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Image: Internet

Image: Internet

Image: http://kareninitiative.com/

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omavGS ta&SEJik ;f e0fSzH.k vJ/h rOf.wGKd .'sm. vkSd tcGiSf ta&SzJSh e0fS pJi;f pJi;f eJi;f eJi;f
&Jkif;&Jkif;xifxif utD.cGKrfrmSaqmif.&Guf avGSe0fS ayg.xD.Am.w0f;tausmifS
cHAm.0ifSa0G.zef. EJkif;e0fSoGL?

ydKG if;0GKd @wrG .f ucGKrfp.H acGgi;f &GavGS'g. ref;crf;ukd qJi.f &mSta&SudpzP .kH
e0fSvJh AGefyDEJkif;e0fStwGdKifSaeae/ ,G,Hk pkHpD. oGD.cGSvGOfSig. plxGL.cgif.xGL.
yGdK@SyeJOf.vGOfSig.tausmifS 'Drkdca&oD&JkifSwoGdK;a&Som;zHk. a0G.zef.avGS
EJkif;e0fSoGL?

befcrD eG ;f uxl.wm.0Ge.f 'g.ukvor*~tOG t
f ukad &S yxroufwefS
twGifSum.v ref;crf;ukd uarmhSusHK.Am.'g. ta&Swef txGmtuJkif
tajymif S tvJ k i f . zH k . e0f S 2007 Am.uk d &[ef S oH C m.pG d K SzH k . utG O f i g'g.
vGdKqefa&S/ 2008 Am.ukd em*pfcrf;wvDSoefSwGL.zm.xGKrf;AOf.uJkifawGmhS
uoDrm;vGOfS u'kuQvGOfS'g. crf;om;tavmif; vdkSykdScsifScsifS oSpm.
em.erf;uifSwJif ref;pJhStpkd.& uxGm;vGdK'g. crf;om;udpP/ 2008 Am.ukd
em*pf c rf ; wvD S wef w G L .zm.xG L nteD S wef S 'sm. ref ; pJ h S tpk d . &t"rR
utGOrf mSEGKd if.'g. crf;om;qENvKdG ufwrG yf ,
G Sf wGr.f aeif. 2010 Am. ref;pJSh tpk.d &
usdKufSoSurmSavGS'g. vGdKufwGrfyG,fS up'g.txGmtuJkif,kdzHk. e0fSoGL?
&Grf&Jrf xl.uGdKSavGS = {&m0wDowifS/ AGDtkdatowifS/ tmtJyfzfat owifS/ The Nation
xJkif.crf; td*Fvdyfbm.om. vdwfowifSapmif./ Kachin News Group owifS/ Freedom
House pdGKS uxGwfaxavGS'g. WORST OF THE WORST 2011: The world most repressive
societies vdwfapmif.vtifwmeufvdwfrJhig/ tar.&duef.crf; CBS News owifSXm./
rZÆdrowifS



aig0f;a0g[m&


Authority – (atmwfawm&DxD) (emrf.) = (u)trdef;tm.%m.?
az.trdef;cGifS xdefScsKyfcGifS AufSaxGmh (qHkSzswf) cGifS up'g. tcGifStm.%m.?
tcGifSta&SwGrf. tm.%m. uaz.aEGmifS'g. trdef;? (c) tkyfcsKyfa&Som;?
yk*~dKvf.uaz.aEGmifS'g. trdef;om;? tpkd.&udk yk*~dKvf.uaz.aEGmif.'g.trdef.
wGr.f yk*Kd~ vf.uaqmif.&Gucf KG rfrmSavGS'g. tpk.d &xmSrmSwzlSpJO.f zH.k ? tpk.d &Xm.
ewAm.Am. uaqmif.&GufcGKrfrmSavGS'g. tpkd.&xmSrmSwzlSpJOf.zHk.?
Constitution - (cGefowDpsL;oOf;) (emrf.) xGdK@SAl.yHGK.tac.cH.Oya'.
cif.rGOf? xmSwpGdK;wrsdKS tac.cH.tyGdKiftcif/ tGwfS&GD;/ t_cHK? crf;wcrf;
tpkd.&wAm. tpGdKSwpGdKS vdkStzl.tAl.wAm. xGdK@SAl.yGHK. pkAl.yGHK.? crf;wcrf;
tpkd.&wAm. tpGdKSwpGdKS vkdStzl.tAl.wAm.oD; cGKrfwOf.usifSoGHKSvGOfSwm.
w&mS0if. uwJrf;xef.'g. pepf rl 0g.' wGrf. Oya'.zHk.? Ekdif.iH. crf;xDw_zHK.
touf&GD;oGD._zGDSwGrf. uHusrRm.ta[m0ftuJkifum;ut0f.,kd atm0f.zGdK@
aemifavGS crf;xDxGdK@SAl.yGHK.tac.cH. Oya'.cif.rGOftavmif; e0fSoGL?
Citizen – (oDxDoOf) (emrf.) crf;om; xDom;? crf;om;vkdSxrfSomS?
crf;wcrf;tudk uatm0f.tH'k g. crf;om;xDom;zH.k ? yk*Kd~ vf.wjzmSjzmS wpGKd SpGKd S
obm0tvSuvGL;zGmSvifS'g. Ekdif.iH.crf;xDwAm.Am.tukd/ rOf.arG;w0f;vJh
t0f . 'sm.Ek d i f . iH . crf ; xD t vif wAm.Am.awG m h ajymif S vG O f t H k a omh S Ek d i f .
iH.crf;xDwAm.ukdxGLwJif ucH.xl.avGS'g. Ekdif.iH. crf;xDe0fSwAm.crf;om;
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

(EkdifiHom;)? yk*~dKvf.wjzmSjzmSvGL;zGmSvifSvGOf crf;xDwAm.tukdw&kdSw0f;
t0f.'sm.crf;xD tvifwAm. w&mS0if. ajymifSvGOftHkaomhSw&kdSw0f;
cH.EGrfSaxGaxmifavGmufSem.vGOfS crf;xDe0fSAm.Oya'. wGrf. az.xHSvGOfSAm.
crf;xDe0fSAm. tcGOf.awmf.zHk.wJif crf;xDe0fSwAm. uaz.'g. tum.tuG,f.
vHk.csHK.a&S vkdSrkSa&StpGJ turf; up'g. crf;om; tcGifSta&SzHk. taAGwAm.
cH.pmScGifSt0f.Am.?
Election – (tDvJufoOf;) (emrf.) vGdKufwGrfyG,fS? vGdKufa&GSyG,fS?
vGKd ufx.l cGiSf ? az.ae;wGr.f oSqENrw
J iJ f vGKd ufx.l avGS yk*Kd~ vf.tkycf sKyfa&Som;?
crf ; xD u cG K rf w Of . usif S oH k S avG S 'g. 'D r d k c a&oD p epf uOf ; tmtme0f S
rmSavGSoGLvGKd ufwrG yf ,
G Sf vpfSaeif.wvJi.f awGmSh az.wGr.f a0GSoD;oSqENrw
J iJ f
crf;om;zHk. vGdKufxl. 'gif.womavGS,if; a0GSoD;erf;wJOfS tkyfcsKyfcrf;xDom;
tweftu,f.zHk.oGL?
Federal – (zJp'f &,f) (emrf.) crf;aygiSf pk? zJp'f &,fcrf;aygiSf pkpepf? crf;xDw_zKH .
tudk ujcGOf.Al.tHknDS'g. crf;e,f.zHk.um;ut0f. a0GSoD;rmSyJif.cGifStm.%m.
zHk.,[ef.e0fS oSaz:Swl.az.tyfavGS A[kdvf.tpdk.&xsSawGmhS A[kdvf.tpkd.&
pD.&if.tkyfcsKyfavGSxGLawGmhS ut0f.uJkif'g. rmSyJif.cGifStm.%m.,[ef.zHk.
e0fS crf.e,f.zHk. erf;wGrf.erf; pD.&if.tkyfcsKyfavGScsmwJif rmSyJif.cGifStm.%m.
zHk. awGmif;awGmif;woGKefoGKef uusifSoHkSavGS'g. crf;aygifSpkpepf?
Self-determination – (oJyzf 'f x
D mrDae;oOf;) (emrf.) erf;yJi.f vGKd ufx.l
AufSaxGmhcGifS? -oZm.tm.%m.tvifzHk. 'dk@Sw_cdK@rkStJOfx0f; erf;wGrf.
erf;usdKufoS AufSaxGmhcGifS erf;wGrf.erf;usdKufoS pD.&if.cGifS erf;wGrf.
erf;usdKufoS vGdKufxl. cGifS erf;wGrf.erf;usdKufoS qifxl.zefqifScGifS?
eDvkdSrsdKSb0uH.usrRm.,dk eDurOfxGm urOfvS'g.twGdKifS eDerf;wGrf.eDerf;
usdKufoS vGdKufxl.xGLwJif erf;wGrf.erf; AufSaxGmh erf;wGrf.erf; qifxl.
zefqifScGifSut0f.'g. rmSyJif.cGifSzHk.? eDurOfvS eDurOfxD.'g. tpkd.&pepf,kd
eDwGrf.eD usdKufoSvGKduf qifxl. zefqifS cGifS? (awmifSaoS) = ‘AufSaxGmh’
u&kdS'g.aig0f;,kd xGmytkd0f.aig0f;pJpfoGL? qHkSzswf u&kdS'g.aig0f;,dk xl.v,kd@S
ref;aig0f;/ t0f;ref;aig0f; ‘qHk;jzwf’ e0fSvGOfoGL? xJif;wrsdKS ‘ukd,fjyXmef;cGifh’
u&kdSe0fS xGmref;aig0f;pJpfpJpf? eDytkd0f. rOf.xl.oHkSavGS ukd,f.yJif.ysSXmef.
cGifS EJkif;e0fSvJh ,SwGrf axmifvGOfS pGOf.'sm. ref;aig0f;qScsmwJif em.vJh
wwavhw0f;&ifSoGL? e0fSr “erf;yJif.vGdKufxl.AufSaxGmhcGifS” u&kdSe0fS
xGmytkd0f.aig0f; t"dy `m,f.vJhpGKrf. em.vJh [rf;aygif;wavhoGL?
Sovereignty – (aomA&ifxD) (emrf.) erf;yJif.tkyfcsKyfcGifStm.%m.?
Ekdif.iH.crf;xDwAm.Am.tukd ut0f.'g. tkyfcsKyfa&S axxef.Oya'.ta&S
pD.&if.tGOf.axGmhw&mSta&S up'g.ta&SoGHAm.,kd crf;xDe0fSwAm.tukd
ut0f.'g. tpkd.&zHk. vGpfvGpf wjcifjcif ucGKrfrmSaqmif.&GufaEGmifS'g.
tm.%m.? crf;wcrf; uvGpfuifS'g. crf;tvifwAm.Am. -oZm. tm.%m.
qSv? twef x k d o G K wf S Ek d i f . iH . a&Stm.%m.wG r f . vG p f v G p f w jcif j cif
tkyfcsKyfa&Stm.%m.?
Vote – (Ad k w f x f ) (u&d , m.) az.oSqEN r J / az:.xef . e,f o SqEN
xmSxD . / vG d K uf a &G S vk d w ef ? az.ae;wG r f . eD o SqEN r J w J i f vd G K uf x l .
avG S crf ; xD t wef t u,f . ? (emrf . ) oSqEN r J ? rOf . vG d K uf x l .
avGScrf;xDtweftu,f.w&kdSw0f; tpGdKSwpGdKStweftu,f.w&kdSw0f;
a0ifSe,f. tGKd if. 'Hk up'g. tweftu,f.w&kSd w0f. eDwrG .f eDusKd ufSoStwGKd ifS
eDuaz.'g.rJzHk.?


