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Christmas Traditions Around the World Study 2007

Christmas Traditions Around the World Study 2007

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Christmas Traditions Around the World Study 2007

Compiled and edited by Susan Mercy Disclaimer: This study is in no way meant to be a complete trip around the world. It is an outgrowth of something I’ve wanted to explore with my children for several years. This year it ties in nicely with our multi-cultural studies using Sonlight’s Core 5 and Core C. I am sharing it with you in hopes that you will enjoy using it with your children, too. Please feel free to add, subtract, or tweak it to suit the needs of your family. If you have any questions or comments, please email me at smercy@tds.net. Website Resources The History Channel The Homeschool Mom Crewsnest Santa’s Net Santa's Net Around the World Santa's Net Favorites How Merry Christmas is Said Around the World Northpole California Mall Holiday Traditions Christmas Around the World for Travelers Kids Domain Christmas Around the World Christmas World Virtual Advent Calendar Visit a Virtual Tree Farm Global Christmas Techdirect Christmas Christmas Celebrations Rumela's Web Twilight Bridge St. Nicholas Day WhyChristmas Christian Freebies Christmas Stuff Christmas Crafts Family Fun Holiday Decorations Kids Domain Christmas Crafts Family Crafts Christmas Crafts Gift Tags Free Gift Tags Family Crafts Christmas Tree Ornaments Freecraftz Christian Freebies Christmas Crafts Family Crafts Gifts to Make Family Crafts Penguin Crafts DLTK Russian Star Ornaments Tin Foil Twinkle Stars British Christmas Crackers

Christmas Cooking The Worldwide Gourmet Recipezaar Books A New Look at Christmas Decorations by Sister M. Gratia—old, but has good info on country traditions, as well as craft ideas Christmas Around the World by Mary D. Lankford Christmas Around the World by Emily Kelley Christmas Crafts from Around the World by Judy Sadler Christmas Decorations Kids Can Make by Kathy Ross—really nice book with lots of kid appeal. I believe most kids (at least the ones I know!) could follow the directions with minimal “big person” help. Ed Emberley’s Christmas Drawing Book Origami for Christmas by Chiyo Araki I tell you, this book makes ME want to get right in there and start folding paper, too! The Christmas Book by Mary Ling An African Christmas by Ifeoma Onyefulu Annika's Secret Wish by Beverly Lewis Antonella and her Santa Claus by Barbara Augustin Baboushka and the Three Kings by Ruth Robbins The Bear Family's World Tour Christmas by Kestutis Kasparavicius The Cat on the Dovrefell illustrated by Tomie de Paola The Chanukkah Guest by Eric Kimmel The Christmas Tomten by Viktor Rydberg The Cobweb Christmas by Shirley Climo Joy to the World by Saviour Pirotta A Kenya Christmas by Tony Johnston The Little Match Girl by Hans Christian Andersen North Country Christmas by Shelley Gill A Northern Nativity by William Kurelek One Hundred Shining Candles by Janet Lunn A Pioneer Christmas by Barbara Greenwood The Power of Light: Eight Stories for Hanukkah by Isaac Bashevis Singer Tree of Cranes by Allen Say What's Cooking, Jamela? illustrated by Niki Daly Who's That Knocking on Christmas Eve? by Jan Brett Wreath of Christmas Legends by Phyllis McGinley Other World Book Encyclopedia, 2007 edition Boy Lego Advent Calendar Girl Lego Advent Calendar

Australia http://www.crewsnest.vispa.com/journeyaustralia.htm http://www.santas.net/australianchristmas.htm http://www.californiamall.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-Australia.htm http://holidays.kaboose.com/xmas-around-australia.html http://christmas-world.freeservers.com/australia.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/8559/austxmas.htm http://www.tasgreetings.com/boomers.htm http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/8559/xmasrcp2.htm Craft: sacks, carol, candle, Santa in swimmers, Aussie animal in Santa hat/suit Christmas in Australia falls in the middle of summer, with temperatures ranging from 80100 degrees. Because it is warm, Australians don’t decorate their houses with greenery as much because they can be outdoors more. Native flowers that are blooming at Christmas time include the red and green flowering Christmas bush, and the yellowedged, bell-shaped Christmas bell flower. Children search for gold Christmas beetles, which are small, clumsy insects that appear around Christmastime and fly into windows or cling to clothing. In 1937, a radio announcer, Norman Banks, noticed an old woman sitting alone at her window, listening to Christmas carols on her radio. Her home was lit by candles. The next year, Mr. Banks proposed a community-wide singing event to be held. The first was in Melbourne and it has spread to other cities and is called Carols by Candlelight. Shops sell special candles, with the proceeds donated to charity. As darkness falls, candles are lit by choir members, who are dressed in white. The sky overhead is decorated with stars, including the Southern Cross formation. Audiences in the parks hold flickering candles and listen as the choir sings carols, including the audience singalong “Let There Be Peace and Let It Begin With Me,” and concluding with “Auld Lang Syne” at midnight. Speaking of carols, Australians have their own versions with titles like “Santa Never Made it Into Darwin,” “Australians Let Us Barbeque,” and “Santa’s Moving to the South Pole.” Since December is such a warm month in Australia, people usually shop wearing shorts and t-shirts. Santa is often depicted wearing swimmers (a swimsuit) and arriving at a beach on a surfboard or in a boat, instead of sliding down a chimney. Decorations can include Aussie images like kangaroos and koala bears stifling in Santa hats or red scarves! Christmas cards reflect the same extremes from traditional Victorian images to a summer Santa! Often, Australians have their Christmas dinner on a local beach or at a backyard picnic. They may enjoy a lively outdoor game or swim in their pool. Christmas dinner may include the traditional turkey dinner, and ends with a flaming Christmas plum pudding for dessert, showing Australia’s British ancestry. The pudding is made with suet, spices, rains, and apples (but no plums!) and steamed for 6 hrs. In the days of the Australian gold rush, Christmas puddings frequently contained gold nuggets. Today a coin or small favor is baked inside, and whoever finds it will be lucky.

In recent years, some residents long for a wintry setting for a Christmas celebration. This longing has developed into a Christmas in June or Christmas in July tradition. People head up into the cool mountains for a campout where they sing carols around a campfire. In most areas, no specific date is set for the occasion. It depends on when they can get a few days off work or school in their mid-winter season.

Santa in fire truck Greeting: Merry Christmas Christmas in New Zealand falls right in the middle of summer.santas. riding on the back of a fire truck. complete with tree. Children hear the siren and come running out to greet Santa and receive the candy that he tosses to them.html Craft: sheep. chicken. A special church service helps to celebrate with the story of the birth of Baby Jesus. folks often sit around singing carols as it gets dark. and they have many shepherds who care for their flocks. It's been said that there is nothing to compare with the total bliss of the taste of food from a hangi. and of course foods which were just too heavy to serve in the heat of a summer day. gifts. . he may appear dressed the way we know him. Small towns have Christmas parades. such as kiwifruit and strawberry. This is essentially a big hole in the ground which is heated with hot rocks placed in it. Usually the hangi is served in the late afternoon or early evening. Christmas dinner may reflect old English traditions. Their spirits and creatures often resemble the elves and gnomes of European Christmas traditions. Many people in New Zealand will create a traditional Maori hangi. potatoes and stuffing. The dinner may be cooked on the barbecue outside. Santa may be depicted as Father Christmas. covered and then allowed to cook underground. kumara. Modern New Zealanders can relate to the story.net/newzealandchristmas. everyone is anxiously waiting for the tender pork. New Zealanders also like to celebrate Christmas in July. in his red suit trimmed with white fur. After the meal. pumpkin. The Maori culture influences Christmas celebrations. It's filled up with baskets of food. by serving turkey and plum budding. dressed in his red cloak and white beard. Dessert is traditionally Pavlova—an airy meringue confection decorated with fruit. so snow and ice are not part of their celebration! The New Zealand Christmas tree is called Pohutukawa and its flowers are a brilliant scarlet throughout the Christmas season.com/newzealand.freeservers. but there are often served with cold salads. elf/gnome. and include Kiwi treats such as lamb chops. They can relate to the Christmas story. along with the usual Christmas victuals.htm http://christmas-world. delicately smoked and melt-in-the-mouth soft. as well. or. as they have no motels. Santa visits the children on Christmas morning. with brightly decorated floats.New Zealand http://www. By the time the food comes out.

Christmas Day is a church family day for Protestant Christians.santas. peace dove Greeting: Papua New Guinea “Bikpela hamamas blong dispela Krismas na Nupela yia i go long yu” In Micronesia. Christmas is celebrated in much the same way as in Australia. In Papua. Guam’s holiday season is similar to that of the United States. Each tribe was to take care of this adopted child. Christmas passes as just another day. To create peace amongst tribes the chief of each tribe would exchange an infant son known as the Peace child.santas. Another hour or two is spent in hymn and carol singing.htm http://www. . lay preacher. for if the child died the treaty would end and fighting would break out again. and their celebration is similar to that in Mexico. Everyone attends the local church and spends most of the day there.htm Craft: palm tree.net/micronesianchristmas.net/papuanewguineanchristmas. New Guinea. for many villagers in the more remote areas. and missionary in the area. it is considered proper for each recipient to applaud himself as he goes to receive the two bars of soap he is likely to be given. Japanese tourists to the island come by the thousands to see the beautifully decorated hotels and shops. A Canadian missionary and his wife may be responsible for this tradition when they shared the gospel story of how God sent His only Son to be the peace child long ago.santas.htm http://www. The long worship service includes a message from every minister. If gifts are presented.Pacific Islands http://www. Traditions in New Guinea take on a different twist.net/newguineanchristmas. The local people are mostly Roman Catholic. However.

