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Sir Shakeel

Sir Shakeel

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1

D·4DDDDDD·DDDDDÞD4D¤
DDDDD4DDD
Presenter: Prof Shakeel Amjad
2
‡ Two types of languages
‡ Defining Suprasegmental Features
‡ Learning to distinguish syllable
‡ Exploring word stress
‡ Giving sentence stress
‡ Defining and analyzing patterns of intonation
3
Two types of language:
‡ Syllable timed
‡ Stress timed
4
‡ Don¶t have contrast between stressed & unstressed syllable.
‡ Equality of stress in both words and sentences.
‡ Little variation in stress.
‡ Most syllable are given roughly equal prominence.
‡ Basic regularity of pace in speech.
‡ Speaker may choose to speak quickly or slowly.
‡ The delivery depend on their own sense of urgency.
‡ Rather than the demand of the language itself.
Syllable timing (syllable timed language):
5
‡ A noticeable variation of pace within the sentence related to
language itself.
‡ Position of stressed and unstressed syllable.
‡ Stress syllable occur close to each other.
‡ In case of intervening unstressed syllable in a sequence the
speaker tends to quicken the pace to the next syllable.
It was a beautiful sunny day.
He moves across to the door.
‡ The regularity of English based on the roughly equal time
between stressed syllables.
Stress timing (stress timed language):
6
7
Only one group of birds can manage to hover for any
length of time without the help of the head wind the humming
birds. Their wings work in a way quiet unlike that used by any
other birds they beat routinely 25 times a second so fast that
they make the humming noise that gives them their name. It¶s
impossible to see how they operate unless the camera slows
them down. The wings have become in effect twirling blades
that create down drafts rather like those that man produces
with his hovering machines.
8
Only one group of birds can manage to hover for any
length of time without the help of the head wind the humming
birds. Their wings work in a way quiet unlike that used by any
other birds they beat routinely 25 times a second so fast that
they make the humming noise that gives them their name. It¶s
impossible to see how they operate unless the camera slows
them down. The wings have become in effect twirling blades
that create down drafts rather like those that man produces
with his hovering machines.
9
Defining Suprasegmentals
Vowels and Consonants are Segments speech is
composed of.
Together vowels and consonants form syllables.
Superimposed on the syllables are those features
known as Suprasegmentals.
Stress variations: increase in the activity of the
respiratory muscles and in the activity of the laryngeal
muscles
Change in pitch affects both words and sentence
10
Defining Suprasegmentals
Speakers produce a particular pitch pattern during
their utterances: ready(») Are you ready?
ready(\) I am ready.
All speakers produce a characteristic voice quality
during their utterances.
All of these aspects, i.e. stress, length ,pitch, voice
quality constitute the suprasegmental or prosodic
properties of speech
They affect the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
The pitch pattern in a sentence is known as the
Intonation.
All the Suprasegmentals feature must be explain with
relation to each other
11
Importance of prosodic aspects of
speech
Stress location has a disambiguating role.
Tone languages such as Chinese in which pitch shape of a
syllable performs a phonemic function
[ma] high level pitch µmother¶
[ma] high rising pitch µ hemp¶
[ma] low, or falling then rising pitch µhorse¶
[ma] falling pitch µcold¶
12
D D D D D DD D ¤
D Þ D D D · D 4
4D D D + + D D D
Segments of English Sounds
D D D D D D D
Consonants:
Short Vowels:
13
DD DD DD 4D DD
DD DD DD DD DD DD DD DD
Diphthongs:
Long Vowels:
14
If a word has more than one syllabic, you give stress to one of the
syllables. To give it stress, you do one or more of these to the
syllable:
y Make it longer.
y Make it louder.
y Make it higher.
Exploring word stress:
15
16
Distinguishing Stress Syllable:
We can show stress with circles:
OO oO ooo OOOO
each circle is a syllable and the bigger circle shows which syllable is
stressed. The word Saturday
Sat ur day
O o o
The biggest circle in stress syllable.
17
The stress patterns of the words in bold
type:
A: When do you begin your holiday?
B: On the thirtieth of August.
A: That's next Saturday!
B: we're leaving in the afternoon.
A: And when are you coming back?
B: Saturday September the thirteenth.
A: Thirtieth?
B: No, thirteenth!
18
A: When do you begin your holiday?
o O O o o
B: On the thirtieth of August.
O o o O o
A: That's next Saturday!
O o o
B: we're leaving in the afternoon.
o o O
A: And when are you coming back?
B: Saturday September the thirteenth.
o O o o O
A: Thirtieth?
O o o
B: No, thirteenth!
o O
19
Stress Pattern:
Different words have different stress patterns (patterns of stressed and
unstressed syllables).
Oo April, thirty, morning. Sunday
oO July, midday, thirteen, today, thirteenth
Ooo Saturday, thirtieth, yesterday, holiday; seventy
