RANT Dropped and Blocked Calls Classification Summary (WCDMA Network MTN South Africa

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1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3

Introduction ....................................................................................... 2 Dropped Calls Classification .............................................................. 2 Missing Neighbours ........................................................................... 3 Poor Coverage .................................................................................. 3 Bad Radio Environment ..................................................................... 4 Congestion ........................................................................................ 5 Not Radio .......................................................................................... 6 Equipment Fault ................................................................................ 7 Blocked Calls Classification ............................................................... 9 Missing Neighbour ............................................................................. 9 Poor RF (Bad Coverage and Radio Environment) ........................... 10 Equipment Fault (UE) ...................................................................... 11 Security and Authentication Mode Failure ....................................... 11 UE Freeze ....................................................................................... 12 Not Radio ........................................................................................ 13 Disconnect on RAB Setup ............................................................... 13 Resources Unavailable (Congestion) .............................................. 14 UE Sensitivity Fault ......................................................................... 15 Abnormal blocked calls .................................................................... 16 Unclassified - Unanswered RRC requests ....................................... 16 Faulty Block Recording - Barred Network ........................................ 17 Call Initialisation during L.U. signalling............................................. 18

wrong parameter settings that can affect accessibility/SHOs in the cell). The analysis has been based on limited data (for example no UETR data or data based on similar tool. Equipment Fault Every drop that occurs when TEMS Investigation/UE are Blocking or Freezing and/or SW is crashing.Ec/No basis evaluation). Missing Neighbours Every drop that occurs when there are poor RSCP and/or Ec/No levels/quality on the Best Server/AS.6. Every drop that occurs when there are no more available radio resources for the connection. with the contemporary possibility for the UE to perform a SHO on a better cell that is not declared as a Neighbour for the AS cells themselves. . (including UL UE power going to maximum even if the CPICH RSCP is measured at good values. Poor Coverage Bad Radio Environment Congestion Not Radio Every drop that occurs when the radio conditions are good. The purpose of the document is for RAN Consultants to understand some of the problems to make the UE analysis and classification easier. 2 Dropped Calls Classification The main cases and dropped call causes are listed below. In the table below are listed the main causes that must be considered during the analysis. crossed ULDL feeders.1 Introduction This document describes some of the typical dropped/blocked call classifications encountered during several RAN Tuning Projects for WCDMA networks. In this case Pilot Pollution situations are included as well (3 cells in AS and more than 1 strong SCs is interfering the connection within a range of 5 dB . CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA The Drop occurs in regions where conditions CPICH RSCP and/or CPICH Ec/No are measured in critical values not suitable for a proper connection. no usage of RBS and RNC tracers) and for this result there could be a deviation in the results. The network sends an RRC Connection Release when the RBS reaches the maximum available Power in DL. so that it's not possible to maintain the connection. Every drop that occurs when Best Server is Missing (Mostly in good CPICH RSCP conditions). Some of these classifications are only a guideline and should be viewed merely as documenting the typical problem until the correct reason behind the dropped call is established. crossed feeders causing false missing neighbours. with the explanation for each cause. All these dropped/blocked calls categories are adapted to the radio environment evaluation thresholds set up for the MTN 3G RAN Tuning project in the post-processing tool TEMS Deskcat 5. the logging equipment is working properly and the RRC connection release cause (marked usually as "Unspecified") could be attributed to a RBS/Network fault. The UE active set update cannot follow the quick coverage changes.

This can be seen in the Serving/Active Set window in TEMS.1 Missing Neighbours Every drop that occurs when there are poor RSCP and/or Ec/No levels/quality on the Best Server/AS.2 Poor Coverage The Drop occurs in regions where conditions CPICH RSCP and/or CPICH Ec/No are measured in critical values not suitable for a proper connection. An example of dropped call for missing neighbour problem is shown in figure below. The release cause is classified as unspecified. . with the contemporary possibility for the UE to perform a SHO on a better cell that is not declared as a Neighbour for the AS cells themselves. The cell 62096 act as an increasing interferer until eventually the call is released.2. Problem Description: The Active Set best server is cell 61888 (SC = 205). In the table below an example is shown. as the two cells are not defined neighbours. 2. During the call sector 62096 (SC = 293) becomes the strongest sector but is not added to the active set.

