 T dm Fmbt = Fmt cos α vt DET NORSKE VERITAS . Ft.2 = d m1.2) (when ha is addendum at outer end and δa is the outer cone angle).2 (δ1 + δ2 = Σ) Gear ratio: uv = z v2 z v1 Overlap ratio*) (theoretical value for bevel gears with no crowning.2 cos αvt Transverse contact ratio:*) εα = 0.
expressed by means of an application factor based on rated forward load (T or Ft).1 Sec J500) KA ice has to be taken as the higher value of the applicable (rule defined) ice shock torque referred to nominal rated torque and the value under a). This definition is suitable for main propulsion gears and most of the auxiliary gears.6.*) Unless specially agreed. KA is defined as the ratio between the maximum repetitive cyclic torque applied to the gear set and nominal rated torque. For polar ice class notations. it is advised to apply KA as the upper allowable value 1. thrusters driven by electric motors can suffer temporary mean torque much above 100% unless a suitable load control system (limiting available emotor torque) is provided.2 May 2003 7 1. This applies to plants with ice class notations (Baltic and polar). however the practical upper value is 1. For main propulsion gears with ice class notation (see Rules Pt. Additionally. 4. it is advised to apply either the max. azimuth thrusters during manoeuvring). 1. b) DET NORSKE VERITAS . e) *) For diesel driven gears.2). the calculations with the normal KA (no ice class) are to fulfil the normal requirements.6 Application Factors. For gears with a defined load spectrum the calculation with a KA may be replaced by a fatigue damage calculation as given in Appendix A. ice shocks result in negative torques. However.5.g. It is distinguished between the influence of repetitive cyclic torques KA (1. d) For diesel driven auxiliaries KA can be taken from the torsional vibration analysis.2 and 4. the conditions may be even worse.No.2 (except for nitrided gears where ZN = 1 applies). is KAreverse = KA ice –1 (the minus 1 because no mean torque assumed).2. KA and KAP The application factor KA accounts for dynamic overloads from sources external to the gearing. electric motors (provided the driven member can have a considerable increase in demand torque as e. KA can be determined by measurements or system analysis. 41. However.1. The above mentioned movements or manoeuvring will result in increased propeller excitation. For plants without additional ice class notation.35. KAice to be calculated as in the ice class rules. whereby the KA applies in connection with the bulk temperature. thrusters positioned far from the rolling axis of vessels that could be susceptible to rolling. For plants where high temporary occasional peak torques can occur (i.1. For units where no vibration analysis is required (< 200 kW) or available. the scuffing safety has to be considered on basis of this overload. KAP should normally not exceed 1. and the KAP applies for the flash temperature calculation and should replace KA in the formulae in 4. (For the purpose of a preliminary (but not binding) calculation before KA is determined.) a) For main propulsion gears KA can be taken from the (mandatory) torsional vibration analysis.1) and the influence of temporary occasional peak torques KAP (1.g. more information on KA for misfiring and normal driving is given in Appendix B. if available. This KAreverse should be used for back flank considerations such as pitting and scuffing.35 for diesel propulsion.*) For turbine or electro driven auxiliaries the same as for c) applies. Calculations are always to be made with KA. both with respect to bulk and flash temperature.Classification Notes. the engine mean torque is limited to 100%.g. thereby considering all permissible driving conditions.1 KA c) For a power take off (PTO) branch from a main propulsion gear with ice class. This means e. in excess of the above mentioned KA).3.6. In certain cases additional calculations with KAP may be necessary.3 · KAreverse /KA. the rules do not allow KA in excess of 1.2. values mentioned below or values known from similar plants.4. special attention should be given to thrusters that are arranged in such a way that heavy vessel movements and/or manoeuvring can cause severe load fluctuations. If the overloads have a duration corresponding to several revolutions of the shafts.5 Ch.6. the gearing (if nitrided) has to be checked with regard to static strength.3. and to plants with prime movers which have high temporary overload capacity such as e. 1. The scuffing safety is to be specially considered. The influence of these reverse shock loads may be taken into account as follows: The negative torque (reversed load). The influence on tooth bending strength (forward direction) may be simplified by using the factor YM = 1 − 0. Thus the life factors may be put YN=1 and ZN=1. The Baltic ice class notations refer to a few millions ice shock loads. If leading to propeller air suction. If the thruster is driven by a diesel engine. KAP can be evaluated from the torsional impact vibration calculation (as required by the rules). or may be ruled by conventions (ice classes).*) With turbine or electric propulsion KA would normally not exceed 1. For gears designed for long or infinite life at nominal rated torque.2 KAP The peak overload factor KAP is defined as the ratio between the temporary occasional peak overload torque and the nominal rated torque.6.e. Unless otherwise specified the same safety factors as for infinite life apply. KA ice applies to all criteria and for long or infinite life. It is assumed that the PTO branch is unloaded when the ice shock load occurs.
: Kγ = δ+f δ 1. external forces etc. double helix etc. Compensating effects should also be considered.8. see 1.e. overhung mounted bevel gears). see 1. i.1 General method Figure 1.No. quill shaft. see 1. the speed that multiplied with z gives the mesh frequency. the next following is decisive. and should be considered on basis of measurements or of relevant analysis as e.25 n pl − 3 where npl = number of planets ( >3 ).8.1. Kv The dynamic factor Kv accounts for the internally generated dynamic loads. However.8.1. (see Appendix A).2 Simplified method Note that for epicyclic gears n is the relative speed.7 Load Sharing Factor.8. the influence of this is to be considered by means of cumulative fatigue. E.).8. For multistage gears with locked paths and gear stages separated by quill shafts (see figure below): It is not advised to apply this method for multimesh gears for N > 0.2 nE1 = where: cγ is the actual mesh stiffness per unit facewidth. In particular the influence of lateral stiffness of shafts is often underestimated and resonances occur at considerably lower speed than determined in 1. 41.g. 1.g. planet support. In the following 2 different methods (1. Expressed by a load sharing factor the Kγ = 1± Fext Ft ⋅ tan β For a single stage gear Kv may be determined on basis of the relative proximity (or resonance ratio) N between actual speed n1 and the lowest resonance speed nE1. In case of significant lateral shaft flexibility (e. and the higher σH or σF to be used. f= f1 + f 2 + f 3 + − − − − 2 2 2 where f1. N = n1 n E1 If the direction of Fext is known.0 Locked paths gear Kγ = 1+ (0.2 May 2003 1.1 and 1.1. epicyclic. 1. and with the tangential force corrected with the pertinent Kγ. bearing clearance influences etc.8.8 Dynamic Factor.1.8 Classification Notes. planet carrier pitch errors. If the direction of Fext is unknown. are the main individual errors that may contribute to a maldistribution between the branches.g. Kv is defined as the ratio between the maximum load that dynamically acts on the tooth flanks and the maximum externally applied load Ft KA Kγ. 30 ⋅ 103 π z1 cγ m red DET NORSKE VERITAS .7. thrust via or from a tooth coupling) will cause a maldistribution of forces between the two helices.1 Determination of critical speed If no relevant analysis is available the following may apply: For epicyclic gears: Kγ = 1 + 0.8. i. For double helical gears: An external axial force Fext applied from sources outside the actual gearing (e. the methods are listed with increasing priority. Kγ is defined as the ratio between the max.g.7.6. In case of controversy between the methods. as the influence of higher modes has to be considered. f2 etc.1 Single resonance method δ = total compliance of a branch under full load (assuming even load share) referred to gear mesh.75 .8.85.11. the calculation should be carried out separately for each helix.3 Frequent overloads For plants where high overloads or shock loads occur regularly.2) are described. 1.2. It is important to observe the limitations for the method in 1.e. the influence of coupled bending and torsional vibrations between pinion and wheel should be considered if N ≥ 0. for low speed gears with v·z1 < 300 calculations may be omitted and the dynamic factor simplified to Kv=1. Kγ The load sharing factor Kγ accounts for the maldistribution of load in multiplepath transmissions (dual tandem.05.g.). 1. tooth pitch errors. 1. load through an actual path and the evenly shared load. both combinations are to be calculated. Kγ mainly depends on accuracy and flexibility of the branches (e.2 / φ ) where φ = quill shaft twist (degrees) under full load.
see 1.85 < N ≤ 1. it should be added to that particular inertia (pinion or wheel).2) the reduction of ε α has to be considered (see 4.57 − 0.75 < N ≤ 1. as e.85 N ≤ 0. Such corrections are given in 1.8.g.12. max.3 for ε γ ≤ 2 for ε γ > 2 Cv3 accounts for the cyclic mesh stiffness variation Cv3 = 0. Bk is limited to max. Kv = 1 + Cv1 Bp + Cv2 Bf + Cv4 Bk Cv4 accounts for the resonance condition with the cyclic mesh stiffness variation.23 Cv3 = 0. per unit facewidth and referred to the plane of contact. For gears with Q ≤ 6 and excessive tip relief.4 Kv in the main resonance range: Cylindrical gears: Bevel gears: Nondimensional tip relief parameter: C a ⋅ c' Bk = 1 − Ft ⋅ K A ⋅ K γ /b 0.1. the single tooth stiffness.Classification Notes. 1. of pinion or wheel (Note: Fα is p. as only a part of the facewidth is active. For gears (all quality grades) with tip relief of more than 2·Ceff (see 4. if a significant inertia (e. but also simplified as a 2mass system calculated with only pinion and wheel masses. due to high crowning or end relief such as often applied for bevel gears.57 ε γ − 0. The inertia of bevel gears may be approximated as discs with diameter equal the midface pitch diameter and width equal to b. not available for bevel gears.25 Running in this range should preferably be avoided.3 Kv in the subcritical range: Cylindrical gears: Bevel gears: where I is the polar moment of inertia (kgmm2).2 = I1.05 ε γ ε γ − 1.3). mred is calculated as: mred m1 m 2 = m1 + m 2 where: fpt Fα = = the single pitch deviation (ISO 1328). max.56 Nondimensional gear accuracy dependent parameters: Bp = c' f pt − y p ( ) for ε γ ≤ 2 for ε γ > 2 Ft K A K γ / b Bf = c' (Fα − y f ) Ft K A K γ / b 1. However. but when used in connection with the total mesh stiffness. and is only allowed for high precision gears.12) may be used in the above formula.8.32 Cv2 accounts for profile error influence Cv2 = 0. the torsional shaft stiffness alters the system into a 3mass (or more) system. cγ is defined as stiffness per unit facewidth. Bk = 1. see 4.2 b (d b1. mred is the reduced mass of the gear pair.e. thus use Fα = fpt) the respective runningin allowances and may be calculated similarly to yα in 1. a clutch) is very rigidly connected to the pinion or wheel. For a single gear stage where no significant inertias are closely connected to neither pinion nor wheel. the use of cγ in connection with determination of natural frequencies may need correction.44 For gears of quality grade (ISO 1328) Q = 7 or coarser.2.1.2 Factors used for determination of Kv N ≤ 0.No.3.4.3.096 ε γ − 1. if the shape of the pinion or wheel body differs much from this idealised cylinder. it is not as simple as cγ·b.2 May 2003 9 For gears with inactive ends of the facewidth. of pinion or wheel the total profile form deviation (ISO 1328).8. the inertia should be corrected accordingly. If there is a shaft piece between these inertias.15 0.g.2 / 2) 2 1.t.8.1.75 Kv = 1 + N K K = Cv1 Bp + Cv2 Bf + Cv3 Bk Cv1 accounts for the pitch error influence Cv1 = 0. Cv4 = 0. In case of different tip relief on pinion and wheel.3. the value of runningin tip relief Cay (see 1. the value of fpt is replaced by Fα for yf.34 Cv2 = 0.11 the amount of tip relief. For all kind of gears. 41. for εγ ≤ 2 for ε γ > 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS . i. the value that results in the greater value of Bk is to be used.90 Cv4 = 0. If Ca is zero by design. 1. This can be calculated as in 1. yp and yf = c´ Ca = = The individual masses per unit facewidth are calculated as m1.11.
5 < εγ ≤ 2.5 ) + ⋅ K v (N =1.15 respectively 1.2 May 2003 1. The level of the dynamic factor may also be determined on basis of simulation technique using numeric time integration with relevant tooth stiffness variation and pitch/profile errors.4 and 1.5 1. in pinionrack lifting systems for jack up rigs. It is advised to incorporate all relevant inertias and torsional shaft stiffnesses into an equivalent (to pinion speed) system.8.g.1 thereby using N as the least favourable ratio (in case of more than one pinionwheel dominated natural frequency). lateral shaft vibrations) and torsional vibrations between pinion and wheel.47 Cv6 accounts for the profile error influence.2 Measurement of face load factors 1. Cv7 relates the maximum externally applied tooth loading to the maximum tooth loading of ideal.1 Relations between KHβ and KFβ [ ] for εγ ≤ 1. These influences are not covered by the following approach. and/or influence of coupled bending (i. the value of KFβ(1or2) is to be specially considered as it may even exceed KHβ.47 Cv6 = 0.25 ) − K v (N =1. 1. Cv5 = 0. Cv6 = 0.5 as Cylindrical gears 1.5 Comments raised in 1.15 ) − K v (N =1. KFβ is defined as the ratio between the maximum tooth root stress per unit facewidth and the mean tooth root stress per unit facewidth.0 for εγ > 2.e.1. The plane of contact is considered. use only the facewidth of one helix. Note that for a gear put on a laterally flexible shaft. KFβ for tooth root stresses. for multimesh medium speed gears. E.e. Only the natural frequency (ies) having high relative displacement and relative torque through the actual pinionwheel flexible element. 41.125 sin π (ε β − 2) + 0.5 ) 0. The maximum of h1/b1. the coupling bendingtorsionals is arranged by introducing the gear mass and the lateral stiffness with its relation to the torsional displacement and torque in that shaft.8.8. account for nonuniform load distribution across the facewidth.5 should be observed.5 1.74 for εγ ≤ 2 for εγ > 2 The natural frequencies are found by solving the set of differential equations (one equation per inertia).25 where h/b is the ratio tooth height/facewidth. bevel gears.875 for 1. accurate gears operating in the supercritical speed sector.75 Cv7 = 0. Such strain gauges must be put in DET NORSKE VERITAS .1.35 [ [ ] ] KFβ = K Hβ exp exp = 1 1 + h/b + (h/b) 2 Bevel gears 1. but not higher than 1/3 .5 N ≥ 1.5 1.5 ) + ⋅ K v (N =1.No. I.g. Kv = Cv5 Bp + Cv6 Bf + Cv7 Cv5 accounts for the pitch error influence.5 ) 0. need(s) to be considered as critical frequency (ies). Thereby the mesh stiffness appears as an equivalent torsional stiffness: Primarily.8.5 − N K v = K v (N =1. it is advised to determine Kv on basis of relevant dynamic analysis.5 Special care should be taken as to influence of higher vibration modes.10 Classification Notes. Cv7 = 0. KHβ for contact stresses and for scuffing.25 and N = 1. Kv may be determined by means of the method mentioned in 1.25 < N < 1.5 − N K v = K v (N =1. the typical KHβ ≈ KFβ2 ≈ 1 and KFβ1 ≈ 1. the Nratio that results in the highest Kv has to be considered. For double helical gears.1.12 ε γ − 1. 1. and h2/b2 is to be used.6 Kv in the intermediate range: Cylindrical gears: Bevel gears: 1.9 Face Load Factors.8.5 Cv7 = 1. The mean tooth root stress relates to the considered facewidth b1 respectively b2.15 < N < 1. Incorporating lateral shaft compliance requires transformation of even a simple pinionwheel system into a lumped multimass system. for gears with significant lateral shaft flexibility etc.3. Kv is determined by linear interpolation between Kv for N = 1. where b = b2 ≈ mn and b1 ≈ 3 mn.1. KHβ is defined as the ratio between the maximum load per unit facewidth and the mean load per unit facewidth. even if the ends are unloaded as often applies to e. when the circumferential vibration becomes very soft.9.2 Multiresonance method For high speed gear (v>40 m/s). KHβ and KFβ The face load factors. KFβ may be determined by a number of strain gauges distributed over the facewidth.5 Kv in the supercritical range: Cylindrical gears: Bevel gears: cγ b (db1/2)2 (Nm/rad) N ≥ 1.9. Note that facewidth in this context is the design facewidth b.8. If the tooth root facewidth (b1 or b2) is considerably wider than b.
