?6u.l 39 S A-H Busoni Sketch of a new esthetic of

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1907 By FERRUCCIO BUSONI Copyright. 1911 By G. SCHIRMER 22375 JUL .Copyright. .

! . &quot. For it is a long time since any one has devoted himself to earnest musical research. the together as regards literary following notes are. It is true. in reality. without giv ing the key to its final solution. . and still it seems to me that of all these beautiful paths leading so far afield none lead upward. and I have always taken stand in the front rank of those who joyfully acclaimed my the passing standard-bearers.SKETCH OF A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC &quot. Beyond the end : The last word [&quot.&quot. the outcome tured. of convictions long held and slowly ma is In them a problem of the first magnitude formulated with apparent simplicity. What seek you ? Say And what do you expect ? I know not what the Unknown I would have What s known to me. for the problem cannot be solved for generations if at all. is endless I would go ! . still is wanting. But it involves an innumerable series of lesser problems. that admirable works of genius arise in every period. JDer macfitige - T OOSELY joined L/ form. which I present to the consideration of those whom they may concern.

or cloy the taste and are discarded.obsolete.gt.2 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC The spirit of an art-work.modernity. Art-forms are the more lasting. that is in these three assumed. the manner of their expression. and the fiawr of the epoch which gave them birth. the measure of emotion. genuine and spurious. Among both &quot.old&quot. when it forsakes the flat surface in depictioe and takes on complexity in theatrical decoration or panoramic portrayal.&quot. its unchangeable essence hinders it from becoming &quot. are transient^ and age rapidly. Its &quot. Architecture has its fundamental form. we admire technical achievements. the purer they keep their essential means and ends.&quot. There is nothing properly modern only things which have come into bring earlier or later. the form which these of humanity. or sooner withered. man ephemeral qualities give a work the stamp of &quot. Spirit and emotion retain art-work as in their essence. yet they are outstripped. it remain unchanged in value through changing years. In the himself. The Modern and the Old have always been. and effects of color. longer in bloom. Sculpture relinquishes the expression of the human pupil. growth fern below upward. and works we find good and bad. and necessarily provide the inferK&amp. the more closely they adhere to the nature of their individual species of art.mod ern&quot.of . painting degener ates. prescribed by static necessity.

it is a child-marvel that its unawakened is already able to dispense much of beauty. Architecture. their conceptions are estab lished and their objects assured. Poetry commands the abstract thought. our so-called occidental music. compared with them. the imitation of nature and interpretation of human feelings. but must still be led. they have found the through uncounted centuries. namely. reaches the furthest bounds. poetry and painting are old and mature arts. without experience in life and suffering. its hardly four hundred years old. It is all unconscious as yet of what garb of its is becoming.* Music. and. capacities. like the way planets. own And again. describe their regular orbits. these are eternal and inviolable requirements of the art. It is a virgin art. . But all arts. sculpture. that has are already brought joy to many. and whose gifts held to have attained full maturity. advantages. is a child that has learned to walk. resources aim at the the one end. it More independent than and forms ever the others. in state is one these arts. * None the less. commonly Music is as an art.CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ARTS 3 mediate and finishing configuration. which it clothes in words. taste and will unceasingly find refreshment and individuality can and rejuvenation.

* * * But freedom is something that mankind have never wholly comprehended. They disavow the mission of this child. they hang weights upon it. which. It It wellnigh incorporeal. And the law Young it as it is. knows no law is of gravitation. talked of and &quot. we talk of 7 classics And we have down laws.hallowed traditions&quot.4 1 NEW ESTHETIC OP MUSIC very first stage of a development beyond present conception. that givers will not see this their laws should marvelous attribute. It is sonorous air. This buoyant creature must * Tradition is a plaster mask taken from life. It free. This air I child it floats on It It touches not the earth with is its feet. and after passing through the hands of innumerable artisans. almost Nature herself.! them for a long time!* stated principles. in the course of many years. this child. child that we apply laws made maturity to a knows nothing of responsibility! we already recognize possesses one radiant attribute which signal izes it beyond all its elder sisters. . laid for We have formulated rules. perhaps the &quot. lest be thrown to the winds. is Its material is transparent. leaves its resemblance to the origi nal largely a matter of imagination. never realized to the full. and we of development. They can neither recognize nor acknowl edge it.

and to break sunbeams with the clouds. in point of incorporealness. without describing soul. and arrive What are the aims of music? * * at the * 1 ^ A BSOLUTE ^ by this.ABSOLUTE MUSIC 5 walk decently. like anybody else. invalidity of question: program-music. Even the poetic word ranks lower destiny. with the mobility of the consecutive moments. is . Music was born free.Absolute music&quot. is Music What the lawgivers mean all perhaps remotest of from the a form- Absolute in music. with the swiftness of and this. It may scarcely be allowed to leap when it were its joy to follow the line of the rainbow. It realizes a temperament. where painter or sculptor can represent only one side or one moment. and to win freedom is its It will become the most complete of all reflexes of Nature by reason of its untrammeled immateriality. Therefore. it. it has the extremest heights per and ceptible to man what other art has these? emotion seizes the human heart with that intensity which is independent of the its &quot.&quot. tempestuosity. It can gather together can be motionless repose or wildest and disperse. &quot. representation and description are not herewith we declare the the nature of music.idea. and the poet tardily communicates a temperament and its manifestations by words.

In a picture.&quot. and contending in needless contest merely to arrive at the starting-point. is something very sober. in which the form is intended to have the leading part. as the processes in Nature. of the relation of Tonic to Dominant. This sort of music ought 7 &quot. on which was bestowed the divine prerogative of buoyancy. Methinks I hear the second violin struggling. which reminds one of music-desks in orderly rows. to emulate the more dexterous first. But Form.sym or &quot. the illustration of a sunset itself. and derives from the cir cumstance that certain composers poured their spirit and their emotion into just this mould as lying nearest them or their time. rather to be called the metric.absolute music&quot.sectional. shift hither or yon.&quot. nomenon ends with the frame. the cloud-form chosen for depiction remains unchang ing for ever. the givers individuality of these composers and their time.architectonic/ or &quot. and instinct leads the creative musician to employ the tones that press the same key within the human breast. of freedom from the limitations of matter. &quot. of Developments and Codas. the limitless natural phe is enclosed in quadrilateral bounds. a fourth below. Per contra. Our law have identified the spirit and emotion. in is the opposite pole of absolute music.6 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC play without poetic program. and awaken the same response. . Music can grow brighter or darker. and finally fade away like the sunset glow itself.