RSCP = -11.e. The scanner also reports poor radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i. The UE active set update cannot follow the quick coverage changes. The best server RSCP=-127dBm and Ec/No=-32dB.69dB. The last message sent is the UL Active Set Complete message sent by the UE. 2.3 Bad Radio Environment Every drop that occurs when Best Server is Missing (Mostly in good CPICH RSCP conditions).97dBm and Ec/Io = -10. The UE then goes into idle mode. .Problem Description: In this case the RF environment as reported by the UE is very poor before the call is dropped. In this case Pilot Pollution situations are included as well (3 cells in AS and more than 1 strong SCs is interfering the connection within a range of 5 dB .Ec/No basis evaluation).

the release cause is clearly marked as “Congestion”. so it’s advisable to check the Events and Layer 3 messages: In the L3 table the RRC Connection Release DL corresponds (into the Event table) to an RRC Connection Abnormal Release with the specification “Unspecified”. and all MN (SCs 304. doesn’t show the event on the chart. Sometimes the TEMS Inv. . the Radio Environment is not suitable for a good connection and therefore the dropped call occurs. During the call UE is performing a continuous number of SHOs. 2. like in this case. The network sends an RRC Connection Release when the RBS reaches the maximum available Power in DL. 179 and 180) are close to them on a RSCP basis (from –70dBm to –79 dBm). An example is shown in figure below. In the corresponding DL Layer 3 message “RRC Connection Release” when the drop happens. affecting both the service continuity and the quality of the connection (low values of Ec/No on each cell).Problem Description: The Active Set best servers are cells with SCs 49 and 303. So.4 Congestion Every drop that occurs when there are no more available radio resources for the connection.

The radio resource unavailability pops up suddenly after a certain number of fast SHOs. wrong parameter settings that can affect accessibility/SHOs in the cell). and an “RRC Connection Release” message from the network comes to interrupt the call.5 Not Radio Every drop that occurs when the radio conditions are good. the logging equipment is working properly and the RRC connection release cause (marked usually as "Unspecified") could be attributed to a RBS/Network fault.Problem Description: In this case the radio environment doesn’t show any critical issue: the AS is full. as shown in figure below. and there is a Best Server cell (SC 352) with two more cells that are carrying the service. and the Layer 3 messages sequence is regular. 2. crossed UL-DL feeders. crossed feeders causing false missing neighbours. This case also includes the “UE Sensitivity” drop. Also the MN set is good. (including UL UE power going to maximum even if the CPICH RSCP is measured at good values. In the TEMS L3 messages window details the release cause is clearly marked as “Congestion”. .

.57dBm and Ec/Io = -8.66dB. as a poor coverage drop since the scanner indicates the radio conditions should be ok to maintain the call. The scanner reports much better radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i. Best server RSCP=-127dBm and Ec/No=-27dB.6 Equipment Fault Every drop that occurs when TEMS Investigation/UE are Blocking or Freezing and/or SW is crashing. An example of UE freezing dropped call is shown in figure below. 2.Problem Description: The radio environment as reported by the UE is very poor just before the call dropped i. RSCP =-93.e. so that it's not possible to maintain the connection. Although the drop is as a result of low RSCP as measured by the UE it should not be classified.e.

Problem description: In the example the network sends a DL Measurement Control message and then the UE freezes.e. The RF environment was good at the time of the drop as can be seen from the scanner information i. . There are no further massages sent between the network and the UE. RSCP =82.44dB.72dBm and Ec/Io = -5.

In this situation the cases of Blocked Calls are pretty equal to the corresponding ones in the dropped calls list. It’s crucial to consider that the blocked call event always happens during the call setup phase.3 Blocked Calls Classification The main cases and blocked call causes are listed below. 3. It’s advisable to consider that it is intended as “blocked call” a connection interrupted for the same problems shown in section 2 (with some obvious exceptions shown in the following paragraphs) and according the Classification Criteria table shown in section 1. the classification for the blocked calls is different for the dropped calls’ one.1 Missing Neighbour . Due to these differences.