vdwfrJhig = 5

,uQCG%f (ol&d,crf;)
aeif . 1991 Am. e0f S “yD t J e f t d k ” wG r f . “e0w” (Ed k i f i H a wmf _id r f a0ifSawmif.uD wGrf.a0ifS[dkyHkStcg.udk ut0f.'g. 'HkrJkif;awmif/ 'HkyHkSpif/
0yfyjd ym;wnfaqmufa&;tzJ@G ) pJSh tpd.k &oD; tGO.f qdKG ;avGS twdKG ufStcSa&SzH.k 'Hak emifumu,f/ 'Hak tmif.rGL;/ 'Hak zmif.awmf.qdKG uf/ 'Hv
k iJ ;f aiguf w&yfwpyfz.kH /
e0fSoGL? w,f.pGOf.tcdef.e0fSwJif ytdk0f.&yf&m.uOf.tmtme0fS [GKefAm. a0ifSat;om,mxsS 'Hkyef;wukef; w&yfwpyfzHk. (,dkcgxGm {'ifukr`%D.
w0f;'GKrf wewfaig0f;/ vGif;Am.w0f;'GKrf ref;w_cdKSxrf./ 'Hkom;&yfom;zHk.vJh yJ i f . at;om,m aumuf u G i f S )/ bef ; ,Of qSuG O f ; zJ h S w&yf w pyf z H k . /
vGKyfSrmSAm.[0fvGOf vJkif;odGK@S_cH xmSrmSzHk./ a'.oudk vdkSay.zHk.vJh oGOfAm. a0ifSatmifAef;xsS ut0f.'g. armufref;_cHwGrf. plum_cHw&yfwpyfzHk./
[0fvGOfynm.a&S/ &yf&m.vdGKif.uGKefSa&SxmSrmSvJh wdGK.ajcmifSrkStae; a0if S [d k y H k S qSwd G K @S 'H k v G , f t G K ef ; qSuG O f . zJ h S zd k ; yem;tqm.w-uuf S
tD.azm.xef.aEGmifSoGLterf;t_cHKtausmifS ytd0k .f &yfom;zH.k t0f.,l.cH. t0f. [H.{uaygifS (500)/ a0ifSyifavmifSqSe0fzJhSw&yfwpyfzHk./ a0ifSe,f.jz,f
aAif.rif;vGcef; EJik ;f e0fSzH.k oGL? uG,.f awGmSh ytd0k .f &yfom;uaAif.rif. uxif;'g. aemifw&m;qSxifS 'HkwcsxsS ucl.xef.'g. vHk;oGm.atmif w&yfwpyfzHk./
twdGKifSe0fS wxGmvGOfw0f;/ xmSxif;zHk.uOf.tmtme0fS xef.wAef.vdk@'sm. a0ifSvG,fvJrf a0ifSyif.vHkxsS ut0f.'g. odGK@S_cH[H.,m.,[ef.zHk. up'g.
xmSzHk. e0fSoGL?
vGL;erf;urf;oufwm. eDytk0d .f crf;om;xDom;oD; acwftpJO.f pJO.f tqufquf

aeif. 1992 Am.wGifS “e0w” pJhStpdk.&oD;zHk. tGOf.e,fwGrf. ut0f.vGKyfSrmSaomhS'g. odGK@S_cHvJkif;[H.,m.zHk.,dk pJhSref;tpkd.&oD;zHk. ae;wGrf.
“vdGKif.uGKefSom.,m.a&S xmSrmSwzlSpJOf.” awGmhS t"rRxl.odrfSajcifxkdSpGOf. plcGKrfStm.%m.awGmhS t"rRxl.odrfS pGeftH.xdkSvdk@'sm. e0fSoGL?
'Hkom.&yfom. odGK@S_cH[H.,m.zHk. wGrf. zdk;yem.wm. tqm.w-uufSzHk.
pJhSuxl.odrfSajcif upGeftH.xdkS'g. qdk@S&Jkifa&S odGK@S_cHvJkif;[H.,m.
ut0f . 'g. a0if S [d k y H k S qSuG O f .
zH k . EJ k i f ; ,d k e 0f S / ,[ef . e0f S
xif S zJ h S {uaygif S (10000)
pmawmaz.,if ; uk r ` % D . zH k .
waomif S vd G K e0f S oG L ? uxl .
vJ h t 0f . / ,[ef . e0f S cwf S tH .
odrfS'g. qdk@S&Jkifa&S odGK@S_cH[H.,m.
csmaz.,if; &yfom;'Hkom;vhJt0f./
zHk.e0fS ref;pJhSwyf wdkif;A[dktrêwf
,[ef.e0fS pJhSay.ydkrmSzHk. qdGK@S&Jkif
(3) rmSaomhSawm'sm.
vGKyfSrmSaomhScsmvJht0f.
“ppf a vh u sif h a &;uG i f ; ” wG r f .
e0f S oG L ? pJ h S ref ; tpk d . & uxl .
“ppf A sL[muG i f ; ” e0f S oG L ?
od r f S ajcif x k d S xG L vJ O f ; 'g. od G K @S_cH
uG y f p G O f . 'sm. &yf o m;'H k o m;zH k .
vJ k i f ; [H . ,m.zH k . ,d k t avmif ;
oGKrfSuJkifxdkSAm. ttH.ttGSwGrf.
&yf o m;'H k o m; zd k ; yemzH k r Of . EG d K @
vGKrf;erf;urf;oufwm. qdKG @S&Jik af &S
aomh S vG O f e 0f S vJ h pJ h S om;zH k .
odGK@S_cH [H.,m.zHk.e0fSrS &yf&m.
qG r f S pG d K if c gSxG L awG m h S qJ i f . &mS
ukde0fS cGJusKH.Am.pGOf. ttH.ttGS
zdk;yem.aAG.zHk. wGrf.&GOfwJif vGOfEkuf
tuG O f t uS b0tH k t 0f ; a&S
csmAm.,if ; a0SoD ; zd k ; yem.zH k .
xmS'kuQ aomuar._yHK.zH.k e0fSoGL?
e0fSoGL? uOf;tmtme0fS a0ifS[dyk SkH

e0fSvGKrfSrum.
qSuGOf.xifSzJhS ut0f.'g.'Hkom;
a0if S [d k y H k S ausmif S [d k c d k w G r f .
zH k . e0f S usLH . Am.cd G K Sig.e0f S oG L ?
ausmifSarG.awm.qSe0f ut0f.'g.
zd k ; yem;wAm.,d k e 0f S wG r f . &G O f
aeif. 1992 Am. vmazazmf0g&DwGif tpdk;&ref;pJhS wdkif;A[dk. trJkif(3) t"rRuxl.odrfSajcifxdkS'g.
'Hkom;odGK@S_cH[H.,m. a0ifS[dkyHkSwuGOf.xifS {uaygifS (25412) [H.yHGK.
aoif.vm._cHzHk.e0fSvJh pJhS ref ; zH k .
5000 ASavGS 8000 AD.&yfwJif
xl.odrfSajcifvdk@xGLawGmhS azm.
avGSEkucf smAm.,if; tdKG ;pJSh ref;wyf
xef.awm'sm. [H.uGufSvrf;cifwm. 0efxrf;ukef;&yfuGuf (1) wGrf. (2) wdkif;A[dktrwf (3) a0ifS[dkyHkS tarmhuGOf.xifSzJhS e0fSoGL?
awGmhS pJhStpdk.&oD; pmtH.xkdSawm'sm. ytkd0f.&yfom;_cH[H.,m.zHk.e0fSoGL?
e0f S vG K rf S rum. pJ h S ref ; zH k . t"rR u vG O f x l . od r f S ajcif x d k S 'g.
ref;pJhSuxl.odrfSajcifSxkdS'g. &yfom;'Hkom; odGK@S_cHvJkif;[H.,m.EJkif;,dke0fS od G K @S_cH v J k i f ; [H . ,m.zH k . ,d k t avmif ; e0f S orf ; vG O f w,f . qd k @ SvG O f S ygpG O f .
ynm.'g.yk*~dKvf.oD;wGrf. ytkd0f.vkdSwefzHk. tHkxdGKif.az. &Jurf;um.uG,f.az. a0G S oD ; pJ h S wyf p cef S zH k . wJ i f pJ h S wyf p cef S uk d w m.0G e f . uxJ h ' g. pJ h S om;zH k .
ytkd0f.&yfom;'Hkom; tcGifSta&Som; tJOfx0f;e0fSrS/ ref;pJhSoD; aoxGSxdkS vJh orf;[JhSvGOfygpGOf. a0GSoD;ydkrmzHk.awGmhS v,f.xGKrf.tH.xGKrf.tGSpGOf.
ytd0k .f &yf&m. 'Ho
k m;tm.yeJO.f csuf e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif qJik Sf e0fS pJSh ref;wyf cv& a0GSoD;wyfpcefStaomiftxsSzHk. e0fSoGL? &yf&m.'Hkaqmif. ut0f.aAmhS'g.
(423) wGr.f cv& (424) xl.odrSf ajcifxSdk pGO.f 'sm. ytk0d .f &yfom;oD; qdKG @S&Jik af &S pJhSref;wyfpcefSzHk.e0fS 'Hkom;zHk. rOf.avGSvGKyfSavGSrmS'g.xmS odGK@S_cHukdtcdef.
odKG @S_cH[.H ,m. {uaygiSf (5000) vdKG ut0f.'g. a0ifSoD.oJi.f qSwGKd @S/ qSwGKd @S vJh tGOf.uJkifjym. vrf;yg. yDEJkif;uvJOf;cdk.csmum.vzHk. AGef.vG'GKrf e0fSoGL?
xifS/ qSxifSwGrf. qSuGOf.xifSzHk. e0fSoGL?
uGyfydGK;wrJkifSeJwJif pJhSref;cdGKSwGrf. a0GSoD; ykdrmpGdKSzHk.e0fS xGKrf.wcGefS'g.xmSzHk.