oOo September, tomorrow, eleventh
ooO afternoon, seventeen, twenty-one
The stress pattern of
Nineteen Nineteen people
oO Oo
Similarly:
January February
O o o O o o o
20
Stress patterns can help you hear the difference between similar words, for
example, numbers ending in -teen or -ty.
o O O o
thirteen thirty
fourteen forty
sixteen sixty
eighteen eighty
nineteen ninety
21
REcord, reCORD
Stress in -two-syllable words
Many two-syllable words come from a one-syllable word.
artist = Oo (stress on the first syllable)
remove = oO (stress on the second syllable)
Here are some more examples.
nouns and adjectives Oo verbs oO
art - artist
drive - driver
friend - friendly
fame ± famous
move - remove
like - dislike
build ± rebuild
come ± become
22
Most two-syllable nouns and adjectives have stress on the first
syllable, even if they don't come from an original one-syllable word For
example, `brother' doesn't come from the original word broth but it still
has the stress pattern Oo.
Listen to this sentence: the nouns and adjectives all have the pattern
Oo.
The artist¶s most famous picture shows some women and children in a
lovely forest with a purple mountain behind.
Note: However there are a number of exceptions, asleep, mistake,
machine, alone, which have stress on the second syllable.
23
Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the second syllable, even if they
don¶t come from an original one-syllable word. For example, `repeat'
doesn't (oO).
Listen to this sentence: the verbs all have the pattern oO.
Escape to Scotland, forget about work, just relax and enjoy the
scenery!
Note: Exceptions stress on the first syllable, cancel, copy and two
syllable verbs ending in -er and -en, e.g. answer, enter, offer, listen,
happen, open.
24
Word Class Pair:
Oo / oO
record contrast desert export object present produce protest rebel
Note: No change of stress in words that are both nouns and verbs.
For example answer, picture, promise, reply, travel, visit always have
stress on the same syllable.
Note: The stress stays in the same place when we make longer words
from these two-syllable nouns, adjectives and verbs. For example, in
both happy (Oo) and unhappy (oOo), the stress is on the syllable happ,
and in both depart (oO) and departure (OOO), the stress is on the
syllable part.
25
Weak syllables
³Schwa´ D
Two-syllable words with weak first syllable and stress on the second
syllable
Listen and repeat:
Weak syllable spelt µa¶
about DDDDD4 ahead DDDDD again DDDDÞ
Spelt µo¶
obtuse DDD4D4D· oppose DDDDDD offend DDDDÞ
Spelt µu¶
suppose ·DDDDDD support ·DDDDD4 suggest ·DDD
26
Spelt µor¶
forget DDDDD4 forsake DDD·DDD forbid DDDDDD
Spelt µer¶
perhaps DDDDDD· percent DDD·DÞ4 perceive
DDD·DD+
Spelt µur¶
survive ·DD+DD+ surprise ·DDDDDDD
survey (verb)
·DD+DD
27
Two-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the first
syllable
Listen and repeat:
Weak syllable spelt µa¶
ballad DDD¤DD Alan DD¤DÞ necklace DÞDD¤D·
Spelt µo¶
melon DDD¤DÞ paddock DDDDDD purpose DDDDDD·
Spelt µe¶
hundred DDDÞDDDD sullen D·D¤DÞ open DDDDDÞ
Spelt µu¶
circus D·DDDD· autumn DDD4DD album DD¤DDD
Spelt µar¶
tankard D4DDDDD custard DDD·4DD standard D·4DÞDDD
28
Spelt µor¶
juror DDDDDDD major DDDDDDD manor DDDÞD
Spelt µer¶
longer D¤DDDD eastern DDD·4DÞ
mother DDDDD
Spelt µure¶
nature DÞDD4DD posture DDD·4DD creature
DDDDD4DD
Spelt µous¶
ferrous DDDDD· vicious D+DDD· gracious
DDDDDDD·
Spelt µough¶
thorough DDDDD borough DDDDD
Spelt µour¶
saviour D·DD+DD succour D·DDD colour D DD¤D
29
Three-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the
first syllable
Listen and repeat:
Weak syllable spelt µa¶
workaday D+DDDDDDD roundabout DDDDÞDDDDD4
Spelt µo¶
customer DDD·4DDD pantomime DDDÞ4DDDDD
Spelt µu¶
perjury DDDDDDDDD venturer D+DÞ4DDDD
Spelt µar¶
standardise D·4DÞDDDDDD jeopardy DDDDDDDD
Spelt µer¶
wonderland D+DDDD¤DÞD yesterday DDD·4DDDD
30
Stress in compound words:
book + shop = bookshop In most compound words, the stress is on the
first part.
Oo bookshop, bus stop, footpath, airport, shoe shop,
road sign, car park, bedroom
Ooo traffic light, bus station, sunglasses, hoarding card,
windowscat, check-in desk
Oooo travel agent, art gallery, supermarket, tape recorder,
photocopy
Note: If the first part of the compound word is an adjective, there may be
stress on the second part too, for example 00 double room.
31
Stress on the second part of a compound noun when:
‡ the object in the second part is made out of the material in the
first, for example OO glass jar,
‡ the first part tells us where the second part is, for example OO car
door.
If the compound word is not a noun, we often put stress on the second part
too.
OO first class, half price, hand made
OOo bad-tempered, old-fashioned, short-sighted
OoO overnight, second hand
32
Sometimes a compound word looks the same as
y a normal adjective and noun,
y a normal noun and verb.
But the pronunciation is different. Compare:
Oo compound word OO adjective andnoun
We keep these plants in a
greenhouse during the winter
months.
Mr Olsen lives in a small,
green house next to the river.