The release cause is classified as unspecified. This can be seen in the Serving/Active Set window in TEMS.2 Poor RF (Bad Coverage and Radio Environment) . During the set up sector 48007 (SC = 451) becomes the strongest sector but is not added to the active set as the two cells are not defined neighbours. 3. The call is being set up on cell 49046 (SC = 387).Problem Description: An example of a blocked call caused by a missing neighbour is shown in figure above. The cell 48007 act as an increasing interferer until eventually the call itself is released.

29dB. The scanner also reports poor radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i.1 Equipment Fault (UE) Security and Authentication Mode Failure . which is triggered at the start of a command sequence.e.3 3. The attempt is indicated by the event “Call Initialization” in TEMS Investigation. The best server RSCP=-121dBm and Ec/No=-21dB. 3.Problem Description: In this case the RF environment as reported by the UE is very poor when the UE attempts to initiate a call. RSCP =-114.17dBm and Ec/Io = -11.3.

Problem Description: In this case there is a problem with the security and Authentication procedure. which causes the connection to be dropped and result in a blocked call. which is set to 6 seconds.2 UE Freeze .e. As can be seen in figure above the radio environment at the time of the blocked call is good i. This indicates a problem in the security and authentication response by the UE. 3. There is a timer for the correct response to this security command. Best server RSCP=-71dBm and Ec/No=-2dB. The call is released normally during call set up and 6 seconds after the network sends the security command.3.

e.1 Not Radio Disconnect on RAB Setup . which is indicated by the Call initialisation event in TEMS Investigation. 3. The RF environment was good at the time of the drop as can be seen from the scanner information i.4 3.Problem description: This type of dropped call classification is caused by the UE “freezing” which can be seen in figure below. RSCP =-94.13dB. There are no further massages sent between the network and the UE before the next call attempt. In the example the UE sends a UL Active Set Update Complete message and then the UE freezes.4.17dBm and Ec/Io = -5.

The call is then released.4. This case can include both DC Config Failure and RAB setup failure.2 Resources Unavailable (Congestion) .e. During call set up.Problem description: In this case the radio environment is good as shown in figure above (i. after the “DL Call Proceeding” message the network sends a Disconnect message. This can be seen in the Layer 3 messages window below. Best server RSCP= -94dBm and Ec/No= -3dB). The cause value is (127) Interworking. unspecified as shown in L3 message details window. 3.

The Disconnect message occurs after the Radio Bearer is set up. Sometimes this example of blocked call can be also referred to Congestion problems in the measured cell. The radio environment is good at the time of the Disconnect message as seen in figure above.4. 3.3 UE Sensitivity Fault . This can be seen in the Layer 3 messages window in figure above.Problem description: In this example the network sends a Disconnect message with the following message: cause value (47) Resources Unavailable. Unspecified.

e. Best server RSCP=-122dBm and Ec/No=-18dB).1 Abnormal blocked calls Unclassified . The scanner reports much better radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i.65dB.5. an example of a drop classified as UE sensitivity fault is shown. as a poor RF block since the scanner indicates the radio conditions should be sufficient to set up a call.e. RSCP =-89.5 3.Problem Description: In figure above. The radio environment as reported by the UE is very poor when the UE attempts to initiate a call (i. Although the blocked call is as a result of low RSCP as measured by the UE it should not be classified.Unanswered RRC requests .06dBm and Ec/Io = -2. 3.

It is not clear whether or not the network receives the RRC request. low CPICH Ec/No.5.Barred Network . good RSPC.e.Problem description: In this example an RRC request is sent but the network never responds with an RRC connection setup message. The radio environment in the downlink as seen by TEMS is good i.2 Faulty Block Recording . 3.

The example shows the case that happened for the Vodafone network (DL UARFCN 10712). signalling .Problem description: This occurs when the UE attempts to initiate a call on a network other than the measured one (in our case MTN). DeskCat considers this a blocked call but since the blocked call does do not occur on the Vodafone network. In the serving/Active Set window in TEMS in figure above it can be seen that the DL UARFCN for the network the UE is camped on in idle mode is 10564.5.U. it has to be excluded from our analysis.3 Call Initialisation during L. 3.

signalling a new call attempt is triggered by the command sequence in TEMS Investigation.Problem description: In this case the UE is involved in Location Update signalling. As seen in the RRC Connection Request message the establishment cause is registration and the Location Update request message is for Normal Location Updating. This can be seen in the events window in figure above.U. During the L. .

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