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Edmund Husserl's

Orgin of Geometr:
An Introduction
Jacques Derrida
University of Nebraska Press
Lincoln and London
Copyright 1962 by the Presses Universitaires de France
Translation copyright 1978 by John P. Leavey, Jr.
Afterword copyright 1989 by the University of Nebraska Press
All rights reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
First Bison Book printing: 1989
Most recent printing indicated by the frst digit below:
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Derrida, Jacques.
Edmund Husserl 's Origin of geometry: an introduction / Jacques Derrida;
translated, with a preface and afterword, by John P. Leavey, Jr.
p. cm.
"First Bison Book printing"-T.p. verso.
Reprint. Originally published: Stony Brook, N.Y.: N. Hays, 1978.
Includes index.
ISBN 0-8032-6580-8 (alk. paper)
1 . Husserl, Edmund, 1859-1938. Die Frage nach dem Ursprung der Geo
metrie als intentional-historisches Problem. 2. Phenomenology. I. Title.
QA447.D4713 1989
142' . 7-dc 19 CIP 88-38638
Reprinted by arrangement with Presses Universitaires de France and John P.
Leavey, Jr. Translated from the revised edition of Introduction a "L'Origine
de la geomerrie" de Husserl.
The paper in this book meets the minimum requirements of American National
Standard for Information Services-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library
Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.
Preface: Undecidables and Old Names, by John P. Leavey
Undecidables and Deconstruction
Derrida's Introduction to The Origin oj Geometry
Deconstruction and the Science of Old Names
Translator's Note
Introduction to The Origin ofGeometr
*1. The Sense of Sense-Investigation: Responsibility.
Consciousness. and Existence
I. The Historical Reduction and the Necessity for
Return Inquiry (RiickJrage) in Reactivation
III. The Ego as Fundament and the Reduction of
IV. Objectivity. Historicity. and Intentionality
V. Language, the Possibility of Transcendental
VI. The How of Ideality: the Earth and the Living
VII. The How of Ideality: Writing and Unil'ocity as
the Telos of Reactivation
VIII. Horizon: the Absolute of History. and Imaginar
IX. The Suspension of Ideality: Scient(fc Study of
the Life- World (Lebenswel)
X. Geography, Injnitization, and the Idea in the
Kantian Sense
XI. The Historicity of the Idea: Diff erence, Delay,
Origins. and the Transcendental
Appendix: The Origin of Geometry, by Edmund Husserl,
trans. David Carr
Coda: contrpunctus and translation, by John P. Leavey
Index of Passages Cited from Husserl
These headings, added for the convenience of the reader, do not appear in the
French edition.
The 1 974 second, revised French edition of EDMUND HUSSERL'S
L'ORIGINE DE LA GEOMETRIE. traduction et introduction par JAC
QUES DERRIDA, in Epimethee, Essais Philosophiques, Collection
fondee par Jean Hyppolite, copyright 1 962 by Presses U niversitaires
de France, 1 08, Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris, is the source of this
English translation.
for their authorization to present this text in English.
HUSSERL'S ORIGIN OF GEOMETRY is here reprinted from THE
Carr. Copyright 1 970 by Northwestern University Press, Evanston.
Pp. 353-78.
for their authorization to reprint Husserl's text in full.
Undecidables and Old Names
Tympaniser-la philosophie.
Oaiaeo:eseair:eaea. aie||eeiaa| seeae. iaeaaveaiaaaaem.seei
si:aeia:a| . smaaveaeeeeaa.eaaaiaas|eeaea||eaiae|ee| ssaee:
seaa:e|viaeiexi. 1aei:eaeaea.|eseeae:aaae:.i.eaeeaesDe::.aa
.ss.iaaieaaiiae] aaeia:eeiiaeie. iae|ee|
a|eaiiaee:. a. as . ae|avs, aiiae.:e:ess:eaas

H. s
eiaea. siae aeeeasi:aei.eaeiiaeve:v. aeaeiwriting.
iaee:a.aa:v sease.|aiasiaeo|aeeeime-iaea|avs .aeemo|eie
e:asa:e e: se:aiea.aeeai 1ae |ee|as aa
See, for exampl e, Eugenio Donato, "Structuralism: The Afermath, " Sub-Stance,
NO. 7 (Fall 1 973) , 9-26; Phillippe Sollers, "Programme, " in his Logiques (Paris: Seuil ,
1 968), pp. 9-1 4; or Julia Kristeva, Semei6tike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris:
Seuil , 1 969); as well as any number of works by Roland Barthes or Derrida hi mself.