There is no religious reason for schools to be closed. Some are family-based and others are communal. or candlestick. but may leave early in order to be home to kindle the lights at nightfall. at the time of the Maccabee rebellion.santas. An extra light called a shamash. dreidel Greeting: Mo'adim Lesimkha. schools close for the whole week of Hanukkah. It celebrates the rekindling of the temple menorah.com/around/bethlehem. a prayer is recited. and there is no obligation to refrain from activities that are forbidden on the Sabbath.santas. and it begins on the 25th day of the month of Kislev.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-israel. The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each night of the holiday . psalms will also be recited.htm Hanukkah is and eight-day holiday celebrated by Jews around the world.net/bethlehemchristmas.htm http://www.Bethlehem http://www. In some homes. in Israel. Hanukkah is celebrated by a series of rituals that are performed every day throughout the 8-day holiday. There are special additions to the daily prayer service. As the candles are lit. two on the second.net/holylandchristmas. Dates for upcoming years are: • • • • • • • • Sunday December 21 in 2008 Friday December 11 in 2009 Wednesday December 1 in 2010 Tuesday December 20 in 2011 Saturday December 8 in 2012 Wednesday November 27 in 2013 Tuesday December 16 in 2014 Sunday December 6 in 2015 Hanukkah is also known as the Festival of Lights. . although.freeservers.com/israel.the-north-pole.californiamall. and so on. People go to work as usual. and a section is added to the blessing after meals. Chena tova Israel http://www. and a song is sung. children often play the dreidel game with a spinning top and coins or candies. meaning guard or servant is also lit each night. silhouette. In 2007. and is given a distinct location. which may fall anywhere from late November to late December.one on the first night.htm http://christmas-world.html Crafts: shooting star.html Holy Land http://www. During Hanukkah. it begins at sundown on December 4 and ends at nightfall on December 12. a blessing is said by the father. Hanukkah is not a "Sabbath-like" holiday. The purpose of the extra light is to remind the people against using the Hanukkah lights for anything other than meditating on the Hanukkah story. usually higher or lower than the others.

The site where tradition holds that Jesus was born in a manger. The procession solemnly enters the doors and places an ancient effigy of the Holy Child in the church. a 14-pointed silver star on the floor marks the spot where the humble manger of Jesus’ birth supposedly was located. called sufganiya. and then Christians attend services at their church and exchange Christmas greetings. At Christmas. is another Hanukkah tradition. On Christmas Eve. as well as in different languages. Galloping horsemen and police mounted on Arabian horses lead the parade. as there are a large number of Christians in the city of Jesus’ birth. as are a jelly donut cooked in oil. the church is ablaze with flags and decorations. Latkes. because of the three different religious calendars in use. the town’s people and visitors crowd the church’s doorways and watch from the rooftop as a dramatic procession approaches. They are followed by a solitary horseman carrying a cross and sitting astride a coal-black horse. Once is on the 24th of December celebrated by the Protestant and Catholic Churches. but. is now the site of the Church of the Nativity. Eating dairy products.Traditional Hanukkah foods include foods cooked in oil. are a favorite food. At times. Coptic (Egyptian) and Syrian churches. It is actually celebrated three times. in remembrance of the oil that burned in the temple. or potato pancakes. The second is for the Greek Orthodox. in different parts of the church. Then come churchmen and government officials. especially cheese. all three services are going on at the same time. A star is set up on a pole in the village square. In a grotto. . Christmas is also celebrated in Bethlehem. Christian homes in Bethlehem are marked by a cross painted over the door and each home displays a homemade manger scene. The third is the Armenian Church. Christmas gifts are exchanged on Christmas morning before breakfast.

tulip. they blow special horns to announce the coming of the Christ Child. (For most of the year. the children usually find the hay and sugar gone from their shoe.com/netherlands. This tradition dates back to around 2500 BC. The Dutch people love to sing Christmas carols. skate.kaboose.santas. These horns are crafted from the wood of birch or elder saplings. and they are usually 3 to 4 feet long. to be in the Netherlands for his birthday. sled. they sound a deep tone similar to a foghorn. Having a white Christmas in the Netherlands is rare. and continuing on until Christmas Even. After Sinterklaas has returned to Spain following his feast day.freeservers. or Sinterklaas as they know him to be. wooden shoe Greeting: Vrolijk Kerstfeest en een Gelukkig Nieuwjaar! or Zalig Kerstfeast Christmas begins in the Netherlands in mid-November! Tradition holds that St. A small gift may be wrapped in a large box. Nicholas and Black Peter have been busy preparing lists of presents and recording the behavior of Dutch children in a very large book. Midwinter Horn Blowing is an ancient custom that is still carried out by farmers in the rural eastern part of the Netherlands. In the evening. a small candy or coin.htm http://www. or Sinterklaas Avond (Eve. The saintly visitor wears the robes of a Bishop and has a long flowing white beard. They love surprises. and in their place. called kerstster or Christmas star. is very popular. so they will wrap gifts in unusual ways.net/netherlandschristmas.santas.htm http://holidays. and the poinsettia flower. or a gift may be hidden in an unexpected place. December 6th. St. hoping that by doing this. Christmas trees are found in most homes. In the morning. It was believed that the sound of the horn would drive away evil spirits. Sinterklaas is believed to ride on his beautiful white horse over the rooftops and drops gifts down the chimneys of the homes. pinwheel. Some families have people dressed as Sinterklaas and Black Peter visit their homes. The adults like to exchange gifts as well. A humorous rhyme may accompany the gift.html Craft: Sinterklaas sack. and ask them to recite Bible verses. . which can be heard up to three miles away on a cold. and the welcoming parade. clear night. preparation for Christmas begins.Netherlands December 5th--Sinterklaas Eve http://www. though.com/xmas-around-netherlands.html http://christmas-world. December 5th.) is the day of the biggest celebration in the Netherlands. is televised and viewed by those who aren’t able to welcome him in person. they will find favor with the Saint. Beginning on Advent Sunday.net/dutchchristmas. the children fill their wooden shoes with hay and sugar for Sinterklaas’ horse. They question the children about their behavior in the past year. travels from Spain with his horse and a Moorish servant named Black Peter in a steamer ship. When blown over an open well. windmill. The horn blowers on the various farms call and answer back and the tones echo and resound across the valleys. During the night. His arrival in the Netherlands. Nicholas.

a fruity Christmas bread. or on First Christmas Day morning. goose. and the story of Jesus’ birth or favorite Christmas tales read. and red trimmings. The dinner table is candle-lit and decorated with green.Christmas is celebrated on two days. and kerstkrans. again packaged in a humorous way. Relatives and friends often come to visit and eat goodies during the day. or eating dinner out at a nice restaurant. more gifts may be exchanged. Christmas carols are sung. which may include attending plays or symphonies. Christmas breakfast includes kerststol. Second Christmas Day is spent in leisurely activities. along with sweets such as puddings. white. . On First Christmas Day. Turkey. a fruit and almond-paste bread. krentebolletjes current buns and roomboter real butter. often with candles. hare. School children receive 2 weeks vacation from school during this time. roast pork or meat fondue are all popular for dinner on Christmas Night. or Christmas ring. marzipan and kerstbrot. The Christmas tree may be lit for the first time. instead of just one. The people attend church services on Christmas Eve. venison. cookies in the shape of an initial.

Hungary December 6th—St.com/hungary.jcu. however. you can buy hot fried or roasted chestnuts. After talking with the children. The children place their polished boots in the windows of their homes. the Mikulas figure will visit. with a small toy or treat for each day of the season. dates. Children who have not behaved well during the year will find in their boot a bundle of straw.org/hung.christmasarchives. St. as well. girls throw lead into their backyards. and he praises them for the good they have done during the year and also chides them for their naughtiness. fortunately.html http://www. are trying to keep folk traditions alive in their artwork and performances. symbolizing life and brightness. or a switch with a small devil figure attached indicating that a beating is in order! Since usually no child is either all good. and cultural and folk groups. in schools or in workplaces for the workers’ children.com/hungary. The boys perform a short play about the Jesus child. some of which date back to 1000 AD and even earlier.hungarotips. On the Luca Napja. Good children will find their boots filled with goodies—candy. Often. Folk traditions are more likely to be observed in small villages. or Luca’s Day.edu/language/hunghemu/hunghe7g. Mikulas (Me-ku-lash) visits Hungarian children. Most children get small toys and books. Artists. or all bad. with songs and poems. Candles are decorated with red and gold ribbons. Homes are decorated with lights inside.” In the evening.html http://www. .htm Craft: popcorn garland.freeservers. Advent wreathes are very common in both homes and shops.htm http://www. than in urban areas. December 13th.net/hungarianchristmas. he will play with them or they will watch a movie together. and the shape of the lead on the ground foretells the occupation of the one they will fall in love with. apples.santas. children most often find a switch AND goodies in their boot! They don’t get that beating either. Most children get an Advent calendar. On street corners.zuzu. work is begun on making a chair of seven different kinds of wood. On December 6th. but outside and public decoration is rare. and chocolate Mikulas figures. The children have the chance to talk with him. which will be completed on Christmas Eve. Luca’s Day is also the day of “love predictions. apple Greeting: Kellemes Karacsonyi unnepeket Christmas in Hungary begins with the celebration of Advent. Nicholas’ Day. Nicholas Day http://www. and is full of folk traditions. Written documentation of the “Bethlemes” events has been found from the 1600s.com/ch/ http://christmas-world. Another Christmas tradition involves groups of boys in costume going from door to door with a model of the holy family. walnuts. Now this tradition is performed by both girls and boys.html http://www. tangerines. The chairmaking is part of an old superstition that claims you can stand on the chair at the Christmas Eve Mass and see who all of the witches are in the room.