ut0f.axavGSaz.'g. tH.tGSa&Swm. qdKG @S&Jik af &S odKG @S_cv
H ikJ ;f [H.,m. awGmhS &yfom;zHk. tGOf.uJkifjym.aoStvrf;zHk. oSaqGmhSvG'GKrfe0fSoGL? odGK@S_cH
zH k . ut0f . 'g. a0if S awmif ; uD S qSe0f em;aAmif q SuG O f . w&yf w pyf z H k . / ut0f.aAmhS'g. pJSh ref;wyfpcefSzH.k e0fSvJh _cHuu
kd xef.vGO'f g. t'D. t&m. tvm.
a0if S awmif ; uD S qSuD x if S 'H k z &mSAG m / 'H k v J k i f ; avmif ; w&yf w pyf z H k . / taum0f.rsKdSpGKrf.zHk.,dk vScGOf.'GKrfawGmhS rdGKif;'sm. pJhSref;wyfpcefSukdut0f.'g.
twG,fS (1) trJkifS (3)

vdwfrJhig = 6
pJSh ay.wGr.f a0GSoD;ykrd mpGKd SzH.k vGO'f x
hJ .l wcGeSf vd@k 'sm.e0fSoGL? t[Jik ;f oGwSf e0fS oGKd @S
vJik ;f _cHw;kH uko
d Sl uGyif rf;w&sK;d vG pJSh ref;zH.k apmumS,m;uJik rf Sk wJif vJik ;f vGKyfS_cH
rmSom; ytkd0f.vdkSrl.vdkSay.zHk. rOf.avGSvGKyfSavGSrmSoGdK@S_cHukdvJh avGSwjzmS
eDjzmSAGKef;vG'GKrfzHk. e0fSoGL?

a'.o&yfukd vdSk jzmSaygiSf vGKd if.tmvGOw
f eDSwpdSwJif qdKG @S&Jik af &Swm.
[H . ,m.e0f S t0f . aqh S ajcmvG O f weD S wpd S xG L rum. pJ h S ref ; orf ; xl .
odrfSajciforf;xJif; a'.ocH.'Hkom;zHk. odGK@S_cH[H.,m.EJkif;,kdwJif 'Hkom;zHk.
e0fS tHkt0f.tH.tGSa&Swm.,dk cJGusLH. armhSwvl.vGOfpGOf. ys\em.wefzHk.
e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif vdkS,[ef.e0fS xGKrf.,if; cif.vrf;womwAm.awGmhS
cGuJkif,if;aoif.0g.wjcm w,f.axmif.awmawm,if; odGK@S_cHwomzHk.
e0fSoGL? aoif.wjcmxdGKif.uJkiftmwJif &m.oD.OwkvJh rJOf.w0f;'GKrf/ tHkt0f.
uarBmZukr`%D. t"rRuxl.odrfxdkS'g. odGK@S_cH[H.,m. {uaygifS (4000)
a-umif;pifa&SwGrf. tH.tGSa&Swm. xDzHk.vJh aohSoJifvGOfwJif qdGK@S&Jkifa&Swm.
'Hkazmif.awmf.qdGKuf wwdGK@aem0f a0ifSeJ.awmif.uDSudk
wGrf. _cdGKif.oefSa&StwGuf cJG;usLH.wvl.Am.,if; ys\em.zHk. e0fSoGL?
wewf a ig0f ; a,ef ,rf S vl ; aom0f w J i f / w_cG d K uf c sif . ,mvrf r G L ;ay.zH k .

&m.oD;OwkxGdKif.wrJOf.w0f;cg vGKyfrmSxmSvJh vScGOf.w0f;'GKrfwJif vJh ySzGmSxef.xGLawGmhS ,mrGL; ,maxmifS wGrf. ,mpD.t&om./ ygpGOf.
erf;wm._cdGKif.oefa&SwGuf &GOfawmif.wm. &GrfaEGmifSvG'GKrfawGmhS rOf. rm.,m.a&mif.pGKrf. ,maum0f.rsdKSzHk. wif.avvGOfpGOf. aumifa&GSavmif;
aqmhSqmxmSvJh csif;0D,Am.'sm;erf;zHk. e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif &yfom;,[ef. ytdk0f.&yf&m.ukd e0fSoGL? w,f.pGOf.tcdef;e0fSwJif tm.%m.t0f.om;zHk.e0fS
e0fS t0f.a'ghSw,dGK@tDxmS aig0f;ysufEJkif;,dk “rOf.avGSpGOf. oif.cJifSvJh &GdK;ig. xD.,mvrfrLG ;zH.k ,dk a0GSoD;a&.rwfcef; “aum0f.ig;&Jik Sf ” EJik ;f e0fSoGL? a0GSoD;rOf.
awGmhS avGStHkyqm;aqmif. woD.,HGK.waxmufxGLrS uGJavGSigoGKyf,if;” rmSoGL yG,fStpDSta0S wGrf. aumifa&GSavmif; 'Hkaqmif.udkut0f.'g.
EJkif;e0fSoGL? woD.,HGK.e0fS ayg.&GOftJOfx0f;vJh twxGm;[0fw0f; vdkSe0fSrS &yfrdGK; &yfzmoD;zHk.cg a0GSoD;a'ghSa[mfScef;EJkif;,dk “rOf.qdk@Saum0f.ig;&JkifSe0fS
aig0f;w,dGK@,kd ayg.vGOfAm.e0fSoGL? vGKyfSxmSvScGOf.w0f;,dke0fS xdcdGKuf_cdGKif. qdk@SrGKef;w0f; uawmifavmif; qdk@S'sm.aoGmh iGOfSatmhS (,&yf&yfe0fS [JhS
oefSa&SvGKrfSwum.w0f; vrf;yg.udk ydkvDSay.zHk. ynm.a&StwGufwm.vJh ‘cGOf;atmhS’) avmif;” EJkif;e0fSoGL?
xdcdGKufoeftDig.e0fSoGL?

uxdGKif.[GKefAm. aig0f;az.tm. qdGK@S,mvrf EJkif;,dke0fS oSudk,dk

uGyfydGK.e0fSrSwJif vdkSzHk.e0fS erf;*k%f.oduQm.,dk tGOf.w0f;'GKrfta&S vGif;avGS,l.vSxGLpGOf. jzm;wefaumifc,f. ua'ghScgS'g. aig0f;EJkif;,dk
tH k t 0f . tH . tG S [0f A m.igarG ; vJ O f ;
“ya'.o&mZfpepf,kd rOf;t0f.aeue0fS
,l . ,d k S oG L xmS EJ k i f ; e0f S awG m h S
pJ h S uxl . od r f S ajcif upG e f t H . xd k S 'g. qd k @ S&J k i f a &S od G K @S_cH acGoJifSuGKwfpGOf.xDG.vJh acGtD.oJifStl.
tG O f v d k @ 0if S xef . avG S a&mif v G p G O f .
vJkif;[H.,m.zHk. EJkif;,dke0fS/ ,[ef.e0fS pmawmaz.,if; aeu” u&kdS'g.aig0f;e0fSoGL? ydGKif;vJif.
&GOfxGKrf.,dkS&mSt&yf ygtmcrf;xDEdkif.
uk r ` % D . zH k . vJ h t 0f . / ,[ef . e0f S cwf S tH . csmaz.,if ; cg t*F v d y f a cwf w G r f . zqyv
iH . ud k w G r f . cG K rf r mSvG p G O f . &G O f v S
&yfom;'Hkom;vhJt0f./ ,[ef.e0fS pJhSay.ydkrmSzHk. qdGK@S&Jkif acwfum.v eDytdk0f.vdkSrsKdS uxJhzGdK.
,d k S xmSrmS ,mvrf q d k @ S&J k i f a &SzH k .
uvJ O f ; qJ k i f S Am.0if S e0f S uG y f p G O f .
vGKyfSrmSaomhScsmvJht0f. e0fSoGL?
e0fSoGL? vGKyfSrmS,me0fS wGrf.[H.,m.
ya'.o&mZfpepf t0f.awufSEsSeD wGr.f
tJ O f . tJ O f . teD S t&if S aqh S aqh S ay.
azifSzifS ,mvrfwJif/ acwfum.v
vJ h vSaomh S aEG m if S tmtD i g.&G O f e 0f S rS vd k S zH k . e0f S oS0if . pmSvG O f p G O f . e0fScge0fS acG,dk “ytdk0f.”'sm. tD.a'ghScsmterf; ygtmjcmEJkif;e0fSigvJh
,mvGKyfSxmSrmS e0fSoGL? uG,f.awGmhS ut0f.tkyfcsKyf'g. crf;xDEkdif.iH. wm.0Gef.xGL.vGarG; e0fSoGL? “ytdk0f.” u&dkS'g.rOfS,dk azhwarm0f;xGLawGmhS
ref;cGef ref;vkdSwefzHk. ydGK.wrJkifS arGmhxl.a&Sajcif;ajcif;w0f; az.yJpf az.wH. 0if S [J h S awm'sm. “awmif o l ” wJ i f ytd k 0 f . z0 uxJ h z d G K .Am.xmS,d k
w0f; vGKyfS,mxmSrmS,dk u&dkSe0fS/ tAOf.tASudk a0GSoD;t0f.cGKrfyqdk;tD jzm;wefaumifc,f.e0fS ydk.plxGm;vdGKaEGmifS'GKrfawGmhS _cDajcm0fpGOf. “acG,dk
crf;xDa&SEJkif;rJkifS/ t0f.qifavGS Ekdif. iH. a&SwcGg wGrf. oS"mwfa &S&m. rdGK;vGL;wGrf.oDG. oDcsm,if;wGrf.oDG.” EJkif;e0fSawGmhS 1925 Am. vdGKqef
qJi.f &mSwdKG ufSyG,Sf EJik ;f rJik Sf u&dSk e0fS ytd0k .f tweftu,f.zH.k &arGmSh wao,l. atGmhSvefcsmpGOf. ya'.o&mZfpepf e0fSoGL?
vGw0f; waotGOf.oSwdSvGw0f;zHk. e0fSoGL?