THE FETISH OF FORM with &quot. Enough is left for many a poet s tiring. to whom we are devoted. to demand of a composer originality in all things. have retained the Form as a symbol. once he becomes original. 7 less to recreate either music. No wonder the great man with the he we marvel at. or never .symmetric&quot. and finally. Is it not singular. A lucky find The flame is ! Twas now . He did not quite reach absolute . hire the robe out. and to forbid it as regards form? he is that. for hiring. or the emotion. or the time. And though I ll I have no talents here anyhow. being power the spirit. seeker and the finder. the romantic revolutionary. and made it into a fetish. childlike heart it is Such lust of liberation filled Beethoven. The com posers sought and found this form as the aptest vehicle for communicating their ideas. gone it s true however. No need to pity mankind now. that he ascended one short step on the way leading music back to its loftier self: in his own a short step in the great task. but not his Tonic and Dominant. his Developments and Codas. Mozart! the accused of &quot. a wide step path. formlessness. Or to breed envy high and low . their souls took flight and the lawgivers discover and cherish the garments Euphorion left behind on earth. a religion.&quot.

this y avoided. we hear &quot. [Translator s Note.&quot. . all composers have drawn the true nature of music in preparatory nearest and intermediary passages (preludes and transi to disregard tions). like that of becomes stiff a man entering and some bureau of high officialdom.infinite to Beethoven.correct declamation.&quot. t &quot. is the author s happy phrase. as in music.&quot. But. the moment they cross the threshold of the Principal Subject. where they felt at liberty Hammerclavier.&quot. drew symmetrical proportions. but in certain moments he for the introduction to the fugue of the Sonata Indeed. But as music never has bee?i our English terms like primitive/ 7 etc. by some feeling of the boundlessness of this pan-art (recall the transition to the last movement of the D-minor stature) seized. at least..Man and Nature. by infinite. human not &quot. and the same may be asserted of Brahms First in the introduction to the Finale of his Symphony.f &quot.] In the recitatives of his Passions . would involve a non sequitur which is &quot. their attitude conventional.original. it appears most ingenuous because he &quot. had Die Ur-Musik. free breath.8 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC divined it. and unconsciously Even a Schumann (of so much lower is such passages. in Symphony). Next to His Organ Fantasias (but not the Fugues) have indubitably a strong dash of what might be overwritten &quot. * Bach bears closest affinity music/ 7 In him * &quot.&quot.

WAGNER Q no reverence for his predecessors (although he esteemed and made use of them). classic. and that he who mounts to their uttermost heights will always tower above the crowd. declamation. confirms the remark at the beginning of these lines: That spirit and emotion remain unchanged in value through changing years. These traits are certainly opposed to those of a &quot. master/ ) ! * as the term applies to Mozart or the later Wagner.BACH. Moreover. remains to be surpassed. remain unexcelled. and this.) . Wagner. a Ger manic Titan. is their form of expression and their freedom. just because his art foreshadows a greater. novel acquisition of equal temperament opened for the time being endless new possi Bach and Beethoven* are to be conceived as a beginning. His category begins and ends with himself.&quot. as yet incomplete. first. andLa portent of modern nervousness. leading-motive). but fashioned it into a system (musicdrama. Therefore. who touched our earthly horizon in still What orchestral tone-effect. Beethoven fire. and because the still a vista of bilities. is on this account incapable of further intensification. (Compare the section next-following. *As characteristic traits of s individuality I would mention the poetic the strong hitman feeling (whence springs his revolutionary temper). and not as unsurpassable In spirit and emotion they will probably finalities. again. who intensified the form of expression. BEETHOVEN. Beethoven is no &quot.

In reality. Wagner s circle we can view circle. in its entirety a circle within the great / TA HE name of A Wagner leads to program-music. From the Together with the problem. without recognition for a third possibility beyond and above the other two. secondly.* The paths opened by Beethoven can be followed to their end only through generations. gives us the solution.&quot. instead of the relation of Tonic to Dominant. but a circle of such dimensions. Every motive a seed. that the portion visible to us seems like a straight line. that it could be achieved by one man alone. In place of architectonic and symmetric formulas. so it seems to within it me contains.absolute&quot. like its life-germ itself. to the highest perfection and because his self-imposed task was of such a nature. program-music is precisely as one-sided and limited as that which is called absolute. so petrified that even persons of intelligence hold one or the other dogma.10 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC it because he carried finish. as I once said of Mozart. *&quot. . This has been set up as a contrast to so-called music. and these concepts have become &quot. it has bound itself in the stays of a connecting poetic sometimes even philosophic program. They like all things in creation may form only a circle.

or the philo sophical idea. . its own twist rather. The motive within itself in a composition with program bears the same natural necessity. foliage. And so. but by the way laid down in the program. growth and color. though each be unlike every other. loppement .PROGRAM AND MOTIVE different II plant-seeds grow different families of plants. in &quot. Thus turned by from the path traced nature. form and strength. each one must unfold itself differently. mais qui. at the outset.] . fruit. even in its earliest phase of development. sit6t les themes trouve*s. yet each a growth peculiar to there lies obediently follows the law of eternal harmony. Beethoven. it finally program. dont les esquisses thematiques ou ettmentaires sont innombrables. * . there are unequivocal descriptive effects of tonepainting (from these the entire principle took its . not by its own organization. semble par cela xneme en avoir etabli tout la deve&quot. the embryo of its fully developed form. renounce or. in size. Cesar Franck. whither it has been led.&quot. but it must. in each motive. blossom.&quot. . This form is imperishable. proper mode of growth to mould itself to fit the needs of the aside. itself. [VINCENT D !NDY. arrives at a wholly unexpected climax.* Even each individual plant belonging to one and the same species assumes. dissimilar in form. And how primitive must this art remain! True. or the action. .