OO Compound word OO noun and verb
I saw her bus pass. I saw her bus pass.
33
Introducing sentence stress:
The word having strong and weak syllables. Sentences also have a stress
pattern. Sometimes a word and a sentence have the same stress pattern.
Ooo
word sentence
oOo
word sentence
ooO
word sentence
Photograph Answer me!
Canada Doesn't he?
cabbages Copy it!
September Excuse me.
tomorrow I think so.
remember He told her.
Afternoon Do you smoke?
Japanese One of these?
Portuguese He's arrived.
34
Short sentences and phrases in English have some typical
stress patterns.
OoO What's the time? Yes, of course!
Thanks a lot!
OoOo See you later! Pleased to meet you!
Can't you hear me?
oOoO A piece of cake. The shop was closed.
It's time to go.
OooO What do you do? Where do you live?
Give me a call.
ooOo Are you coming? Do you like it?
Is he happy?
35
The space between stress and unstressed syllable stays more or less the
same length whether one or more unstressed syllables are pushed into it.
So for example, these three sentences take about the same length of time to
say.
OOO Don't tell Mike.
OoOoOo Go and speak to Mary.
OooOooOoo Hurry and give it to Jonathan.
36
Sentences with all the words stressed:
We put stress on one syllable of all the most important words. In some
situations, emergencies for example, all of the words are important. In
this case, there is stress on one syllable of all of the words (in some
cases, the sentence may have only one word).
O Help! Quick! Smile'.
Oo Quiet! Sorry!
OO Look out! Take care! Wake tip! Don't move!
Come back! Stand still! Sit down!
OoO Don't forget! Hurry up! Go away! Stay awake!
Don't be late!
OOo Keep quiet! Don't worry!
OOO Don't look now! Go straight on! Don't turn round!
oOoo Emergency
37
In English sentence stress, the following kinds of words are usually
stressed. The examples given are from the sentences.
verbs (help)
two-part verbs (look out)
adjectives (quick)
nouns (emergency)
negative auxiliary verbs (don't)
Positive auxiliary verbs such as be in Don't be late! are not usually
stressed.
Which words are stressed in sentence:
38
Unstressed words:
All of the sentences below have three syllables with this stress
pattern: OoO. The middle word in each sentence is unstressed
because it is not as important as the other two words.
O o O
What's your name?
Tom was right.
Dogs can swim.
Close the door!
Wait and see.
Go to bed!
39
These are the kinds of words which are not normally stressed, with
example words from the sentences.
pronouns (your)
the verb he (was)
auxiliary verbs (can)
articles (the)
conjunctions (and, or)
prepositions (to)
Negative auxiliary verbs (can't, don't, hasn't, etc.) are usually stressed.
Unstressed words:
40
There may be more than one of these unstressed words between two
stressed words. In the sentences below, each sentence has the same two
stressed words with an increasing number of unstressed words
between. Listen. Notice that the length of time between the two stressed
words is about the same, however many unstressed words are fitted
between.
OO That man.
OoO That's the man.
OooO That was the man.
OoooO That could be the man.
Unstressed words:
41
I'll ASK her (Alaska)
Pronouns and contractions
Pronouns in sentences are usually unstressed. hook at this sentence: I
met him. The first and third words are pronouns. So this sentence has
the stress pattern o O o.
Listen to these sentences. You will hear each one twice: first in careful
speech and then in fast speech-. Notice that in fast speech:
‡ the speaker doesn't pronounce the letter H in he, her, him, his
unless it is at the beginning of the sentence.
‡ the vowel sound in the pronouns and his, her, their, our is very
short
42
oOo oOoO
I met him. I met his wife.
You know her. They read my brook.
They saw you. He knows their son.
She phoned me. We called their friends.
He likes them. She hates her job.
We found it. You need our help.
You don't need to copy the fast speech pronunciation. People will
understand you if you use careful speech. But you need to be able to
understand fast speech.
43
Pronouns are often joined to auxiliary verbs (is, have, will, etc.) in
contractions. For example, when we speak, we join the 1 and will together
to form I'll. In the sentence I'll ask her there are four words but only three
syllables. This is because the pronoun and contraction are pronounced
as one syllable. This sentence therefore has the stress pattern oOo (the
pronouns and contractions I¶ll and her are unstressed)
In fast speech, it may be pronounced the same as Alaska. Listen to these
examples.
oOo
I'll ask her. DDD¤D·DDD (like Alaska)
I'm coming. DDDDDDDDDD (like am coming)
He's finished DDDDDDDÞDD4D (like his finished
They're hungry. DDDDDDDDDDD (like the hungry)
We've seen him. D+D+D·DDÞDDD (like wiv seen him)
She's angry. DDDDDDDDDDD (like shiz angry)
Note: You do not join the pronoun to an auxiliary verb at the end of a
sentence. For example: say Yes, 1 will, don't say Yes, I'll
44
Intonation (How the speaker sound):
Introducing tones
But normally we can choose to make our voice go up or down at the
