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the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
Subject « New reflection on Water Management » In the Republic of Tajikistan Chief of State Unitary Enterprise «Hydrogeology reclamation expedition» ML and WR Republic of Tajikistan Sharipov SH.
Tajikistan is a small country on territory situated in the east part of the Central Asia and neighbor with China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Water in Tajikistan, as well as everywhere, plays a key role for people, economy and environments. More than 55 % average annual years a drain of all rivers Central Аsia are formed in mountain areas of Tajikistan. The area of a glaciations of mountains of Tajikistan makes more than 11 thousand.km2, and the total stock of an ice in glaciers of Tajikistan makes nearby 845 км3 that in 7 times exceeds a mid-annual drain of all rivers of the countries of pool. In comparison with the abounding in Water Rivers of Southeast Asia it is a small drain, however for arid conditions of the Central Asia each cubic meter of this water to be appreciated very dearly.
High rate of growth of a population in the Central Asia and unusually fast reduction of glaciers, characteristic for the countries of the Central Asia, on a background of deficiency of the water resources, occurring processes of change of a climate and absolutely insufficient overregulation the basic water-currents, and first of all Amu Darya, give a special acuteness to water problems of this density populated and developing region. It development use of new approaches and new thinking in use of scarce water resources. More than 90 % of water resources are used in agriculture. However, at backward technology of irrigation in the countries of the Central Asia water is spent irrationally and efficiency of its use rippling within the limits of 25-35 %. Having watered on furrow can allow only such efficiency of use of water in agriculture.
These problems are connected with difficulties in questions of interstate distribution of water, interbranch contradictions between interests irrigation and power, deterioration of an infrastructure of a water management, a ameliorative condition of the irrigated grounds and environments, low efficiency of use of water and ground resources, that finally causes is inadmissible a low standard of living of the population of our countries. Complexities of a problem also are connected, with that that Ferghana valley covers territory of three states. Especially sharply these problems cost in Sogd areas of Tajikistan where water-security makes 50-75 % and more than 64 % of the irrigated grounds are served by pump stations. One of the basic modern methods of water-distribution is the Integrated water resources management (IWRM).
First steps on introduction IWRM in Tajikistan it is done on pilot objects in Ferghana part of Sogd area, situated in territory Dj.Rasulov B.Gafurov of areas channel Gulakandoz a facilities B.Hamdamov where are created seven Water Users Association (WUA) and 3 demonstration weeding on territory the facilities suspended to an initial, average and trailer part of the pilot channel; Interstate Coordination Water Commission (SIC ICWC) the project of the Concept for IWRM which considers hydrographic borders, participation of all waterusers and principles democratic managements is prepared;
the alternative organizational structure for pilot channel Gulakandoz and is offered and coordinated with the basic interested parties; assumptions according to possible ways of potential of decrease in operational losses on the pilot channel are prepared; organized monitoring under the account of water on the pilot channel and WUA; Gathering, generalization, the analysis and estimation of materials of supervision on all complex of agro technical actions and uses of water on demonstration fields is lead; training the personnel of the project under approaches and methodology of social mobilization and institutional to development and by a technique of the analysis of field data a floor to increase of efficiency of water and the ground at a level of facilities is lead.
The existing system of interstate water-distribution in the Central Asia assumes interstate water-division and in each country the insufficient attention is paid to a question of an effective utilization of water. However, a principal cause of all water-environmental problems, including drying of Aral sea, increase of a level of subsoil waters, salting hundreds thousand hectares of the grounds are connected with inefficient use of water on secondary and tertiary channels. Will difficultly present, that more than half of the precious water which are taken away from Amu Darya and Syr-Darya work on deterioration of an environment.
The countries of the Central Asia and including Republic Tajikistan Quickly should develop, and will carry out the long-term Program of the water-savings for maintenance of the steady development connected with use by water resources. Especially such Program it is necessary for the countries of region which have the extensive areas of the irrigated grounds - Uzbekistan, 4,2 million in hectares and Turkmenistan, 1,8 million in hectares. In the sum these two countries have about 75 % of the area of the irrigated grounds of region (without Afghanistan). It is represented; that for increase of efficiency of use of water it is necessary will carry out following actions:
1. Construction of industrial base of manufacture of watersaving up technology: a drop irrigation, overhead irrigation, micro overhead irrigation, irrigation machines, irrigation the equipment for superficial sprinkling of furrow. 2. Replacement of moisture loving agricultural crops - a cotton and rice, on less moisture loving - gardens vineyards, grain. Certainly in this case conditions of the market and maintenance of food safety of the countries of region should be considered 3. Restoration of an existing irrigating and drainage network with the purpose of decrease in losses of water on a filtration. 4. Reduction of the area of artificial superficial reservoirs and ponds, including a fish facility, for decrease in a filtration of water and decrease in a level of subsoil waters. For example only in Uzbekistan the area of artificial reservoirs makes more than 110 thousand hectares.
5. Construction of water basins in mountain gorges of the countries upper Amu Darya and Syr-Darya 6. Use of the integrated water resources management, real transition to the integrated water resources management with wide participation of all water-users. 7. Development of new principles and approaches in interstate water resources management on the basis of the international-recognized principles and rules: fair and equal in rights, fair and reasonable use of water in the countries of the Central Asia.
Tajikistan as participant Iohannessburgskogo of the Summit on steady development (2002) is the adherent of the integrated water resources management. For transition to this progressive method of water resources management, assistance in drawing up of Complex schemes of use of water resources, transition to principles IWRM on river pools is necessary for us. At realization of plans of transition on IWRM efficiency of use of water and ground resources that will be doubtless the contribution to realization of the general regional Program of improvement ecological and social and economic conditions of all countries of pool of Aral sea will improve.
Thank you for attention!
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