ya'.o&mZfpepf,kd jzm;wefaumifc,f.oD; wdKG ufS_yKJ ifaEGmifSxdSk vJO;f

w,f.pGOf. 1991 Am.aeif.e0fS ytdk0f.a'.oudk t0f.armifSpGOf. &dkSpGOf.vJh/ [ef.eDS,kdcg uxGm'g. ya'.o&mZfpepf trDG.t_cGD ,mvrfwGrf.
xmSawmf . xmSavmif S zH k . e0f S t&D G . t0f . xS t0f . woG d K ; csmvJ O f ; xmS
e0f S oG L ? “e0w” ref ; pJ h S tpd k . &wG r f . PNO uxd G K if . oSaz:Swl . xG L
twdGKufStcStHkyqm.a&Se0fS ,rfvl.achSzHk. wt0f.,GdKif.ayhScgSw0f;'GKrf
eDytd0k .f crf;om;xDom;oD; rJeh m.&dSk pGO.f vJ/h azifSzifS,mvD;G wGr.f a'g0x
f o
D .l &m.
zHk. 'dGK.jymxdkSvJkif.awm eDytdk0f.oDG.wEsm.Esm.awGmhS xmSrGKefSAm;rsdKSzHk. t0f.
cdk;vsH.u|rfSxdkSvJOf; ytdk0f.cGdKSoGKyf womoD; oS&m.e0fSoGL?

vGpfvGpfwjcifjcif vGKyfS,mvrfcGifS uxdGKif.vSvGOfe0fS w,f.pGOf.
rdGK;pdk;zmyef &dkS&dkSomSomS AGmAGmpifpif ut0f.vGKyfSrmSvGOf'g. aoif.vm./
zufSac:/ aEG./ aeif;/ AGLaumif/ AGLvJkif;/ AGLuvmS aA[H./ axif/ awmif;vJkif/
ajymif. (acghc,f.) pwJif eDytkd0f.erf;yJif.,kdS,m. qdGK@S&Jkifa&S vGL;erf;urf;ouf
xmSrmSrsdKSzHk. tavmif;,kd tGOf.vG'GKrfta&SzHk. e0fSoGL? ?
tpkd.&ref;pJhS wdkif;A[dk. trJkif(3) ae;wGr f. plcGK rfS tm.%m.awGmhS t"rRxl.
uodrfSajcifxdk'g. odGK@S_cHvJkif;[H.,m. a0ifS[dkyHkS wuGOf.xifS
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

rJhS'if.ysSoGKyfavGS,if; tudGK@S (3)
,uQCG%f (ol&d,crf;) 18 ZGef 2011

vdwfrJhig = 7

oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.)
apmufSzm;cGefpD
z0Zmwf&JOf.
ttJOf.

AGmoS&m. (16 vZGef 2011)

apmufSzm;cGefpDaem0fS c&mZfaeif. 1901 Am. vG,fyGwfSudk ut0f.
tHak omhS'g. apmufSzm;cGepf ed .f wef wGr.f emifSrr}uD; ([J)h emifSpdr;f jr (pHum_rdK@
pm; vDSrl.) oD; uvGL.zGmSvifS'g. ydck kd (2) jzmStudk xGmydck dk tjzmSwefe0fSoGL?
zl.a0.uefajyifzHk.aem0fS p0f;cGefpdef;/ p0f;jr0if;/ p0f;AGm/ p0f;[wf zHk.aem0fSoGL?
aeif. 1931 Am.aem0fS a0ifSarmf.vrJif.udk ut0f.tHkaomhS'g. aoif.
uGKef.o,f.oaÏS jzm;wdk;vHk; tydkrl.emifSat;oef@aem0fS awmf.vrf;awmf.
yg.cef;wGrf. apmufSzm;cGefpDxGLawGmhS uxGefSumSvGOf'g.tydkzHk.e0fS p0f;jr0if;/
p0f;atmifjrifh/ p0f;pDat;/ p0f;oef@&D/ p0f;pD0if; oD;zHk.e0fSoGL?

apmufSzm;cGefpD t&G,f.ay.wGifS oGOfxl.Am.ynm. a0ifSawmif.
uD S ud k Shan Chief School “apmuf S zm;yd k v D S ausmif S ” (,d k c gxG m
awmif}uD; trêwf (2) t=x=u) xGLawGmSh oGOo
f KG yfavGS,if;ynm. a0ifS&ef.
ukef.udk pdefaygvfausmifSwJif atmif.rsif.vScef; (10) wefSe0fSoGL? t0f.
e0fSxGLe0fS xif.oGOfoGKyforf;,if; AGTI tif;pdefpufr+vufr+ausmifS (4)
aeif.awGmhS 'JhSxl.aEGmifScef; _rdK@jytif*sifeD,mbJG@ e0fSoGL?

w,f.pGOf. aeif. 1926 Am. ASavGS 1929 Am.e0fS EdGK@rmSaxif;xrf.
cef;xmSrmS a0ifSawmif.uDS jrLeDpy,f tif*sifeD,m e0fSoGL? 1929 Am.
ASavGS 1948 Am.e0fS xl.wm.0Gef.cef; a0ifSoD.oJif. apmufSzm;t&m. cif.
vrf;e0fSoGL? cGefpD uxdGKif.vSapmufSzm;t&m.e0fS a0GSwtm.udGKSw0f;
tpdk;& utGOf.pGScGifSaz.'g. &GOfcGOf.awm. 25 &smSEkefSe0fSoGL? a0GSerf;aAG.
udk,f.wJif. tGOfigxGLawGmhS rmSavGS'sm. aoif.xmSrmSzHk. (opfvkyfief;)/
cl.'sm. ajcm.owWKatmifzHk. e0fSoGL? e0fSvGKrfSrum. crf;om;vdkSxrfSomzHk.
qd G K @S&J k i f a &StwG u f w m. cl . az.xD a jcmif armif ; a&mif S zH k . / aAG m if a z.
ausmifSoGOfaomhSvdwfzHk./ xSqJifSxmSrmSausmifSzHk./ a0GSaAG.erf;ukd,f.wJif.
csmvJh EGdK@xJkifvJkif; vGKyfSrmScsm'sm. 'JOftH.wm.AGLzHk. e0fSoGL?

t*F v d y f t pd k . &acwf u d k ytd k 0 f . crf ; om;zH k . ut0f . vG d K qef ' g.
ya'.o&mZfpepfwGifSum.v uGyfpGOf.'sm. pJhS&JifStm. uGm.tmig.vkd@0ifSwJif
ut0f.tGOfig'g. ytdk0f.awmf.vef.a&S ytdk0f.vdkSweftGOfigom; ,[ef.
e0fS cH.Am. apmufSzm;pJhSzHk. qGrfSusSxdkSe0fSoGL? uqGrfSusSxdkS'g.ytdk0f.
vG d K qef a &StG O f i gom; (12) jzmSe0f S xG d K @Sw&mScef ; a0if S vG , f v J r f
w&mS&GKrfSudkwJif wGrf.w&mS&GKrfStrdefawGmhS tGOf.axGmhvifaz.cef;axmif.
wH. wjzmS (12) aeif.pD.wJif yomavGScef;'sm. jrif;_cHaxmif.udk e0fSoGL?
cd G K if ; 0d G K @wG r f . uqG r f S usSxk d S 'g. ytd k 0 f . vG d K qef a &Som; vd k S wef z H k . e0f S
wGrf.az.rGKef;w0f;'GKrfaxmif.wH.trdef;tausmifS oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.)
apmufSzm;cGefpD a'ghSxef. awmifSjyef.avGSEJkif;e0fSxGLwum.w0f;'GKdef;
ut0f.&Jik Sf woGKd ;vGKd qefv'G g.xmS crf;om;vkSd xrfSomSzH.k e0fS tyJpt
f OJ x
f 0f;/
t"du typfut0f.e0fS xGm'sm.apmufSzm;zH.k 'sm.tausmifS/ ut0f.uDt
G .H 'g.
[H.cGO.f xmSrmScGO.f &GOcf OG .f awmf.zH.k ,dk t0f.vd.k uDo
G ifSeJ@ uDo
G ifSw0f;eJ@u&dSk e0fS

t0f . vd k . qif . csif . vG i g.vJ O f ; tausmif S axmuf y sSe,f avG S orf ; xJ i f ;
apmufSzm;pGdKSzHk. EJkif;e0fSoGL?