end. For example, in the conversation below, A says 'bear with his
voice going down. B repeats the word with his voice going for listening
up. Listen and notice the way their voices go up or down at the end.
A: Shh!
B: What?
A: Bear!
B: Bear?
A: Bear!
B: Where?
A: There!
B: Far?
A: No!
B: Near?
A: Yeah!
B: Run?
A: Run!
45
Asking and checking tones:
Questions can be pronounced with the voice going up at the end or
going down at the end. You can hear the difference in this
conversation. Two people are fixing a place to meet. Listen to the way
A pronounces his three questions.
A: Where? (A's voice goes down at the end.)
B: Here
A: Where? (A's voice goes up at the end.)
B: Here.
A: Here? (A's voice goes up at the end.)
B: Yes, here.
46
Asking and checking tones:
Read these short conversations and tick the questions.
Then listen and check.
1 A: When?
B: Tomorrow.
A: When?
B: Tomorrow.
A: Tomorrow?
B: Yes, tomorrow.
2 A: Which way?
B: Left.
A: What?
B: Left.
A: In front of the shop?
B: Yes.
47
Tones in asking for information
We pronounce an 'open' question differently from a 'check' question.
An 'open' question is where we ask for information we didn't have
before, and the voice usually goes down at the end. A 'check'
question is where we make sure that the information we have is
correct. The voice usually goes up at the end. Listen to the examples
in this conversation.
48
A. What's your name?
B: Sonia.
A: And where were you born?
B: Surinam:
A: Is that in South America?
B: Yes, that's right.
A: And how long have you lived here?
49
B: Five years
A: I see: Are you married?
B: No, I'm not:
A: And what do you do?
B: I'm a boxer.
A: You are a boxer
50
Listen to the questions below. Are they open or check? Draw a
down or an up line in the boxes.
EXAMPLE
Are you a student?
1 Have you been to America?
2 What do you study?
3 What time is it?
4 Are you over eighteen?
5 Can you drive?
6 Where's he going?
7 Do you like it?
51
Tones in new and old information:
In conversation, we often refer back to something we said before. This is
'old' information, and the voice normally goes up at the end. We also tell the
listener things we haven't mentioned before. This is 'new' information, and
the voice normally goes down at the' end.
Listen. In conversation 1 below, the voice goes up at the end, because the
last word 'tomorrow' has already been mentioned. In conversation 2, the
voice goes down, because the last word 'tomorrow' has not been mentioned.
1 A: I'll come in tomorrow.
B: We're closet) tomorrow.
2 A: When are you closed?
B: We're closed tomorrow.
52
Continuing or finishing tones:
When we are telling someone a piece of news, we often check that they
know the background to the story first. When we do this, the voice goes
up at the end: Then, when we finally tell the news, the voice goes down
at the end. This shows that we have finished the story.
Listen and compare A's first question in these two conversations. In 1,
he is checking that B knows about Max's grandfather's death, so the
voice goes up. In 2, he is telling B the news that Max's grandfather died,
so the voice goes down.
1 A: You know Max's grandfather died?
B: Yes.
A: Well, he's left all his money to charity
2 A: YOU know Max's grandfather dial?
B: Oh.
A: Yeah, terrible, isn't it?
53
Agreeing and disagreeing tones:
When we agree with the other person, our voice often goes down at the
end. We tell the other person our opinion, confidant they will not be
upset.
Listen to this conversation. Notice that the voices qo down at the end
of each line.
A: Football's so boring, isn't it?
B: Yeah, I know. I hate it.
A: I mean, it's just 22 people running after a hall.
B: Yell', how ran that be interesting?
A: No, golf's much more fun, isn't it?
Note: The expression isn't it? is called a question tag. When we use
question tags to tell someone our opinion, the voice goes clown at the
end.
54
High tones:
Listen to these three people saying thank you. Notice that the woman
who forgot her bag makes her voice go very high. This shows that she
really means what she is saying. The other two people do not really
mean it, and so their voices do not go high.
Note: Sometimes the ticket collector's voice goes up at the end when
he says thank you, which makes it sound like a routine habit: he
doesn't really mean it. And of course the woman in picture 3 doesn't
really mean thank you. She means the opposite!
55
When we give an opinion about something with e very strong
adjective like excellent, our voice usually goes high to show our
strong feeling. If we use weaker adjectives like nice, our voice does
not usually go high. Listen and compare the voices of the man and
woman telling their friend about their holiday.
Liz: So, how was your trip?
Claire: Oh, it was quite nice
Paul: What do you mean, nice? It was brilliant!
Liz: Good hotel?
Claire: Quite pleasant, yes.
Paul: Pleasant? It was excellent! Superb!
Liz: How about the food?
Claire: It was OK.
Paul: OK? It was absolutely delicious!
Liz: And the scenery?
Claire: Quite pretty.
Paul: It was amazing! Beautiful!