1.8 may be used for cylindrical gears. Secondarily. see 1. From these data. DET NORSKE VERITAS .9. 1.11) (if necessary. and is as follows: • • Figure 1. 1. KHβ can be determined analytically as described in 1.No. General: For gears where the tooth contact pattern cannot be verified during assembly or under load.1 Example of experimental determination of KHβ Calculate the mean mesh deflection δ M as a function of Fm /b and c γ .12). see 1. the initial mesh misalignment (i.3 to 1. Usually. See example. KHβ is to be determined in the plane of contact. also variable stiffness over b) mean unit load Fm/b = Fbt KA Kγ Kv/b (for double helical gears. Ground or hard metal hobbed bevel gears are assumed to present an accumulated contact pattern that is practically equal the actual single mesh to mesh contact patterns. However.3. the most practical way to determine KHβ is by means of a graphical approach.e.) Calculate the bearing deflections and/or working positions in the bearings and evaluate the influence fdefl in the plane of contact. This is a straight line and is balanced around a zero line as indicated in Fig. and then also the KHβ at design load can be found by calculation and extrapolation. (The area δM b is proportional to the transmitted force).9. When all or most of the a. these parameters are not taken into account unless in special cases when being considered as particularly important. The principles may to some extent also be used for bevel gears. Calculate the elastic deflection fsh in the plane of contact.9. (The area under this new load distribution curve is still δM b. described in 1.Classification Notes. The influence parameters considered in this method are: Figure 1. Proceed in the same way for the next higher test load etc. and draw up a rectangular with height δM. parameters are to be considered. In practice several other parameters such as centrifugal expansion. end relief.9. thermal expansion.m. It is imperative that the various test loads are well defined. helix correction running in amount yβ (see 1.9. until there is a full face contact pattern. without elastic deflections) can be found by extrapolation.4.1. Superimpose these ordinates to the previous load distribution curve. etc.3 Theoretical determination of KHβ • The methods described in 1. After having run the gear for a suitable time at test load 1 (the lowest). observe the contact pattern with respect to extension over the facewidth. Some teeth at each 90 degrees are to be painted with a suitable lacquer. 41.9. It must be considered that inaccurate gears may accumulate a larger observed contact pattern than the actual single mesh to mesh contact patterns.1 Graphical method The graphical method utilises the superposition principle.2. but with one distinct direction.11.2 fsh balanced around zero line • • Superimpose these ordinates of the fsh curve to the previous load distribution curve.7 for use of Kγ) misalignment fsh due to elastic deflections of shafts and gear bodies (both pinion and wheel) misalignment fdefl due to elastic deflections of and working positions in bearings misalignment fbe due to bearing clearance tolerances misalignment fma due to manufacturing tolerances helix modifications as crowning. KHβ may be evaluated by observed contact patterns on various defined load levels.. all assumptions are to be well on the safe side. Evaluate that KHβ by means of the methods mentioned in this section.3.9. Draw a base line with length b. but a more practical approach is given in 1.1 apply for conversion to KHβ. Balance this deflection curve around a zero line.9. housing deflection.9. Always consider the poorest of the contact patterns.9.9. Relations in 1. This is particularly important for lapped bevel gears. it is also necessary to evaluate the elastic deflections.3. If cγ can be considered constant over the facewidth. so that the areas above and below this zero line are equal. and no helix modifications apply. As a rough guidance the (observed) accumulated contact pattern of lapped bevel gears may be reduced by 10% in order to assess the single mesh to mesh contact pattern which is used in 1.2 May 2003 11 exactly the same position relative to the root fillet. • • • • • • • • mean mesh stiffness cγ (see 1. contribute to KHβ.
of which the one with the highest peak is to be chosen for further evaluation. is to be balanced around a zero line.9. as e. It is advisable to check that the area covered under this new load distribution curve is still equal δM b. If direction unknown. Otherwise. see Fig. 1. or if the direction of fbe is known due to design (e. often applied to bevel gears. as the load in those areas should be zero. Balance this deflection curve around a zero line.3 Crowning Cc balanced aound zero line If cγ cannot be considered as constant over b.12 whereby the value for Fβx is to be taken as twice the distance between the peak of the load distribution curve and δM. The calculation is to be made in the plane of contact (of the considered gear mesh). The amount of initial mesh misalignment.4 fma+fbe in both directions. balanced around zero line.2.12) Fβy = Fβx . then correct the ordinates of the load distribution curve with the local (on various positions over the facewidth) ratio between local mesh stiffness and average mesh stiffness cγ (average over the active facewidth only).2 Simplified analytical method for cylindrical gears The analytical approach is similar to 1. • If the chosen load distribution curve crosses the base line (i. The max. Thus corrective actions must be made. but for practical reasons it may be postponed to after next operation. It is advised to use following diameters for toothed elements: d + 2 x mn for bending and shear deflection d + 2 mn (x – ha0 + 0. Usually it is sufficient to consider the combined mesh deflection of the pinion body and shaft and the wheel shaft.11. the new load distribution curve may cross the base line (the real zero line). Calculate the effective mesh misalignment as (yβ see 1. and to consider all forces (incl.1 but has a more limited application as cγ is assumed constant over the facewidth and no helix modification applies.e. should be considered. If a negative sign is justified. the value of Fβx is not to be taken less than the largest of each of these elements. see 1. positive ordinate is ½∆fsh. the curve is to be corrected by adding the negative areas and dividing this with the active facewidth. this should be taken into account. The influence of running in yβ is to be determined as in 1.2) for torsional deflection Usually.g. mathematically negative load). the influence of f ma + f be in both directions as well as equal zero. fsh is calculated on basis of an evenly distributed load.4 Determination of fsh Superimpose these ordinates to the previous load distribution curve. always use positive signs. Forces from other meshes can be parted into components parallel respectively vertical to the considered plane of contact. • Calculate the elastic deflection fsh in the plane of contact. Calculate the initial mesh alignment as Fβx= ∆ f sh ± f ma ± f be ± f defl The negative signs may only be used if this is justified and/or verified by a contact pattern test. If the direction of f ma + f be is known (due to initial contact check). This results in up to 3 different curves. The result is areas with negative load that is not real. Figure 1.g.12 Classification Notes. Forces vertical to this plane of contact have no influence on fsh.9. 1. 1.2 May 2003 • The amount of crowning. end relief or helix correction (defined in the plane of contact) is to be balanced around a zero line similarly to fsh • • • Figure 1.No.3. If the analysis of KHβ shows a considerable maldis DET NORSKE VERITAS . In case of high crowning etc.9. axial) acting on the shafts. Note that the result is to be a curve that covers the same area δM b as before. so that the area above and below this zero line are equal.3. Determine peak of curve − yβ KHβ = δM • • Superimpose these ordinates to the previous load distribution curve. f ma + f be (defined in the plane of contact). The (constant) ordinates of this rectangular correction area are to be subtracted from the positive part of the load distribution curve. fsh is the mesh misalignment due to elastic deflections. overhang bevel pinion).yβ Determine c γ Fβγ b K Hβ = 1 + for K H β ≤ 2 2 Fm or K Hβ = 2 c γ Fβγ b Fm for K Hβ > 2 • • • where cγ as used here is the effective mesh stiffness. 41.
.. 1. In general it shall be possible to replace standard bearings without causing the real load distribution to exceed the design premises. Expected variations in length. DET NORSKE VERITAS . It must be noted that the total twist is the sum of the twist due to each mesh. For fluid film bearings fdefl is further determined on basis of the lift and angular shift of the shafts due to lubrication oil film thickness. + tolerance). 41. In that case the smaller beff / b is to be used.5. and fbe is dependent on tolerances and in most cases has no distinct direction (i. In fact.7 Determination of fma fma is the mesh misalignment due to manufacturing tolerances (helix slope deviation) of pinion fHβ1.. + f be 2 + . the misalignment will be the average between the two theoretical individual misalignments. as the sun and annulus mesh with several planets with possibly different lead errors. The influence of external moments and forces must be considered.9. The faceload distribution on the flanks of the planets can take full advantage of this.9. Note that fbe takes into account the influence of the bearing clearance tolerance.9. If not. However.2 May 2003 13 tribution in term of hard end contact. fdefl is this angular misalignment (radians) times the facewidth. the expected wear should also be considered. An elastic bearing deflection depends on the bearing load and size and number of rolling elements. 1. or if it is known by other reasons that there exists a hard end contact. the value of fma will depend on those specific requirements. 1.8 Comments to various gear types For double helical gears.e. When working positions. bearing deflections and oil film lift are combined for all bearings. and multiplied with the number of planets). For slow speed gears with journal bearings.No. b K Hβ = 1. it is practicable to separate these two influences. twist calculated with the force per mesh without Kγ.Classification Notes. I.9.5 Determination of fdefl 1.. the value of fma is to be determined as 2 2 fma= f Hβ1 + f Hβ 2 fdefl is the mesh misalignment in the plane of contact due to bearing deflections and working positions (housing deflection may be included if determined). For planetary gears the free floating sun pinion suffers only twist. the mesh misalignments sunplanet respectively planetannulus will be balanced.9.90 are normally not to be used in the formula. In principle fbe and fdefl could be combined. Higher values than beff / b = 0. even for almost triangular load distributions. 1. fbe is the facewidth times this angular misalignment. bearing stiffness.9. for gears with widely different kinds of bearings on each side. or a combination of both.1.85 − eff ⋅ K test b beff / b represents the relative active facewidth (regarding lapped gears.31.. shaft stiffness. a) Ktest = 1 For ground or hard metal hobbed gears with the specified contact pattern verified at full rating or at full torque slow turning at a condition representative for the thermal expansion at normal operation.7.. housing stiffness etc.9. When planets are mounted on spherical bearings.8 is not documented.85 ⋅ 1. Note that the bearing clearance tolerances are not included here. For rolling bearings fdefl is further determined on basis of the elastic deflection of the bearings. wheel fHβ2 and housing bore . the angular misalignment as projected into the plane of the contact is to be determined. Ktest represents the influence of the bearing arrangement.9.6 Determination of fbe For gears with specially approved assembly control.. 2 fbe is particularly important for overhang designs. Usually an even load share between the helices can be assumed. Due to different bearing clearance tolerances in both pinion and wheel shafts the two shaft axis will have an angular misalignment in the plane of contact that is superimposed to the working positions determined in 1. For combination of + tolerance it is adviced to use fbe= ± f be1 2 If a theoretical approach similar to 1. the following may be used. this must be taken into account when calculating the total sun pinion twist (i. KHβ is to be determined for both helices. If the value of K γ ≠ 1 . the sun and annulus cannot obtain the above mentioned advantage to the full extent. and when the bearings have wide tolerances on clearances. For dual directional gears it may be difficult to obtain a high beff / b in both directions. Note that fbe may have a distinct direction or be given as a + tolerance. see 1. the whole KHβ procedure can be used iteratively.and heightwise tooth profile is also accounted for to some extent. on the faceload distribution and the verification thereof.e. the load should be correspondingly distributed when calculating fsh.e. This is of special importance for twin pinion single output gears with all 3 shafts in one plane. But as fdefl can be determined by analysis and has a distinct direction. no bending.9. For gear without specifically approved requirements to assembly control. First the journal working positions in the bearings are to be determined. the calculation is to be made as described in 1.9 Determination of KHβ for bevel gears fbe is the mesh misalignment in the plane of contact due to tolerances in bearing clearances.2 last part). 23 iterations will be enough.