or Holy Evening. The meal that follows usually consists of fish (especially fried fish or fish soup. including the special walnut and poppy seed cookies rolls called “beigli. . A wide variety of holiday cookies ends the meal. called Szaaloncukor. following tradition. Once the family has gathered around the tree.) or cabbage. Children believe that angels bring the tree to the family. The Christmas tree is decorated on Christmas Eve.Christmas Eve is called Szent-este. The ornaments include colorful ornaments and special holiday candies wrapped in gold and red foil and tied with bows. they sing Christmas carols together and open their gifts.” The family attends Midnight Mass together at church. and children are not allowed to see it until they hear the tree bells ring and music start. and it is an important part of the Christmas celebration.

when they return home to a dinner of lamb and rice or Boulgeur Pilav. As in days of old.html http://www.html Craft: white dove. Christmas decorations can be seen along the streets. . Hand cymbals and the human voice are the only music at the Coptic Orthodox Christmas service.Badarak. on storefronts. the women take their turn making and receiving social visits. The decorations usually stay up until mid-January. Following the morning service on Christmas Day.stvartan. Adults fill the handkerchiefs with presents of raisins or fried wheat and money. the men in the village exchange social calls and are served coffee and sweets.Armenia http://christmas-world. On the third day after Christmas. Following the service. the children then go onto the roofs of their homes with handkerchiefs and sing carols. candle Greeting: Shenoraavor Nor Dari yev Pari Gaghand Armenians believe Christ's birthday should be celebrated on the same day as His baptism. women and men sit in separate sections. Coptic cross. In the cities. Incense clouds waft across shafts of sunlight that set gold-plated icons aglow on vaulted apses in the church.ca/christmas. star.com/armenia. and on outdoor Christmas trees. They eat no meat for a week and no food at all on the last day before Christmas. The Armenians who go by the old traditions prepare for Christmas with a fast.freeservers. which is January 6 by our calendar (Gregorian). The fast is broken only after the Christmas Eve service .

pumpkin pie. No green branches can be seen! On Christmas Eve morning. and boiled prunes served in their liquid. Of course. when they go out to the shops and buy their holiday foods and their Christmas tree. and helping to cook. Once the dining room is incensed. setting the table. walnuts and garlic. raisins. the family is ready to celebrate. 9.htm http://www. Then pick the branches that are one against another (at the same level of the stick) and tie them so that they form something like a round circle one half of which is at the left side and the other half is at the right side of the stick. The meal begins with garlic to insure good health for the coming year and that is followed by bread and honey to insure that the coming year will be sweet. Decorate the whole thing with little balls made out of cotton. As part of the ritual.net/bulgarianchristmas. dried peppers. prunes. The meal also includes favorite vegetarian foods such as: white bean soup. the whole family gathers at the table for their special feast. dried fruit compote. three or four such circles through the length of the stick.html Craft: patting stick * Greeting: Tchestita Koleda. telling them what they can help with. After working hard all day. leave some of the shorter branches to just stick out. homemade bread. so that several branches remain on the two sides of it all along its length. etc. the family decorates the entire rest of the house. red dried peppers filled with white beans. you have it ready!!! Christmas in Bulgaria is very much a family holiday. And . On Christmas Eve.com/nomer6/bulgaria. beans.html http://www. When they finish around 9 pm. The celebration starts on December 23rd. hovering over the house. The closest relatives arrive about 7 pm. followed by all sorts of balls and other ornaments. Everyone is expected to sit at the table before it gets dark outside. they gather in the living room. the father of the family moves through the house with incense while the family recites special prayers to drive away any evil spirits that may be lurking. going out for last minute shopping.. Tchestito Rojdestvo Hristovo *"You should get a cornel stick/cudgel. Lights of all colors begin the decorating process. You should have at the end two.com/bulgaria.geocities. Also. the whole tree is bright and colorful. Christmas carols and played. or 11-dish vegetarian meal! When they arrive home from the shops.. Prune it. dried apple slices. and the family sings along as they decorate the tree. . cleaning.freeservers.Bulgaria http://christmas-world. Then wrap up the circles and the stick with woolen and cotton yarn (usually white and red). The celebration feast on Christmas Eve will be a 7. The Bulgarian people go to great lengths to ensure that their homes are warm and cozy for Christmas. strings of popcorn. cabbage leaves stuffed with rice. The mother “bosses around” the family members.santas. everyone takes their place at the table and no is supposed to stand up before the entire meal is finished. the upper circles will be smaller and the lower circles will be wider. Their Christmas tree and all of the decorations are brought in.

Dinner continues until 11 pm. extended family. It is believed that this action called Sooroovakaneh will make all wishes come true during the next year and will make sure that the year will be very fertile and productive for the person patted. . friends and any visitors in the house with a special patting-stick. while others leave the food out for departed family members whose spirit may return. at which point the family leaves the table and proceeds to sit around the Christmas tree. happiness and all the best to one patted. grandparents. the most important aspect of Sooroovakaneh is that the person patted usually gives the child some money -. This is something with which the children pat their parents. the youngsters say a wish for health. For the youngsters.A special Christmas bread is baked. They do NOT clear the table until Christmas morning! Some say that it is to insure that there will be plenty of food in the coming year. with a coin inside. It is believed that this is the way you "buy" your success and productivity during the coming year.a dollar or two. wealth. The oldest family member breaks the loaf into pieces and presents each family member with a piece of bread. Sooroovachka is a typical Christmas tradition in some areas of Bulgaria. The person who finds the coin in their piece of bread is believed to have special good fortune for the upcoming New Year. Still others leave the food on the table in case Joseph and Mary stop on their way to Bethlehem. While patting.

and honey and poppy seeds which ensure happiness.html http://www. Throughout Russia. have a day off and enjoy oneself. After the procession completes its circle around the church. success. which became the Festival of Winter. Nicholas. St. all of which could be stacked so they would fit together inside the largest doll. a return to religion represents a return to their old roots and their old culture.com/educators/lesson_plans/detail. Saint Nicholas and the like. Christmas trees went on sale three days before the holiday with most decorations made by hand. was also suppressed during Communist rule. and Nicholas is one of the most common names for Russian boys. The Krestny Khod procession is led by the highestranking member of the Russian Orthodox Church. Nicholas of Myra. Nicholas is especially popular in Russia. A ceremony involving the blessing of the home is frequently observed.qld. For many Russians.santas. The little dolls came in various sizes. with Christmas trees and Christmas gifts. Many fathers were enlisted to carve matrioshka dolls to hang on the tree. and untroubled rest.htm http://christmas-world. religious observances were suppressed. New Year's Eve was simply a chance to celebrate. after Christmas Eve services. The most important ingredient is a special porridge called kutya. with one exception: there was no remnant of Christianity in the holiday.cfm?id=630 Greeting: Pozdrevlyayu s prazdnikom Rozhdestva is Novim Godom Before 1917. The kutya is eaten from a common dish to symbolize unity.crayola. It is made of wheatberries or other grains which symbolize hope and immortality. torches. but the holiday has returned.com/russia.net/russianchristmas. many Eastern Orthodox Churches have been named for him.au/xmas/russiachristmas. Christmas was celebrated in Russia in much the same way as it was in the rest of the world: on December 25.html Craft: peasant doll. on December 6th. Christmas Eve dinner is a meatless but festive 12 course meal. in honor of the 12 apostles.edu. and St. and Grandfather Frost arrived on New Year’s Day instead of Christmas. just as their grandparents and great-grandparents did long ago.htm http://hoover. and homemade lanterns parade around the church. people carrying candles.Russia http://www. wheat sheaves bound with ribbon Russian Star Ornament http://www.gov/exhibits/christmasworld/russia. the congregation reenters and they sing several carols and hymns before going home for a late Christmas Eve dinner. New Year's Eve became to Russians what Christmas is to most people in the rest of the world. Some families used to throw a spoonful of kutya up to the ceiling. Legend has it that the 11th-century Prince Vladimir traveled to Constantinople to be baptized. and returned with stories of miracles performed by St. The Feast of St. and all formerly Christmas traditions were transferred to New Year's Eve. . Nicholas was transformed to Grandfather Frost. During the years of Communism after 1917.archives. The Christmas tree became a New Year’s Tree. Since then.freeservers.rochedalss. It was a chance to exchange gifts. to bring in the New Year and get rid of the old.