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Two types of languages Defining Suprasegmental Features Learning to distinguish syllable Exploring word stress Giving sentence stress Defining and analyzing patterns of intonation

2

Two types of language:

‡ ‡

Syllable timed Stress timed

3

Syllable timing (syllable timed language):

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Don¶t have contrast between stressed & unstressed syllable. Equality of stress in both words and sentences. Little variation in stress. Most syllable are given roughly equal prominence. Basic regularity of pace in speech. Speaker may choose to speak quickly or slowly. The delivery depend on their own sense of urgency. Rather than the demand of the language itself.

4

Stress timing (stress timed language):

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

A noticeable variation of pace within the sentence related to language itself. Position of stressed and unstressed syllable. Stress syllable occur close to each other. In case of intervening unstressed syllable in a sequence the speaker tends to quicken the pace to the next syllable. It was a beautiful sunny

day. He moves across to the door.

‡

The regularity of English based on the roughly equal time between stressed syllables.

5

6 .

The wings have become in effect twirling blades that create down drafts rather like those that man produces with his hovering machines. Their wings work in a way quiet unlike that used by any other birds they beat routinely 25 times a second so fast that they make the humming noise that gives them their name. 7 .Only one group of birds can manage to hover for any length of time without the help of the head wind the humming birds. It¶s impossible to see how they operate unless the camera slows them down.

The wings have become in effect twirling blades that create down drafts rather like those that man produces with his hovering machines.Only one group of birds can manage to hover for any length of time without the help of the head wind the humming birds. Their wings work in a way quiet unlike that used by any other birds they beat routinely 25 times a second so fast that they make the humming noise that gives them their name. It¶s impossible to see how they operate unless the camera slows them down. 8 .

Superimposed on the syllables are those features known as Suprasegmentals. Together vowels and consonants form syllables.Defining Suprasegmentals  Vowels and Consonants are Segments speech is composed of. Stress variations: increase in the activity of the respiratory muscles and in the activity of the laryngeal muscles Change in pitch affects both words and sentence     9 .

voice quality constitute the suprasegmental or prosodic properties of speech They affect the meaning of the sentence as a whole.e. All of these aspects. stress.pitch. All the Suprasegmentals feature must be explain with relation to each other    10 . i. The pitch pattern in a sentence is known as the Intonation. length .Defining Suprasegmentals     Speakers produce a particular pitch pattern during their utterances: ready(») Are you ready? ready(\) I am ready. All speakers produce a characteristic voice quality during their utterances.

Importance of prosodic aspects of speech   Stress location has a disambiguating role. Tone languages such as Chinese in which pitch shape of a syllable performs a phonemic function     [ma] [ma] [ma] [ma] high level pitch high rising pitch low. or falling then rising pitch falling pitch µmother¶ µ hemp¶ µhorse¶ µcold¶ 11 .

Segments of English Sounds Consonants:        Short Vowels: 12 .

Long Vowels:  Diphthongs: 13 .

14 . To give it stress. you do one or more of these to the syllable: y Make it longer. y Make it higher. you give stress to one of the syllables. y Make it louder.Exploring word stress: If a word has more than one syllabic.

15 .

The word Saturday Sat ur day O o o The biggest circle in stress syllable. 16 .Distinguishing Stress Syllable: We can show stress with circles: OO oO ooo OOOO each circle is a syllable and the bigger circle shows which syllable is stressed.

