Writing the Draft: INTRODUCTION (Chap.

1)
Nursing Research NPP 105 Mr. CAF Reballos

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem Hypothesis Scope and Delimitation of the Study Significance of the Study Definition of Terms

Introduction
‡ Background of the study
± Origin of the study ± Rationale

‡ General to specific propositions
± global scene national ± Specific and orderly local setting

Introduction
‡ Reminders:
± Use statistical data
World Health Organization (WHO, 2007) reported that the leading cause of death worldwide is cancer. It accounted for 13% of all deaths worldwide or approximately 7.9 million deaths. Overall, the leading cancer mortality each year are as follows: lung (1.4 million deaths/year), stomach (866,000 deaths), liver (653,000 deaths), colon (677,000 deaths) and breast (548,000 deaths). About 72% of all cancer deaths in 2007 occurred in lowand middle-income countries including the Philippines. In the Philippines, cancer ranks third in the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after communicable and cardiovascular diseases. Seventy five percent (75%) of all types of cancer occur after 50 years of age, and only about 3% occur at the age 14 and below. The ten leading types of cancer are lung, breast, cervix, liver, colon and rectum, prostate, stomach, oral cavity, ovary and leukemia.

Introduction
‡ Reminders:
± Don¶t lengthen your introduction ± Use specific language ± Use in-text citation properly ± End the paragraph with the purpose of your study ± Don¶t:
‡ Start the paragraph with a question ‡ Quotation

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND space Introduction (left justified, bold) space Paragraph (indented, justified) Next Paragraph (same as above, no space) space Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework
‡ Presents a broad, general explanation of the relationships the concepts of interest in a research study based on ONE existing theory
‡ Based on a nursing theory

‡ Organize their body of knowledge and to establish what is known about a phenomenon

Theoretical Framework
‡ Abstract ‡ Guide Nursing Practice ‡ Reminders:
± Origin of theories and models ± Tentative nature of theories and models ± Purposes of theories and conceptual models ± Relationship between theory and research

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Theoretical Framework
The study on the competencies of staff nurses is based on Benner and Wrubel¶s Model of Primary Caring (Kozier et al., 2004). Developed in 1989, the model presents the central concern on caring. Chinn and Kramer (2004) noted that the focus of attention of the theory is the client¶s need for caring. Caring based on this theory refers to the persons, events, projects and things matter to the people (Kozier et al., 2004). Central to the essence of nursing is caring. The nurse matters to the patients with cancer. It needs to define the risks of patients with cancer. Once established, it is the responsibility of the nurse to implement a nursing care plan that identifies the boundary of the medical care regiment of the cancer patients (Smeltzer et al, 2008). The theory believes that the need for caring is a means of coping with stressors of illness (Kozier et al., 2008). The caring model is presented with connections. The possibility for coping enables possibilities for connecting with and concerns for others. Thus, it allows for the giving and receiving of

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Theoretical Framework (Cont.)
help to patients. The nurse who handles patients with cancer requires assisting the patients in identifying strengths and limitation. Through assisting the cancer patient in identifying his/her strength and limitation, the nurse as an educator, help in identifying the coping mechanism that may be use in adopting and performing his/her daily activities as functional and efficient as possible. If the patient applies the coping mechanism identified and he/she had performed daily activities functionally and effectively, satisfaction will take place if he/she will see progress on his/her performance.

Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework
‡ Conceptual models of nursing ‡ Strategy uses a conceptual map that graphically shows the interrelationships of the concepts and statements
± Conceptual map includes all of the major concepts in a theory ± Linked by arrows expressing the proposed linkages between concepts

Conceptual Framework
Variables ± concepts to be examined in a study ± qualities, properties or charac. Of persons, things or situations that change or vary a. Independent and Dependent Variables b. Research Variables c. Extraneous Variables d. Demographic Variables

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Conceptual Framework
INPUT VARIABLES PROCESS VARIABLES OUTPUT VARIABLES

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Space Conceptual Framework

Figure 1. Clinical Nursing: The relationship between its focus and its constituents.

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Space Conceptual Framework

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Conceptual Framework Figure Figure #. Title (Author, year) this is applicable if adapted Paragraph to describe and explain the variables above (indent) The research paradigm (Fig. 1) is presented in the above figure. The paradigm shows that competency should be assessed in order to evaluate staff nurses. On the other hand, the cancer patients who received care from the staff nurses (presented in dash arrow) would be the one who will evaluate the competencies of the staff nurses through their satisfaction to the care rendered. The relationship of the competency of the staff nurses and level of satisfaction of the cancer patients would determine quality care.