ajzm0fScrf;udk apmufSzm;oD;zH.k ua'gSh &DoKG yfo.H aqmif.&Gu'f g. wGr.f
_c@J Se,f om; t*Fvyd o
f .D zH.k ,dk crf;om. vkSd xrfSomSoD;wGuw
f m. tusKSd wt0f.
tDw0f;u&kdSe0fS apmufSzm;cGefpDwjzmStae. xmSxD.t0f.avGS EJkif;e0fSwJif
a0GSerf;ukd,f.wJif. wJrf;xef.cef; “&êrf;jynftrêm;awmfyHk” vdwftkyfe0fSoGL?
vdwftkyfe0fSe0fS apmufSzm;rdGKifSyGOf wGrf. apmufSzm;ayG;vêoD;zHk. az.tm.
axmufcH.a&mifpGOf.e0fSoGL? cdGKif;0dGK@wGrf.vdwftkyfe0fSe0fS c&mZfaeif. 2000
Am.aAG uaxxef.'g. “&êrf;jynfe,fr*~Zif;” udk OD;xGef;jrifh (awmif}uD;)
wJrf;e,fcgS “udkvdkeDacwf &êrf;jynfolwdk@tm; EdkifiHa&;rsufpd zGifhay;cJhaom
ytdk0f;trsKd;om; oxHk (qDqdkif) apmfbGm;cGef-unf” u&kdS'g. &Grf_zJKifSudke0fS
“&êrf;jynftrêm;awmfyHk” vdwftkyf,dk wJrf;xef.'sm. aeif. 1930 e0fSum.
&dkSpGOf;vJh wGdK.aeif. 1940 Am.rS uGJxGKwfax tGOfpGSvDAm. e0fSoGL? oxHGK.ay.
(oD.oJif.) apmufSzm;cGefpD,kd oS&ufcrf;om; xDom;t0f;wcGdKif;rJkifu&dkSe0fS
xG m ;aAmh a 0G S vd w f t k y f , d k v J h t0f . aovG O f S vJ O f ; 'sm.” t0f . ,D ; e,f c gS
EJkif;e0fSoGL?

aeif . 1945 Am. vmrwf w G i f S e0f S ref ; crf ; wcrf ; vG K rf ;
vG d K qef w d G K uf S xef . csm zuf o pf * syef z H k . wJ i f apmuf S zm;cG e f p D vJ h
vSxGLplcGKrfvufeuf tul.tnD. rdGKifSEJkifS (rdk;eJ) r[m.rdwfxsSawGmhS
ut0f.xif.vGOf'g. zufopf*syef pJhSwyf&JOf.zHk.,dk ytdk0f.wyfzHk. ajcif;,Jkif
wdGKufScSqGKrf.awGmhS azsmfvifSpGOf.vG,faumf.e0fSoGL? zufopf*syefoD;
awufSEsSrmSaEGmifSrkS,dk ,Houfom;wm. xdKG @SAl.a'gSh a[mfSe,fxLG crf;om;zH.k
awGmhS/ awmif.uDS vG,faumf. umSwzlSwefavmif; wvD;vGKrf;ut0f.'g.
'HkzHk.e0fS tGOf.pkcgSaz.xGL &dwfcg.p&dyfzHk./ wzJhSe0fS t0f.'HkawGmhS uxef.vGOf'g.
zufopf*syefzHk.,dk upkcgS'g.ytdk0f.pJhSwyfzHk. tGOfvkd@0ifSwdGKufScSqGKrf.wJif
0g;xef.xdkSaEGmifSpGOf. *syefpJhSzHk.e0fSoGL?

rOf.xGm;Am. bm.om.om.oem.zJSh vJh aeif. 1946 Am. vm'DoOfbm
(1) eDS urmSavGS'g. yG,fStHkuGrf tpDSta0GSukde0fS *syefacwf AHk;uAm._yJKif
jyifSxdkS'g. ausmifSwefrGOf_cJif (,dkcg yxrausmifSwefawmif.uDS) ,kd ,Haz.
uw,f.qkd@ScGKefScsmaEGmifS,if;wm. a'ghS&DwdGKif.yif.avGSvkd@0ifS e0fSoGL?
e0fSrSwJi f w,f.qk@d ScGKefScsm ausmifSwefta&S,dk ,Haz.uatmif.rsi.f vSe0fS
ut0f.vdk.'g. aoif.zHk.twGufwm. apmufSzm;cGefpD erf;ukd,f.wJif. cH.xl.
wm.0Gef. tD.vl.avGSaz.&kdSe0fSvJh/ qJkifScsme0fS a0GSutif;vl.'g.aoif.zHk.,dk
tqif.orf;wajy.vSw0f;awGmhS uyfvl.aomhSvJkif.awm &GOfAD. (10000)
waomifaAGaAG e0fSoGL?

aeif. 1946 Am. aeif.emaem0fS uavGmif.Al.csm,if;'g. “&êr;f jynfvw
G f
vyfa&;(&yv)” aem0fS OD;wif{/ OD;cGeaf pm/ OD;cGex
f ;D oD; ygaomhSvGO,
f if; &yv
twG,fS (1) trJkifS (3)

vdwfrJhig = 8
udx
k LG um.w0f;/ &yv tpdKG ScsKyu
f akd em0fS ytd0k .f tweftuJ. apmufSzm;oD.oJi.f
cG e f p D a em0f S vJ h x mSrmStrk S aqmif . ud k ygaomh S vG O f , if ; aem0f S oG L ?
aumuvdKG qefcsm'g. apmufSzm;om;tukd uxGm'g. crf;om;tweftu,f.
Ekdif.iH.a&StGOfigom; OD;wif{wGrf. OD;xGef;jrifh oD;zHk.e0fS xD.apmufSzm;cGefpD,dk
a0G S oD ; cH . xl . a&.rwf ' sm. &uf c d G K Sacgif ; aqmif w ef w jzmS “ae&ê i f e ,f
apmf b G m ;” EJ k i f ; e0f S oG L ? a0G S oD ; zH k . e0f S wG r f . apmuf S zm;cG e f p D , d k
t0f.tHkuGrf wdGKif.yif. cGdKScGdKSvkd@0ifS ajzm0fScrf;e,f.qJif.&mS Edkif.iH.crf;xDa&S
udpPzHk. e0fSoGL? aeif. 1947 Am. vmazazmf0g&D (7) eDS uxGdK@SAl.'g.
“&êr;f jynfe,faumifp”D e0fS crf;om;erf;wJOSf (7) jzmS/ apmufSzm;erf;wJOSf (7)
jzmS EdKG @ygxLG awGmSh oxHKG .ay. (oD;oJi.f ) apmufSzm;cGepf eD 0fS cH.Am.0ifSvdKG uf'if.
avGS ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKSwcdGKSvGKrf;wm. erf;wJOfSe0fSoGL?

1945 Am. aeif . eme0f S uoD 0 J k i f S xk d S 'g. apmuf S zm;rd G K if S yG O f
rmrl. r[ma'0DpsmyeyG,fSwGifS apmufSzm;pGdKSzHk. cGJcGifSvScef;vkd@0ifSawGmhS
apmufSzm;tcsifScsifSzHk. a'ghS&DwdGKif.yif.cef;vkd@0ifS tem.*gwf ajzm0fScrf;e,f.
c&m.zHk. e0fSoGL? ua'ghS&DwdGKif.yif.'g.vkd@0ifSe0fSzHk.e0fS apmufSzm;rdGKifSyGOf/
apmufSzm;anmif.&GD. wGrf. oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) apmufSzm;cGefpDoD;zHk.
tGOftxsSawGmhS ajzm0fScrf;e,f. vGpfwjcifa&StwGuf xGrf.'dkavGSwzlS&JOf.
wm.e0fS az.wm.0Gef.a&mifcef; apmufSzm;rdGKifSyGOf e0fSoGL? 1946 Am.
vmrwf (20) eDS ASavGS (28) eDSe0fS apmufSzm;zHk. rmSavGScef; yxrtvJif.
yG,Sf tpDSta0GS a0ifSyif.vHak wGmSh xGKd @SAl.avGScef; “ajzm0fScrf;apmufSzm;aumif
oDpdGKS” e0fSoGL? tpDSta0GS,dke0fS xGmyxrvJif.yif.vHkaqGSaEGSyG,fS (rOf.
arG;w0f;vJh) yxrvJif.yif.vHknD.vm.cH. EJkif;e0fSoGL?