According to tradition. there would be a plentiful honey harvest. Christmas dinner includes a variety of different meats. decorated with flowers and colored lights. called Yelka. The other courses include fish. and other such festivities. Some Russian families are indicating a preference for traditional customs and Grandfather Frost is once again arriving on Christmas rather than New Years. so Grandfather Frost makes house calls instead. Christmas is again the time when gifts are exchanged. Russia enjoyed its first official Christmas in over 70 years. distributing toys to the children from her basket. cabbage stuffed with millet. she failed to give food and shelter to the three wise men during their journey to visit the Christ Child. According to tradition. beet soup or Borsch. parties. . if the kutya stuck. In 1991. On Christmas Day. but she was never able to find the wise men. Hay is spread on the floors and tables to encourage horse feed to grow in the coming year and people make clucking noises to encourage their hens to lay eggs. the Russian equivalent to our Santa Claus. She regretted her act and set off to try to catch up with the wise men. which means grandmother. Goose and suckling pig are favorites. cooked dried fruit and much more. visiting to leave gifts after the children have fallen asleep on Christmas Eve. Another traditional figure is Grandfather Frost. she now roams the countryside and visits the homes of children during the holiday season. and New Year's has its original traditions of fireworks. People gather in churches which have been decorated with the usual Christmas trees. Russian tradition has various figures who bring gifts to children. One is Babushka. hymns and carols are sung.According to tradition. Russian houses don’t have chimneys. The Russian people of today are now allowed to embrace the customs of a genuine Old Russian Christmas. collecting toys for the Infant Jesus as she went.

htm http://christmas-world. according to belief. who is the patron saint of children. as well as under the tablecloths some hay is spread to remember that Christ was born in a manger. Ukrainian Christmas festivities begin on Christmas Eve ([G]Dec. and to the remembrance of the ancestors. or religious beliefs. the family gathers to begin supper. [J]Jan.uazone. and sleighs are ridden around the village to see if the snow is slippery or icy. but also on pre-Christian. and are full of ancient customs based not only on Christian traditions. Ukrainian Christmas traditions have passed down through the ages.24. and it is believed that their spirits reside in it during the holidays. The rituals of the Christmas Eve are dedicated to God. the Ukrainian people venerate St. . Nicholas Day. In Ukraine. this is a very important Christmas tradition. people invite guests in. On that day. to the welfare of the family. Under the table. He is often accompanied by “angels” and might quiz the children on their catechism. because the stalks of grain symbolize all the ancestors of the family.freeservers.html http://www.Ukraine http://www. it is a tradition that all family members receive a new piece of clothing.com/ukraine. For Christmas. Nicholas. not Christmas. Children receive gifts from St.html Craft: silver web. The three rings symbolize the Trinity and the circular form represents Eternity. star Greeting: Srozhdestvom Kristovym or Z RIZDVOM HRYSTOVYM Like Russians. is the usual gift-giving day in much of Europe. with a candle in the center of the top one.6. which reach back to antiquity. A kolach (Christmas bread) is placed in the center of the table. This bread is braided into a ring.net/ukrainianchristmas.brama. Nicholas and celebrate his feast day on December 6.com/art/christmas. A didukh (meaning grandfather) is a sheaf of wheat stalks or made of mixed grain stalks.net/holidays/christmas. and three such rings are placed one on top of the other. It is placed under the icons in the house. pagan culture and tradition. The table is covered with two tablecloths. With the appearance of the first star which is believed to be the Star of Bethlehem or the Wise Men’s star. come on Christmas Eve and partake of the food.html http://www. the second for the living members. The Christmas Eve Supper or Sviata Vecheria (Holy Supper) brings the family together to partake in special foods and begin the holiday with many customs and traditions. whose souls. St.santas. one for the ancestors of the family. The table always has one extra place-setting for the deceased family members.) and end on the Feast of the Epiphany.

A jug of uzvar (stewed fruits. Ukrainian Christmas songs or carols have their origins in antiquity. such as the violin. marinated herring and so on. Kutia is the most important food of the entire Christmas Eve Supper. they entered the house and sang carols for each member of the family. The skit . In some places the people even had musical instruments. it was more of a folk opera. Then come varenyky (boiled dumplings filled with cabbage. which had been previously blessed in church. tsymbaly (dulcimer). fish balls. It is the main dish of the whole supper. Then comes borshch (beet soup) with vushka (boiled dumplings filled with chopped mushrooms and onions). One member dressed as a goat. is also served. Yet another carried a six-pointed star attached to a long stick with a light in its center. This is followed by a variety of fish . If the answer was yes.baked. The latter are sung during the Feast of the Epiphany. which symbolized the Star of Bethlehem. or prunes. which is a derivation from the word meaning generous. and the supper ends with uzvar. or the trembita (a wooden pipe about 8-10 feet long. the collector of all the gifts people would give them. Caroling required extensive preparation. used in the Carpathian Mountains by the Hutsuls). The carolers first had to ask for permission to sing. and is also called God’s Food. as do many other traditions practiced at Christmas time.After the didukh is positioned in the place of honor. After all the preparations have been completed. fried. and so on. the second group of Christmas songs is called shchedrivky. After the prayer the father extends his best wishes to everyone with the greeting Khrystos Razhdaietsia (Christ is born). the father offers each member of the family a piece of bread dipped in honey. the custom of caroling is joyful and merry. The custom of the goat accompanying the carolers has its origin in the pagan times when the goat represented the god of fertility. The very popular Ukrainian carol in the United states. While many of the Ukrainian Christmas Eve customs are of a solemn nature. potatoes. how many calves he has. They also had to present a short humorous skit involving the goat. "Carol of the Bells". Another as a bag carrier. buckwheat grains. Each group had a leader. whose name is probably derived from the Latin "calendae" meaning the first day of the month and which are sung on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. There are also holubtsi (stuffed cabbage). There are two main groups of Christmas songs in Ukraine: the koliadky. the father or head of the household places a bowl of kutia (boiled wheat mixed with poppy seeds and honey) next to it. Sometimes they even performed slow ritualistic dances. in its originality is a shchedrivka and tells of a swallow (herald of Spring) that has come to a landowner’s house and asks him to come out and see how rich he is. broiled. Caroling was not a simple singing of Christmas songs. even for the smallest child. The first course is always kutia. and the family sits down to a twelve-course meatless Christmas Eve Supper. which should contain twelve different fruits) and is called God’s Drink. cold in aspic. He then leads the family in prayer.

This also symbolized the death of Winter and the birth of Spring. He brings along a little girl named Snowflake Girl. As the sun came up. appropriately selected for each home. similar to the Easter eggs called Pysanky. special decorated eggs are made. The mother had hung a few meager nuts and fruits on the small tree outside their door in hopes of bringing some cheer to her children’s' Christmas Day celebration. In some regions of the Ukraine. She wears a silver blue costume trimmed with white fur and a crown shaped like a snowflake. On Christmas Eve. Ukrainian Christmas Spiderweb Legend One family in the village was too poor to have a decorated Christmas tree in their house. The caroling always ended with short wellwishing poems. Father Frost visits all the children in a sleigh pulled by only three reindeer. its rays glittered and sparkled on the dew that was sprinkled on the webs and turned them to silver and gold.showed the goat dying and then being brought back to life. . In the Ukraine. the spiders heard her prayers and hung their webs all over the tree.

The Chinese call their Christmas trees “Trees of Light. Buddha once staged a gala celebration and invited hundreds of guests. Midnight mass on Christmas Eve is growing more and more popular. jewels.com/china.jackiechankids.html http://www.net/chinesechristmas. The children are the main focus of these celebrations. in hopes of sweeping away all the ill-fortune there may have been in the family and to make way for the wishful incoming good luck. but the ministers use the opportunity to tell the story of Jesus’ birth and help to spread Christianity any way they can in China. the whole family stays up waiting for the New Year.santas. but the only ones who appeared were 12 different animals.China http://www. The Chinese New Year is based on the lunar calendar. Gifts are exchanged on Christmas. which is 1% of the population. but they must be in accordance with other Chinese traditions. hoping that “Christmas Old Man” will fill them with gifts and treats. and valuable gifts are given only to close family members. pagoda. eat delectable food and watch firecrackers displays.” They decorate them with holly berries and colorful ornaments made from paper. They also hang muslin stockings. For most Chinese. paper chain Greeting: (Mandarin) Kung His Hsin Nien bing Chu Shen Tan (Cantonese) Gun Tso Sun Tan'Gung Haw Sun Christmas is becoming a more and more popular holiday in China.htm http://christmas-world. Chinese tradition of naming the year after an animal comes from a story about Buddha. On the Eve of the New Year a feast is served. as the country adopts more Western ways. and lanterns. and they do celebrate Jesus’ birth. Every light is supposed to remain on until midnight and at that time the sky lights up with fireworks.freeservers. Silks. There are approximately 10 million Christians in China. flower. In some part of China. Buddha named a year for each of them. Christmas has actually been celebrated for over 400 years. however.htm Craft: Chinese lanterns. chains. They receive new clothes and toys. To honor the animals for their courtesy in attending. but Christmas as we know it is not widely observed. . The big holiday celebration in China is the Chinese New Year.com/files/Christmas_in_China. which has a 12-year cycle. Many attendees are just curious. Days before the New Year. Many churches are filled to capacity and have to turn away worshipers. Christmas is a commercial holiday rather than a religious one. in the shapes of flowers. every family cleans their home. The non-Christian Chinese call this season the Spring Festival and celebrate with many festivities that include delicious meals and pay respects to their ancestors. After eating.

Hong Kong http://www. The cards often show the Holy Family in a Chinese setting.net/hongkongchristmas. The people of Hong Kong love to send exquisitely decorated Christmas cards. and other public places are decorated with poinsettias and nativity scenes.htm Craft: Christmas card.santas. and there are also services held in English for Europeans. Christians celebrate by attending one of the hundreds of church services in Chinese. . churches. poinsettia Greeting: Gun Tso Sun Tan'Gung Haw Sun Christmas celebrations in Hong Kong are very similar to Chinese celebrations. Homes.