but these means of expression are few and trivial, covering but a very small section of musical art. Begin with the most self-evident of all, the

debasement of Tone to Noise in imitating the sounds of Nature the rolling of thunder, the roar of forests, the cries of animals; then those somewhat
less evident,


imitations of visual impres

sions, like the lightning-flash, springing


the flight of birds; again, those intelligible only through the mediation of the reflective brain, such
as the trumpet-call as a warlike symbol, the shawm to betoken ruralism, march-rhythm to signify measured strides, the chorale as vehicle for religious



above the characterization of national instruments and airs and
to the

we have a complete inventory of the arsenal of program-music. Movement and repose, minor and
major, high and low, in their customary signifi These are auxiliaries, cance, round out the list.

which good use can be made upon a broad canvas, but which, tajcen by themselves, are no more to-be called music than wax figures may pass for monuments. *




what can the presentation of a happening upon this earth, the report con

cerning an annoying neighbor no matter whether in the next room or in an adjoining quarter of the


have in

common with

that music which

pervades the universe



indeed, it


given to set in vibration
(Leporello), oppression

Banian moods:


:.vJ, invigoration,

lassitude (Beethoven s last

decision (Wotan), hesitation, despond-



encouragement, harshness, tenderness, excitetranquillization, the feeHng of surprise or

expectancy, and

others; likewise the inner echo

of external occurrences

itself of

of the soul.

which is bound up in these But not the moving cause

not the joy over an avoided danger, not the danger itself, or the kind of danger which caused the dread; an emo
these spiritual affections ;
tional state, yes,
this emotion,

but not the psychic species of
it is

such as envy, or jealousy; and

equally futile to attempt the expression, through

music, of moral characteristics (vanity, cleverIs ness), or abstract ideas like truth and justice.

a poor, but contented man could be represented by music? The contentment, the soul-state, can be interpreted by

possible to imagine


music; but where does the poverty appear, or the important ethic problem stated in the words "poor,





due to the fact that

connotes a phase of terrestrial and social "poor" conditions not to be found in the eternal harmony.

And Music


a part of the vibrating universe.



be allowed to subjoin a few subsidiary



greater part of

modern theatre



suffers from the mistake of seeking to repeat the scenes passing on the stage, instead of ful filling its own proper mission of interpreting the


When the soul-states of the persons represented. scene presents the illusion of a thunderstorm, this Never is exhaustively apprehended by the eye.
composers strive to depict the storm in tones which is not only a needless and feebler repetition, but likewise a failure to perform
theless, nearly all

their true function.

The person on

either psychically influenced

the stage is the thunderstorm,

or his mood, being absorbed in a train of thought of stronger influence, remains unaffected. The




and audible without aid from

the invisible and inaudible, the spiritual music; of the personages portrayed, which music processes should render intelligible. * * *
it is

obvious psychic conditions Again, there are on the stage, whereof music need take no account.


Suppose a theatrical situation in which a convivial

company is passing at night and disappears from view, while in the foreground a silent, envenomed duel is in progress. Here the music, by means of
continuing song, should keep in mind the jovial company now lost to sight; the acts and feelings
of the pair in the foreground may be understood without further commentary, and the music dramatically speaking ought not to participate in
their action

and break the

tragic silence.

of music. arrived at the point of rest. the But more closely it clings to the signs. is the plan which concentrated and musically rounded out the passions aroused by a moving dramatic scene in a piece of set form (the aria). they consider his reproduction the nearer to perfection. This is less extrinsic than some would now have us believe. music resumed the reins. for catching Notation. derives free heights from those itself. more or less meagrely by musical recitative. / T HE V audible presentation. in 15 my opinion. its emotional interpretation.aria&quot. primarily an ingenious expedient an inspiration. emotion. &quot.NOTATION VERSUS EMOTION Measurably justified. On the other itself hand. it the part of interpretation to raise and is reendow it with its primordial essence. followed of the old opera. Word and stage-play conveyed the dramatic prog ress of the action. it was the ossified form of the which led to inveracity of expression and decadence.&quot. the lawgivers require the interpreter to reproduce the rigidity of the signs. whence descended the Art is Where is the art threatened by earthliit ness.performance. But notation to improvisation as the portrait It is for the interpreter to resolve the rigidity of the signs into the primitive is to the living model. the writing out of compositions. with the purpose of exploiting it later. the &quot. .

A. &quot. Hoffmann. must naturally so one would infer have found in the dreamlike and transcendental art of tones a language and mode of expression peculiarly congenial.l6 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC What loses* the composer s inspiration his necessarily through notation. you of will discover to your sorrow how a conventional system measures. he could have interpreted to fullest effect by the aid of music. comparing Hoffmann s best musical work with the weakest of his literary productions. any given com would always be reproduced in precisely position If the lawgivers *How form arose strongly notation influences style in music. everything. the twilight vagueness of the borderland of dreams. This remarkable man s mental conceptions. the signs themselves are the most important matter. and are continually grow ing in their estimation. as his writings set forth in oft inimitable fashion. how &quot. T. form &quot. obser vations of Hoffmann the litterateur. the of the supernatural. and fetters imagination. in fact. the secret harmonies of Nature. we learn from many. periods and keyswhereto the hackneyed opera-style of the time adds its share could turn a poet into a Philistine. and from shown very convincingly and avenges itself in tragic wise in E. The thrill veil of mysticism. and frequently admirable. lost in vision ary moods and revelling in transcendentalism. But that his fancy cherished another ideal of music. &quot. one would suppose. the new art of music is derived from the old signs and these now stand for musical art itself. And yet. who occurs to me here as a typical example. grew up out of it is conventionalism in expression. which he so effectively limned with the precision of words all this. interpreter should the lawgivers. restore by his own. . To had their way.

remodel them on the spur of the moment. Great artists play their own works differently at each repetition. compels a choice of measure and key. caused me to tions. . accelerate and retard.NOTATION AND TRANSCRIPTION 17 the same tempo. in itself. almost discreditable. eternal then the lawgiver chafes. seek a clear understanding of this point. in a way which they could not indicate by signs and always &quot. But. the idea. creator to his And &quot.) brings up the nowadays a term much misunderstood. the buoyant. by whomsoever. down&quot. The instant the pen seizes it.Notation&quot.transcrip and the opposition to which an ofttimes irrational criticism has provoked me. expansive nature of the divine child rebels it demands the opposite. My final conclusion concerning it is this: Every notation is.&quot.writing subject of Transcription. whensoever. yet always with the flush of dawn. As matters stand to-day. The frequent antagonism which I have excited with &quot.&quot. according to the given conditions of that harmony. and refers the own handwriting. the idea loses its The very intention to write down original form. the transcription of an abstract idea. the lawgiver has the best of the argument. and under whatsoever conditions it might be performed. it is not possible. Each day begins differently from the preceding. (&quot.