A: That's next Saturday! B: we're leaving in the afternoon. thirteenth! 17 .The stress patterns of the words in bold type: A: When do you begin your holiday? B: On the thirtieth of August. A: Thirtieth? B: No. A: And when are you coming back? B: Saturday September the thirteenth.

O o o O o A: That's next Saturday! O o o B: we're leaving in the afternoon. thirteenth! o O 18 . o o O A: And when are you coming back? B: Saturday September the thirteenth.A: When do you begin your holiday? o O O o o B: On the thirtieth of August. o O o o O A: Thirtieth? O o o B: No.

yesterday.Stress Pattern: Different words have different stress patterns (patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables). thirteen. eleventh afternoon. Oo oO oOo ooO April. thirtieth. tomorrow. seventy September. today. seventeen. twenty-one The stress pattern of Nineteen oO Similarly: January Nineteen people Oo February Ooo Oooo 19 . morning. thirty. midday. thirteenth Ooo Saturday. holiday. Sunday July.

oO thirteen fourteen sixteen eighteen nineteen Oo thirty forty sixty eighty ninety 20 . numbers ending in -teen or -ty.Stress patterns can help you hear the difference between similar words. for example.

nouns and adjectives art .friendly fame ± famous Oo verbs move .dislike build ± rebuild come ± become oO 21 . reCORD Stress in -two-syllable words Many two-syllable words come from a one-syllable word.driver friend .REcord.artist drive .remove like . artist = Oo (stress on the first syllable) remove = oO (stress on the second syllable) Here are some more examples.

Note: However there are a number of exceptions. alone. asleep. 22 . Listen to this sentence: the nouns and adjectives all have the pattern Oo.Most two-syllable nouns and adjectives have stress on the first syllable. even if they don't come from an original one-syllable word For example. mistake. The artist¶s most famous picture shows some women and children in a lovely forest with a purple mountain behind. which have stress on the second syllable. machine. `brother' doesn't come from the original word broth but it still has the stress pattern Oo.

For example. 23 . e. copy and two syllable verbs ending in -er and -en. enter. Listen to this sentence: the verbs all have the pattern oO. just relax and enjoy the scenery! Note: Exceptions stress on the first syllable. cancel. `repeat' doesn't (oO).Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the second syllable. forget about work. offer. listen. answer. open.g. even if they don¶t come from an original one-syllable word. Escape to Scotland. happen.

For example answer. promise. For example. the stress is on the syllable happ. in both happy (Oo) and unhappy (oOo). travel. and in both depart (oO) and departure (OOO). reply. Note: The stress stays in the same place when we make longer words from these two-syllable nouns.Word Class Pair: Oo / oO record contrast desert export object present produce protest rebel Note: No change of stress in words that are both nouns and verbs. picture. the stress is on the syllable part. 24 . adjectives and verbs. visit always have stress on the same syllable.

Weak syllables ³Schwa´ Two-syllable words with weak first syllable and stress on the second syllable Listen and repeat: Weak syllable spelt about  µa¶ ahead again  Spelt µo¶ obtuse    oppose offend  Spelt µu¶ suppose  support   suggest  25 .

Spelt µor¶ forget  forsake  forbid Spelt µer¶ perhaps  percent   perceive   Spelt µur¶ survive    survey (verb)   surprise  26 .

Two-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the first syllable Listen and repeat: Weak syllable spelt ballad  µa¶ Alan   necklace    Spelt µo¶ melon   paddock purpose  Spelt µe¶ hundred  sullen    open  Spelt µu¶ circus   autumn  album  Spelt µar¶ tankard  custard  standard   27 .

Spelt µor¶ juror major manor  Spelt µer¶ longer  mother eastern   Spelt µure¶ nature    posture  creature Spelt µous¶ ferrous  vicious   gracious  Spelt µough¶ thorough borough Spelt µour¶ saviour   succour  colour    28 .

Three-syllable words with weak second syllable and stress on the first syllable Listen and repeat: Weak syllable spelt workaday  µa¶ roundabout   Spelt µo¶ customer  pantomime  Spelt µu¶ perjury venturer    Spelt µar¶ standardise   jeopardy Spelt µer¶ wonderland    yesterday  29 .

art gallery. airport. footpath. bus stop. check-in desk Oooo travel agent. photocopy Note: If the first part of the compound word is an adjective. hoarding card. bedroom Ooo traffic light. there may be stress on the second part too. tape recorder.Stress in compound words: book + shop = bookshop In most compound words. 30 . road sign. the stress is on the first part. window scat. for example 00 double room. car park. supermarket. bus station. shoe shop. sunglasses. Oo bookshop.

for example OO car door.Stress on the second part of a compound noun when: the object in the second part is made out of the material in the first. half price. ‡ the first part tells us where the second part is. hand made bad-tempered. If the compound word is not a noun. old-fashioned. for example OO glass jar. short-sighted overnight. ‡ OO OOo OoO first class. second hand 31 . we often put stress on the second part too.

months. OO noun and verb I saw her bus pass. But the pronunciation is different. OO Compound word I saw her bus pass. greenhouse during the winter green house next to the river.Sometimes a compound word looks the same as y a normal adjective and noun. y a normal noun and verb. Compare: Oo compound word OO adjective andnoun We keep these plants in a Mr Olsen lives in a small. 32 .