KHα for contact stresses and for scuffing. or maximum total profile form deviation Fα of pinion or wheel if this is larger than the maximum single pitch deviation. However.75 ε α + 0.25791 q = 0. c´= 0.1. use KFα = εγ ε α Yε (for εαn see 3.8 cos β CR CB q valid for ε γ > 2 where: FtH cγ γα fpt = = = = Ft KA Kγ Kv KHβ See 1.11 See 1. use KHα = εγ ε α Zε 2 If the calculated value of KFα > where Yε = 0.25 + Bevel gears: 0. c´ is the maximum stiffness of a single pair of teeth. The initial mesh contact verified with low load or spin test where the acceptance criteria are calibrated against a type test at full load. KHα and KFα The transverse load distribution factors. cγ is the mean value of the mesh stiffness in a transverse plane (brief term: mesh stiffness).2: and c γ = c′(0.c) For ground or hard metal hobbed gears KFα = KHα = 1 For lapped gears KFα = KHα = 1.00529 x1 2 z n1 zn2 Note: + 0.9 + 0.15551 0. c) Ktest = 1. In case of adequate equivalent tip relief adapted to the load. The following relations may be used: Cylindrical gears: K Fα = K Hα = εγ c f − yα b 0.2 if mesh is only checked by toolmaker’s blue or by spin test contact.1 1. b) Ktest = 1 + 0.2 May 2003 It also applies when the bearing arrangement/support has insignificant elastic deflections and thermal axial expansion. 41.12 Maximum single pitch deviation (µm) of pinion or wheel. A. An optional approach for inclusion of the nonlinear stiffness is described in B. Reproduction of the gear tooth length. For high unit loads the Hertzian stiffness has little importance and can be disregarded. Cylindrical gears The real stiffness is a combination of the progressive Hertzian contact stiffness and the linear tooth bending stiffnesses. However. use KFα = KHα = 1.4 2 ε γ − 1 c γ f pt − y α b εγ FtH ( ) ( ) The linear approach is described in A.0 εγ ε α Zε 2 If the calculated value of KHα > .6) For designs with possible influence of thermal expansion in the axial direction of the pinion.9 + 0. half of the above mentioned fpt can be introduced. Limitations of KHα and KFα: If the calculated values for KFα = KHα < 1.02(20 − α n )] 2 0.85 is not to be used in the calculation.00193 x 2 − + 0. each initial mesh contact must be verified to be within acceptance criteria that are calibrated against a type test at full load.10 Transversal Load Distribution Factors. The linear approach.24188 x 2 − 0. for moderate or low loads Kv may be underestimated due to determination of a too high resonance speed. in the plane of contact.04723 + + − 0.3.2 − a 01 a 02 [1 − 0. A tip relief is considered adequate when the average of Ca1 and Ca2 is within ±40% of the value of Ceff in 4. c´ and cγ The tooth stiffness is defined as the load which is necessary to deform one or several meshing gear teeth having 1 mm facewidth by an amount of 1 µm.14 Classification Notes. This can be made through 3D measurements or by initial contact movements caused by defined axial offsets of the pinion (tolerances to be agreed upon). Both valid for high unit load.25) where: h +h C B = 1 + 0.00635 x1 z n1 zn2 − 0.No.3.00182 x22 DET NORSKE VERITAS .75 ε αn εγ ε α Yε .51.and heightwise profile must also be verified. This approach is on the safe side for determination of KHβ and KHα.4·(beff/b–0.11654 x1 0. KFα for tooth root stresses account for the effects of pitch and profile errors on the transversal load distribution between 2 or more pairs of teeth in mesh. For gears in this category beff./b > 0. (Unit load = Ft · KA · Kγ/b).4 γ pt 2 FtH ( ) valid for ε γ ≤ 2 K Fα = K Hα = 0.11 Tooth Stiffness Constants. 1.
use zn2 equal infinite and x2 = 0).1). CR considers the increased flexibility of the wheel teeth if the wheel is not a solid disc. δ = mesh deflection (µm) K = applicable stiffness (c or cγ) Use of stiffnesses for KV.85 b beff not to be used in excess of 0. The local mesh stiffness in way of the web corresponds to the mesh stiffness with CR = 1. KHβ and KHα ' σ H lim 25600 σ H lim 12800 σ H lim For surface hardened steel yα = 0.85 b in these formulae. See also 1. e. This straight line when extended to the baseline is assumed to intersect at 10µm. The following relations may be used: For not surface hardened steel yα = 160 f pt σ Hlim 320 F = K (δ − 10) b for F > 500 b F F/b for F < 500 = K δ − 10 b 500 b yβ = with F Ft = ⋅ K A ⋅ K γ etc.No. Bevel gears with heightwise and lengthwise crowning have progressive mesh stiffness. Cay is defined as the runningin amount that compensates for lack of tip relief. The nonlinear approach. 41. yα respectively yβ are the runningin amounts which reduce the influence of pitch and profile errors. Note: CR is the ratio between the average mesh stiffness over the facewidth and the mesh stiffness of a gear pair of solid discs.Classification Notes.g. unit load incorporatb b ing the relevant factors as: σ H lim f βx with the following upper limits: V yα max yβ max < 5 m/s none none 510 m/s 12800 > 10 m/s 6400 KA · Kγ for determination of Kv. (N/mm). B. The local mesh stiffness where there is no web support will be less than calculated with CR above. DET NORSKE VERITAS . They should not be used for determination of Ceff (see 4. i.15 Fβx σ H lim but not more than 3 for any speed but not more than 6 for any speed For calculation of Kv and KHα the stiffness is calculated as follows: When F/b < 500. The relation between unit load F/b as a function of mesh deflection δ is assumed to be a progressive curve up to 500 N/mm and from there on a straight line. Thus. c´= 13 b eff 0.1 regarding KHβ.2) or KHβ (see 1.e.9. and may be calculated as: CR = 1 + 5 e (s R / 5 m n ) ln(b s /b ) the stiffness is determined as ∆ F/b ∆δ where the increment is chosen as e.2 and sR/mn ≥ 1. In lack of more detailed relationship between stiffness and geometry the following may be used.2 May 2003 15 (for internal gears. For calculation of KHβ the mesh deflection δ is used directly. the stiffness is c' or cγ. Outside this range of validity and if the web is not centrally positioned. respectively influence of localised faceload. ha0 = hfp for all practical purposes.3. KA · Kγ · Kv for determination of KHβ. When F / b > 500. CR has to be specially considered. KA · Kγ · Kv · KHβ for determination of KHα.12 Runningin Allowances The runningin allowances account for the influence of runningin wear on the various error elements. The values mentioned above are only valid for high loads. F or an equivalent stiffness determined as . With these assumptions the unit force F/b as a function of mesh deflection δ can be expressed as: 1.g. b⋅δ Bevel gears The formula is valid for bs / b ≥ 0.3. ∆ F/b = 10 and thus ∆δ = F/b+ 10 F/b+ 10 + 10 K 500 where: bs sR = = thickness of a central web average thickness of rim (net value from tooth root to inside of rim).85 b c γ = 16 b eff 0.075 fpt yβ = 0. a centrally positioned web will have an effect corresponding to a longitudinal crowning of the teeth.3. In the following an example is given on how to consider the nonlinearity.9.
yα in the calculation of KHα and Kv.16 Classification Notes.yα2 to replace fpt .No.yα1 and fpt2 . 2 1 Use C a = C ay1 + C ay 2 in the calculation of Kv.5 18 97 2 • • • • When pinion and wheel material differ. 41. 1 Use y β = y β1 + y β 2 in the calculation of KHβ. 2 1 Use C a1 = C a 2 = C ay1 + C ay 2 in the scuffing 2 calculation if no design tip relief is foreseen.45 + 1. the following applies: Use the larger of fpt1 . ( ) ( ) ( ) DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 May 2003 For all kinds of steel C ay = 1 σ H lim − 18.
13 may be applied.4).2.3. see 1.3.2 – 2. 41.10.2 Basic Equations Calculation of surface durability (pitting) for spur gears is based on the contact stress at the inner point of single pair contact or the contact at the pitch point. Helix angle factor (see 2. static (or very slow running) surface load for surface hardened flanks is limited by the subsurface yield strength. For helical gears with 0 < εβ < 1. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Ft. ZM = midzone factor.8). Work hardening factor (see 2. Kγ . a linear interpolation between the above mentioned applies. Required safety factor according to the rules.2. Calculation of surface durability for spiral bevel gears is based on the contact stress at the midpoint of the zone of contact.05 ⋅ Z M Z E Z K Fmt (u v + 1) K A K γ K v K Hβ K Hα d v 1 bu v where: 1. Calculation of surface durability for helical gears is based on the contact stress at the pitch point. pitting is not permitted. grey staining (micropitting) may be the limiting criterion for the gear rating. 2.9). b.Classification Notes. Contact ratio factor (see 2.1 Contact stress Cylindrical gears σ H = Z B. Elasticity factor (see 2. Thus depending on experience with similar gear designs. The contact stresses calculated with the method in part 2 are based on the Hertzian theory. KHα . case crushing and subsurface yielding. This is particularly important for surface hardened teeth.10).11). KA and Kv are to be included in the applied tooth force. It is assumed that the heightwise crowning is chosen so as to result in the maximum contact stresses at or near the midpoint of the flanks. Oil film influence factors (see 2. spalling.12. Size factor (see 2. Endurance and time limited flank surface fatigue is calculated by means of 2.2 – 1.5. 2. d1.2 May 2003 17 2. Bevel gears σ H = 1.2 Permissible contact stress σ HP = σ Hlim Z N ZL Zv ZR ZW ZX SH 2.12).3. see 2. the max. Calculation of Surface Durability 2. but also for high strength through hardened teeth.2. For jacking gears (selfelevating offshore units) or similar slow speed gears designed for very limited life.5.13. u. Zone factor for pitch point (see 2.6).1). Alternatively for bevel gears the contact stress may be calculated with the program “BECAL”. pits can create a severe notch effect that may result in tooth breakage. but do not always represent the real Hertzian stresses.2 . The corresponding permissible contact stresses σHP are to be calculated for both pinion and wheel. However.7.No.1 Scope and General Remarks Part 2 includes the calculations of flank surface durability as limited by pitting. but may have a more severe effect on tooth breakage due to the larger material breakouts. Life factor for contact stresses (see 2. where: σH lim ZN SH ZL. KA . see above. In a way also tooth fractures starting from the flank due to subsurface fatigue is included through the criteria in 2. For highspeed gears. see 2.3. Fmt. ZK = bevel gear factor.05 is a correlation factor to reach real Hertzian stresses (when ZK = 1) ZE. Subsurface fatigue is considered in 2. wheel (see 2. but not KHβ and KHα.2 – 1.5 – 1. KA etc.D Z H Z E Z ε Z β Ft (u + 1) K A K γ K v K Hβ K Hα d1bu where: ZB. see 1.13. dv1. Spalling and case crushing are considered similar to pitting. KHβ . In that case. limitations on surface durability rating other than those according to 2. but are under consideration for future revisions.2). Specific calculation methods for this purpose are not given here. Kv .Zv.D ZH ZE Zε Zβ = = = = = Zone factor for inner point of single pair contact for pinion resp. uv.5). Pitting itself is not considered as a critical damage for slow speed gears. The calculated (real) Hertzian stresses are to be multiplied with ZK in order to be comparable with the permissible contact stresses. For case hardened gears operating with relatively thin lubrication oil films. whichever is greater. initiated below the surface.ZR ZW ZX = = = = = = Endurance limit for contact stresses (see 2. see 1.
it is required to have suitable tip relief on the wheel. accounts for the influence of helix angle (independent of its influence on Zε) on the surface durability. accounts for the influence on contact stresses of the tooth flank curvature at the pitch point and converts the tangential force at the reference cylinder to the normal force at the pitch cylinder. ZK adjusts the contact stresses in such a way that the same permissible stresses as for cylindrical gears may apply.18 Classification Notes.8 The zone factor.4 Elasticity Factor.3.D = 1 For internal gears.D. ZH = 2 cosβ b cosα wt cos 2 α t sinα wt 2. For εβ ≥ 1. ZB.D (for spur gears) – 1) 2. Z β = cosβ ZD = tan α wt da2 d b2 2 2. The following may be used: ZK = 0. 41.2 Zone factors ZB. • for surface hardened gears: pitted area ≥ 0. σ H10 3 σHlim is the limit of contact stress that may be sustained for 5·107 cycles. ZE. σ H10 5 . However.D = ZB. The following listed values for σHlim. Zβ.80 2π −1 − z2 d a1 d b1 2 2π − 1 − (ε α − 1) z1 If ZB < 1. σ H10 5 and σ H10 3 may only be used for materials subjected to a quality control as • The midzone factor ZM accounts for the influence of the contact stress at the mid point of the flank and applies to spiral bevel gears. Zε The contact ratio factor Zε accounts for the influence of the transverse contact ratio εα and the overlap ratio εβ on the contact stresses. In order to avoid a wear edge near A. ZB.1 Zone factor ZH 2. Zε = 1 εα 2. ZE The elasticity factor.2 May 2003 2. Zβ The helix angle factor.6 Helix Angle Factor. spalling or case crushing when adequate case depth applies.3. For most materials 5·107 cycles are considered to be the beginning of the endurance strength range or lower knee of the σN curve. σ H10 5 and σ H10 3 are the contact stresses which the given material can withstand for 105 respectively 103 cycles without subsurface yielding or flank damages as pitting.5 Contact Ratio Factor.5% of total active flank area.8 Values of Endurance Limit.3 Zone factor ZM 2.D (for spur gears) – εβ (ZB. DET NORSKE VERITAS .D The zone factors. ZM = 2 cos β bm tan α vt d v1d v 2 d 2 − d 2 − ε p d 2 − d 2 − ε p val vb1 α btm va 2 vb 2 α btm This factor is the product of ZH and ZMB in ISO 10300 with the condition that the heightwise crowning is sufficient to move the peak load towards the midpoint. σHlim and Static Strength. accounts for the influence of the material properties as modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio on the contact stresses.D and ZM 2. ZD = 1 For εβ = 0 (spur gears) ZB = tan α wt 2 d a1 2π −1 − z1 d b1 2 da2 2π − 1 − (ε α − 1) d z2 b2 for ε β ≥ 1 Zε = εβ 4 − εα 1 − εβ + 3 εα ( ) for εβ < 1 2.No. pitting is defined by for not surface hardened gears: pitted area ≥ 2% of total active flank area. for nitrided steels 2·106 apply.3 Zone Factors ZH. or ≥ 4% of one particular tooth flank area.7 Bevel Gear Factor. For steel against steel ZE = 189. ZB. use ZD = 1 For 0 < εβ < 1 ZB. use ZB = 1 If ZD < 1.3. without the occurrence of progressive pitting. ZH.3. ZK The bevel gear factor accounts for the difference between the real Hertzian stresses in spiral bevel gears and the contact stresses assumed responsible for surface fatigue (pitting). account for the influence on contact stresses of the tooth flank curvature at the inner point of single pair contact in relation to ZH. 2. Index B refers to pinion D to wheel. (See also Life Factor ZN). For this purpose.4 Inner contact point For cylindrical or bevel gears with very low number of teeth the inner contact point (A) may be close to the base circle.