yxrtvJif. yG,fStpDSta0GSa0ifSyif.vHk,dke0fS crf;'Grfytdk0f.
twef t u,f . jzm;AG m vazvJ h t0f . ygwJ i f w,f . pG O f . tcd e f . e0f S rS
crf;'Grfcrf;aumif ytdk0f.zHk. ,def;oGKyfoG,f.aAmhSoSvGOfpGOf.vkd@0ifSe0fSoGL?
yG,fStpDSta0GS,dk uxdGKif.xGL0JkifSweDSe0fS apmufSzm;cGefpD/ jzm;AGmvêaz
wGrf. ajzm0fScrf;udk ut0f.'g. ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKStweftu,f.zHk. tHkuGrfa'ghS&DwdGKif.
yif.cef;vkd@0ifS ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKSa&SudpPzHk. e0fSoGL? wjzmSwGrf.wjzmS xmSxD./
xmS,l./ xmSxif;zHk.,dk a'ghSxef.wdGKif.yif.xGLwJif 'if.cgScef;rwfwefSzHk.
awGmhS utD.wGdK.vGOf,if;'g. vGpfwjcifa&S aqGSaEGSyG,fStusKdS,dk ,Hu'if.
ysSaEGmifStDwGufwm. oSaz:SAGdKefyDcef;vkd@0ifS tcsufuyg'g. qSv,dkzHk.
e0fSoGL?
(1) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; utGOfig'g. ref;crf;vGpfwjcifa&S &JkifSwodGK;rkSudke0fS
ytd0k .f pdKG ;cdKG SwcdKG SvGKrf; erf;wJOSf tae. ytd0k .f pdKG ;cGKd Stweftu,f.zH.k tGO.f
pGSavGS apmufSzm;cGefpD e0fSoGL?
(2) ref;crf;vGpfwjcifa&S,dk jynfrwGrf. aumifa&GSavmif;a'.ozHk. ,Haz.
uxl.odGKodGKvkd@0ifS?
(3) 'Drdkca&oDta&SwGrf. awGmif;woGKefa&SwzlS,kd ya'.o&mZfpepfzHk.
t0f.&JqDSay@ScgSwJif trdGKifoGwfSwAm. ,Haz.uwdGKufSuJkifxdkSAm.
ya'.o&mZfpepfpGdKSzHk.? (jzm;AGmvêaz 'if.ysSe,f)
(4) wG r f . crf ; e,f . (13) e,f . awG m h S wJ . axmif . avG S xG L Malaysia
Confederation Government yHGK.pH.wJif xGmuD Anachronism
(pepf ut0f.vGdKqef'g.acwfpepfrsdKS) &dkSpGOf.vJh tD.xGmvGOfaEGmifS'g.
crf;aygifSpk tausmifS/ rOf.rJOf,m;uJkifxdk ya'.o&mZfpepfe0fS wGrf.
rmrGKef;w0f; EJkif;uvJOf;cdk.csme0fSawGmhS ,HucH.xl.avGSae;'sm.aoGmh
crf;om;vdkSxrfSom oSqENtausmifS? (apmufSzm;cGefpD 'if.ysSe,f)
(5) e0fSvGKrfSrum. rOf.vSxGLvGpfwjcifa&Scg ajz.osifS_zD.pD.&D; jynfrudk
ut0f.ygaomhS'g. apmufS/ rJifS/ &cJif.crf;e,f.ys\em.zHk.rOf.xGLrS/ wGrf.
crf;e,f.t&ef;wJif aumqHSk zswaf vGS aumifSa&GSavmif;a'.o ut0f.'g.
pdGK;cdGKStmoD;ta&SzHk./ t0f.e0fSrOf.xGLrS qGefSplaygifSavGSwGrf. utD.
xGmvGOf'g. jynfrtpdk.& ,dke0fS oifSeJ@ oifSw0f;eJ@ u&dkSe0fS xl.tcdef.
aqmif.&GufavGSaz.tausmifS? (apmufSzm;cGefpD 'if.ysSe,f)

aeif . 1946 Am. vmZl v d k i f (21) eD S ASavG S (27) eD S e0f S
ajzm0fScrf;e,f.apmufSzm;aumifoDpdGK S rmSavGS ,if; yG,fS tpDS ta0S
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

a0ifSawmif.uDSudkawGmhS vdGKuf'if.cef; apmufSzm;aumifoD trkSaqmif.zHk.
wJif oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) apmufSzm;cGefpDe0fS xGmcef;tpdGKSEdGK@e0fSoGL? aeif.
1946 Am. vmpufwifbm (11) eDSe0fS apmufSzm;anmif.&DG. aoma&$odkuf
wG r f . oxH G K .ay. (oD . oJ i f . ) apmuf S zm;cG e f p D acwW u azsmf , k d @ Saqmif ;
a0ifS&ef;uGKef;udw
k iG Sf “zufqpfwu
kd zf suaf &; jynfo@l vw
G v
f yfa&;” (zqyv)
tpdGKScsKyf zpftH.cef; 'JOf[me0fSoGL? 'JOf[m0JifSudk uyg'g. zqyvtpdGKScsKyf
tweftu,f.zHk.e0fS OD;bab/ ocifjr/ [oFmwOD;jr/ OD;ausmf_idrf;/ OD;wif
wGrf. OD;odef;az up'g.yk*~dKvf.zHk.e0fSoGL?

'J O f [ m0J i f S ud k uyg'g.ref ; vd k S wef z H k . e0f S rOf . a'gh S Am.vJ h
erf;wJOfSavGSaEGmifS'sm. ref;vdkSrsKdSwcdGKSvGKrf;wJif cdGKif;0dGK@wGrf. tem.*wf
ajzm0f S crf ; e,f . qJ i f . &mSzH k . ,d k a'gh S xef . aqG S aEG S avG S cef ; a0G S oD ;
zqyvtpdGKScsKyf xmSxD.oSaz:S w&mSzHk.e0fSoGL? a0GSoD; oSaz:SAGKdefcH.
xl.'sm. aumifa&GSavmif;crf;e,f.zHk. ‘erf;yJif.vGdKufxl.AufSaxGmhcGifS’
( self-determination - uk d , f y k d i f j yXmef ; cG i f h ) tausmif S / jynf r wG r f .
aumifa&GS avmif;crf; e,f.zHk.,dk rOfxl.odGKig.vkd@0ifS vGpfwjcifa&StausmifS/
ajzm0fcrf;e,f. vGpw
f jcifa&S wGuw
f m. rOf.t0f.vd.k 'g. tul.nD.trsKSd rJik Sf 0,0f;
ref;vdkSrsKdSzHk. az.aEGmifS'sm.tausmifS pwJif oSabmfw&mSzHk. e0fSoGL?

apmuf S zm;cG e f p D wG r f . apmuf S zm;aoma&$ o d k u f o D ; zH k . vJ h
aqGSaEGSe,fcsm a0GSoD;apmufSzm;pGdKS xmSxD. oSaz:SzHk. EJkif;,kdoGL?
ref;jynfrwygw0f; ajzm0fScrf;e,f.vGpfwjcifa&SwGrf; ajzm0fScrf;e,f.
wygw0f; ref;jynfrvGpfwjcifa&Se0fS uOfSpmSwajzmifw0f;tausmifS/
uGyrf OfvSig. avGmif.Al.a&SwJif aumifa&GSavmif;om; um.ut0f. ,HavGmif.

apmufSzm;cGefpD wGrf.ydkrm vrf;yg.yHGK.

Al.vkd@0ifSwm. rmSavGSAm. yif.vHkyG,fStpDSta0GStausmifS/ ajzm0fScrf;wGrf.
ref;crf;jynfr,dk pDSyGmSa&StvS rOfrmSaygifSnDS'sm.vkd@0ifS &dkSpGOf.vJh
Ekdif.iH.a&Stqif.t&ef;tvS uGm.tmaeuvdk@0ifSwJif eDajzm0fScrf; ys\
em.,dk eDt0f.ajz.osiSf Am.aeutausmifS/ xGLwum.w0f; ref;vdSk rsKd Stavmif;
ajzm0fScrf;e,f.pdGK;cdGKStmoD;zHk. ,GKrf;tH.rkS az.ut0f.vGOfe0fSvJh ref;vdkSrsKdSzHk.
wGrf.terf;_cHKwAm. vdk.rmSe,fig. xmSrmSzHk.tausmifS a'ghSe,fcsmcef;
EJkif;e0fSzHk.oGL?

1947 Am. vmazazmf0g&D (3) eDS ASavGS (12) eDSe0fS rmSavGScef;
'kw,
d tvJi.f yG,Sf nD.vm.cH. yif.vHek 0fSoGL? nD.vm.cH.,dek 0fS apmufSzm;cGepf D
_cdGKif.oefSa&StvS xif.aEGmifSw0f;wJifawGmhS tGOf.pGSavGSawm a0GSerf;wJOfS
oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) e,f. w&mSvdkSwef OD;jzL e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif uxdGKif.
wJrf;uJpfS'g. yif.vHkvdwfcsKyf plrJkife0fS oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) apmufSzm;cGefpD
erf;wJOfS OD;jzL wJrf;rJkifaz. e0fSoGL?

apmufSzm;cGefpD cg;vm;uoDrm;xdkScdef.wGrf. uoDrm;xkdScdef;e0fS

vdwfrJhig = 9
uOfSpmSc&m.tcsufzHk. vkd.ajz.c&m. i0f;&DzHk. t0f.uJkifcg tmarG;ig.e0fSoGL? xGwfax az:.xef.vG0ifS yigy&mSe0fSoGL? oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) e,f.udk
cg;vm;ref;crf; uvSvGpw
f jcifa&St,HwiG Sf e0fS qJi.f &mStm.%m.ut0f.'g. ut0f.uJik cf gS'g. apmufSzm;cGepf aD [mfeefS,dv
k hJ uGypf OG .f 'sm. xmSirf;w&sKd ;rkS,dk
ref;tpdk.&vdkSzHk. vGOfqGrfSusSxdkS apmufSzm;cGefpDwJif qGrfSvifSxdkS a0ifS&ef. t0f.w_cdK@cg ytd0k .f vdSk wef,[ef.wGr.f apmufSzm;cGepf yD v
kd SD zH.k erf;avmif;wJif
ukef.udk e0fSoGL? tcdef;e0fSe0fS waemufSwGrf. apmufSzm;cGefpD _cdGKif. ,m._yKJ ifjyifSxdSk cef;'sm. e0fSoGL? qJik Sf csmcdKG SoGKyfwom ytd0k .f ay.zH.k twGuw
f m.
oefSa&S[0fw0f; cde.f cg.,HwiG Sf udk e0fSoGL? ref;crf;vSvGpw
f jcifa&SxGL navGS axGaxmifxGm;csm ytdk0f.cGefwjzmS qJif.&mSorJifS txsSaxmifSt&GD;tcdk.zHk.
(4) eDS'sm. apmufSzm;cGefpDvJh oDrm;apGmhSxdkSpGOf. e0fSoGL?
xdkSrm.a,efol.xdkSEJkif;,kdwJif oSqmc&m.a[m0fig. e0fSoGL? apmufSzm;cGefpD