The tradition of the Christmas tree came to Sweden in the 1700s from Germany.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-sweden. The Lucia tradition goes back to the 4th century. This is the day of the Christmas feast. Legend has it that this is the day of the year with the longest night. The Lucia celebration is a fairly recent addition to Swedish tradition. gnome Greeting: God Jul (Good Yule) Swedish people begin celebrating the Christmas holiday on Advent Sunday. when a Christian girl died for her beliefs in Syracuse. Religious services during Advent are well attended. the Queen of Light. julafton.Sweden December 13—St Lucia Day http://www. according to legend. flag. Christmas Eve is a day when the only work done is seeing to one's livestock. The other children in the family accompanied her. or electric bulbs.” wearing long white shirts and pointed white hats. The Christmas feast also includes a tradition called "dipping in the kettle" (doppa i grytan). Lutfisk literally translated means “lye-fish. with the lighting of candles in a wreath.” The fish is actually soaked in lye to make it soft and pliable so it can be eaten. and it represents thanksgiving for the return of the sun as the days begin to lengthen following the Winter Solstice. Lutfisk (sun-cured cod served in cream sauce) is most likely a throwback to a period of fasting from pre-Reformation times. jellied pigs feet.com/sweden. lutfisk and risgryngrot. in which the assembled family and guests dip bits of dark bread in a pot filled with drippings of pork.crewsnest.htm http://christmas-world. The eldest daughter of the family portrayed Lucia. where it originated. cookies.html Craft: wreath. and carry star wands. and corned beef. and straw ornaments. candle. which is a heart-star. A couple of days before Christmas. Swedish flags. . cherub. She would wake her parents by singing the familiar Italian song "Santa Lucia" and bring them coffee. gaily wrapped candies. The tree is lit with either candles. and whoever finds the almond will be married within the next year. We know this in America as fondue. buns. nearly every household decorates their Christmas tree with sparkling objects. or Christmas ham. The real feasting and celebrating for Swedes begins on December 13th. with a crown of evergreens with seven tall lit candles on her head.freeservers. sugar.californiamall. and occasionally "glogg" (a mulled wine). Before dawn. and includes lots of gram. she dressed in a white robe with a red sash. An almond is hidden in the porridge.vispa. The houses may be filled with red tulips and smell like pepparkakor.net/swedishchristmas.com/journeysweden.santas. sausage. which is Lucia Day. which is rice porridge. and a time when both man and beast need extra nourishment.htm http://www. By tradition. The rice porridge is made from a traditional recipe. which comprises a smörgåsbord including a few traditional dishes such as julskinka.htm http://www. bird. small gnomes wearing red tasseled hats. and cinnamon. Homes display Advent candelabra and children count down the days to Christmas using an Advent calendar. The boys dressed as “star boys. glass bulbs. or goat-shaped gingerbread biscuit.

The Jultomten is believed to look after the family and their livestock. These gifts are brought by the Jultomten. Her figures were a tremendous success and soon the Jultomten had assumed a role comparable to that of the various Santa Claus figures in other countries. King Knut was known for his generosity toward the poor. in the midst of thanksgiving and plenty. For he has promised us so. He brings with him Julbok. This is because King Knut IV (who ruled Sweden from 1080 . Twelfth Night (Epiphany) is celebrated on January 6th. He is believed to come with presents. Toward the turn of the past century a Swedish artist began producing greeting cards illustrated with gnomes. But the next year once again We shall see our dear old friend. a gnome who lives under the floorboards of the barn. someone disguised as a life-sized gnome comes on Christmas Eve with a large sack of gifts. In olden days it was a custom to have a race to or from the church services in sleds or wagons. And the tree must go. The Christmas season in Sweden doesn't officially end until St Knut's Day on January 13th. as they sing this song: Christmas has come to an end. Christmas parties and get-togethers begin on December 26. The winner of the race was believed to have the best harvest the coming year. the Christmas goat. who helps distribute the gifts.1086) decreed that Christmas should be celebrated for twenty days. In many households nowadays. After dinner all gather around the Christmas tree to open presents. and last throughout the holidays until Knut's Day. . Swedes attend church in the very early hours of Christmas morning.Symbolically this calls to mind. and in many villages people will dress up as Biblical characters and go from house to house singing hymns. all those who are in need and hunger. Christmas trees are taken down on this day to signify the end of festivities. The day is spent quietly with family. Children often leave a bowl of rice porridge for Jultomten before they go to bed.

Bangladesh http://www.net/bangladeshchristmas. so there is no official Christmas celebration. . and then tie bamboo oil lamps across them to brightly light the way to church. However.santas. They even cut down scores of banana trees and replant them in pairs along the paths to church and outside their homes! They bend over the huge leaves to make an arch. tropical fruit. leaves Greeting: Shuvo Naba Barsha Bangladesh is mainly a Muslim country. They also decorate their homes with mango leaves. The capital city of Dhaka becomes very colorful on Christmas Eve. it IS celebrated as a gift-giving ceremony. Christian villagers decorate mango or banana trees at Christmas time.htm Craft: oil lamp.

in many Christian areas. Like in India. During the last week of Advent. Christians make up a very small part of the population. The streets are also decorated and lit.Pakistan http://christmas-world. On Christmas Eve. Before and during Advent. but it is in memory of Jinnah. there are more than 5 millions Christians! Most Christians in Pakistan live in the country and are quite poor. The crib and Christmas tree are also important decorations. the founder of Pakistan.com/pakistan. colourful clothes. Mostly the money collected from such carols is used for charity works or is given to the church. there are fireworks which help celebrate the start of Bara Din. They go from house to house singing carols and in return the family offers something to the choir. After the vigil-mass. carol singing is performed by various groups.freeservers. even among Muslims in Pakistan. People wear their best. The traditional Christmas greeting in Punjabi is 'Bara Din Mubarrak Ho'. in some places. They can stay in the Church courtyard for hours. December 25th is a public holiday. Christians go to Church again for the Bara Din celebrations. The choirs sing very special hymns. Sometimes there are crib competitions! Christians also sometimes exchange Christmas cakes. 'the blessing of Christmas on you' . spiritual seminars take place to help people to prepare for Christmas or 'Bara Din' (which in Urdu and Punjabi means the 'Big Day'). enjoying various foods from the different stalls. Adults often visit their parents.html Craft: manger Greeting: Naya Saal Mubarak Ho In Pakistan. This expression is very popular. People dance. exchange presents and enjoy the special night. The evening is usually celebrated with immediate family or relatives where special food is enjoyed. On Bara Din or Christmas day. Churches are packed for the midnight or vigil-mass services. In the big Christian areas. But as Pakistan has a population over 162 million people. which means. each house is decorated and has a star on the roof.

Following tradition.htm Craft: Christmas star.com/myparol/howto. While the elders visit. Filipino children visit their godparents and elderly relatives on Christmas morning. Neighbors. or a blessing.htm http://christmas-world.edu/Tagalog/Cynthia/festivals/philippine_christmas. usually candy or money. eons ago! The natural resources of the Philippines—its tropical climate. etc. Following Mass. the worshipers partake of traditional foods.santas. pancit. and varied landscape—along with culinary delights and warmhearted people. the .html http://www. I can attest to this.niu. a street pageant takes place.myparol.M. or purchased from street vendors near the church. and said to also be the merriest. Food and drinks are also offered each place the family visits. while others may play a musical instrument. A child bows in respect to their elders. even as early as 4 A. accompanying themselves with simple homemade musical instruments. The Masses are held early in the morning. alternating playing and eating.html http://caot. tambourine Greeting: Maligayang Pasko The Philippine Islands is the only Asian country where Christians are in the majority. The Filipino Christmas is the longest in the world. crèche or Nativity scene.. The celebration continues until about 6 o'clock in the morning. depicting Mary and Joseph’s journey and search for a place of rest. like a huge open house. One child might sing a Christmas song. Garlands of light adorn Filipino homes in different shapes.com/philippines. Prior to the midnight feast. adobo. and Mass is celebrated. lumpia. Among the typical foods prepared in the Philippines during Christmas are: lechon (roasted pig). friends. known as the Rooster’s Mass.Philippines http://www. receive a small gift. The pageant ends at the church at midnight. add up to make the Filipino Christmas unforgettable. for the 9 days preceding Christmas. Some families have a talent show during Christmas Eve celebration. Christmas Eve is celebrated by most Filipino families. the night is a sleepless night of feasts—the Noche Buena--and visits. barbecue. and following Mass. The official Christmas celebration opens December 16th with the celebration of Misa de Gallo. the gorgeous flowers in abundance. Food is often served buffet style because it has been so abundantly prepared. either at home for breakfast. The day brings families closer.net/philippineschristmas. rice.edu/112/FinalPhilipChristmas/index. the children run in and out of the house and well-lit streets. such as tambourines made of bottle caps strung onto a wire ring. and relatives drop by to exchange Christmas greetings. and in return. Filipino Christmas decorations are a unique blend of Western and Filipino traditions. or recite a poem or do a dance.freeservers. having been there from 27 December thru 12 January one year. cakes (Western and native rice cakes).htm http://www.seasite. Those who cannot attend Mass the night before will go to the morning Mass on Christmas day.lacitycollege. and Santa Claus. The children may go Christmas caroling.