accounts for influence of the surface roughness on the surface endurance capacity.0157 I. accounts for the influence of the type of lubricant and its viscosity. ZV and ZR The lubricant factor. ZN.10 Influence Factors on Lubrication Film. accounts for the influence of the pitch line velocity and the roughness factor.3 σHlim 1.4 HV + 350 1. may only be used when the material cleanliness is of approved high grade (see Rules Pt4 Ch2) and the lubrication is optimised by a specially approved filtering process.e.6 σHlim 1.of normal grade: Nitrided steel of approved grade. may only be used when the material cleanliness is of approved high grade (see Rules Pt.3 σHlim 1. 105 < NL < 5·107: 5 ⋅10 7 ZN = N L 0.3 σHlim 1. The ZN = 1 from 5·107 on.9 Life Factor. 10 < NL < 2·10 : N L ≤ 105 : 5 6 ZN = 1 or Z N 5 ⋅10 7 = N L 0.5 HV + 250 σH105 2500 2400 1.3 σHlim 4. ZL. σHlim Alloyed case hardened steels (surface hardness 5863 HRC): . gas nitrided (surface hardness 700800 HV): Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. flame or induction hardened steel (surface hardness 500650 HV): Alloyed quenched and tempered steel: Carbon steel: 1650 1500 1250 1000 0.5 HV 1.4 Ch.7686 log Z N105 1. takes account of a higher permissible contact stress if only limited life (number of cycles.5 HV 4. 41. NL) is demanded or lower permissible contact stress if very high number of cycles apply.75 HV + 750 1.6 σHlim 1. If this is not documented by approved fatigue tests.3 Z Wst Z X 10 5 ZL ZV ZR Z W ZX Note that when no index indicating number of cycles is used.92 for 1010 cycles. the factors are valid for 5·107 (respectively 2·106 for nitriding) cycles. Results of approved fatigue tests may also be used as the basis for establishing these values. The defined survival probability is 99%.2) and the lubrication is optimised by a specially approved filtering process.0098 I. bath or gas nitrided (surface hardness 500700 HV): Alloyed. ZN = 0.of specially approved high grade: . ZR. the speed factor.6 σHlim These values refer to forged or hot rolled steel.37 logZ N 10 5 2 ⋅ 106 ZN = N L Z N = Z N10 5 = 0. ZV. the following method may be used: For all steels except nitrided: N L ≥ 5 ⋅10 : 7 For nitrided steels: N L ≥ 2 ⋅10 : 6 ZN = 1 or Z N 2 ⋅10 6 = N L 0.5 log (Z N10 3 /Z N10 5 ) N L ≤ 103 : Z N = Z N103 = σ H103 Z X103 Z Wst σ H lim Z L Z V Z R Z X Z W (but not less than ZN105) DET NORSKE VERITAS . The following methods may be applied in connection with the endurance limit: 103 < NL < 105: 10 5 Z N = Z N105 = N L 0. The ZN = 1 from 2·106 on. ZN = 0. For cast steel the values for σHlim are to be reduced by 15%.2 May 2003 19 the one referred to in the rules.Classification Notes.No.6 σHlim σH103 3100 3100 1. NL = 105: Z N = Z N105 σ H105 Z X105 Z Wst σ Hlim Z L Z V Z R Z X Z W 2. ZN The life factor. 2. ZL.e.92 for 1010 cycles.
7 HB 2 use ZW = 1 use HB1 = 1. use HB = 470 For HB < 130.05 Through hardened pinion against softer wheel ZWst = 1 RZrel RZ = = Mean peak to valley roughness (µm) (DIN definition) (roughly RZ = 6 Ra) 5 For N L ≤ 10 : ZL ZV ZR = 1. The following method may be used as an approximation unless otherwise documented.83 + R ZEQ 15000 ν vρ c 40 0.g.12 Size Factor.g. as a consequence of the influence on subsurface defects combined with small stress gradients.5 (R Z1 + R Z2 ) ρ c 1 3 If values of ZW < 1 are evaluated. E. Through hardened pinion against softer wheel: HB1 Z W = 1 + (u − 1) ⋅ 0. 10 0.36 Not surface hardened steels 0. surface roughness of the soft member before run in see 2. e.66 Surface hardened steels 0. ZW.15 0.00898 − 0. ZW = 1 should be used for flank endurance.2 HB 2 HB1 > 1. However.7 HB 2 For u > 20 .93 + 0. ZW The work hardening factor. The main objective is to have a subsurface safety against fatigue (endurance limit) or deformation (static strength) which is at least as high as the safety SH required for the surface.0 2.5 .11 Work Hardening Factor. Static strength (<103 cycles) is assumed to depend mainly on equivalent where: HB = the Brinell hardness of the soft member For HB > 470. then use RZeq = 16 If RZeq < 1.10. Scuffing) should be considered. 41. 2. ZX may be taken unity provided that subsurface fatigue for surface hardened pinions and wheels is considered.08 (1.5 where: RZH RZS ν40 = = = surface roughness of the hard member before run in. use u = 20 For static strength (< 105 cycles): Surface hardened against not surface hardened ZWst = 1. bulk temperatures in excess of 120ºC for long periods may cause reduced flank surface endurance limits.No. ZV 0.13 Subsurface Fatigue This is only applicable to surface hardened pinions and wheels.2 May 2003 R = R ZH ZH R ZS 0. For case hardened steels the influence of a high bulk temperature (see 4. use ν40 = 500. as in the following subsection 2. accounts for the increase of surface durability of a soft steel gear when meshing the soft steel gear with a surface hardened or substantially harder gear with a smooth surface. For values of ν40 > 500.68 If RZeq > 16 .2 + 134 / ν 40 )2 0.30 ZR 3 R Zrel 3 R Zrel where: ν40 = Kinematic oil viscosity at 40ºC (mm2/s). The high cycle fatigue (>3·106 cycles) is assumed to mainly depend on the orthogonal shear stresses. ZX The size factor accounts for statistics indicating that the stress levels at which fatigue damage occurs decrease with an increase of component size. RZrel = The mean roughness between pinion and wheel (after running in) relative to an equivalent radius of curvature at the pitch point ρc = 10mm.20 Classification Notes. use HB = 130 RZeq = equivalent roughness DET NORSKE VERITAS .33 ZL 0.8 + (32 / v ) 0.13. and of the influence of size on material quality.14 0.8 + (32 / v ) 0. the low value for ZW may indicate a potential wear problem.00829 HB 2 For For HB1 ≤ 1.15 2. then use RZeq = 1.91 + (1.2 − 1700 R Zeq 0.85 + 0.2 + 134 / ν 40 )2 0. The following approximation may be used for the endurance limit: Surface hardened steel against not surface hardened steel: ZW HB − 130 3 = 1.
The real Hertzian stresses σHR are determined as: For helical gears with εβ > 1 : σHR = σH For helical gears with εβ < 1 and spur gears: 1 − εβ + σ HR = σ H ⋅ Zε εβ εα For tz t < 0. the safety factor in the formulae for both high cycle fatigue and static strength are to be increased until necessary and specified values balance.5 aH tz − 0. This applies to all hardening methods. I. Both are influenced by residual stresses.6 a Hst σ HR ⋅ SH ⋅ ρ c 56300 In addition the specified surface hardness is not to be less than the max necessary hardness (at tz = 0. tHVmin.5 applies aH aH σ HR ⋅ SH ⋅ ρ c 56300 a H = 1. t400min. in the case of more than sufficient hardness and depths. applicable to a Hst = tz ≥ 0. the actual safety factor against subsurface fatigue is determined as follows: reduce SH stepwise in the formula for HV and aH until all specified hardness depths and surface hardness balance with the corrected curve. but this is only considered roughly and empirically. For static strength (<103 cycles) the following applies: HV = 0. logSHN = logS − logS 3 H 3⋅106 H 10 3. The coordinates tz and HV are to be compared with the design specification.5 aH 0.Classification Notes. the t400 is to be replaced by a fictive t400 = 1. HVmin for nitriding.7 a Hst For bevel gears: σ HR = σ H ⋅ 1 ZK The necessary hardness HV is given as a function of the net depth tz (net = after grinding or hard metal hobbing. such as: • • • for flame and induction hardening.No.2 that takes into account the possible influence of reduced compressive residual stresses (or even tensile residual stresses) on the local fatigue strength. For high cycle fatigue (>3 · 10 cycles) the following applies: HV = 0. The safety factor obtained through this method is the safety against subsurface fatigue. If the core hardness > 400. 41.e.2 May 2003 21 stresses (von Mises). HV = 300 (the latter only if the core hardness < 300.19 ⋅ σ HR ⋅ SH ⋅ cos tz − 0.5 the value for z = 0.8628 ⋅ log SH3⋅106 + 1.477 ⋅ logN− applicable to tz ≥ 0. ZV and ZR are assumed to have a negligible influence. HV = 400 and t300min. The subsurface working stresses at depths inside the peak of the orthogonal shear stresses respectively the equivalent stresses are only dependent on the (real) Hertzian stresses.6 · t550). HV = 550.5·aH). HV = 400 for case hardening. Surface related conditions as expressed by ZL .6 a Hst ⋅ 90o tz + 0. t550min. the same procedure for determination of the actual safety factor as above applies.4 ⋅ σ HR ⋅ SH ⋅ cos aH o ⋅ 90 tz + 0.5 6 In the case of insufficient specified hardness depths.2 ⋅ Where aH is half the hertzian contact width multiplied by an empirical factor of 1.8628 ⋅ log SH103 DET NORSKE VERITAS . and perpendicular to the flank). If any of the specified hardness depths including the surface hardness is below the curve described by HV = f (tz). t400min. The actual safety factor for a given number of cycles N between 103 and 3·106 is found by linear interpolation in a double logarithmic diagram. For limited life fatigue (103 < cycles < 3·106 ): For this purpose it is necessary to extend the correction of safety factors to include also higher values than required.
41. see 3.2 Tooth Root Stresses The local tooth root stress is defined as the max. Bevel gears: σF = Fmt YFa YSa Yε K A K γ K v K Fβ K Fα b m mn where: YFa = Tooth form factor.6. Kγ. spalls or grey staining Normally. the stress ratio R = 0.5·mn a special calculation procedure is given in 3.10. = Relative (root fillet) surface condition factor of the gear to be determined. KFβ. (see 3. It should be noted that this part 3 does not cover fractures caused by: • • • oil holes in the tooth root space wear steps on the flank flank surface distress such as pits. prestress due to shrinkage. but not KFβ and KFα. idler gears (R ≈ 1. In case of a thin annulus or a thin gear rim etc. are applicable to 3·106 cycles when used in this formula for σFP. Kv. In that case. Therefore. 3. the stresses for pinion and wheel are calculated as: Cylindrical gears: σF = Ft YF YS Yβ K A K γ K v K Fβ K Fα b mn where: YF = Tooth form factor (see 3. related to the reference test gear (see 3. Calculation of Tooth Strength 3. I. temporary change of load direction.5 – 1.9). KA. a high safety SF against breakage is required.7). 3.2 May 2003 3. is: σ FP = σ FE YM YN YδrelT YRrelT YX YC SF Especially the latter is known to cause oblique fractures starting from the active flank. a few limitations that are mentioned in 3. 3.10. Yε = Contact ratio factor. etc.5 – 1. but also sometimes in cylindrical gears.3). Fmt. radial cracking can occur rather than tangential cracking (from root fillet to root fillet).8). A tooth breakage is often the end of the life of a gear transmission. KA.g. related to the reference test gear (see 3. see 1. and a simplified procedure in 3. see 1. The influence of other number of cycles on these factors is covered by the calculation of YN.6). b.No.2.5. YSa = Stress correction factor.1 Local tooth root stress YN SF YδrelT The local tooth root stress for pinion and wheel may be assessed by strain gauge measurements or FE calculations or similar.2 – 3.3. YRrelT DET NORSKE VERITAS . where: σFE YM = Local tooth root bending endurance limit of reference test gear (see 3.14.2. shrunk on gear rims (R > 0). Yβ = Helix angle factor (see 3. KA and Kv are to be included in the applied tooth force. are considered by correcting the permissible stress level. Subsequently the stress is converted to load application at the mid point of the flank due to the heightwise crowning. = Life factor for tooth root stresses related to reference test gear dimensions (see 3. however. Note that all these factors YM etc. e. For rim thickness sR ≥ 3.10). see 3. = Mean stress influence factor which accounts for other loads than constant load direction. etc.16.4). Thus.22 Classification Notes. KFα. depending on experience with similar gear designs. = Relative notch sensitivity factor of the gear to be determined. etc. For both measurements and calculations all details are to be agreed in advance. principal stress in the tooth root caused by application of the tooth force. For cylindrical gears the calculation is based on the assumption that the highest tooth root tensile stress arises by application of the force at the outer point of single tooth pair contact of the virtual spur gears.4. Ft..15 and 3. The method has. = Required safety factor according to the rules. see 3. Other stress ratios such as for e. For bevel gears the calculation is based on force application at the tooth tip of the virtual cylindrical gear.2). idler gears. b. Cracking can also start from the compression fillet rather than the tension fillet. see 1. limitations other than those outlined in part 3 may be applied. N.2 Permissible tooth root stress The permissible local tooth root stress for pinion respectively wheel for a given number of cycles.1 Scope and General Remarks Part 3 include the calculation of tooth root strength as limited by tooth root cracking (surface or subsurface initiated) and yielding.g.e. Specific calculation methods for these purposes are not given here. see 1.11). predominately in spiral bevel gears.13.5·mn the strength is calculated by means of 3.3.3. Bevel gears may also be calculated with the program BECAL. For rim thickness sR < 3. but are under consideration for future revisions. YS = Stress correction factor (see 3.