And yet only the second. complete and intact. Born he naked. a soldier or a priest. It exists its and through Ideality of both within and outside of time. Again. or at a given upon a career. therefore. which the com still more closely define The poser must decide upon. From the moment of decision. of which any is notice taken. whatever liberties can never annihilate the original. is much that original and imperishable live on. most of Beethoven s piano com sound like transcriptions of orchestral positions works most of Schumann s orchestral compositions. For the . and the musical agency. . the way and the limits. decides. The musical idea becomes a sonata or a concerto. overlooking the fact. it and still. that a tran scription does not destroy the archetype. it may take. rest. It is much the same as with man himself. the man. although moment is made to decide. For the musical art-work exists. before its tones resound and after they die away. and as yet without definite aspirations. in general. in the idea or the man may either is depressed to the type of a class. That is an Arrangement of the original. which is.l8 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC form. nature we can obtain a definite conception of the otherwise intangible notion of the Time. From is this first transcription to a second the step it is comparatively short and unimportant. through transcription. the performance of a work is also a tran not lost scription.

&quot.arrangements&quot. &quot. or When I say.Musical&quot. in a way. Strangely enough.&quot.&quot. with precisely the same meaning as in German.WHAT like IS MUSICAL? piano 19 and they are arrangements from pieces for the so. &quot. are least respectful when most ingenious.* It is a conception belonging to the Germans.] .Helmholtz was one of the most physical among men. [Translator s Note. produces a whole series of which. A cupboard can from poetry. although it the original. That is musical.Schubert *The author probably had in mind the languages of southern Europe the word is employed in English. (musical) is used by the Germans in a sense foreign to that in which any other language employs it. it is the same as if I should say. besides. &quot.arranges&quot. from was one of the physic(s). the Variation-Form is higUy esteemed by the Worshippers of the Letter. is derived from music. most musical among men. and not to culture in general. That is singular. . for the variation-form when built up on a borrowed theme &quot.musikalisch&quot. and the variation is good. So the arrangement is not good.physical&quot. and in the tongues of the Scandinavian group. which sounds in rhythms and intervals. I -*- A HE term &quot. because it varies the original.poetical&quot. &quot. the expression is incorrect and untranslatable. like &quot.

be enclosed in &quot. &quot.* In a comparative sense.technics&quot. part-leading.technics&quot. musical&quot. The more subtleties he is capable of hearing or reproducing in these. harmony. &quot. might be called a pseudo-musical person. for they themselves can sound. tempera ment has naturally become quence. the more In view of the great importance attached to these elements of the art. &quot. &quot. it. one laughter. * The deemed the most musical &quot. may quite correctly of &quot. .20 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC 5 &quot.musical&quot. Spirits moving musically s To a lute writes well-tuned law.My verses are too musical to bear setting to music. a noted poet once remarked to me.musical&quot.musical speak because it sounds like music. a .&quot. and the treat ment of themes. be &quot.&quot.works&quot. a musical person is one who manifests an inclination for music by a nice discrimination and sensitiveness with regard to the technical aspects of the art. he is held to be. Similarly. By &quot.musical/ if music. Taking the applied signification In which the term is and almost exclusively employed in German. this &quot. as we mean by only the are the singers only kind of people one might properly call musical. clown who by some trick produces tones when he is touched. of the highest conse And But so an artist who plays with perfect technical finish should be player. I mean rhythm. Edgar Allan Poe.&quot. intonation. may have the further signification of euphonious. Lastly.&quot.

f &quot. but it more to say. But it is still so young. dog is very musical/ I have heard said in Should the dog take precedence of Berlioz ? \ Such has been my own fate. means and obey thousand hands support the buoyant child and solicitously attend its footsteps. In France.&quot.do for Only Germany honor to be &quot.My seriousness.musical. &quot. as regards its technical their rules. have been turned into opposites. a violinist once re marked to me of a four-hand worklet which I had character &quot.musical&quot.WHAT IS MUSICAL? 21 mechanical mastery of the instrument.technical&quot. that it. the terms &quot.&quot. and is eternal.Unmusical&quot. the to A * But these pieces are so musical.&quot. all participate in the delights of music. some not care &quot. and others . in is it is made a point of to love music.are very fond of music. all . object becomes an outlaw.* or even to assert of composition a great composer like Berlioz that he was not sufficiently musical. and the term corresponding is not found in the language. there are musicians and non-musicians of the rest. where a living sense of music does not permeate the people. f&quot.} In a country like Italy.musical.&quot. conveys the its strongest reproach. not merely especially to understand of expression. this differentiation becomes superfluous.&quot. The matter has been itself carried so far as to call a &quot. that it may not soar aloft where there might be risk of a serious fall. ized as trivial. branded where thus. and &quot.

For his individual case he should seek out and formulate TpHE -*- creator should take over law in blind a fitting individual law. so stereotyped its form of expression. from the outset. that nowadays there is Bot one familiar motive that canaot be fitted with some other familiar motive so ttimt the . &amp. follows such laws.&quot. the may be the more readily recog more it shakes itself loose from tradition. The function of the creative artist consists in laws. after perfection only. as an exception contrasting with that law. after the first com plete realization.musical. not in following laws ready made. And through bringing this into harmony with Ms own individuality. which. creative But an intentional avoidance of the rules cannot masquerade as engender it. a new law arises without premeditation. * / # no traditional which would make him belief. making He who Creative power nized. * * * So narrow has our tonal range become. ceases to be a creator. that he himself may not be drawn into repetitions when his next work shall be in the making.22 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC its day of to be freedom will come* When it shall cease &quot. he should annul. and still less The true creator strives. view his own creative endeavor. in reality. power.gt.