Sentences also have a stress pattern. 33 . He told her.Introducing sentence stress: The word having strong and weak syllables. Ooo word Photograph Canada cabbages oOo sentence word September tomorrow remember ooO sentence word Afternoon Japanese Portuguese sentence Do you smoke? One of these? He's arrived. Answer me! Doesn't he? Copy it! Excuse me. I think so. Sometimes a word and a sentence have the same stress pattern.

coming? Is he happy? Are you Do you like it? 34 .Short sentences and phrases in English have some typical stress patterns. Pleased to meet you! A piece of cake. of course! Thanks a lot! See you later! Can't you hear me? It's time to go. The shop was closed. What do you do? Where do you live? Give me a call. OoO OoOo oOoO OooO ooOo What's the time? Yes.

these three sentences take about the same length of time to say. Go and speak to Mary. 35 . OOO OoOoOo OooOooOoo Don't tell Mike.The space between stress and unstressed syllable stays more or less the same length whether one or more unstressed syllables are pushed into it. Hurry and give it to Jonathan. So for example.

all of the words are important. emergencies for example.Sentences with all the words stressed: We put stress on one syllable of all the most important words. In some situations. In this case. the sentence may have only one word). there is stress on one syllable of all of the words (in some cases. Quiet! Sorry! Look out! Come back! Don't forget! Don't be late! Keep quiet! Emergency Take care! Stand still! Hurry up! Don't worry! Wake tip! Sit down! Go away! Don't move! Stay awake! Don't look now! Go straight on! Don't turn round! 36 . O Oo OO OoO OOo OOO oOoo Help! Quick! Smile'.

the following kinds of words are usually stressed.Which words are stressed in sentence: In English sentence stress. 37 . The examples given are from the sentences. verbs (help) two-part verbs (look out) adjectives (quick) nouns (emergency) negative auxiliary verbs (don't) Positive auxiliary verbs such as be in Don't be late! are not usually stressed.

Unstressed words: All of the sentences below have three syllables with this stress pattern: OoO. swim. O What's Tom Dogs Close Wait Go o your was can the and to O name? right. The middle word in each sentence is unstressed because it is not as important as the other two words. bed! 38 . door! see.

) are usually stressed.Unstressed words: These are the kinds of words which are not normally stressed. 39 . pronouns (your) the verb he (was) auxiliary verbs (can) articles (the) conjunctions (and. don't. or) prepositions (to) Negative auxiliary verbs (can't. hasn't. etc. with example words from the sentences.

That's the man. In the sentences below. Notice that the length of time between the two stressed words is about the same. OO OoO OooO OoooO That man. 40 .Unstressed words: There may be more than one of these unstressed words between two stressed words. That could be the man. Listen. each sentence has the same two stressed words with an increasing number of unstressed words between. That was the man. however many unstressed words are fitted between.

the vowel sound in the pronouns and his. him. her. hook at this sentence: I met him. their. our is very short 41 . Listen to these sentences. her. So this sentence has the stress pattern o O o. The first and third words are pronouns.I'll ASK her (Alaska) Pronouns and contractions Pronouns in sentences are usually unstressed. You will hear each one twice: first in careful speech and then in fast speech-. his unless it is at the beginning of the sentence. Notice that in fast speech: ‡ ‡ the speaker doesn't pronounce the letter H in he.

He knows their son. He likes them. She hates her job. People will understand you if you use careful speech. oOoO I met his wife. You don't need to copy the fast speech pronunciation. You need our help. We called their friends. You know her. We found it. 42 .oOo I met him. But you need to be able to understand fast speech. They saw you. They read my brook. She phoned me.

I'll 43 . it may be pronounced the same as Alaska. 1 will.         (like Alaska) (like am coming) (like his finished (like the hungry) (like wiv seen him) (like shiz angry) Note: You do not join the pronoun to an auxiliary verb at the end of a sentence. don't say Yes. have. He's finished They're hungry. She's angry. This is because the pronoun and contraction are pronounced as one syllable. For example: say Yes. will. etc. we join the 1 and will together to form I'll. This sentence therefore has the stress pattern oOo (the pronouns and contractions I¶ll and her are unstressed) In fast speech. For example.Pronouns are often joined to auxiliary verbs (is. We've seen him. oOo I'll ask her. Listen to these examples. when we speak.) in contractions. In the sentence I'll ask her there are four words but only three syllables. I'm coming.