The belen depicts the infant Jesus in the manger. and other Western decorations are often found. and shepherds. is another traditional Christmas ornament in the Philippines. with music playing and the story being told to watchers. churches. and a candle or coconut-oil lamp for illumination. and animals. and even commercial sites. One famous belen is on an office building. rice paper. schools. just as in a traditional Western crèche. or Christmas star lantern.Christmas tree. Filipino homes are ornamented with the parol. surrounded by his mother and father. It takes three months to make it ready to be enjoyed. wise men. and it is animated. or Nativity scene. Simple parols can be made from bamboo sticks. angels. The belen. Belen are found in homes. .

The Christmas trees are usually purchased with the decorations already in place. Presents are given to children. In Tokyo. They also very much enjoy exchanging gifts. the Japanese were more open to American influence.795 champagne glasses. gold paper fans. stork.freeservers. swan.html http://gojapan. followed by all of the family ." This is traditionally performed in many places in Japan during the Christmas and New Year Season. New Year's decorations are usually fashioned from bamboo and pine. People purchase them since it is not normally a home project. strawberries and whipped cream. As the industry grew. Kurisumasu Omedeto Less than 1% of the Japanese population is Christian.about. wind chimes Greeting: Shinnen omedeto. Homes are also decorated with evergreen branches. fan. It's illuminated from within and the colors light up the night. Just as popular is a strawberry gateau. Candles are also placed on the branches. After WWII ended.com/cs/christmasinjapan/a/chrismasinjapan. The father of the family marches throughout the house.com/japan. or gate pine. People dress in their finest kimonos. the Japanese became interested in celebrating Christmas and began to adopt some Western Christmas customs as their own. unusual decorations are often created such as a 14-foot tall tree made from 3. The kadomatsu. The Daiku. or "Great Nine. the decorations are taken down and the Japanese prepare for the fastapproaching New Year's holiday. ornaments. but the children do not give presents to their parents.Japan http://www. In a few homes you may find small artificial Christmas trees decorated with small toys. origami. Since the evergreen tree is actually one of the most important Japanese New Year decorations. is placed at the front entrance and the main emphasis of the season is new beginnings. rather than spending it overeating and with family like Western celebrations tend to be.htm http://christmas-world. The idea is that only Santa brings gifts. Christmas Eve is considered by many to be a prime time of the year for buying and diamonds and other jewelry to give to a romantic partner.santas. umbrella. refers to Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony. lanterns. so observance of this holiday is widely secular. many homes are decorated with trees but they’re not really a Christmas tree. One Japanese tradition that is a boon to the baking industry is the Christmas Cake. lantern.htm Crafts: butterfly. One of the most popular ornaments is the origami swan. New Year's Eve is the day to thoroughly clean the house and to dress in your finest clothes. Christmas is often a time for adults to party heavily. and even wind chimes. which is usually made of sponge cake. no more presents are given! Japanese Christians prefer to spend Christmas doing nice deeds for others and visiting those who are sick in hospitals. so once you don’t believe in Santa. Japan’s Christmas industry also provides decorations for Christian nations. On December 26.net/japanesechristmas. dolls.

The New Year festivities continue until January 3. where they clap hands to get the attention of the gods and request good fortune.members. to drive away evil spirits and invite good luck to enter the home as he throws dried beans into corners of each room. They then attend the Shinto Shrine. .

) Christmas carols in Korea are the same as those in the United States. the younger people go caroling to the homes of older church members. bulgogi (barbecued beef). as in the West. Christians celebrate by attending religious services on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.) The ever-popular kimchi (spicy pickled Chinese cabbage) may be served for Christmas dinner.freeservers. but may follow some holiday customs. such as gift-giving. naeng myeon (clear noodles made from sweet potatoes or green mung beans.html Craft: Greeting: Sung Dan Juk Ha Christmas is recognized as a public holiday in South Korea. Christmas dinner consists of local dishes such as ddeok guk (rice-cake soup). Non-Christian Koreans go about their normal daily routine on December 25.Korea http://christmas-world. They call him Santa Haraboji (Grandfather Santa. . along with fruit and assorted sweets.com/korea. and decorating their homes with Christmas trees. and receive treats of hot drinks and snacks. sending Christmas cards. Following Christmas Eve services. Children have embraced the Santa Claus tradition. except that they are sung in Korean.

after Hinduism and Islam. Christmas Eve services often last two to three hours. with some patterns or cutwork designs on them. Churches are also decorated with greenery.indiasite. The star lamps of Kerala are more elaborate. In the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. small clay oil-burning lamps are placed on the edges of flat roofs and on the tops of walls and used as Christmas decorations. They also may have wreaths with bright red decorative baubles. just twenty or so years after the crucifixion of Christ. a pork dish called vindaloo. many towns hold special carnivals or put on circus shows as the revelry and merriment continues. Festive Christmas bazaars and markets are organized. Today. and lit candles. bells and other small trinkets. people hang people hang beautiful floating starshaped paper lamps of various colors and sizes outside their homes. The people of India wear fine new clothing and perfumes to the service.India http://www. Some people decorate their homes with artificial Christmas trees.freeservers. red flower. Often. After the service. Traditional Indian Christmas foods may include turkey or chicken served with curried rice and vegetables. Since some Indian states are more heavily populated by Christians. In Southern India.com/india.3% of the total population of India. and the stores offer special Christmas bargains for shoppers. processions of carolers wind their way through the streets. poinsettias. while others decorate the main room with a mango tree or banana plant trimmed with ornaments and garlands.com/festivals/christmas.html Craft: poinsettia.htm http://christmas-world. collecting cakes and other edibles along the way from those whom they entertain. acts of charity are performed for those less fortunate. The children especially enjoying burning sparklers and setting off fireworks on the way. and Christianity is the third largest religion in India. and are social as well as religious in nature.santas. Families also gather and exchange gifts and feast together. Christians make up 2. oil lamp.net/indianchristmas. the celebration of Christmas varies from state to state in. There is a great sense of pride in creating a beautiful Nativity scene and people walk through the neighborhood to admire the handiwork of their friends and neighbors. In Northwest India the tribal Christians of the Bhil people go out every night during the Christmas season to sing their special carols through the whole night. paper stars Greeting: Shub Naya Baras Christianity came to the country of India in the year 52 AD. On Christmas Day. which is served with a rice dish that . Many homes in Bombay have a crèche displayed in the front window.html http://www. They visit surrounding villages singing to the residents and telling the Christmas story. festoons. Children can visit with Father Christmas in the department stores. In the larger cities of India. they mingle in the streets as they make their way homeward.

homemade ginger wine. Indian bread called roti. vegetarian dishes. and homemade sweets and special pastries made with dough that has been tinted red or pink. .contained slivered almonds and raisins.

special sweet biscuits marked with a cross. which they take with them to give to the people they visit. . The people have new clothing. from November 25 to the night of January 6th. Church bells ring for joy. lights. Most of them belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church. where they eat soup and fatta. They take with them kahk. as well.html Craft: candle. and according to their calendar. and enjoy them with a drink known as shortbat. but there is a large number of Christians as well. On Christmas Eve everyone goes to church to celebrate.Egypt http://www. Even though it is forbidden by law.freeservers. and mullet fish called bouri. Egyptian Christians become vegetarian for forty-five days.com/egypt. which consists of meat and rice. many children buy firecrackers to set off as part of the Christmas celebration. Christian homes in Egypt are decorated with Christmas trees. representing the candles that Joseph used to protect and light the way for Mary on the night of Jesus’ birth. and small mangers. because they are prohibited from eating any meat or dairy products. Following the service. along with a few gifts.net/egyptianchristmas. They also distribute to the poor donuts called zalabya. On Christmas morning people in Egypt visit friends and neighbors. the people go home to a special midnight Christmas meal.htm http://christmas-world. light. manger Greeting: Milad Majid The majority of Egyptian people are Muslim. with Advent being observed for the forty days prior. They also dine on kahk. According to tradition. Churches are decorated with special lamps and candles. and the priests were their best ceremonial garments. all children receive new clothes for Christmas.santas. Christmas is celebrated on January 7th. Christmas Day is a public holiday for Christians.

Christmas preparations in the Congo begin early. it more than makes up for that lack with flowers. Bright. Friends are invited to share and fellowship.htm Greeting: Joyeux Noel (French) Our church sponsors a mission family in Benin. While South Africa lacks snow. South Africans take pride in their many species of cultivated and wild flowers. given in honor of Jesus. . carolers serenade the towns-people on Christmas Eve.Benin http://canadafreepress. groups of carolers walk through the village. Often. Children hang stockings on Christmas Eve. sunny days invited people to the beaches and rivers and shady mountains for camping and recreation. as well as special drama events. Christmas dinner. the meal is served on tables in front of the home. plus several other political units. No one attends the service without giving a gift. hot. Christmas occurs during the summer. Christmas dinner mirrors that of the formerly heavy British population. hence our particular interest in this tiny country. thanks to the mild weather. In South Africa. paper hats. Public celebrations on Christmas Eve may include a candlelight carol-singing service. etc. with that much cultural diversity. crackers. roast beef. Following dinner. or suckling pig. In both urban and rural areas. As you can imagine.htm Craft: crinkle-paper chain Africa is the second-largest continent in area and population. families spend time in the country playing games or swimming. vegetables. Christmas dinner is served. yellow rice with raisins. South Africans decorate their homes with pine branches. Africa http://www. On Christmas Day. Following the worship service.com/2005/tsourounis122205. plum pudding. there isn’t one “standard” Christmas celebration for the whole continent. and is made up of 53 separate countries. The key part of the Christmas Morning worship service is the love offering.net/africanchristmas. Each attendee at the service goes forward and lays down their gift on a raised platform near the communion table. and a Christmas tree will also be found in the home. Traditional foods include turkey. Villagers may be awakened by groups of carolers as they make their way toward the church. as in the Congo.santas. as people get ready for the annual Christmas pageant. may be an open-air luncheon. in hopes that Father Christmas will fill them with goodies. mince pies.