a meagre pocket-edition of that encyclopedic work. but therefore less elastic. from giving # * # That which. Consummate players. artificial Have you ever noticed light instead of the sun. how people gaze open-mouthed at the brilliant ffluminalion of a hall? They never do so at the millionfold brighter sunshine of noonday.Fifth ** introduces any otter than the one wherewith the &quot. * With a friend I once indulged in such trifling in order to ascertain how many commonly known compositions were written according to the scheme of the second theme in the Adagio of the Ninth Symphony. improviserSj know how to employ these instruments of expression in loftier and ampler measure. sound. The tense silence between two move ments in itself music.signs&quot. only IB . What we now call our Tonal System is nothing more than a set of grasp somewhat of that &quot. its Allegro ? or than the principal theme of the Piano Concerto. within our present-day music.Second&quot. IB a few moments we bad eefieeted some fifteen analogues of the mosrt different kinds. in this environment leaves wider scope for divination than the more deter minate. most nearly approaches the essential nature of the art. is the Rest and the Hold (Pause).MUSIC.* I shall refrain Not my way examples. in trifling.. AND SIGNS K)E MUSIC 23 to lose two may be played simultaneously. an ingenious device to eternal harmony. among them specimens of the lowest type of art And BeeHiOTea fenaseH : Is the theme of the Finale in the &quot.

and whose intervals may thus have beeooae and it sounds impure to ua &quot.pure.Twelve-semitone system is an invention serviceable. &quot.&quot. How and &quot. which was discussed about 1500.dissonances&quot. &quot. and can only suggest. Musik-Lecdkon. (RiEMAior.Third. &quot. by necessity . but not established as a principle untS shortly before 1700 (by Andreas Werfcmeister).conso &quot. such a way that we can never get in above or distant degrees. &quot. in. have so thoroughly schooled our ears that we are no longer capable of hearing anything incapable of hearing except through this impure medium.pure/* and what impure ? We hear a piano gone out of tune.Octave&quot. Yet Nature created an infinite else gradation *&quot. this master-workman in art. because We below or between them. in particular. &quot. divides the octave into twelve equal portions (semitones^ hence fairly twelve-semitone system ) through which mean values are obtained no interval is perfectly pure. we have gained the twelve-semitone system with interYals which are all impure. from &quot.) Thus.Fifth/ &quot. but unserviceabie/* The diplomatic &quot. &quot. Keyboard instruments. in a sphere where n& dissonances can possibly exist I have divided the octave into twfelve equi we had to manage some and have constructed our instruments in how. are &quot.&quot.The infinite! who still knows it nowadays?* theoretically as early as equal temperament of 12 degrees. &quot. indeed.&quot.24 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC the signs have assumed greater that which they ought to stand consequence than for. but aS are * r . but fairly serviceable. And so.! How strictly we divide nances&quot. music. Bui wtel Is &quot. important.&quot. yet none the less do we . through Andreas Werkmeister.

and founded thereon our entire art of music.Hie Science of Harmony. the most familiar may be played a semitone higher than they are written. the major key and the minor key.foreign&quot. under* the reign posUwns. twelve times the two Series of Seven.&quot. start this series of intervals When we How violently contracted initial. we are supposed but this is an illusion. Singers works transpose an aria to suit their convenience. What do I say leg: me series? Two such one for each The Major and Minor on some other degree of our semitonic ladder.confusion. In England. in all three editions the pieces are precisely alike. we will not repeat here. we obtain a new key. and a &quot.. we have at our command only two. Song writers not infrequently publish their own com positions in three different pitches. By means of the high &quot.in point of fact. seven in number. The res! are merely &&m$of the several transpositions to get different shades of harmony .THE CONTKACTHD SYSTEM O? MtFSIG 2$ And within this duodecimal octave we have marked out a series of fixed intervals. * It is termed &quot. but. at that! Scales. . without changing their effect. We teach four-and-twenty keys. series.* may it a system arose from this be read in the law-books.&quot. one. leaving untransposed what precedes and follows.concert pitch.

Nowadays it is no longer possible to compose&quot. it gazes down from the story or the third. for it already exists. and has the same &quot. Minor is employed with the same intention. and they have gradually acquired the significance of symbols: Major and Minor Maggiore e Minore Content ment and Discontent Joy and Sorrow Light and The harmonic symbols have fenced in the expression of music. a funeral march. until to-day and the day after to-morrow. and Shade. one limitation brings on the other. the whole art of music has been established. To each of these a definite character has been attributed. far as eye can reach. yet further on. difference between a symphony in niajof and one . effect upon us now. Upon the two Series of Seven. the major key and the minor key. feasible to elevate or depress a landscape. once for when a informed non-professional funeral march whichever you please is to be played. as two hundred years ago.26 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC When it matters not whether a well-known face looks out of a window. Even such an one can anticipate the Even the least knows what to expect all. we have learned and have taught that they should be heard as contrasts. by several hundred yards. the pictorial impression would neither gain nor lose first Were it by it. from Bach to Wagner.

and tonality. takm in its entirety. They both present the same face.foreign&quot.Unity &quot. keys vanish. are simply an elevenfold transposition of the original twain. 7 suppose you mean that key and key&amp. we arrive unconstrainedly at a perception of the UNITY of our system oj keys of &quot.four-and.MAJOR AND MINOR in 27 minor. For our whole system of tone. joyous. . and a mere of the brush suffices to turn the one Into the touch The passage from either to the other is easy and Imperceptible. its diffraction into No. that one should feel major and minor as opposites. that I can not mean. and and with them the entire &quot.twenty keys&quot. the two begin to shimmer and coalesce But when we recognize that ffldistinguishably. system* are the sunbeam and colors?&quot.related&quot. Minor tyrannized by by the bifurcated garment. major and minor form one Whole with a double meaning. now more serious. We intricate theory of degrees and relations.I of the key-system.&quot. But It is of most meagre [tonality]. possess one single key. when It occurs frequently and swiftly. We are Major and Strange. key. now more other.lt. The conceptions sort* &quot. and that the &quot.