3.036 z 0 s Fn m n z0 = number of teeth of pinion cutter x0 = addendum modification coefficient of pinion cutter hfP = addendum of pinion cutter ρfP = tip radius of pinion cutter G = ρ fp ' − h fp + x DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 Determination of parameters ρ fP ' (1 − sin α n ) − s pr π E = − h fP tan α n − m n cos α n 4 For external gears ρ fP ' = ρ fP Figure 3. YFa differs from YF by the bending moment arm hFa and αFan and can be determined by the same procedure as YF with exception of hFe and αFan . 3. but may also be used for bevel gears when replacing: mn with mnm zn with zvn αt with αvt β with βm Figure 3. dimensionless. for a virtual number of teeth. Both YF and YFa are based on the distance between the contact points of the 30˚tangents at the root fillet of the tooth profile for external gears. ρfp and spr etc. YFa = 6 h Fa cos α F an mn cos α n 2 3. YF and YFa are determined in the normal section.3.Classification Notes.95 3.1 External tooth in normal section with undercut without undercut Fig.13). YF applies to load application at the outer point of single tooth pair contact of the virtual spur gear pair and is used for cylindrical gears.3 Tooth Form Factors YF. YFa The tooth form factors YF and YFa take into account the influence of the tooth form on the nominal bending stress.e. The following formulae apply to cylindrical gears. For hFa and αFan all indices e will change to a (tip). s Fn m n In the case of helical gears.156 ⋅ 1. are referred to mn.No.12).e. i. 41. respectively 60˚ tangents for internal gears.3 Dimensions and basic rack profile of the teeth (finished profile) Tool and basic rack data such as hfP. = Case depth factor (see 3.2 May 2003 23 YX YC = Size factor (see 3.2 Internal tooth in normal section Definitions: 6 YF = h Fe cos α F en mn cos α n 2 For internal gears ρ fP ' = ρ fP + where (x 0 + h fP − ρ fP )1. YFa applies to load application at the tooth tip and is used for bevel gears. i.
b) In case of grinding notches (due to insufficient protuberance of the hob).2 May 2003 H= 2 zn π E − 2 m −τ n For external gears h Fe 1 d = (cos γ e − sin γ e tan α Fen ) en mn 2 mn G π + ρ fp ' − z n cos − ϑ − cos ϑ 3 with τ= τ= π for external gears 3 π for internal gears 6 G tan ϑ − H zn ] For internal gears h Fe 1 d = (cos γ e − sin γ e ⋅ tan α Fen ) ⋅ en − mn 2 mn ϑ=2 π (to be solved iteratively. suitable start value ϑ = for exter6 π nal gears and for internal gears).2 Gearing with εαn > 2 a) Tooth root chord sFn: For external gears G s Fn π = z n sin − ϑ + 3 cos ϑ − ρ fp ' mn 3 For bevel gears with a tooth thickness modification: xsm affects mainly sFn. For internal gears s Fn π G = z n sin − ϑ + − ρ fP ' mn 6 cos ϑ 3. YS applies to the load application at the outer point of single tooth pair contact.2 + 0.50 YDT = 1.3). and with applied profile modification to obtain a trapezoidal load distribution along the path of contact. This part increases the more the decisive point of load application approaches the critical tooth root section. in addition to its dependence on the notch radius.24 Classification Notes.5) produced with a verified grade of accuracy of 4 or better. Thereby YS and YSa cover the stress increasing effect of the notch (fillet) and the fact that not only bending stresses arise at the root. YS resp. YSa can be calculated by replacing hFe with hFa in the above formulae. YSa must be specially considered. the size of the bending moment arm. 41.e.05 ≤ ε αn ≤ 2. A part of the local stress is independent of the bending moment arm.No.e. the YF may be corrected by the factor YDT as: YDT = 2.366 − 0. the stress correction is also dependent on the position of the load application.666ε αn for 2.3. YS can be determined as follows: YS = (1. Therefore. YSa can rise considerably. 3 π G z n ⋅ cos − ϑ − 3 − ρ fP ' 6 cos ϑ For deep tooth form gearing (2 ≤ ε αn ≤ 2.21+ 2. Note: a) Range of validity 1 < qs < 8 In case of sharper root radii (i. YSa The stress correction factors YS and YSa take into account the conversion of the nominal bending stress to the local tooth root stress. produced with tools having too sharp tip radii). YS resp. but also hFe and αFen. YSa to the load application at tooth tip. i. The total influence of xsm on YFa Ysa can be approximated by only adding 2 xsm to sFn / mn. and must be multiplied with: α en = arc cos d bn d en 1 π γe = + 2 x tan α n + inv α n − inv α en zn 2 αFen = αen – γe DET NORSKE VERITAS .13 L ) q s where: L = s Fn h Fe 1 1.05 3.0 for ε αn < 2.4 Stress Correction Factors YS.3 /L b) Root fillet radius ρF at 30º tangent: ρF 2G2 = ρ fp '+ mn cos ϑ z n cos 2 ϑ − 2 G ( ) c) Determination of bending moment arm hF: dn = zn mn ε αn = εα cos 2β b dan = dn + 2 ha pbn = π mn cos αn dbn = dn cos αn d en = 2 2 d2 2 z d an − d bn z − p bn (ε αn − 1) + bn z 2 z 4 2 and q s = s Fn 2 ρF (see 3.
see 3. 3. In case of approved shot peening. the following listed values for σFE may be used for materials subjected to a quality control as the one referred to in the rules. flame or induction hardened 2) (incl. 25 tg ρg σFE Alloyed case hardened steels (fillet surface hardness 58 – 63 HRC): • • of specially approved high grade: of normal grade: − CrNiMo steels with approved process: − CrNi and CrNiMo steels generally: − MnCr steels generally: Nitriding steel of approved grade.) • not being shot peened.t.4 σB + 200 0. • with fillet surface hardness 58 – 63 HRC. 1) These values are valid for a root radius being unground. 3·106 load cycles is regarded as the beginning of the endurance limit or the lower knee of the σ – N curve. σFE σFE is the local tooth root stress (max. Note: All numbers given above are valid for separate forgings and for blanks cut from bars forged according to a qualified procedure. reduce with 40%. use εβ = 1 and when β > 30° . that are not qualified as mentioned above. Other stress conditions such as alternating or prestressed etc. If no fatigue tests are available.7 HV + 300 Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. use β = 30° in the formula. of base material): Alloyed quenched and tempered steel: Carbon steel: 0. and if necessary the flanks should be masked.6 Helix Angle Factor Yβ The helix angle factor Yβ takes into account the difference between the helical gear and the virtual spur gear in the normal section on which the calculation is based in the first step. If the approval of the gear is to be based on the results of such tests.3. the values are to be reduced with 10%. • DET NORSKE VERITAS . The following may be used (β input in degrees): Yβ = 1 – εβ β/120 When εβ > 1.6) for mn > 6. Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. If so. 41. For cast steel. σFE is defined as the unidirectional pulsating stress with a minimum stress of zero (disregarding residual stresses due to heat treatment).625 720 3.6 where: tg = depth of the grinding notch ρg = radius of the grinding notch c) The formulae for YS resp. σFE may be increased by 200 for gears where σFE is reduced by 20% due to root grinding. σFE is to be reduced with 20·(58 – HRC) where HRC is the detected hardness.No. bath or gas nitrided (surface hardness 500 – 700 HV): 1000 920 850 840 1050 1) 3.5 · Ceff. however. (If the grinding also leaves a notch.5 Contact Ratio Factor Yε The contact ratio factor Yε covers the conversion from load application at the tooth tip to the load application at the mid point of the flank (heightwise) for bevel gears. all details on the testing conditions have to be approved by the Society. However. The following may be used: Yε = 0. In case of lower surface hardness than 58 HRC. 4 Ch. principal) which the material can endure permanently with 99% survival probability.3 − 0. the actual tooth root stresses may also be considered along facewidth. Further. any grinding is made in the root fillet area in such a way that the residual stresses may be affected. the same formulae can be used as a safe approximation for other pressure angles. For blanks cut from forged bars. the tests may have to be made under the Society's supervision. Otherwise σFE may be increased by 100 for m n ≤ 6 and 100 – 5 (mn . see 4.2). flame or induction hardened (excl. see Pt.3 1. σFE is to be reduced by 20%. For rolled steel. If. the values are to be reduced with 20%.25 σB + 125 0.2 May 2003 1. tempered and gas nitrided (surface hardness 700 – 800 HV): Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. In this way it is accounted for that the conditions for tooth root stresses are more favourable because the lines of contact are sloping over the flank. 2) The fillet is not to be ground after surface hardening.7 Values of Endurance Limit. However.Classification Notes.4). are covered by the conversion factor YM.25 σB + 250 3. see 1).s. However. the possible adverse influence on the flanks regarding grey staining should be considered. Regarding possible root grinding. σFE can be found by pulsating tests or gear running tests for any material in any condition. entire root fillet) (fillet surface hardness 500 – 650 HV): 0. 2 Sec. YSa are only valid for αn = 20˚. entire root fillet) (σB = u. (This may lead to a permissible tooth root stress that varies along the facewidth. quenched. the above equation for Yβ may only be used for gears with β > 25° if adequate tip relief is applied to both pinion and wheel (adequate = at least 0.
e. For gears of other materials.3 0. idler gears. R normally equal – 1.5 − 2 ρF mn For a power take off (PTO) with ice class. For designs with the same force applied on both forwardand backflank. Following M values may be used: Endurance limit Case hardened If shot peened Nitrided Induction or flame hardened Not surface hardened steel Cast steels 1) 3.8. YM will normally be higher than for a pure idler. but wide variations usually only occur for case hardening.2) may be used together with the M values for endurance limit. special considerations apply.2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . stress divided by max.g.4 0. R may be assumed to – 1.9 b. M considers the mean stress influence on the endurance (or static) strength amplitudes. i.2 For gears with periodical change of rotational direction For case hardened gears with full load applied periodically in both directions. This simplified approach is valid when the number of changes of direction exceeds 100 and the total number of load cycles exceeds 3·106. such as idlers with shrinkage stresses. For static strength. The following method may be used within a stress ratio –1.t. planets and shrinkfitted gears. use YM as for idlers. For designs with considerably different forces on forwardand backflank. YM and YMst apply only to a calculation method that assesses the positive (tensile) stresses and is therefore suitable for comparison between the calculated (positive) working stress σF and the permissible stress σFP calculated with YM or YMst.8.e.4 0.6 Symbols as above. the design factor for endurance strength is: YM = σ fit 2M 1 − 1 − M (1 + M ) ⋅ (1 − R ) σ FE 1− R 1+ M Static strength 1) 0.b. R may be assessed as: − 1.26 Classification Notes.4 0. but note that the stress ratio R in this particular connection should disregard the influence of σfit.g.6.8.4 For shrinkfitted idlers and planets When combined conditions apply. stress. For static strength. The effect of σfit is accounted for in 3.5: 3. planets and PTO with ice class YM or YMst = 1 1− M 1− R 1+ M The listed M values for the endurance limit are independent of the fillet shape (Ys). such as e. a marine propulsion wheel with a power take off pinion.9 may be used. such as side thrusters. the same formula for YM as for idlers (with R = – 1.5 0. YMst = 1 and σfit accounted for in 3. YM = 0.6 0.1 For idlers. e. takes into account the influence of other working stress conditions than pure pulsations (R = 0).8 – 0.No. 3. 3.8.9. i. load reversals.2.2 < R < 0.7 0.9 with one change to YM (idler) for 3·106 changes. For static strength: YMst = 1 1− M 1− R 1+ M For bevel gears.o. This is applicable to YM for endurance limit.1 c. σfit is the shrinkage stress in the fillet (30˚ tangent) and may be found by multiplying the nominal tangential (hoop) stress with a stress concentration factor: scf fit .3 0. M is defined as the reduction of the endurance strength amplitude for a certain increase of the mean stress divided by that increase of the mean stress. YM The mean stress influence factor. see 3. use Ys=2 for determination of M.3 For gears with shrinkage stresses and unidirectional load where: R = stress ratio = min. For thin rings (annulus) in epicyclic gears where the "compression" fillet may be decisive. YM (YMst) are defined as the ratio between the endurance (or static) strength with a stress ratio R ≠ 0. from YM = 0. see 1. 41. and the endurance (or static) strength with R = 0. For gears with occasional full load in reversed direction.2 force per unit facewidt of p. A linear interpolation in a diagram with logarithmic number of changes of direction may be used.3 0. such as e. provided the number of changes of direction is below 3·106.g.8 Mean stress influence Factor. In principle there is a dependency.15 Ys 0.6 0. = 1. such as the main wheel in a reversing gear box. YM. smooth semicircular fillets versus grinding notches. force per unit facewidth of the main branch For endurance strength: YM = 1 − 2 M σ fit 1 + M σ FE σFE is the endurance limit for R = 0.2 May 2003 3. except for case hardening.16.
2) will alter the residual stresses locally in the “tension” fillet respectively “compression” fillet. YX. Guidance on number of load cycles NL for various applications: • • For propulsion purpose. 103<NL<3·106 3 ⋅ 106 exp YN = N L exp = 0. If no σ – N – curve for the actual material and hardening etc. DET NORSKE VERITAS . roughness in the tooth root. YN The life factor. etc. YRelT. YN. σFP = σFE ·YM ·YδrelT ·YRelT ·YX ·YC / SF 1. Determination of the σ – N – curve: a) Calculate the permissible stress σFP for the beginning of the endurance limit (3·106 cycles). 41.No. module. i.2876 log σ FPst for 10 3 cycles σ for 3 ⋅ 10 6 cycles FP NL < 103 YN = σ FPst for 10 3 cycles σ for 3 ⋅ 10 6 cycles FP or simply use σFPst as mentioned in b) directly. YX and YM have an influence on YN. For auxiliary gears driving generators that normally operate with 7090% of rated power.4 Ch. YM and YC. see rules Pt. Shot peening or grinding notches are not considered to have any significant influence on σFst. fillet radius.e.92 for 1010 YN = N L The YN = 1 from 3·106 on may only be used when special material cleanness applies. σFst is to be reduced with 30·(58 – HRC) where HRC is the actual hardness. flame or induction hardened (fillet surface hardness 500 – 650 HV) Steel with not surface hardened fillets. NL = 108 with rated power may be applied. including the influence of all relevant factors as SF. YMst σ FPst = 1 S Fst c) Calculate YN as: YN = 1 or (σ Fst ⋅ Y Mst ⋅ YδrelTst ⋅ Y Cst − σ fit ) NL > 3·106 3 ⋅ 10 6 0. YδrelTst. is available. I. Decisive for the strength at limited life is the σ – N – curve of the respective material for given hardening. a higher tooth root stress can be permitted and that lower stresses may apply for very high number of cycles. In case of lower fillet surface hardness than 58 HRC. bath or gas nitrided (surface hardness 500 – 700 HV) Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. in the case of limited life (number of cycles).Classification Notes. the factors YδrelT. YRelT.5 Additional requirements for peak loads 27 The total stress range (σmax – σmin) in a tooth root fillet is not to exceed: 2.2 May 2003 3. tempered and gas nitrided (surface hardness 700 – 800 HV) Alloyed quenched and tempered steel. the smaller value of 2) 1) 1050 3. may have lower values). where σFst is the local tooth root stress which the material can resist without cracking (surface hardened materials) or unacceptable deformation (not surface hardened materials) with 99% survival probability.9 Life Factor.8 HV + 800 1.25 σy This is valid for a fillet surface hardness of 58 – 63 HRC. quenched. Yn = 0.01 i. 2) Actual stresses exceeding the yield point (σy or σ0. takes into account that. normally NL = 1010 at full load (yachts etc.8 σB or 2. YδrelT. the following method may be used.25 σ y SF 5 HV SF σFst Alloyed case hardened steel 1) 2300 1250 for not surface hardened fillets for surface hardened fillets Nitriding steel.8. This is only to be utilised for gears that are not later loaded with a high number of cycles at lower loads that could cause fatigue in the “compression” fillet.e. b) Calculate the permissible «static» stress ( ≤ 103 load cycles) including the influence of all relevant factors as and YCst: SFst.2.e.