(awmifSaoS = apmufSzm;cGefpD oDrm;xkdSxGL t0f.cg.aeif. uw,f.qdGK@Svl.cgS'g. a0ifSoD.oJif.xsS z&mSuGKefSap.wD.vJh 'g.,um.
aygifSnw0f; uxGm'g. apmufSzm;cGefpDrmSzufSoGScG ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKSvdkSwef womoD; w,f.xGKrf;wefydk.orf;,if;wJif rlv'g.,um. apmufSzm;uvl.
trwfatmif.om./ Adv
k [
f ed af rmif/ OD;ndK oD;zH.k vJh cH.Am.ref;vkSd wefz.kH qGrSf usS cg'g. plajcmifSzHk.e0fS xdkSrm.xdkSvdk@cef;'sm.aeae e0fSoGL?
rmSoDxSkd xGLawGmSh a0GSjzm;oD; toif.cJiSf igvhJ armhSvGOSf w0f; xdSk rm;a,efo.l aeif. 1948 Am. vmZefem0g&D (8) eDSe0fS oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.) ytdk0f.cGef
wig ASwGdK.pGOf.[ef.oSeDS,dk e0fSoGL?)
apmufSzm;cGefpD tedpPcE<m.ajymifSxdkScef;'sm. &ef.ukef.woD.,HGK.avmif;wJif

cdKG if;0dKG @wrG .f apmufSzm;cGepf D uoDapGmSh Am.xmS,dk rOf,.l apG;cGKefScsm aeif. 1948 Am. vmZefem0g&D (20) eDSe0fS ut0f.uJkifcgS'g. apmufSzm;cGefpD
rOf.uOfSpmS,G,Gcsm,if; tc&m;zHk.e0fS apmufSzm;cGefpD uwJrf;cgS'g. ,m.qGwfSzm.zGef.zHk.,dk oGifSaomhScef; a0GSrkwfawmf. oxHGK.ay. (oD.oJif.)
“&êr;f jynftrêm;awmfy”kH vdwt
f yk u
f ekd 0fS ajzm0fScrf;,dk t0f.t*Fvyd t
f yk cf sKyfrSk a0ifSudk e0fSoGL?
qSv rOf.vGpfxef.vGOfe0fS ,Haz.uxGmAm.'sm. uvGpfwjcif'g.crf;xDw_zHK.
ac:ac: tc&m.zHk./ vdwfcsKyfyif.vHk udpP,dk apmufSzm;cGefpD ua'ghSaz.'g. xl.udGKS
OD;jzLe0fS cg;vm;uwJrf;uJpfS vdwfcsKyfwm. plrJkife0fS uDG&D;cgSAm. aig0f;uDGcsuf • aeif. 2011 Am. uax'g. “a[m0faoxdGKufig. pdGK;cdGKStGOfig tm.Zm.enf.
EJkif;rJkifSc&m.zHk./ cdGKif;0dGK@wGrf. “zuf'&,f” tavmif; apmufSzm;cGefpDwGrf.
acgif;aqmifwefoD; b0rwfwrfSttJOf.”/ wJrf.om;= cGefarmifwkwf
jzm;AGmvêazoD; xmSxD.oSaz:S wAGdKefyDw0f;wGrf. vkdSrsdKSviftweftu,f.
(ytzr)/ vdwfrJhig (54)
xmSxD. c&m.zHk./ apmufSzm;cGefpD uoDrm;'g.cif.vrf; &ef.ukef.woD.,HGK. • aeif. 2010 Am.uax'g. rGL;eDcKGd Sytd0k ;f txdet
f rwf “'JOo
f ;D vufaqmif.”
avmif ; wG i f S e0f S apmuf z m;cG e f p D &k y f u vmyf , d k xG m ;cG i f S vSw0f ; wJ i f
trJkif (29)/ vdwfrJhig (28/ 29/ 30)
xl.oJiSf csmvSuGKd @S'sm. apmufSzm;cGepf D ,m.qGwSf zm.zGe.f oxHKG .ay. (oD.oJi.f ) • aeif. 1990 Am. vmarudk uax'g. “wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;ta&;Eêifh
udv
k KG rfS e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif rOf.xGm;csm rOf.uOfSpmS,l.apG;csm apmufSzm;cGepf D
1947 tajccHOya'” yxrwJG/ OD;ausmf0if;/ OD;jr[ef/ OD;odef;v+dif wdk@jyKpk
uoD;rm;xkdSAm.udpP,kd ya[VdzHk. t0f.uJkifcg tmig.e0fSoGL?
• aeif. 2004 Am. vmrwfudk uax'g. “rd;k e*g;” ytd0k ;f trsK;d orD;pmapmif/

e0fSrSwJif ytdk0f.cGef apmufSzm;cGefpD z0Zmwf&JOf. uxGmvGOf'g.
trêwf (3)
t[0f t uJ k i f yuwd Z mwf a jcmif S orJ i f S trJ O f . twG d K if S ,H a z.uaz:. • jynf a xmif p k ytd k 0 f . trsKd ; om;tzJ G @ csKyf (ytrz)/ pwÎ K t}ud r f
xef . aEG m if S csm,if ; e0f S ytd k 0 f . wd G K if S pG K rf . jzmS wm.0G e f . t0f . e0f S oG L ?
trsKd;om;nDvmcHodk@ wifoGif;rnfh A[dktvkyftr+aqmif tpD&ifcHpm
p0f ; zcG e f p D z 0Zmwf & J O f . tpJ p f t rJ O f . aAG a AG p G K rf . pG K rf . ,H a z.u,d e f . azm.
(rl-urf;)
xef . aEG m if S orf ; orf ; ,if ; e0f S cd G K SoG K yf w om ytd k 0 f . ay.zH k . t0f . vd k . • a e i f . 2 0 0 7 A m . y D t J e f t d k u a x ' g . ( 1 5 ) E ê p f j y n f h
qGeSf vkSd 0ifSplawGmSh tGOv
f @dk 0ifS t0f.vk.d xGKrf.xGm;axGaxmif w,GKd ufSqJik ;f vD
_idrf;csrf;a&;txdrf;rêwf “jynfaxmufpkxJhu ytdk0f;”

uxGm'g. rlv'g.,um. apmufSzm;cGefpD uwJ.cg'g. a0ifSoD.oJif. z&mSap.wD.uGKefS
twG,fS (1) trJkifS (3)

vdwfrJhig = 10

tGOf.wef.zkdSAJif; eDcGdKSEG,f.

oxGHK.ay. = cGefAefcsm June 2011

uxGm'g.eDytkd0f.vkdSrsdKStGOfigom; tweftu,f.zHk.w&kdSw0f;/
vJik ;f vGKyfS_cHrmS pDSyGmS tajzStpmwGr.f uGKef.o,f.om; up'g. eDytk0d .f vkSd rsKd S
crf;om;vkdSxrfSomSoD;zHk. w&kdSw0f; rOf.rOfxD.eDvkdSrsdKS tHkAm.wGrf.*k%f.
oduQm./ rOf.rOfxGm;eD,kdS,m. t0f.Am.wGrf.[dwf[efvJh tcdef.wGdKifS eDoGKef.cD;
oScg.ukd,kd ao&ufcsmAm. eDvkdSrsdKS/ aotGOf.wef.zkdScsmAm. eDrsdKSEG,f.zHk.oGL?

*k%f.,Hxif. oduQm.,HxkdvGOfa&S,kd t0f.pGOf.crf;rJkifS tHkpGOf.xDrJkifSw&kdSw0f;
eDvkdSrsdKSa&ScH.xl.csufzHk. tGOf.wOf.oSukd 'gif.xkderf;avmif;awGmhS rOf.tGOf0ifS
az:.aqmif.avGSEJkif;EJkif;vJh eDutif;rkd;'g.twGdKifS xGmw0f;tJOfx0f;oGL?
uG y f e 0f S rSwJ i f eD y tk d 0 f . *k % f . od u Q m .wG r f . tvG D ; wtG d K ,H w ef x k d
wdk;pGpfSvGOftwGuf eDytdk0f.ay.wefjzm;qm;rl.ckdzHk. tcdef.wa&GSw0f; t0f.vkd.
vGL;wJif cGKrfwOf.vG0ifS pGdK;cGdKSoS"mwfEJkif;e0fSzHk.oGL?

“tGOf.a&ScsmeDrsdKSrS 0ifScGdKSvifStGOf.a&SeD”

eDcrf;xD eDvSdk rsKd S eDa,ef.iJa&S uHusrmR . ta[m0ftuJik u
f m;ut0f. “wJufwGdKifSe,fAm. c,f. uvmSoD;cGdKS”
yGdKif;0GdK@wGrf. pGdK;cGKdScHxl.csuftavmif; rOf.,JufxGm;Am. c,f.
wGr.f eD*%
k .f odumQ .tzGKd .txk,
d dk t0f.'sm.eDvSdk rsKd Spluw
dk iJ f urBm.[H.wefyx0D.
tavmif; ut0f.'g. cGdKSEG,f.tvifzHk. trsdKSrJkifScef;vJh wtD.vGOfxl.a&S vk d S rsd K SoD ; oS"mwf , k d xl . *k % f . c&m. a[m0f i g.oG L ? c,f . oD ; vk d S rsd K S,k d
wtD.usdKSpmSaz.w0f; eDvkdSrsdKSta&S/ wtD.vGOfyif.xkdaz.w0f; eDcGdKSEG,f. wurBm.vGKrf; a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKSwt0f.w0f;crf;e0fS &arGmht0f;w0f;'GKrfoGL?
oGL? eDvkdSrsdKS*k%f.oduQm.,HwaoGmif; tvGD;owifS,HpGpfSwdk; rOf,HtGD.EGdK; a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKS,kd azsmfwGdK.pGOf.&yfrJkifS crf;rJkifS xDrJkifSvJh a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKS*k%f.t*Fg.
wef.zkdS,HxdkvGOfxGLwJif urBm.weftavmif; &Jkif;&Jkif;[ef[ef rsdKSrmef.xkdxkd vuQ % m. a0G S oD ; vk d S rsd K S ,d k S ,m."avh S xH k S pJ O f . a0G S oD ; vk d S rsd K Sa&ScH .
,Htt
kH 0f.aEGmifStwGuf eDvSdk rsKd SwGr.f eD ao&ufx.l a&S aotGO.f wef.zkSd csmAm. xl.csuf,kd tGOf.xJhw0f;[H. axif;xrf.avGSvG0ifSzHk.oGL? azsmfwGdK.'g.cif.
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vrf;wom vkdSrsdKSvifjcmukd a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKScsifScsifS avGmif.Al;vGarG;0ifSzHk.oGL?