&quot. his changes do not win general acceptance until Time. The Reformer. may be in the ways and nature of humankind. and. with subtle. in the empyrean of the &quot. is undiplomatic. And then they have to be forced sad lashed to take the leap across the passage assured leader. and opposition to the existing order. imperceptible advance. obstinately opposed though he be and change. Nature has her wiles. in equal measure are energy. However deeply rooted the attachment to the and inertia. in comparison with Nature. habitual. and. because these changes are appreciable.eternal harmony. characteristic of all that has life. Only on looking backward from a distance do they note with astonishment that they have been deceived. above all. is from that Sun. to progress The Reformer of any given period excites irrita tion for the reason that his changes find men unprepared. while the rest fell behind.&quot. tliey have missed. &quot. has bridged over the leap of the self- Yet we find cases in which the reformer marched abreast of the times. as a wholly logical consequence. and persuades man. Nature progresses con and changes unremittingly. I believe that the major-and- . but with so tinually even and unnoticeable movement that men per ceive only quiescence.28 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC only a part of a fraction of one diffracted ray Music.

all his following. for we are at liberty to transpose each one of these 113. when c is taken as By giving it the . and even by Richard longing. by raising and lowering the intervals? in establishing one hundred and ikirtem different scales. gifted instinct. and succeeded. speak Strong Impulse. I have made an attempt to exhaust the possi bilities of the arrangement of degrees within the seven-tone scale . But with these the mine is not exhausted. AND &quot. furthermore. besides the bkaiding of two such keys in harmony and melody.NATURE. There is a significant difference between the sound of the scale &db-cbj&-gb-ab-bb-c took. a series of new keys of peculiar character. 29 minor key with &quot.twelve-semitone its transpositional relations. and. from these Yet it does not appear to me that a conscious and orderly conception of this intensified means of expression had been formed by these composers. strains. These 113 scales (within the octave C C) comprise the greater part of our familiar twenty-four keys.THE SEJEFO&MEB. That some few have already felt how the intervak of the Series of Seven might be differently arranged (graduated) is manifested in isolated passages by Liszt. and recently by Debussy and Strauss. our system/ exhibits such a case of failing behind. and the scale of dv minor.

gt. and are perceptible at a glance.4 -minor. ? But now alternately triads.30 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC customary C-major triad as a fundamental har mony a novel harmonic sensation is obtained. c-d~e &-/fr~g b-a~ or these. forsooth: One cannot estimate at a glance what wealth of melodic and harmonic expression would thus be opened up to the hearing. and not for long. 2-major. With this presentation.gt.--#-&-. But how would a lawgiver classify the c-4 bb-c. the three-mirror tube of Taste. for aH signs presage a revolution. Emotion. and C-major feeling of delightful and you cannot avoid a surprise at the strangely unfamiliar euphony. listen to this same scale supported by the . Let us once again cal harmony of to-day. but a great many novel possibilities may be accepted as certain.eternal harmony*&quot. -/&amp. A kaleidoscopic blending and interchanging of twelve semitones within. and a next step toward that &quot. the unity of all keys may be considered as finally pronounced and justified. and Intention the essential feature of the harmony of to-day. to mind.-/-g c-db-e-f-gb-a-bb-c? b-a~i-. tone-series c~d b~e *&amp. that in this latter the gradation of tte ctaire is mjmifef and let us strive to diaw a little .

Were we to adopt them without further preparation. Who ever has experimented. Tlie tripartite tune (third f E tone) has for some time been demanding admit tance. schooling his ear will and his precision of attack. a semitone. Then.mbor third&quot. and introduced (either with voice or with violin) two equidistant inter mediate tones between the extremes of a whole tone. ami &quot. Thus UPC have really anrived at a system of whole tones divided into sixths of a time. we should have to give up the semi tones and lose our &quot. and we may be sure that even mill-tones will sometime . on the whole-tone based. tones.perfect 7 and this loss would be felt more keenly than fifth. with this interval.31 nearer to bufiiiitude. not have failed to discern that tripartite tones are wholly independent iiitervak with a pfionooiieed and not to be confounded with ill-tuned They form a refinement in chromatics as at present appears. by dmding this sewed series of whole tones into will third-teees. we obtain a second series of whole tones lying a semitone higher than the oriipaal series. and we have Ml the call unheeded. each third-toae in the lower series be matched by a semitone in the higher series. retaining. the relative gain of a system of eighteen one-third character. scale. like myself (In a modest way). semitones. But there is BO apparent reason for giving the semitones for the sake of tliis BTW system. foe each up By whole tone.

staff. the semitone (small) c. to draw six lines for the using the lines for the whole tones and the spaces for the semitones: thai indicating the third-tones by sharps and flats: etc. for the sake of distinction. the result is fully explained by the table below: 7T* Sb *J ii! a a$ ete. set up either with an interval of a semitone between the series.32 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC be adopted into musical speech. without giving semitones. first and Db. the usual semitonic series Omce repealed Merely the first at the interval of one-third of a tone. . let us call tone C. and the next third-tones C3. up the two To summarize: We may series of third-tones. But the tonal system above sketched must first of all train the hearing to thirds of a tone. or. A preliminary expedient for notation might be. and its following thirds c J and Jb.

can render this unfamiliar material approachable and plastic for the coining generation. and for ArL vista of fair hopes and dreamlike opened for them both! Who has not dreamt that he could float on air? and firmly And what a fancies is thus *&quot. how and on what these The tones are to be produced. Article in MeOirre s Magazine for July.THE TRIPARTITE TONE 33 question of Eolation seems to me sub ordinate. Only a long and careful series of experiments. aad a continued training of the ear.New Music IOF CaJiIPs Dynani0f&amp.gt. desired. I refer to an inven tion by Dr. Thaddeus CahilL* He has constructed a comprehensive apparatus which makes it possible to transform an electric current into a fixed and mathematically exact number of vibrations. the question is important and imperious.set&quot.lKmej an CM World. Thaddetis an extraordinary electrical invention for producing scientifically perfect music. . and the apparatus may be on any number &quot. Fortunately. whfle busied with this essay. As pitch depends on the number of vibrations. Dr. by Ray Standard Baker Readers interested in the details of this invention am referred to t&e above-mentioned magazine article. the infinite gradation of the octave may be accomplished by merely moving a lever corre sponding to the pointer of a quadrant.&quot. 1906. I received from America direct and authentic intelligence which solves the problem in a simple manner. On the other baud.

a Southlander (not by descent. how music may be restored to its primi tive.With regard to German music I consider pre his TN * book &quot. from the human and floats above and beyond the air within Man himself as univer sally and absolutely as in Creation entire. for it can gather together and disperse without losing in intensity. because.Beyond wn caution necessary in various ways. not the prerogative of melody alone) let it follow the line of the rainbow and vie with the clouds in breaking sunbeams. but by . (for invention and sentiment are . natural essence. let it be pure in tone-colors invention and sentiment ? in harmonies. the Good and the Bad&quot. well. let Music air be naught else than Nature mirrored by and breast. while spoiling his taste anew. in forms. such an one will learn to be more or less on his guard against German musk. it &quot. acoustic and esthetic dogmas. reflected for it is sounding . Assuming that a person loves the South (as I love it) as a great training-school for health of soul and sense in their highest potency. as an uncontrollable flood and glamour of sunshine spreading over a race of independent and self-reliant beings.Such undermines his health.34 *A NEW ESTHETIC OF dream to 1CUSIC believed his be reality? Let us take thought. let us free it from architec tonic. Out und Bbse) Nietzsche says: (Jenseits &quot.