Gifts. Christ is coming! He is near!” in their language. soap. and meats. on the west coast of Africa. On Christmas Day. and hymns and carols sung. which is the four weeks prior to Christmas. children sign Christmas carols and shout “Christ is coming.On the west coast of Africa. pencils. which occurs at the same time. beef. includes palm trees in place of the traditional evergreen Christmas tree. and biscuits. The palm tree is decorated with bells. . Following church. are exchanged. the Christmas scene is re-enacted. Christmas in Liberia. beginning the first week in Advent. families and close neighbors feast together on rice and yam paste called fufu. in the country of Ghana. such as cotton cloth. as it has in other countries we have studied. This season becomes wealthy due to the cocoa harvest. the carolers represent the angels who appeared to the shepherds the night Jesus was born. Christmas dinner again becomes an outdoor potluck. and books. the people sing hymns. porridge. Villagers attend church again. dressed in their native attire or Western dress. Children play games in the afternoon. carolers also serenade the houses in the village or town. This time. At Christmas Eve services. churches and homes are decorated with evergreens or palm trees massed with candles. celebrants are rewarded with a beautiful fireworks show. and at night. sweets. and Nativity dramas are also presented. served with stew or okra soup. The meal may include rice. At the Christmas morning church service. On Christmas Eve.

com/Community/christmas_in_antarctica.edu/origins/antarctica/fieldnotes/holidays/xmas. The highlight of the day will hopefully be a phone call home via satellite. . sun Christmas in Antarctica falls during the busy summer research season.cvc. and/or receiving emails or chatting with family members.org/christmas/antarctica.Antarctica http://www. they don’t take much time to celebrate.exploratorium. they cook with dried. since there isn’t TV or magazine/newspaper advertising (there is no TV or locally printed material!) and streets needing decoration are basically nonexistent. Christmas gifts will have been sent months in advance and saved to be opened on Christmas Day.html Craft: penguin. however. tinned. They will celebrate with a meal together and a costume party later in the day.coolantarctica. The holiday is pretty low-key. Here are some interesting facts about Christmas in Antarctica: A white Christmas is guaranteed! The sun never sets on Christmas in Antarctica.htm http://www.htm http://www. since the day falls just a few days after the Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. Often. Most of the scientists are able to take at least Christmas Day off from their work. Since most of Antarctica’s inhabitants are scientists. Since fresh vegetables and meat are not readily available. or frozen varieties.

people move from house to house over icy roads. “Mnogaya leta. the hosts give the carolers maple-frosted doughnuts. snowflake Greeting: Hriztos razhdaetsya (Christ is born!) Alaskans are guaranteed a white Christmas every year! In some parts of Alaska where people from Russia had settled prior to the Alaska Purchase by the United States. . Beginning on January 7 and going for three nights. was the traditional light source at the head of the procession.” Everyone joins in the closing words. cookies.) or smoked salmon. The stars are elaborately decorated eight-point stars. The celebration often includes a procession called Carrying the Star.” or “God grant you many years. The star bearers represent the angels who announced Christ’s birth here on earth.” Following the caroling. A lampada.Alaska http://www.santas. A mix of Russian Orthodox hymns and old Aleutian songs are sung both in the church and as part of the procession. The carols include Aleut words “gristuusaaq suu’uq.net/alaskanchristmas. or hanging lamp of candlelight.htm Craft: tinsel wheel stars.” or “Christ is born. Christmas celebrations resemble those of the Eastern Orthodox religion in Russia. carrying tinsel-trimmed wheels called stars. piruk (which is fish pie. candy.

Mummers usually come out between the dates of Dec. It is a cultural blend. And as a small token of appreciation. it is a country with two distinct backgrounds. Massachusetts.html http://www.Canada http://www. As a result. bell. the people of Boston sent help in the form of doctors. there are many different Christmas traditions in Canada. This party provides an opportunity for single women to meet eligible single men! "Sinck Tuck" is a festival started by the Inuit that is celebrated in some provinces of Canada. In response to this devastation. 06. Other cultural heritages and traditions come from Ireland.com/cultures/canada.whychristmas.shtml http://www. “Mummering” is a tradition which takes place in small towns in the provinces of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. and gift giving. This celebration consists of singing. the host must join the Mummers in their merry-making. In some places. because of the assistance given during the great disaster known worldwide as the Halifax Explosion. "Are there any Mummers in the night?" or "Any mummers 'loud in?'". is well known for the fir and pine trees it grows. food and supplies. (The 12 Days of Christmas. . and knock on someone's door and say in a disguised voice. 26 and Jan. Scotland. nurses. if the host does not guess who the Mummers are. because people of so many different nationalities settled and lived there.lhmint.org/christmas/traditions/canada. Since Canada was claimed by the British in the 1400s. evergreen tree Greeting: Merry Christmas or Joyeux Noel (Joyous Christmas) Canada is the second largest country in the world. Bostonians place this tree in the city and then light it during a special ceremony to begin the Christmas season. living as one. and the Ukraine. meaning 'are mummers aloud in the house?' Then they sing and dance and have Christmas cake and an alcoholic beverage before moving on to the next house. best fir tree (grown in Nova Scotia) to Boston.net/canadianchristmas.com/canada. Going Mummering is a fun Christmas season activity for adults. In northern Canada. and from the people of the First Nations (what we know as Native Americans in the United States. On December 6. One Canadian tradition is to send the biggest. some people plan a Taffy Pull. two ships collided in the harbor and caused a large explosion heard over 100 Km away.) But some come out only before Christmas Day.html http://christmas-world. Canadians send a special Christmas tree to Boston every year. tree skirt. an eastern Canadian province. and later by French explorer Samuel de Champlain in the 1600s. 1917. Germany. the patron saint of single women. People dress up in disguise. This is held in honour of Saint Catherine. dancing.freeservers.) Nova Scotia.com/christmas/traditions/canada/canada.htm http://holidays.kaboose. The explosion and the tidal wave in its aftermath destroyed over 325 acres of the north end of the city. and injuring over 9000 more. ring bells loudly.santas. killing over 1900 people.htm Craft: aurora borealis.

they feasted on roast goose or beef along with plum pudding. children still anxiously await the arrival of Christkindl. Following mass. Christmas day for the French is a day for relaxation and for children to play and have fun. gift giving. Although it really represented the return of light after the winter solstice. feasting. apples and nuts hung in doorway. they place the crèche beneath it. dancing and drumming. Christmas cards. the reveillon or “awakening. German settlers arriving in Canada in the 1700s brought the traditions of the Christmas tree. gingerbread houses. or Nativity scene. young men used this opportunity to steal a kiss from any single lady standing under it. hence the name of kissing ball. Stollen and Christmas cookies are baked.) and various other dishes. Topping off the meal is the Yule log. their mastheads decorated with Christmas trees.) boulettes (small meatballs. French Jesuit missionaries established Christianity in native villages in the late 1600's.a ring of evergreen boughs with candles. and more.” that lasts well into the early hours of Christmas morning. Many families of French descent in Quebec display a crèche. cookies. but the American turkey has made inroads into this tradition. and then attend Christmas Eve Mass. they have a huge feast. called La Messe de Minuit. One fun tradition they had was the kissing ball -. As a result of this heritage. Today. a chocolate cake in the shape of a log to symbolize the birch log burned in the fireplace on reveillon before the French came to Canada. holds a Christmas Light Contest each year. the children collect the bags which have been filled with gifts and candy. and games of strength are all a part of the mid-winter celebrations for the First Nations groups. a flotilla or parade of ships is organized two weeks before Christmas. or Christmas tree. Children’s choirs on the ships sing. On Christmas morning.Labrador City. singing. British Columbia. . echoing the ringing of bells. In Vancouver. carols. Spectators onshore view the scene of beauty—a harbor filled with ships silhouetted in lights. occupies a place of honor in the home. Children of the Cree Nation visit the homes of relatives on Christmas Eve and a cloth bag is hung for each child. in households with German ancestry. because they average about 12-14 Feet of snow every year! Labradorians save turnips from the summer harvest and give them to children with lit candles pushed into them. and the tannenbaum. in Newfoundland. The children open their gifts from their stockings during reveillon. and often have big ice sculptures in their yards! There’s no difficulty in finding enough snow or ice. Christmas for Canadians of English descent includes the exchanging of gifts on Christmas day in the morning. People decorate the outside of their houses with lights. followed by attendance at a church service. Advent calendars. then a great feast. In the past. The feast consisted of la toutiere (meat pie. who comes as a messenger from the Christ Child. saving the big gifts for New Year's Day. After decorating their Christmas tree.