takes into account the decrease of the strength with increasing size. influence of expected residual stresses) and permissible surface stress. It differs for static strength and endurance limit.22 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ σ 0.6 + 0. mainly the dependence on the peak to valley surface roughness. For static strength. YX.25 for not surface hardened fillets1): 1 + 0.13 Case Depth Factor.10 Relative Notch Sensitivity Factor. takes into account the dependence of the tooth root strength on the surface condition in the tooth root fillet. This ratio is multiplied with a bracket containing the influence of case depth and stress gradient. YRrelT differs for endurance limit and static strength. The major parameters are case depth. and are somewhat on the safe side for low number of teeth.2 m n YδrelTst = 0. YC. YC 0.05 – 0.No.135 − 1.01 mn YX = 0. YδrelT The dynamic (respectively static) relative notch sensitivity factor. Ry ≈ Rz.2 1 + 2 q s 1. 3.8 for mn ≤ 5 for 5 < mn < 30 for mn ≥ 30 for 5 < mn ≥ 25 for mn ≥ 25 generally for not surface hardened steels for surface hardened steels for all surface hardened fillets except nitrided: YδrelT = (1 + 0. YδrelT (YδrelTst) indicate to which extent the theoretically concentrated stress lies above the endurance limits (respectively static strengths) in the case of fatigue (respectively overload) breakage. See also 3.2 (Ry + 1)0.53 (Ry + 1)0.33 − 3 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ σ 0. YRrelT The relative surface condition factor. The following method may be used: For endurance limit: YRrelT = 1.142 1 + 2 qs ) For static strength: 1.2 May 2003 3.25 for surface hardened fillets except nitrided: YδrelTst = 1 + 0.675 – 0.82(300 /σ 0.12 Size Factor.2 )0. yielding shall not occur in the transition zone. permissible surface respectively subsurface stresses. The following method may be used: For endurance limit: For static strength: YRrelTst = 1 for all Ry and all materials. For a fillet without any longitudinal machining trace.03 – 0. fatigue cracks can develop in the transition zone between the hardened layer and the core.28 Classification Notes. takes into account the influence of hardening depth on tooth root strength. YX differs for endurance limit and static strength.85 YX = 1. stress gradient. YδrelT is a function of the material and the relative stress gradient. and is different for endurance limit and static strength. as this would alter the surface residual stresses and therewith also the fatigue strength.06 for nitrided fillets: YδrelT = (1 + 0. YRrelT. The following simplified method for YC may be used.3 – 4. For static strength: 3.44 YS + 0.12 for nitrided fillets: YδrelTst = 0. but calculated values above 1. 3t 1 + σ FE ρ F + 0. YC consists of a ratio between permissible subsurface stress (incl. For endurance limit: YC = const .2 YS 1) These values are only valid if the local stresses do not exceed the yield point and thereby alter the residual stress level.26 (Ry + 1)0.006 mn YX = 0.005 for nitrided steels DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 ( ) YX = 1 YX = 1.1 for surface hardened steels and alloyed quenched and tempered steels except nitrided YRrelT = 5.01 for carbon steels YδrelT = 4. In case of insufficient hardening depth.82(Ys − 1)(300 /σ 0.9b footnote 2. YX The size factor.0.0 are to be put equal 1.) YC and YCst may be calculated as given below. and subsurface residual stresses.3 – 3. The following may be used: For endurance limit: for not surface hardened fillets: YδrelT = 1 + 0. (The empirical numbers in the bracket are based on a high number of teeth.0245 1 + 2 q ) s 1. 3. 41.347 YXst = 1 for all mn and all materials.11 Relative Surface Condition Factor. YC applies only to surface hardened tooth roots.2 ) The case depth factor.
in addition to the a. the location of a bending failure may be through the gear rim.25 m n The stresses in the standardised 30º tangent section.15) σF as calculated in 3.15 · ln (8.14 Thin rim factor YB Where the rim thickness is not sufficient to provide full support for the tooth root. The following method assumes the 75º tangent to be the decisive. 2) 0.25 mn. rather than from root fillet to root fillet. YB = 1.2 m n 29 (for sR/mn ≤ 1.15/3.5. both for «tension» and «compression» side. and t are connected as: Hardening process t= endurance limit const = 640 t550 Case hardening Nitriding Induction. In addition to these requirements to minimum case depths for endurance limit. YB is a simplified empirical factor used to derate thin rim gears (external as well as internal) when no detailed calculation of stresses in both tension and compression fillets are available. Figure 3. during the complete stress cycle of that fillet. 3.5 Nomenclature of fillets Index «T» means «tensile» fillet. The complete stress range remains approximately constant.m.75 < sR/mn < 3. some upper limitations apply to case hardened gears: The max. where const. YB is applicable in the range 1.16. The maximum stress range for thin rims usually occurs at the 60º – 80º tangents. tension side. the following applies additionally in connection with endurance limit: t 550 max YC = 1 − − 0. 41.Classification Notes.75 .1 is to be multiplied with YB when sR/mn < 3. Actually.2.2 May 2003 For static strength: YCst = const . Thus YB is used for both high and low cycle fatigue.4 Examples on thin rims σFTmin and σFCmax are determined on basis of the nominal rim stresses times the stress concentration factor.10). the standardised calculation of stresses at the 30º tangent may be retained for thin rims as one of the necessary criteria. and min. see 2.5 .13.324 · mn/sR) (for sR/mn ≥ 3. «C» means «compression» fillet. The following method may be used. it is necessary to evaluate the max. but usually the following simplification is justified: 3. σFCmin and σFTmax are determined on basis of superposition of nominal rim stresses times Y75 plus the tooth bending stresses at 75º tangent.No.15 Stresses in Thin Rims For rim thickness sR < 3.5 mn the safety against rim cracking has to be checked. On the other hand. Y75.15. a certain amount of compression stresses are also introduced.1 HVmin 1200 800 1200 2. YB = 1) DET NORSKE VERITAS . YB is not a factor used to convert calculated root stresses at the 30° tangent to actual stresses in a thin rim tension fillet. Therefore. the compression fillet can be more susceptible to fatigue.or flame hardening t400 t300 t400 tHVmin 500 380 500 1. use 3.1 General For symbols. are slightly reduced due to decreasing stress correction factor with decreasing relative rim thickness sR/mn. criterion applied at the 30º tangent.5. for internal gear rims without any flange or web stiffeners the method may not be on the safe side. However. Therefore. and it is advised to check with the method in 3. depth to 550 HV should not exceed 1) 1/3 of the top land thickness san unless adequate tip relief is applied (see 1. Figure 3. For this purpose the whole stress cycle of each fillet should be considered. 3t 1 + σ Fst ρ F + 0.5 HVmin 3. static strength const = 1900 Note: This method is considered to be on the safe side for external gear rims. If this is exceeded. stresses at the 75º tangent for both «tension» (loaded flank) fillet and «compression» (backflank) fillet.
For an annulus with 3 or more meshes. etc.85 ρ 75 + sR mn sR mn ρ 75 force. Further.5 s R ) Fr R f (ϑ) Ft − + WT WR 2A where σ1. from wheel centre to midpoint of rim. 41. and using Ft/A for σ2.5 bR R f (ϑ) = = = 3. the influence of nominal tangential stresses must be corrected by deleting Ft/(2 A) for σ1. outside the toothed section contribute to stiffening the rim against various deflections. value is usually never less than 0. The tooth root stresses of the loaded tooth are decreasing with decreasing relative rim thickness. and ρ75 = ρao is a safe approximation compensating for the a.24. but rather much on the safe side for a hollow pinion.11 6 planets f (ϑ) = 0. as for instance from the meshes in an annulus. (tensile) stress in the compression fillet really occurs when the fillet is adjacent to the loaded tooth. f (ϑ) at the position of each load application is approx. the sectional modulus of rim with respect to tooth tilt moment (usually b R s 2 / 6 ).m. the nominal rim stresses adjacent to the loaded tooth are: σ1 = σ2 = − 0.No. webs etc. For a high number of rim teeth.5 s R ) Fr R f (ϑ) Ft − − WT WR 2A 0. In principle.g. the radius of the neutral axis in the rim. If flanges. webs.2 mn for the first moment of area of the rim (toothed part) cross section. This assumption is reasonable for an annulus.14 5 planets f (ϑ) = 0. Usually ρ75 is closed to the tool radius ρao. 3. to mn. value used. σ2 see Fig. The influence of Ft on the nominal tangential stress is simplified by half of it for compressive stresses (σ1) and the other half for tensile stresses (σ2).15.09 It must be checked if the max. as e.3 Nominal rim stresses The bending moment applied to the rim consists of a part of the tooth tilt moment Ft (hF + 0. the width of the rim. approximately with the empirical factor Ycorr 1m = 1− n 3 sR 1. a function for bending moment distribution around the rim.e.15. On the other hand. The stress concentration factor relating nominal rim stresses to local fillet stresses at the 75º tangent may be calculated as: 3⋅ Y75 = 1. The max. Applying these assumptions. the tilt moment is zero in the mid position between the planet meshes. stresses in the «tension» fillet: DET NORSKE VERITAS . whilst the bending moment due to the radial forces is half of that at the mesh but with opposite sign. i. For an annulus.5. The sectional modulus (first moment of area) which is used for determination of the nominal bending stresses is not necessarily the same for the 2 a. and even though its stress concentration factor is slightly higher than for bending.5 sR) and the bending caused by the radial force Fr. the influence of these stiffeners should be considered. simplifications to the «unsafe» side. and radial shear stresses due to Fr. it is considered to be safe enough when the sum of these nominal stresses are combined with the stress concentration factor for bending. an end flange will have an almost negligible influence on the effective sectional modulus for the stresses due to tooth tilt as the deflection caused by the tilt moment is rather small and would not much involve the flange. the stress variation through a complete rotation should be considered. and the max.4 Root fillet stresses where ρ75 is the root radius at the 75º tangent ref. it is advised to use an effective rim thickness sR' = sR + 0. The influence of the radial shear stress is neglected.g. tangential stresses due to the tangential force Ft. would cause considerable radial deflections that the flange might restrict to a substantial amount. bending moments. and max.2 May 2003 3.19 4 planets f (ϑ) = 0. the radial forces.m.15.30 Classification Notes. If these formulae are applied to idler gears. the influence of Fr on the nominal bending stresses is usually negligible due to the planet bearing support. it may be assumed that the rim bending moments in the fillets adjacent to the loaded tooth are of the same magnitude as right under the applied Determination of min. The influence of the tangential stresses is minor. (WR ≥ WT). 3.5 Ft (h F + 0. A WT WR = = = minimum area of cross section (usually bR sR).2 Stress concentration factors at the 75º tangents The nominal rim stress consists of bending stresses due to local bending moments. When considering the stiffening of such flanges or webs on basis of simplified models. planets.g. e.: 3 planets f (ϑ) = 0. The major influence is given by the bending stresses. For a rim (pinion) with one mesh only.5 Ft (h F + 0. the f (ϑ) at the position of load application is 0. E. r the sectional modulus of the rim including the influence of stiffeners as flanges.
2 May 2003 31 Minimum stress: σ FTmin = K σ1Y75 R = stress ratio. (i. For gears with reversed loads as idler gears and planets there is no distinct «tension» or «compression» fillet.16. (0. For determination of permissible stresses the following is defined: For – ∞ < R < −1 = 1. determined for unidirectional stresses (YM = 1).2 For >3·10 cycles 6 Checking for possible exceeding of the yield strength has to be made with the highest torque and with the KAP if this exceeds KA. i. 41.3 1− R ∆σ p = 1.3 is an empirical factor relating the tension stresses (σF) at the 30º tangent to the part of the tension stresses at the 75º tangent which add to the rim related stresses. The «ordinary» criteria at the 30º tangent apply as given in 3. and max.25 1+ R 1− R σ FPst For all values of R. if σ FCmin > σ y . σFTmax > σy. the difference ∆ = σ FCmin − σ y affects the stress ratio as R= − σy σ FCmin + ∆ = σ FCmax + ∆ σ FCmax + ∆ σ FCmin = K σ1Y75 − 0.) K = K A ⋅ K γ ⋅ K v ⋅ K Fβ ⋅ K Fα Determination of min. σ σ FTmin respectively FCmin σ FTmax σ FCmax Maximum stress: σ FTmax = K σ 2 Y75 + 0. stresses in the «compression» fillet: Minimum stress: For − ∞ < R < −1 where: σFP = see 3.36 is an empirical factor relating the tension stresses (σF) at the 30º tangent to the part of the compression stresses at the 75º tangent which add to the rim related stresses.16.3 For ≤ 103 cycles The permissible stress range ∆σp is not to exceed: For R > −1 ∆σ pst = 1. σFTmax – σFTmin resp.16.e.1 General The safety against fatigue fracture respectively overload fracture is to be at least at the same level as for solid gears. residual stresses are induced. (For idler gears and planets R = and ∆σ = σFmax − σFmin).3 σ 1 + R FP 1 + 0. Additionally the following criteria at the 75º tangent may apply. the difference ∆ = σFTmax – σy affects the stress ratio as R= σ FTmin − ∆ σ FTmin − ∆ = σ FTmax − ∆ σy 3. If the yield strength is exceeded in tension.g. 3. exceeded in compression).Classification Notes. If the yield strength σy is exceeded in either tension or compression. E. If the actual tooth root stress (tensile or compressive) exceeds the yield strength to the material.3 also takes into account that full superposition of nominal stresses times stress concentration factors from both «sides of the corner fillet» would result in too high stresses.3 σ 1 + R FP 1 + 0.3 σ F Ycorr ∆σ = stress range. 3.16 Permissible Stresses in Thin Rims 3. The maximum stress σFTmax is the maximum of σFTmax and σFCmax (usually the former is decisive).5 1− R ∆σ pst The permissible stresses for the «tension» fillets and for the «compression» fillets are determined by means of a relevant fatigue diagram. Similarly the stress ratio in the tension fillet may require correction.e. i.5 σ 1 + R FPst 1 + 0. σFCmax – σFCmin. ∆σpst is limited by: not surface hardened: 2.36 σ F Ycorr Maximum stress: σ FCmax = K σ 2 Y75 where: 0.2. The minimum stress σFmin is the minimum of σFTmin and σFCmin (usually the latter is decisive). This may be considered by correcting the stress ratio R for the respective fillets (tension or compression).15 1− R σ Fmin σ Fmax where: 0.13.5 1 + 0.No. The permissible stress range ∆σρ for the «tension» respectively «compression» fillets can be calculated as: For R > −1 ∆σ p = 1.25 σ y SF DET NORSKE VERITAS . the induced residual stresses are to be taken into account.1 through 3.e.