I should consist in its complete divorce from the only that be its surface might a longing as of a sailor were. could imagine a music whose rarest charm &quot. it ruffled. sensuous sea and the splendor of Mediterranean skies. a single unmixed color. a super-German inioc. a super-European music.&quot. And mountains. nor cm the Tolstoi transmutes sides. while in his ears there rings the prelude to a deeper. lonely beasts of prey. . irregularity. worM become wellnigh incomprehensible. Good and the Bad. likewise dream of a redemption of music from the North. nor in the a single straight line. in &quot. that asserts itself even amid the tawny sunsets of the desert. as . everywhere movement.Neither on the lake. and which should be hospitable and profound enough to harbor such belated fugitives. beautiful. by for home. into a landscape-impression a musical impression when he writes. perchance a more evil and more mysterious music.HIETZSCHE A3TO GERMAN MtJSIC 35 belief) must. caprice. wither and die awmy in view of the blue. by variable golden shadows and tenter an Art which should see fleeing toward frailties: from afar off the hues of a perishing mental It.Lucerne&quot. as all German music does. and can consort and prowl with great. a single point of repose.: &quot. vari ety y an incessant interplay of shades and lines. which does not fade. should he dream of the future of music. wBose soul is alfied with the palm-tree. mightier.

gifted from the beginning. and inevitableness of Beauty. . laissant de cote les eontinjust written me : gences et les petitesses de la vie pour regarder constammeut vers un ideal qu on ne pourra jamais atteindre.beyond the Good and one the out. press the felicities of Paradise. renounces what one should renounce.&quot. Vincent d lndy has . To the bars that from Eternity or that open to admit that which was temporal.) Nirvana be the realm &quot. experiences all that one should experience. realizes what one (KERN. way leading thither is here pointed A way Man divide to the very portal. learns everything that one ought to learn.f It may be. but he who. &quot. mais dont i! est pennis de se rapprocher. my thoughts. Not the strains of musical art. develops what one should should realize Geschickte des If develop. &quot.&quot.36 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC softness. shall the bars open. that Liszt co&fiaed Ms Dante Symphony to the two movements* Inferno and Pwrg&t&rw. . somewhere. .&quot. he shall reach Nirvana. But only to the pilgrim who has succeeded on the way in freeing himself from earthly shackles. M. because our tone-speech is inadequate to ex i I think I &quot. Bad.* Buddhismus in Indien. that we must leave Earth to find that music. and in It all the reposefulness. Beyond that portal &quot. sounds music.Not harmony Will this music ever be attained? all reach Nirvana.&quot. have read. * As if anticipating &quot.&quot.

* like honesty is a mom! point of f whose possession no honor. For in life. art feeling is held to be the highest moral quali fication. people insist upon having it plainly before their eyes! It must be underscored. Now. one encounters real taste as seldom as deep style. too. thrown on the screen. to make the destitute stare in amaze. and listen. And. look. in life. feeling. a want erf feeing may be brilliant forgiven to the ^possessor of a such as bravery or impartial justice. to summon them that dwell mnote from art. paraded so that everybody shall stop. are oftenest employed. greatly magnified. rarer. mom taste In music. by mien and words.ADDENDA T7EELING *&quot. importunate vastness. as for a province of What remains. however. all. the expr$$$im$ of fedGng. and mone geauine. it is cried cm the streets. in attribute. permit denial. is a species of pseudo-emotion which must be character ized as lachrymose hysteria or tuipdity. which claims a place in life But while. above The audience sees it. is that feeling which acts . feeling requires two consorts. it is and true art. and style. it is gilded. an attribute one will and art alike. so that it dances before the vision in vague. in life.

which holds the mirror up to Life. unhappily!). therefore. because they all are unable to hear the longer reaches as parts of a yet more extended whole. Style. the mistaken by the public (and the too. as Economy. magna nimity. It is not otherwise in Art. is feeling in for a short stretch. critics semi-artist. patience. enfold! Restraint and forbearance. Hence. for a want of emotion. I distinguish feeling as Taste. artist attempt to express. But how much more does the marvelous flower &quot. a subjective . and that all-controlling intelli gence wherein feeling actually takes its rise. activity. the amateur and the mediocre little. power. as I have said. in detail. Each a whole in itself. Inteffitrinity: and the instinct of Equipoise. pathos. the feeling which to &quot. is likewise economy. which repeats the emotions of Life though for this. rules Within and over them Temperament. What which distinguishes Art from Life.38 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC is without talk.Emotion&quot. Feeling. Feeling on a grand the scale is amateur. and each one-third of the Whole. is generally understood mean tenderness. joyousness. These six carry on a dance of such subtffity in the choice of partners and intertwining of figures^ gence. and extravagance. taste and style must be added. renunciation. and most precious hides itself. of expression. as Style.Feeling&quot. and still more outspokenly in Music.

especially developed. in advancing and curtesying. the upstriving mountain- . must associate with Feeling. the light-impressions. as a negative. but not inexhaustible. to soar to a sudden new intensification. Wagaer. like lens. Modem French writers exhibit a revulsion. every tranquil beginning followed a swift upward surge. the form of intensification of passion is stOl On unsurmounted by contemporary composers. after reaching a climax. in motion and repose. and the a bearer perceives the true picture. or perhaps rather a restrained sensualism. that no loftier When tune. arises Individuality. height of artistry is conceivable. voluptuous sensuality came to the fore. their feeling is a reflexive chastity. one aspect or another of feeling will be favored at one time or another. onesidedly cultivated. according to its nature. The individuality catches. and out of this combination of all the elements by the Six. Thus. in this point insatiable.39 in the bearing and the being borne. the chords of the two triads are in perfect Fantasy may nay. the alters its forms of expression like all else with the period. of starting afresh softly. with and after Wagner. latter In so far as taste participates in feeling. That is. supported she will not degen erate. turned from sheer necessity to the expedient. reflects them.