Statement of the Problem
‡ Enigmatic, perplexing or troubling condition ‡ Articulates the problem to be addressed and indicates the need for a study through the development of the argument ‡ Statements should be simple and direct ‡ General ± declarative form ‡ Specific ± interrogative form

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Statement of the Problem General and Specific statement of the study The study will seek to determine the classroom management profile of the clinical instructor in Nursing Care Management (NCM) 101; and level of stress in classroom environment and academic performance of Level III BSN students of San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc. (College). Specifically, the aims to answer the following questions: Enumerate specific statement of the study

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Statement of the Problem 1. What are the perceptions of the BSN III students and the clinical instructors¶ self evaluation of their classroom management in NCM 101? 2. What is the level of stress experience by BSN Level III students in the different classroom management profiles in NCM 101? 3. What are the scores obtained by the Level III Nursing students in the summative test? 4. How do the Clinical Instructor and the Level III BSN students differ in the perception of the classroom management in NCM 101? 5. Is there a significant relationship between stress level, classroom management and students¶ achievement in the summative test?

Hypothesis
‡ Hypotheses are tentative statements about the given population
± Null Hypothesis (statistical hypothesis, Ho) = states that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables ± Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)= shows the relationship between independent and dependent variables

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Statement of the Problem Hypothesis space 1. There is no significant difference in the classroom management employed in NCM 101 as perceived by the Clinical Instructor and Level III BSN students. 2. There is no significant relationship among stress level, classroom management and academic performance of students in NCM 101. Scope and Delimitation

Scope and Delimitation
‡ This portion should be able to identify the breadth and intensiveness of the study ‡ This is achieved by putting a limit to the number of factors or conditions being considered in the study

Scope and Delimitation
‡ Answer the following questions which should be included in this part:
± Population size ± Target population ± Inclusion and Exclusion criteria in selecting population ± Duration of the study ± Variables of the study

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Scope and Delimitation
The study will be done in the campus of San Juan De Dios Educational Foundation Incorporated (College). This will include three level III clinical instructors teaching Nursing Care Management (NCM) 101 (Communicable Disease/Stress) and level III BSN students, who are currently enrolled in NCM 101. For the clinical instructors they are asked to accomplish a survey questionnaire (Classroom Management Style Survey) that will rate if their teaching style is authoritative, democratic, laissez-faire, or indifferent. And for the students they are asked to accomplish 3 parts of survey questionnaire (Classroom Management: Style Survey & Stress Test) composed of the following: first is their demographic data, second is their perceived level of stress in the classroom environment (access to instructional materials, classroom Behavior and environmental factors); and third is their perceived teaching style of their respective Clinical Instructor that is adopted and modified from the survey questionnaire used for the Clinical Instructor. The academic performance of the students in the subject NCM 101 is evaluated through a summative test that will be given by level III BSN Clinical Instructor.

Significance of the Study
‡ Importance of the study ‡ Statement on the potential contribution of the research to nursing administration, nursing service, nursing education, nursing students and patients

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Significance of the Study The conduction of the study will benefit the following person: Level III Nursing Students: Students will benefit to this by being able to develop stresscoping skills in different teaching styles to achieve good academic standing. Result of this study will aid the student in identifying which approach will be more effective in developing and enhancing their knowledge which are essential in providing quality nursing care

Definition of Terms
‡ Conceptual definition is identifying something in terms of hypothetical criteria rather than observable ones.
± Definitions can be taken from books, dictionary and encyclopedia

‡ Operational definition can be constructed in terms of the operations that must be performed to cause the phenomenon or state being defined to occur.

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Definition of Terms
For better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined according to the context in which they are used. CANCER- Malignant tumor tending to spread immediately CANCER PATIENT- Individuals diagnosed of having breast, rectal, colon, gastric and thyroid cancer but not in stage IV, presently admitted in the institutions involved in the study and hospitalized for at least three days. QUALITY CARE- It is the kind of care rendered by the staff nurses to the cancer patients based on the level of knowledge, skills and attitude they have. SATISFACTION LEVEL- refers to the degree of fulfillment on the quality of care rendered by staff nurses as perceived by the cancer patients. STAFF NURSES- Registered nurses who passed the licensure examination of the Philippines, had handled cancer patients for the last 6 months and currently working in the hospitals involved in the study.

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Writing the Draft
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Paper: Short Bond Font: Arial Font size: 12´ Spacing: 1.5´ Boundary: 1´ x 1´ top/bottom/sides Paging: Below and center Chapter paper: Continues within chapter Next page after another

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