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a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKSvGdKif.tm&mS t&yf,dk
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f ifS az.vifSaz.tydk tvDSavmif;zH.k e0fSoGL? rOf.wGKd .
tm.&k%f.womvdwfapmif.

vdwfrJhig = 11
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vkdSrsdKS tjzmSe0fSvJh uxGm'g.c,f.tvifzHk. tGOf0ifSpGJurf;ukd teDSt&ifSwJif
wxGm;vGKd w0f; a0GSoD;vkSd rsKd SzH.k e0fSoGL? e0fSrSwJif c,f.vkSd rsKd S urBm.avmif;,dk
wefxkdxifSosmS trsmSjcmukd rJhigay. *k%f.oduQm.xJhzGdK.Am.w0f;oGL?

uvmSoD;vkdSrsdKSvJh AGKefyDe0fStwGdKifS cGdKif;0GdK@wGrf.a0GSoD;cGdKSEG,f.
tavmif;,kd tGOf.xkdwOf.acGgifvGarG; cHxl.csufzHk.oGL? azsmfwGdK.avGSpGOf.
crf;rJkifS xDrJkifSvJh a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKS trsdKSom t*Fg.vuQ%m.wGrf. pGdK;cGdKSa&ScH.
xl.csuf,kd cGKrfwOf.xGLoSukdawGmh tGOf0ifSusifSoHkSavGSvG 0ifSzHk.oGL? avGmif.
Al.a&SzJhSvJhe0fS a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKS,dk tGOf.a&SvGarG;0ifS ulnD;pGJurf;vGarG;0ifSzHk.
e0fSoGL? azsmfpGOf.&yfrJkifSvJh uGyfpGOf.tGOf.a&ScsmvGarG; a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKSEJkif;,kdzHk.
wJif vkdSrsdKSvif utD.arsmf.tGOfSxkdSAm. a0GSoD;vkdrsdKS,kd w,kdSawm0f;wJif vkdS
rsdKSutD;azh0JkifSxkdSrm;xkdSAm.vJh t,kdSw0f;oGL?
“xl.*k%f.c&m. tar.&dum.”

crf;xDtGOfigom;tweftu,f. utGOf.wef.zkdScsmarG;vkdSrsdKS
tavmif ; / u&uf c smarG ; crf ; om;xD o m;tavmif ; / crf ; om;
xDom;tavmif; taAGwAm. uxl.wm.0Gef.vGOfS'g.crf;zHk.um;ut0f;tukd
wG r f ; pl r Of . ,D ; e,f a vG S Am.vJ h tar;&d u ef . crf ; ,d k t0f ; yg0if . aomh S
wcrf;aeaeu&dkSe0fS rOf.a'ghSAm.vJh tvGdK;&wrm.w0f;oGL? xmStGOf.wef.
zkdScsm pGdK;cGdKS/ crf;xD wGrf. crf;om;xDom;tavmif;e0fS tar.&duef.crf;,kd
xl.*k%.f c&m. a[m0farG;ig.oGL? yGKd if;0GKd @pOG .f oS"mwf &ufcsma0GSoD;pGKd ;cGKd S txGL.
twGKrfwAm. utGO.f a&Sxl.wm.0Ge.f csm a0GSoD;crf;om;xDom;tavmif;e0fS
tar.&duef.tpkd.&,kd wJufwGdKifSr'g. tH.jzm.xGdKuf tH.jzm.oifSig. e0fSoGL?

tar.&duef.tpdk.&e0fS urBm.wef w_zHK.vGKrf;tavmif; wGrf.
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crf;xDtpdk.&tvifzHk.w&kdSw0f; vkdStpGdKStAl.wAm.w&kdSw0f; uaz.vGOf'g.
tE W&m,f.zHk. az.ucH.Am.rGKef;e0fS usdKSpmS&Jurf;vGOfSaz.wJif uxGm'g.
tar.&duef.crf;om;vJh wGrf.oSaqGmhSaqGmhS xmSirf;w&sdK;uifSuifS *k%f.
odumQ .t0f;t0f;wJif urBm.avmif.,kd avGSoJiSf tHak tm0f.aEGmifSAm. e0fSoGL?
tar.&duef.vkdSrsdKSzHk. azsmfpGOf.crf;rJkifS wGdK.pGOfxDrJkifSvJh tE W&m,f.,HuifS
taemif . tosuf , H o sif S twG u f w m./ crf . xD e 0f S zH k . tuk d ut0f . 'g.
crf;vifSa&S&m.qJif.&m.tar.&duef.oH.wref.a&S&GrfSzHk. wGrf.tcdef.aAGaAGwJif
t0f.xl.wm.0Gef.avGS t0f . ayG g xG m; e0f S oG L ? wG r f . ud p P t rsd K Srsd K SawG m h S
a0GSoD;vkdSrsdKS rOf.azsmfwGdK.avGS'g. Ekdif.iH. crf;xDwAm.Am.tukdcg/ qJif.wGrf.
crf;xDe0fSwAm. Oya'.zHk./ crf;xDe0fSwAm.tukd uvkd.aoxGdKufaooifS'g.
tausmifSc&m./ uvk.d aosmif. uvk.d aqmif.'g.udpzP .kH up'g. tausmifSc&m.

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t0f. ut0f.tHkxdGKif.waEGmif.aEGmifS urBm.avmif;EJkif;oeDS,kde0fS uGyfyGdK;'sm.
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

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ajz@SvDvdwfapmif.

twG,fS (1) trJkifS (3)

vdwfrJhig = 12
tm.&k%f.wom aig0f;w,f.tGOf

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Am. EJkif;e0fSoGL?

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wGdK.avGSpvJOf; trJkif=3 ukd e0fSoGL? vdwfapmif.terf;xD (ta&taoG;) ,dk
vmqefSyGHK.yrm. az.uaAG az.uqS az.uxif.xkd vGOfxJif;xJif;twGuf
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tusdKS,HutmtDe0fS xGmyxrta&SwefoGwfSoGL?

vd w f a pmif . terf ; xD az.u,d e f ; aAG a AG v G O f “tm.&k % f .
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ajymifSvJkif.'g. txGmtuJkif tausmifSc&m.trsdKSrsdKSzHk.,kd pD.jcyfae;wGrf.
vuFm.uAsm/ xGdK@Sqifae;wGrf.umwGef. &Grf_zJKifS zHk.wJif wJrf;yomvGaoGmh
vdwfrlzHk.tausmifS zpfavm0f;[GKefAm.oGL?

e0f S xG L wum.w0f ; “tm.&k % f . wom” vd w f a pmif . wAm.
vG K rf ; tae.w&k d S w0f ; / vd w f a pmif . ud k uyg'g. tausmif S tc&m.
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taygiSf vuQ%m.uxGm'g. xmSxD. xmSa0G.zef.zH.k vJh wJr;f yomaEGmifSvG'sm.
tausmifS tGOf.[GKefAm.oGL?

“tm.&k % f . wom” ,k d urB m .avmif ; owW 0 g.taygif S oD ;
wefweftmtm tusdKSwxGmtDw0f;cef;pGOf.vJh eDytkd0f.cGdKSEG,f.twm.
oJ k i f S wwG w f S tG w f S w_cH K ;tae. tusd K StD . xG m aEG m if S tD ' sm.u&k d S e0f S
t0f.,GKrf;tH.avGS'sm.oGL?

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uGKefSvGOfwm. ytdk0f.pdGK;cdGKStpdGKScsKyf w&efusKdSpmSaz.awGmhS uvSvGOf'g.
terf;_cHKzHk.e0fS ytdk0f.crf;om;wcl;wacg0f tHkt0f.cH.pm.avGSAm. &dkSpGOf.
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0ifSpGdKifusSwG,f.euf AGefEJkif;zkd.yem;twGdKifS ASwGdK.[ef.oSeDS,dkoGL?
ytdk0f.crf;om;xDom;tavmif; wxJhvGOfvl;'g.t[0ftuJkifzHk.e0fS wGrf.
ytkd0f.pGdK;cGdKStpGdKScsKyfA[kd.Xm.e ut0f.cg.nmSqHk; AOfajy@S'g. &yf&m.a'.ozHk.
e0fS a'ghSw0f;'GKrf? wcJkif.nw0f;tcdef.um.v a0ifSe,f.oD.oJif.a'.otudk
ut0f.'g. aumifwajz (vG,fw_zD;) ASuGOf.w&yfwpyf/ yGOfajcmifqSuGOf.zJhS
w&yfwpyf/ oJik Sf acg0f Aef;a,ef. qSuGO.f aumifavmif;aqmif.jcm w&yfwpyf
up'g. &yf&m.a'.ozH.k tukd ref;pJSh upGKd ifusSwG,.f euf uedupf ufrmSoDxSkd 'g.
ytkd0f.crf;om;xDom;zHk.? a0ifSawmif.uDS qSuDSxifS xDaoif.&DG;&yf&m.
ref;pJSh uwG,.f oDxSkd 'g. ytd0k .f ay.zH.k e0fS ytd0k .f pdKG ;cdKG StpdKG ScsKyftae; um.uG,.f
&Jurf;avGSaz.vJOf; EJkif;rJkifa[mif;?

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crf;ulcrf;em.ut0f.'g. ytdk0f.crf;om;xDom;zHk.w&kdSw0f; wGrf.A[dk.Xm.e
ut0f.aAmhS'g. ytdk0f.crf;om; xDom;zHk.w&kdSw0f; w&mSOya'.ta[hScGS&sL.
qSv awGmif;awGmif;w&sm;&sm; ,Haz.utHkuGL.aEGmifSAm. EJkif;EJkif;vkd@0ifSe0fS
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