Listen and notice the way their voices go up or down at the end. A says 'bear with his voice going down. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: Shh! What? Bear! Bear? Bear! Where? There! Far? No! Near? Yeah! Run? Run! 44 . For example. B repeats the word with his voice going for listening up. in the conversation below.Intonation (How the speaker sound): Introducing tones But normally we can choose to make our voice go up or down at the end.

(A's voice goes up at the end. Listen to the way A pronounces his three questions. Here? Yes.Asking and checking tones: Questions can be pronounced with the voice going up at the end or going down at the end. A: B: A: B: A: B: Where? Here Where? Here.) 45 . Two people are fixing a place to meet.) (A's voice goes down at the end.) (A's voice goes up at the end. You can hear the difference in this conversation. here.

Then listen and check.Asking and checking tones: Read these short conversations and tick the questions. A: What? B: Left. A: When? B: Tomorrow. A: Which way? B: Left. 46 2 . A: Tomorrow? B: Yes. tomorrow. A: In front of the shop? B: Yes. 1 A: When? B: Tomorrow.

Tones in asking for information We pronounce an 'open' question differently from a 'check' question. The voice usually goes up at the end. Listen to the examples in this conversation. A 'check' question is where we make sure that the information we have is correct. 47 . and the voice usually goes down at the end. An 'open' question is where we ask for information we didn't have before.

A: And how long have you lived here? 48 .A. A: And where were you born? B: Surinam: A: Is that in South America? B: Yes. that's right. What's your name? B: Sonia.

B: Five years A: I see: Are you married? B: No. I'm not: A: And what do you do? B: I'm a boxer. A: You are a boxer 49 .

Listen to the questions below. EXAMPLE Are you a student? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Have you been to America? What do you study? What time is it? Are you over eighteen? Can you drive? Where's he going? Do you like it? 50 . Are they open or check? Draw a down or an up line in the boxes.

because the last word 'tomorrow' has already been mentioned.Tones in new and old information: In conversation. 2 A: When are you closed? B: We're closed tomorrow. This is 'old' information. and the voice normally goes down at the' end. the voice goes down. 51 . 1 A: I'll come in tomorrow. and the voice normally goes up at the end. In conversation 1 below. This is 'new' information. B: We're closet) tomorrow. the voice goes up at the end. In conversation 2. because the last word 'tomorrow' has not been mentioned. Listen. we often refer back to something we said before. We also tell the listener things we haven't mentioned before.

isn't it? 52 2 . In 1. we often check that they know the background to the story first. so the voice goes down. Listen and compare A's first question in these two conversations. This shows that we have finished the story.Continuing or finishing tones: When we are telling someone a piece of news. he's left all his money to charity YOU know Max's grandfather dial? Oh. 1 A: B: A: A: B: A: You know Max's grandfather died? Yes. the voice goes up at the end: Then. terrible. In 2. he is checking that B knows about Max's grandfather's death. so the voice goes up. Yeah. the voice goes down at the end. when we finally tell the news. he is telling B the news that Max's grandfather died. Well. When we do this.

the voice goes clown at the end. Listen to this conversation. A: B: A: B: A: Football's so boring. our voice often goes down at the end. We tell the other person our opinion. Notice that the voices qo down at the end of each line. how ran that be interesting? No. confidant they will not be upset.Agreeing and disagreeing tones: When we agree with the other person. When we use question tags to tell someone our opinion. it's just 22 people running after a hall. isn't it? Note: The expression isn't it? is called a question tag. Yell'. 53 . I hate it. I know. I mean. isn't it? Yeah. golf's much more fun.

The other two people do not really mean it. and so their voices do not go high. And of course the woman in picture 3 doesn't really mean thank you. Note: Sometimes the ticket collector's voice goes up at the end when he says thank you. Notice that the woman who forgot her bag makes her voice go very high.High tones: Listen to these three people saying thank you. She means the opposite! 54 . This shows that she really means what she is saying. which makes it sound like a routine habit: he doesn't really mean it.

Listen and compare the voices of the man and woman telling their friend about their holiday. it was quite nice What do you mean. our voice does not usually go high. nice? It was brilliant! Good hotel? Quite pleasant. If we use weaker adjectives like nice. OK? It was absolutely delicious! And the scenery? Quite pretty. Liz: Claire: Paul: Liz: Claire: Paul: Liz: Claire: Paul: Liz: Claire: Paul: So. how was your trip? Oh. Pleasant? It was excellent! Superb! How about the food? It was OK.When we give an opinion about something with e very strong adjective like excellent. yes. It was amazing! Beautiful! 55 . our voice usually goes high to show our strong feeling.

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