41.16.2. 3.16.2876 log ∆σp is to be determined by linear interpolation a loglog diagram.No. determined for unidirectional stresses (YM = 1) and < 103 cycles. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 May 2003 surface hardened: 5 HV YC SF ∆σp at NL load cycles is: 3 ⋅ 106 ∆σ p N L = N L exp Definition of ∆σ and R. σFPst see 3.2. with particular attention to possible correction of R if the yield strength is exceeded. see 3.32 Classification Notes.4 For 103 < cycles < 3·106 ∆σ p 3⋅10 6 ∆σ p 10 3 ∆σ p 3⋅10 6 exp = 0.
required safety factor according to the Rules. In contrast to pitting and fatigue breakage which show a distinct incubation period.8 for polyalfaolefins. 1.0 1. Calculation of Scuffing Load Capacity 4. see below.2 General Criteria In no point along the path of contact the local contact temperature may exceed the permissible temperature.4.0 for mineral oils.: ϑB ≤ ϑS − ϑoil + ϑoil SS load stage according to FZGTest A/8. This seizure or welding together of areas of tooth surface is termed scuffing.e.5/74. max. flash temperature along the path of contact. ϑS may be increased as follows provided use of EPoils. However. Note: Bulk temperature in excess of 120ºC for long periods may have an adverse effect on the surface durability.6 for watersoluble polyglycols. ϑB = ϑMB + ϑfla max ϑ MB ϑfla max ϑS ϑoil = = = = bulk temperature.5/110 may be specially considered.) lubricant factor.2. ν40 = Application of other test methods such as the Ryder.12 ⋅ ⋅ X wrelT FZG 2 X L ν 40 contact time ( µs ) which is the time needed to cross the Hertzian contact width.e.857 + 1. a single short overloading can lead to a scuffing failure.4. the FZGRyder R/46.2 May 2003 33 4. kinematic oil viscosity at 40˚C (mm2/s). 1. and the FZG L42 Test 141/19. except for ice classes where a max. (Note: This is the load stage where scuffing occurs.50 1. σH ⋅ u n1⋅ cosβ b ⋅ (1 + u ) where: XwrelT = relative welding factor. expected temperature applies).0 0. oil temperature before it reaches the mesh (max.15 1.85 0. add 18 ⋅ X wrelT ⋅ (18 − t c ) where tc = SS = The scuffing temperature ϑS may be calculated as: 0. 1. scuffing temperature. see 4. In the ISOTR13989 two criteria are mentioned.No. 0. see 4. i. due to scatter in test results. For bevel gears. XwrelT Through hardened steel Phosphated steel Copperplated steel Nitrided steel Caseharden ed steel Less than 10% retained austenite 10 – 20% retained austenite 20 – 30% retained austenite Austenitic steel FZG = 1.3 for phosphate esters.1 Introduction High surface temperatures due to high loads and sliding velocities can cause lubricant films to break down. XL = = = = = = = ϑB ≤ ϑS − 50 where: ϑB = max. i. normally alarm temperature. t c = 340 [µs] σH as calculated in 2.25 1. no addition If t c < 18 µs .3/90.7 for nonwatersoluble polyglycols. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Addition to the calculated scuffing temperature ϑS : If t c ≥ 18 µs . 41. calculations are to be made with one load stage less than the specification.3.45 4. use u v in stead of u. For high speed gears with very short time of contact. contact temperature along the path of contact.50 1. The method used in this Classification Note is based on the principles of the flash temperature criterion. 0.02 100 ϑS = 80 + 0. 0.Classification Notes.5 for traction fluids. see 2. applicable for the actual load case to be used.11.1.
3 Influence Factors 4.8) = log log(ν100 + 0.8)) Ra = composite arithmetic mean roughness (micron) of pinion an wheel calculated as R a = 0.8) + log 373 − log (273 + ϑoil ) ⋅ log 373 − log 313 (log log (ν 40 + 0.3. the limiting value of vΣC at v = 50 m/s is to be used.2 − 0. which compensates for the elastic deformation of the gear mesh.e. If root relief applies.5 (R a 1 + R a 2 ) This is defined as the roughness on the new flanks i. At pitch line velocities > 50 m/s.1 Coefficient of friction zero load at the tooth tip.7 and νoil is kinematic viscosity at ϑoil and may be calculated by means of the following equation: log log(ν oil + 0. use the running in amount. It is further assumed that this unrelieved part is placed centrally on the path of contact. This means that the unrelieved part of the path of contact is to be minimum pbt. 41. it has to be calculated as equivalent tip relief. if Ca1+Croot2 = 0 and visa versa).e. see 4.34 Classification Notes. It is assumed (simplified) to be equal for both pinion and wheel. For calculation purposes the root relief is combined with the tip relief of the mating member into an equivalent tip relief. If no design tip relief or root relief on the mating gear is specified (i.25 X L a for helical: C eff = Fbt K A K γ b cγ (see 1) where: wBt vΣC = = specific tooth load (N/mm) sum of tangential velocities at pitch point. pinion root relief (at mesh position A) is added to Ca2. Cylindrical gears The following coefficient of friction may apply: w Bt µ = 0.=δ).3.3 Tip relief and extension (see 1) Cylindrical gears v ΣC = 2 v mt sin α vt ρ redC = ρ vC cos β bm ηoil = dynamic viscosity (mPa s) at ϑoil . I. where: DET NORSKE VERITAS .05 ηoil R 0. Bevel gears C eff = Fmbt K A cγb Cylindrical gears w Bt F = bt ⋅ K A ⋅ K γ ⋅ K v ⋅ K Hβ ⋅ K Hα b (see 1) (see 1) v ΣC = 2 v sin α tw ρ redC = ρ C cos β b where: cγ = 44 ⋅ ε α 2 + εγ Bevel gears w Bt F = mb t ⋅ K A ⋅ K γ ⋅ K v ⋅ K Hβ ⋅ K Hα b 4. relative radius of curvature (transversal plane) at the pitch point For spur: C eff = Fbt K A K γ b c' (see 1) ρredC = Alternatively for spur and helical gears the nonlinear approach in 1. i. and wheel root relief (at mesh position E) is added to Ca1. no distinct relieved/unrelieved area.e. i. as manufactured.e. that amount of tip relief. This may be treated as tip and root relief. see 1. based on the tool crowning Ca tool (per mille of tool module m0) as follows: C a 1 eq = C a 1 + C root 2 XL = 4. calculated as ηoil = ν oil ρ 1000 where ρ in kg/m3 approximated as The extension of the tip relief is not to result in an effective contact ratio ε α < 1 when the gear is unloaded (exceptions to this may only apply for applications where the gear is not to run at light loads).11 may be used (taking Ceff.8) − log log (ν100 + 0.3. Bevel gears ρ = ρ15 − (ϑoil − 15) 0. the equivalent tip relives may be calculated. as an approximation.No.e.2 Effective tip relief Ceff C a 2 eq = C a 2 + C root 1 Ceff is the effective tip relief.2 Bevel gears are to have heightwise crowning.048 v ρ ΣC redC 0.12. If no resulting tip relieves are specified.2 May 2003 4.
A1 = m n (1 + x1 ) − 0.3. replace u with uv) 2 A Croot2 = Catool2 ⋅ m0 ⋅ 1 − 1 m 0 and is to be calculated stepwise along the path of contact from A to E. contact factor.m.4) along the path of contact. see 4. the following may be assumed: C a1eq = C a 2eq = 0.4.4. where: µ Xcorr = = coefficient of friction.4. load sharing factor.4.3. Xcorr is only applicable in the approach path and if Ca < Ceff. DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 Bulk temperature The bulk temperature may be calculated as: ϑMB = ϑoil + 0.3. wheel flank radius at mesh point y. otherwise 1.5 X s X mp ϑflaaverage Γy C eff − C a 50 ε α (ΓD − ΓA ) 3 where: Xs = = = lubrication factor.5 ⋅ sum of calculated C a1eq and C a 2eq .5 1 + n p wBt X Γy Ca = tip relief of driven member.Classification Notes. equivalent radius of curvature at mesh point y.2 for meshes fully submerged in oil.1 Basic formula The local flash temperature ϑfla may be calculated as ρ ly − ρ1/ 4 redy ρ2y u A 2 = m n (1 + x 2 ) − 0. 4.5 ⋅ sin α vt ⋅ d 2 1 − d 2 − d vb1 ⋅ tan α vt va vb1 A + 2( m 0 − m n ) C a 2 = C atool2 ⋅ m 0 ·1 − 2 m0 2 4. 1. see 4. ρ redy = ϑflaaverage = Cylindrical gears ρ1y = ρ 2y = 1 + Γy 1+ u u − Γy 1+ u a sin α tw a sin α tw ϑflaaverage = ∫ E y=A ϑfla Γy d Γy ΓE − ΓA ( ) Note that for internal gears. average of the integrated flash temperature (see 4.4 The Flash Temperature ϑfla 4. ρly etc.2 May 2003 A + 2(m 0 − m n ) C al = C atool1 ⋅ m 0 ·1 − 1 m0 2 35 For high speed gears (v > 50 m/s) it may be necessary to assess the bulk temperature on the basis of a thermal rating of the entire gear transmission. due to mesh starting without any previously built up oil film and possible shuffling away oil before meshing if insufficient tip relief.No.2 Geometrical relations The various radii of flank curvature (transversal plane) are: ρ1y ρ2y ρredy = = = pinion flank radius at mesh point y. n1 = Γy. correction factor taking empirically into account the increased scuffing risk in the beginning of the approach path. 4. 1.2 for spray lubrication.0 for spray lubrication with additional cooling spray (spray on both pinion and wheel. pinion r.1. or spray on pinion and dip lubrication of wheel).0 for dip lubrication (provided both pinion and wheel are dip lubricated and tip speed < 5 m/s). see 4. X corr = 1 + If the pressure angles of the cutter blades are modified (and verified) to balance the tip relieves. 0.325 µ X corr w Bt X Γy ( ) 3 / 4 1/ 2 n1 (For bevel gears. = = = unit load. X mp = 0.5 ⋅ sin α vt ⋅ d 2 − d 2 − d vb2 ⋅ tan α vt va2 vb2 A C root1 = C atool1 ⋅ m 0 ⋅ 1 − 2 m 0 2 ϑfla = 0.0.1.p.2. ρ1y ρ 2 y ρ1y + ρ 2 y = Xmp np = = ( ) number of mesh contact on the pinion (for small gear ratii the number of wheel meshes should be used if higher). ( ) Throughout the following Ca1 and Ca2 mean the equivalent tip relieves Ca1eq and Ca2eq. 41.3. a and u are negative. 1. see 4.
and y is any point between A end E. 4.3. Γ has the following values: Root pinion/tip wheel Cylindrical gears z ΓA = − 2 z1 4.3 Load sharing factor XΓ The load sharing factor XΓ accounts for the load sharing between the various pairs of teeth in mesh along the path of contact. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Tip relief on the wheel reduces XΓ in the range A – F and increases correspondingly XΓ in the range D – G. At the respective ends. At pitch point ΓC = 0.4.3. XΓ is to be calculated stepwise from A to E.1 Cylindrical gears with β = 0 and no tip relief (d a2 /d b2 ) 2 tan α tw −1 − 1 Bevel gears Γ A = −u v (d va2 /d vb2 )2 − 1 tan α vt − 1 Tip pinion/root wheel Cylindrical gears ΓE = (d a1/d b1 )2 − 1 tan α tw −1 Figure 4. Following remains generally: X Γy = 1 for ΓB ≤ Γy ≤ ΓD Bevel gears 2π ΓB = ΓE − z v1 tan α vt At outer point of single pair contact Cylindrical gears 2π ΓD = ΓA + z1 tan α tw X ΓF = X ΓG = 1 / 2 Bevel gears ΓD = ΓA + 2π z v1 tan α vt In the following it must be distinguished between Ca < Ceff respectively Ca > Ceff. using the parameter Γy. 41.36 Classification Notes.1 Bevel gears ΓE = X Γy = −1 1 1 Γy − ΓA + 3 3 ΓB − ΓA for ΓA ≤ Γy < ΓB (d va1/d vb1 )2 − 1 tan α vt X Γy = 1 X Γy = for ΓB ≤ Γy < ΓD At inner point of single pair contact Cylindrical gears ΓB = ΓE − 2π z1 tan α tw 1 1 ΓE − Γy + for ΓD < Γy ≤ ΓE 3 3 ΓE − ΓD 4. This is shown by an example below where Ca1 < Ceff and Ca2 > Ceff.4.4.2 May 2003 Bevel gears ρ1y = 1 + Γy 1+ uv a v sin α vt The points F and G (only applicable to cylindrical gears) limiting the extension of tip relief (so as to maintain a minimum contact ratio of unity for unloaded gears) are at ΓF = ΓA + ΓB 2 ΓD + ΓE 2 ρ 2y = uv − Γy 1+ uv a v sin α vt ΓG = Γ is the parameter on the path of contact.No.2 Cylindrical gears with β = 0 and tip relief Tip relief on the pinion reduces XΓ in the range G – E and increases correspondingly XΓ in the range F – B.