Whoever. have devised the notion of &quot. a depth of feeling. in music. by contrast. . and the attempt is made to attain it through weight. mysterious notion. in music. is psychical. and (as I have had opportunity to observe) by the insinuation of a second. when by taste. still current at face-value.depth&quot. Apostles of the Ninth Symphony&quot. forms itself out of feeling. usually of a literary sort. Depth becomes breadth. the latter application to tones. by monotonous Thus led &quot. slinks about morosely or feeling. they are the most important ones. The Apostles of the Ninth Symphony have a peculiar and not quite clearly defined estimate of &quot. depth of feeling would seem to imply exhaustiveness in To a complete absorption in the given mood.style&quot. and thoroughly germane to the nature of music. There is thought. surrounded by the full tide of a genuine carnival crowd. it then discovers itself (through an association of ideas) by a preference for a deep register. every disciple of philosophy.40 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC paths of Wagner are succeeded plains of twilight uniformity. however. especially in Germanic lands.depth&quot. If these are not the sole specific signs. It is The &quot. and can have no Depth of feeling. and a depth of is literary.

than in Dem many a march or nocturne: Depth of feeling also shows in not wasting it on subordinate or unim portant matters. sine qua n&n. required. there must be an astounding number of analogous cases.gt. in more &quot.officialdom&quot.Champagae Giovanni there funeral lies specializes that. is another proof of the narrow confines of our musical art. That routine in music should exist at all. I like to imagine a species of art-praxis wherein each case should be a new one.EOUTWE 41 even indifferently^ neither affected nor carried away by the tremendous self-satire of mask and motley. T&amp. it is a as a condition in the musician s bond. Aria&quot. Routine signifies the acquisition of a mcdicum of experience and artcraft. furthermore. by the might of misrule over kw ? by the vengeful shows himself incapable of sounding the depths of feeling. however frivolous. roots in rent conception of deep feeling singles out only one aspect of feeling in man. and In the so-called &quot. an exception! How helptess and impotent would the army of practical . and blossoms in the interpretation of that mood. and their application to all cases which may occur. Now. and. that it can be nominated ^^ OUTINE is in highly musical esteemed and frequently &quot.depth&quot. hence. This gives feeling of wit running riot ? that depth of a complete absorption in the given mood. whereas the cur feeling further confirmation of the fact.

Wagner once wrote Liszt. and ye shall grasp a blossom. in longs to exclaim. that you will scarcely leave your armchairs. a sunbeam. is my misfortune. and the same over and over again. For creation means. in virtuosi.42 A NEW ESTHETIC OF MUSIC it! end they would Routine surely beat a retreat. to possess no routine. transforms the temple of art into a factory.It . and will lay hold only of what is nearest to hand. And myriad walls are strains are there since the beginning. the spirit of ease so infects you. the myriad strains that once shall sound have existed since the beginning. whereas routine It is &quot. was making no progress. but rather think and feel! For. when the composition dE &quot. and together with them other myriads that shall never be heard. and disappear. behold. Only stretch forth your hands. still waiting for manifestation ! &quot. One Know nothing.&quot. avoid routine.Tristan&quot. ready.&quot. musicians stand before in the order. Thus deceived himself. and wore a mask fee Wagper &quot. &quot. for it strives to grasp only that wherewith your four filled. as had none been before! instruction. in the orchestra. It destroys creativeness. afloat in the aether. It rules because it suits the generality: In the theatre. the bringing form out of the void. a breath of the sea-breeze.poetry made to flourishes on imitation.Avoid routine! Let each beginning be.

with an air of modesty. but finds rich consolation in the consciousness that his genius is above the cheap expedients of routine. but equally proves and that is our point the petti sentence is The ness of routine in creative work.gt. and his com was thrown out of gear. decided. this sentence in meanly of. inasmuch as he waives all claim to a qualification which he things all. he would have declared the fact without bitterness. ESPECT are the Pianoforte! Its disadvantages evident. He is. This self-praise he utters with a mien of ironic desperation.SESP&CT THE PIAHOFORTE others. but had he really never possessed it. unyielding adjustment of the inalterable semitonic scale. Wagner found succeeded in throwing off routine. T&amp. and unquestionable: The lack of sustained tone. I 43 much routine. the dew when he Wagner s letter expresses the true artist-contempt for routine. in very truth. -&quot. and the pitiless. at the same time. just posing-machinery when a tangle formed in the mesh which only too He had True. he sorrowfully confesses that he has not acquired a training belonging to the craft a masterpiece of the native ginning of the instinct of self-preservation. after Inspiration could unloose. unhappy that composition is at a standstill. . and takes care that others may not invest him with it. And.

divined the progress we owe the mysteries of the pedal. It gives a single man command potentialities complete. because have remained even to this day the drudges they of a narrow-souled and senseless harmonic theory. a photo graph of the sky.44 A NEW ESTHETIC But its MUSIC advantages and prerogatives approach the marvelous. in its over something from softest to loudest in one and the same register it excels all other instruments. but not sigh. Let us experi ment with sensible irregularities. air or water into geometric forms. the pianoforte can do both. and to who Hm first liberties. And the pianoforte has one possession wholly peculiar to itself. The pedal is in ill-repute. Respect the Piano Let doubters consider how the pianoforte was esteemed by Bach. them is like trying to mould hoven. absurd must bear the blame. Beet incontestably achieved the greatest on and for the pianoforte. Irregularities . Its range embraces the highest and deepest forte! practicable tones. contrariwise the flute. Beethoven. The trumpet can blare. an inimitable device. Mozart. who dedicated their choicest thoughts to it. the treatment accorded The effects of the pedal are unexhausted. a ray of moonlight the Pedal. For this. Liszt.

that the book I shall write wffl be neither in English nor in Latin. and this for . that the language in . the one reason namely. . . (Von HoflErnannsthal: A letter. and in which.I/ENVOI 45 T FELT * .&quot. but be Latin.) . or or Spanish. of whose words I know. but a language not even (me Italian. which it may be given me not only to write. a language in which dumb also to think. have to respond in it may be. or English. I my grave to an Unknown Judge. will not shall at last things speak to me. .







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