bringing with them a rich blend of Eastern Orthodox and age-old Pagan customs. wrestling. reindeer. In Southwestern Nova Scotia. snowmen. whip cracking. for their Christmas dinner instead of the traditional turkey or ham. they reveal a creamy milk chocolate center. a shellfish caught off the shores of Nova Scotia in the North Atlantic Ocean. Chicken Bones are a pink candy that tastes like cinnamon. Santa Claus comes for the children and Christmas activities include harpoon throwing. You melt them in your mouth and once melted. At Christmas Canadians eat sweets called Barley Candy and Chicken Bones! They are really sweets made by local candy companies. a tree and other symbols of Christmas. Barley Candy is usually on a stick and is shaped like Santa. This is similar to a tradition in Spain. and raw fish. Whoever is the lucky discoverer of the bean gets to be the king or queen. according to tradition. Ukrainian immigrants arrived in Canada in the late 1800s.Missionaries also brought Christianity to the Inuit and today they celebrate Christmas with huge feasts that feature caribou. At the end of the Christmas season. They celebrate following the traditions we learned of when we visited the Ukraine earlier in this study. . many families eat lobster. and igloo building. along with modern day entertainment such as snowmobile racing. along with turkey. seal. January 6th. people in the province of Quebec have a celebration called "La Fete du Roi" They bake a cake and place a bean in the middle.

santas.htm Vietnam http://www.com/journeyfinland.Other Countries Brazil http://www.net/ethiopianchristmas.freeservers.html Greeting: Milad Majid Kenya http://christmas-world.crewsnest.com/zimbabwe.freeservers.htm http://www.htm http://virtual. accordion. woven basket Greeting: Glædelig Jul Finland http://www.finland.net/iranianchristmas.vispa.santas.htm http://www.crewsnest.htm http://www.net/iraqichristmas.vispa.com/belgium.santas.html Greeting: Merry Christmas Zimbabwe http://christmas-world.santas.html Greeting: Merry Christmas Belgium http://www.htm Greeting: Chung Mung Giang Sinh Iran http://www.santas.net/finnishchristmas.htm Craft: concentric rings Greeting: Melkm Ganna (Good Christmas) Jamaica http://www.crewsnest.htm http://christmas-world. drum Greeting: Joyeux Noel (French) or Vrolijk Kerstfeest en een Gelukkig Nieuwjaar! or Zalig Kerstfeast (Dutch) Denmark http://www.com/journeybrazil.net/belgianchristmas.com/journeydenmark.htm Craft: heart.californiamall.vispa.htm http://www.freeservers.net/danishchristmas.com/syria.santas.santas.net/brazilianchristmas.freeservers.htm Greeting: Cristmas-e-shoma mobarak bashad Iraq http://www.net/vietnamesechristmas.crewsnest.htm Greeting: Idah Saidan Wa Sanah Jadidah Syria http://christmas-world.htm Greeting: Feliz Natal Ethiopia http://www.santas.com/kenya.vispa.com/journeyjamaica.html Craft: bell.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-Denmark.fi/xmas/ .

First.Craft: Cornucopia basket Greeting: Hyvaa joulua Germany http://www. and lights. birdhouse Greeting: God Jul.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-Norway. Christmas carols and folk songs are played or sung.com/en/spirit/xmas_croatia. It always seemed like it took an eternity! Finally. cherries. or Gledelig Jul Croatia http://christmas-world. the Christmas tree is brought into the house.vispa. Then. ornament the home. branches of oak or maple.html Craft: gingerbread. called Badnjak in Croatia.freeservers.html http://www. The father of the family would talk to him and tell him that the children had been good and that they deserve presents.au/xmas/croatiachristmas. is brought into the house and wishes are made on it.qld. the Christ child. fir or evergreen. holly.htm Craft: reindeer. Lucia or St. Following the decoration of the tree. horses. and then the candle flames extinguished while giving Christmas greetings to all.santas.com/croatia. dolls.californiamall. While the tree is decorated. The carol “King is Born” would be sung. red dough heart. Ivy. this was not the primary gift-giving time.com/holidaytraditions/traditions-germany. . the father would ring a tiny bell to announce that Kristkindl had departed and they could enter the room. Christmas tree. Croats spend Badnjak awake.crewsnest. St. nuts and candy. preparations begin early in the morning. Nicholas were the primary giftbearers. Christmas decorations are checked and set out. However. Depending on the region of Croatia the family lived in. to come. yarn doll. stained glass. for it was time for Kristkindl. Straw.htm http://www.htm Craft: candle. candles. bell. along with cookies.edu. boot Greeting: Sretan Bozic On Christmas Eve. symbolic of Jesus’ birth in a stable. fruit. bell Greeting: Frohliche Weihnachten (Merry Christmas) Norway http://www.com/christmas/traditions/germany/germany.com/journeynorway.asp http://www. along with beautiful glass ornaments. According to tradition. and then gifts were exchanged. in readiness for an afternoon decorating session. and candles are lit for the departed.htm http://www. cross. The traditional Croatian Christmas tree is decorated all in red and green.net/germanchristmas. and gifts had already been received on the days in December that honor these Saints. paper chains.christmasmagazine. colored ribbon. which was now dark with only candles lit on the tree.rochedalss.htm http://holidays.californiamall. the mother and children would gather in the kitchen. dinner preparations begin. Candles and “licitar”— edible decorations made of special pastry colored red in different shapes like the heart.kaboose. burning candles and lighting the yule log. etc—adorn the tree.

so dinner would consist of dishes containing fish.christmasarchives. The family would attend midnight mass with family and friends at their church.html http://www.html http://www. A cake called Croatian Kuglof. the people still celebrated quietly in their own homes. bell.) roast suckling pig.Following the opening of the gifts. Another special bread. figs.global-christmas. The six-course meal lasted about three hours! The rest of the day was spent playing games. and dried fruit. .com/estonia. when it was cut and eaten.freeservers. No meat was allowed at the Christmas Eve dinner. religious holidays were stifled. roast beef and potatoes. for. and being together. raisins.) followed by turkey with mlinci (special Croatian pasta. a walnut and poppy seed cake glazed with egg. elf. for that is the day to visit friends and relatives and bring them a little something for the fruitful year to come. was made of a dough that contained nutmeg. cookies and cakes. called Christmas braid. the day after Christmas. as the grandmother would say. “Kristkindl stopped by last evening and left something for you. because under Communism. nuts. where there was another Christmas tree with more presents under it. Families take down Christmas trees and decorations on that day as well. The meal also included fruits and nuts—walnuts. On Stefans Day.lhmint. and a special Christmas Eve bread called Badnji Kruh that was braided into a wreath and filled with honey. almonds. gingerbread. and was braided into a wreath and glazed. talking. Wine and brandy are set on the table as complimentary drinks. and an extravagant array of desserts.org/christmas/traditions/estonia. and then sarma (a dish made of minced meat and sauerkraut.” A centerpiece of wheat with candles was placed on the table as decoration for Christmas dinner. it’s obvious that even under oppression. apples. salads. was a centerpiece of the dessert course. and other dried fruits. still more celebration occurred. Sometimes it was topped with a candle and a pine bough for decoration. hazelnuts. when priests visit their parishioners to bless their homes. Estonia http://christmas-world.htm http://www. Since the Estonian people are still very much aware of the customs and traditions associated with their peoples’ Christmas celebration. and almonds. dinner was served at a table that had been topped with straw and then covered with ornamented tablecloths. The big Christmas lunch began with appetizers followed by homemade soup. and left until Epiphany on January 6. families would gather at the home of their grandparents. peace Greeting: Ruumsaid juulup|hi Christmas was not officially celebrated in Estonia when it was under Soviet rule.com/estonia.html Craft: crown.com/scripts_en/world/europe/main_estonia01. On Christmas morning following breakfast. The Christmas festivities officially end on the Epiphany.

The gift-bringer on Christmas Eve is an old man called Jouluvana. gnomes bring candy and fruit to the children. and cinnamon. cocoa. To prevent these beasts from playing naughty tricks on people. just like Atlantis of old was sunk for its evilness. An old story tells us that somewhere at the bottom of the sea there is a mighty kingdom. which. Marzipan and fruit salad are also found at the Christmas feast. blood sausage. if a ship happens to pass near this spot on Christmas Eve. This same bell tolling can also be heard on land — in church spires. and different kinds of sweets and cakes. cats. The Christmas table is loaded with fried goose with apples. or dancing. Both old and young “earn” their gifts by reciting verse. Estonians have carefully shared the preparation of traditional Christmas foods from generation to generation. potato salad made with beets. Another old tradition that nearly died out was the making of Christmas crowns. and traditional cookies called “pipparkogid” that are made with peppercorns. singing. In recent times. all brooms have to be especially clean from the first Sunday of Advent until Christmas night. meat jelly. fried turkey. the Estonian president declares December 24 to be a day of peace. Gingerbread cookies are made and cut into different shapes— gingerbread men and women. Christmas Eve in Estonia is full of mysteries and wonders. Not only are they marking the birth of Christ.Christmas celebration mingles with folk tradition in the Estonian way of celebrating. The magic and mysticism of ancient pagan traditions share the season with the sacred and spiritual celebrations. There is also fruit. birds. dogs. During Advent. little stars and moons. Ancient folk tales warned that wild demons rode broomsticks through the countryside in December. Christmas Eve begins with a trip to the sauna to be made clean. pork and sauerkraut with potatoes. and bears. . a deep and mournful bell tolling can be heard by the passing sailors. Families usually gather together on Christmas Eve to await the arrival of Santa and his sleigh full of gifts from Lapland. in imitation of church chandeliers. Children often receive new clothing and shoes to wear for the day’s worship and family feasting. Following a 350 year old tradition. As folklore has it. Estonians grow sugarbeet and make a syrup of it for making homemade gingersnap dough. but they also celebrate the mid-winter holidays. the tradition has been awakened and Estonians once again create crowns.

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