it is necessary to consider the negative effect on surface durability (B') and bending stresses (B' and D').F For C a2 ≤ C eff X ΓA C 1 = 1 − a 2 3 C eff Ca 2 −1 C eff with ΓD' = ΓD + (ΓG − ΓD ) Ca 2 1 − C eff 2 XΓ = C a 2 Γy − ΓD − C eff ΓG − ΓD Ca 2 1 C − 2 eff for ΓD' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓG Range G .3 Gears with β > 0. The buttressing Xbutt is simplified as a linear function within the ranges A – H respectively I – E.2 Note: When Ca > Ceff the path of contact is shortened by A – A' respectively E' – E.E = 1. Range A .B For C a1 ≤ C eff X Γy = 1 Γy − ΓF + 2 ΓB − ΓF Due to oblique contact lines over the flanks a certain buttressing may occur near A and E.Classification Notes. For C a1 ≥ C eff X Γy = 1 Γy − ΓF + 2 ΓB − ΓF C a1 1 C − 2 eff for ΓF ≤ Γy ≤ ΓB' X Γy = 1 for ΓB' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓB Γ − ΓF with ΓB' = ΓF + B C 2 a1 − 1 C eff Figure 4. The single pair contact path is extended into B' respectively D'. 1 C a1 + 6 3⋅C eff for ΓF ≤ Γy ≤ ΓB This applies to both cylindrical and bevel gears with tip relief < Ceff.3 when ε β ≥ 1 X butt A.4.3.3 ε β when ε β < 1 Range D – G DET NORSKE VERITAS .E For C a1 ≤ C eff for ΓA ≤ Γy ≤ ΓF C 1 X ΓE = 1 − a1 C 3 eff X Γy = 1 C a1 + 6 3⋅C eff for ΓG ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE X Γy = X ΓA Γy − ΓA 1 Ca 2 + + 6 3⋅C ΓF − ΓA eff 1 Γy − ΓG − 2 ΓE − ΓG For C a2 ≥ C eff X Γy = 0 for ΓA ≤ Γy ≤ ΓA ' For C a1 > C eff X Γy = 1 Γy − ΓG − 2 ΓE − ΓG C a1 1 C − 2 eff for ΓG ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE ' Ca 2 −1 C eff with ΓA ' = ΓA + (ΓF − ΓA ) Ca 2 1 − C eff 2 X Γy = 1 − C a 2 Γy − ΓA + C eff ΓF − ΓA X Γy = 0 for ΓE ' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE with ΓE ' = ΓG + Ca 2 1 C − 2 forΓA ' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓF eff ΓE − ΓG C 2 a1 − 1 C eff 4. If this shift is significant.No. buttressing Range F .E = 1 + 0. 41.3 X butt A.2 May 2003 For C a2 ≤ C eff X Γy = 37 Γy − ΓD C 2 + a2 − 3 3 C eff ΓG − ΓD 1 C + a2 6 3C eff for ΓD ≤ Γy ≤ ΓG F or C a2 ≥ C eff X Γy = 1 for ΓD ≤ Γy ≤ ΓD ' Figure 4.
X Γy is obtained by multiplication of X Γy as described below (Ca1 − Ceff ) 2 (ε α + 1) (3 ε α + 1) Ca1 + (ε α − 1) Ca 2 4.4.2 sin β b Bevel gears Γ H − Γ A = Γ E − Γ I = 0. In the XГ example below the influence of tip relief is shown (without the influence of Xbutt) by means of C a1 > C eff and C a 2 < C eff .3.3.3. 4.3. 4.3. X Γy 1 = εα 1 X butt εα for ΓH ≤ Γy ≤ ΓI for Γy < ΓH and Γy > ΓI for ΓA ≤ Γy ≤ ΓF and for ΓA ' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓF X Γy = X Γy = 0 forΓA ≤ Γy ≤ ΓA ' if C a 2 > C eff with ΓA ' = ΓA + (ΓF − ΓA ) (Ca2 − Ceff ) 2 (ε α + 1) (ε α − 1) Ca1 + (3 ε α + 1) Ca2 for ΓF ≤ Γy ≤ ΓG Range F – G X Γy = 1 (ε α − 1)(C a1 + C a 2 ) + εα 2 ε α (ε α + 1) C eff Range G – E X Γy = X Γ F−G − Figure 4.38 Classification Notes.5 Range A – F X Γy = C eff − C a 2 Γy − ΓA (ε α − 1) C a1 + (3ε α + 1) C a2 + ε α C eff ΓF − ΓA 2ε α (ε α + 1) C eff if C a 2 ≤ C eff ifC a 2 ≥ C eff Xbutt in 4. Figure 4.4 4.3.3.3.5 Gears with εγ > 2 and no tip relief Applicable to both cylindrical and bevel gears. Tip relief > Ceff causes new end points A' respectively E' of the path of contact.7 Cylindrical gears with εγ > 2 and tip relief with ΓE ' = ΓE − (ΓE − ΓG ) Tip relief on the pinion (respectively wheel) reduces XГ in the range G – E (respectively A – F) and increases XГ in the range F – G.4 Cylindrical gears with εγ ≤ 2 and no tip relief X Γy is obtained by multiplication of X Γy in 4. 41.3.8 and heightwise crowning For Ca1 = Ca2 = Ceff the following applies: with Xbutt in 4. 1.6 DET NORSKE VERITAS .3.No.2 with Xbutt Γy − ΓG (3 ε α + 1) C a1 + (ε α − 1) C a 2 ΓE − ΓG 2 ε α (ε α + 1) C eff if C a1 ≤ C eff for ΓG ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE and for Γ G ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE ' X Γy = 0 for ΓE ' ≤ Γy ≤ ΓE if C a1 ≥ C eff if C a1 ≥ C eff in 4.4.2 May 2003 Cylindrical gears Γ H − Γ A = Γ E − Γ I = 0.3.8 Bevel gears with εγ more than approx.4.4.4.4.4.4.2 sin β bm 4.3.3.4.1 with Figure 4.6 Cylindrical gears with εγ ≤ 2 and tip relief X Γy is obtained by multiplication of X Γy in 4.4.
45 X Γy ( C a 2 = 0) + 0.4 X Γy ( C a1 = C eff ) Range E' – E X Γy = 0 For tip relief > Ceff the new end points A' and E' are found as ΓA ' = ΓA + εα (ΓD − ΓA ) C a 2 − 1 C 6 eff DET NORSKE VERITAS .) E.5(ΓE + ΓA ) X Γy = 2 1. X Γy is found by linear interpolation between X Γy (C a =C eff ) and X Γy (C a =0 ) as in 4. then Range A – M X Γy = 0.55 X Γy ( C a 2 = C eff ) Range A' – M X Γy = 1.No. with Ca1 = 0.4.3.g. 41.5. (For C a1 ≠ C a 2 there is a discontinuity at M.Classification Notes.4 Ceff and Ca2 = 0.5 6 Γy − ΓM − 3 ε α ε α (ΓD − ΓA )2 39 ( ) ΓE ' = ΓE + εα (ΓD − ΓA ) Ca1 − 1 C 6 eff Range A – A' X Γy = 0 For tip relief < Ceff.5 3 ε α 4 − C a1 C eff 2 1 − Γy − ΓM (Γ − Γ )2 E' M ( ) Range M – E X Γy = 0.5 3 εα 4 − Ca 2 C eff 2 1 − Γy − ΓM (Γ − Γ )2 A' M ( ) Range M – E' X Γy = 1.2 May 2003 ΓM = 0. The interpolation is to be made stepwise from A to M with the influence of Ca2 and from M to E with the influence of Ca1.55 Ceff.6 X Γy ( C a1 = 0) + 0.
the torques (Ti) at the peak values of class intervals and the associated number of cycles (NLi) for both pinion and wheel are to be listed from the highest to the lowest torque. A. However.No. For determination of this theoretical safety factor an iteration procedure is required as described in the following flowchart: A. The full procedure is to be applied for pinion and wheel. Sact is the demand safety factor (used in determination of the permissible stresses in the σ – N – curve) times the correction factor S. The load dependent Kfactors are to be determined for each torque class. The number of cycles to failure at ith stress. (In case of a cyclic torque variation within the torque classes. If the cyclic variation is such that the same teeth will repeatedly suffer the peak torque. thereby finding the actual life factor. If different safety levels for high cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue are desired.) DET NORSKE VERITAS . S is correction factor with which the actual safety factor Sact can be found. i.1 Stress Spectrum From the individual torque classes. (NFi can be found mathematically by putting the permissible stress σpi equal the actual stress σi. by means of division with the actual mean stress influence factor YM. Fatigue Damage Accumulation The PalmgrenMiner cumulative damage calculation principle is used.e. the alternating stresses may be replaced by equivalent pulsating stresses. this is a must. i. Basically stresses σi below the permissible stress level for infinite life (if a constant ZN or YN is accepted) do not contribute to the damage sum.e. σHi) with all relevant factors (except KA) are to be calculated on the basis of the torque spectrum. Note: If alternating stresses occur in a spectrum of mainly pulsating stresses. 41.e. The final value of S is decisive. this may be expressed by different demand safety factors applied at the endurance limit respectively at static strength. The procedure may be applied as follows: The damage sum ΣDi is not to exceed unity.40 Classification Notes. it is advised to use the peak torque.2 May 2003 Appendix A. tooth roots and flanks. NFi. A.3 Damage accumulation The individual damage ratio Di at ith stress level is defined as Di = N Li N Fi where: NLi NFi = = The number of applied cycles at ith stress.) The stress spectra for tooth roots and flanks (σFi.2 σ−Ncurve The stress versus load cycle curves for tooth roots and flanks (both pinion and wheel) are to be drawn on the basis of permissible stresses (i. including the demanded minimum safety factors) as determined in 2 respectively 3. This life factor can be solved with regard to load cycles. the safety against cumulative fatigue damage is different from the applied demand safety factor. calculating the actual safety factor Sact as described below all the σi for which the product S σi is bigger than or equal to the permissible stress level for infinite life contribute to the damage sum and thus to the determination of Sact. If ΣDi ≠ 1.
the following guidance can be given: K A misf ≈ 1.12 − 1. This can be indicated as: TV ideal Tο TV misf To Misfiring operation where: T Tv misf = remaining nominal torque when one cylinder out of action = vibratory torque amplitude in misfiring condition. See also rules Pt.2 May 2003 41 Appendix B.92 and K A misf 1.No.1. T= Z −1 ⋅ To Z B.e.15 B.3.13 (but K A misf 0.Classification Notes. the calculation may be performed only once with the combination having the highest value of application factor/life factor. Application Factors for Diesel Driven Gears For diesel driven gears the application factor KA depends on torsional vibrations. TV misf /To may be high for engines with few cylinders and decreases with number of cylinders. such as 107 cycles.92 which usually is relevant. Ch.18 K A norm ≈ 1.4. the higher value of K A norm 0. Sec.10 − 1.3 Simplified procedure Note that this is only a guidance. and a KA of 1. such as 1010.4. the higher value of K A norm 0. and DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 G301 for definition of “normal” irregularity) KA misf = T + Tv misf T0 T0 + Tv norm T0 where Z = number of cylinders TV norm = Z (TV misf − TV ideal ) + TV ideal 24 where TV ideal = vibratory torque with all cylinders perfectly equal. For bending stresses and scuffing. a condition that does not require automatic or immediate corrective actions as speed or pitch reduction. when a suitable elastic coupling is chosen. Ch. the following may be used: TV ideal / To is close to zero for engines with few cylinders and using a suitable elastic coupling. Sec. For contact stresses. i.98 Since KA norm is to be combined with the lower life factors. G300 When using trends from torsional vibration analysis and measurements. This refers to a permissible misfiring condition.1 Definitions Normal operation KAnorm = where: T0 Tv norm = rated nominal torque = vibratory torque amplitude for normal operation (see rules Pt. Inserting this into the formulae for the two application factors.15 will cover most relevant cases. The misfiring operation is assumed to last for a limited duration. Normally these two running conditions can be covered by only one calculation. ≈ Z 200 and ≈ 0. and increases with relative coupling stiffness and number of cylinders. Both normal operation and misfiring conditions have to be considered. 41.4 − Z 80 The normal operation is assumed to last for a very high number of cycles.2 Determination of decisive load Assuming life factor at 1010 cycles as YN = ZN = 0. and is not a binding convention.92 K A misf 0. the decisive load condition will be the normal one.3.97 for nitrided gears) B.
including relevant simplifications. The permissible stress is calculated as: σ FP2 = σ Fst2 ⋅ YδrelTst SF For alloyed steels (Ni. DET NORSKE VERITAS . then KFβ1 >1. The actual and permissible stresses should be calculated for the relevant loads as given in the rules. YFa and YSa replace YF and YS because load application at tooth tip has to be assumed for such inaccurate gears. when b1 > b2. However. C. e.1 for details.No. If no detailed documentation of KFβ1 is available.8 times the yield strength of the rack material. The mean stress influence due to leg lifting may be disregarded. Pinions often use a noninvolute profile in the dedendum part of the flank.g. with exception of surface hardened pinions where case crushing has to be considered. and thus the penetration of stresses into the depth. An approximation may be based on an assessment of contact width determined by means of equal areas under the theoretical (elastic range) Hertzian contact and the elastoplastic contact stress (limited to 1. This will limit the peak Hertzian stress but increases the contact width.0.2 Rack tooth root stresses The actual stress is calculated as: σ F2 = Ft ⋅ YFa ⋅ YSa b2 ⋅ mn C. The actual stress is calculated as: σ F1 = Ft ⋅ YFa ⋅ YSa ⋅ K Fβ1 b1 ⋅ m n See C. but when the theoretical Hertzian stress exceeds the approximately 1. a constant radius equal the radius of curvature at reference circle.2 May 2003 Appendix C.13 may be used. Mo) with high toughness and ductility the value of YδrelTst may be put equal to YSa.3 Surface hardened pinions For surface hardened pinions the maximum load is not to cause crushing of the hardened layer of the flank. plastic deformation will occur. the following may be used: KFβ1 = 1 + 0. With normal specifications such as only a few hundred total operation cycles (site to site) the tooth bending stresses for static strength will be decisive for the lay out. however.15·(b1/b2 – 1) The permissible stress (not surface hardened) is calculated as: σ FP1 = σ Fst1 ⋅ YδrelTst SF C. In principle the calculation described in 2.8 · σy) with the unknown width. Calculation of PinionRack Pinionracks used for elevating of mobile offshore units are open gears that are subjected to wear and tear. For such pinions sFn and hFa are to be measured directly on a sectional drawing of the pinion tooth. 41.0. In the following the use of part 1 and 3 for pinionracks is shown.42 Classification Notes. Due to high loads and narrow facewidths it may be assumed that KFβ2 = KHβ = 1. the static strength is decisive. b1 is limited to b2 + 2·mn. Cr.1 Pinion tooth root stresses Since the load spectrum normally is dominated by high torques and few load cycles (in the range up to 12000).
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