"Like all the notions I am using, it belongs to the history of metaphysics and we can
onl y use it under erasure [sous rature ( added by tr. ) ] , " Jacques Derri da, Of
Grammatology, tf. Gayatri Spi vak (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press,
1 977) , p. 6. Since this translation, with an excellent preface by the translator, appeared
afer the present work was completed, I was unable to compare translations for consis
tency of terminology (a I did with Allison' s translation of Speech and Phenomena), nor
was I able to comment on Mrs. Spi vak' s Preface. However, I have added references in
the notes to relevant sections of her preface. Her discussion of rature occurs on pp.
xi i i-xx. I t forms the backdrop for her lengthy discussion of Drrida' s " acknowledged
' precursors' -Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, Husserl , " pp. xxi-liv. I n his translation of
" La ' differance, ' ' ' contained in Derrida' s Speech and Phenomena: And Other Essays on
Husserl ' s Theor of Signs (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1 973) , p. 1 43,
David Allison notes : "Derrida ofen brackets or ' crosses out ' certain key terms taken
from metaphysics and logic, and in doing this, he follows Heidegger' s usage in Zur
Seinsfrage. The terms in question no longer have their ful l meaning, they no longer have
the status of a purely signifed content of expression-no longer, that is, after the decon
struction of metaphysics. Generated out of the play of diference, they still retain a
vestigial trace of sense, however, a trace that cannot simply be gotten around
(incontourable) . "
archives of metaphysical inscriptions, as the encyclopedia of knowl
edgor the complete presence of the signifed (transcendental or not), is
foreIgn to Derrida's new "concept" of writing, l'ecriture. Derrida ex
plains: "If I distinguish the text from the book, I shall be saying that the
destruction of the book, as it is now under way in all domains, denudes
the surface of the text. That necessary violence responds to a violence
that was no less necessary." The book's own violence, its "protection
of heol
ogy and
f logocentrism against the disruption of writing,
agamst Its aphonstic energy, and . . . against diference in general,"3
forces the present-day violent distinction of the book and the text, in
order for "writing" to be understood.
Rature and the text ofDerrida wherein it occurs are themselves crossed
out or somehow suspended in his thought,- a thought seemingly too
abstract. His method of criticism, deconstruction, could be seen, as
Ricoeur says, as "consisting in laying waste to metaphysical discourse
by aporia"5-i.e., as a kind of mental gymnastics. This common, but
important, criticism of Derrida actually strikes at the heart of his enter
prise. His continual insistence on the failure of metaphysics as onto
theo-Iogy seems to support Ricoeur's criticism. Derrida still writes
"book" in the ordinary sense, and all the words of his text are, by
necesSIty, not erased. In fact, deconstruction seems to be the violent
misinterpretation of Wester thought. However, the above criticism
also misses the point, or preferably, the non-point, of Derrida's work,
all of which could be considered as outside of books, hors-livre, as
Of Grammatology. p. 1 8 .
" If there were only perception, pure permeability to frayi ng [facilitation, Bahnung J.
there would be no frayi ng. We would be written but nothing would be recorded; no
writing would be produced, retai ned, repeated as readability. But pure perception does
not exist [my emphasis] : we are written only by writing . . . by the i nstance wi thi n us
which always already governs perception, be i t i nternal or external. The ' subj ect' of
writing does not exist if we mean by that some sovereig solitude of the author. The
subject of wri ti ng is a system of relations between strata: of the Mystic Pad, of the
psyche, of society, of the world. Withi n that scene the punctual simplicity of the classical
subject is not to be found. In order to describe that structure, it is not enough to recall that
one always writes for someone; and the oppositions sender- recei ver, code-message, etc . ,
remain extremely coarse i nstruments. We would search the 'public' i n vai n for the frst
reader: i . e . , the frst author of a work. And the ' sociology of literature' i s blind to the war
and ruses-whose stakes are the origin of the work-between the author who reads and
the frst reader who dictates. The sociality of writing as drama requires an entirely
diferent discipli ne" (Jacques Derrida, "Freud et la sd:ne de I ' ecriture, " in his L' Ecriture
et la diff erence [Paris: Seuil, 1 967] , p. 335; ET: "Freud and the Scene of Writi ng, " tr.
Jefrey Mehlman, i n Yale French Studies, No. 48: French Freud [ 1972] , 1 1 3- 1 4) .
5 La Meraphore vive (Paris: Seui l, 1 975) , p. 365.
prefaces, as marginal comments written in the margins of other books
or texts."
The preface, Derrida says, is "a fourth text. Simulating the postface,
the recapitulation. and the recurrent anticipation, the auto-movemet of
the concept, it is an entirely other, diferent text, but t the sam:
as 'discourse of assistance,' it is the 'double' of what It exceeds. Th
fourth text, as text, is "the beyond everything [which] insofar
a It
withstands all ontology . . . is not a primum movens. However, It Im
parts [imprime] to everything . .. a movement of fction. Derridafc
tionalizes Western tradition, an action, in part, of teanng down or
apart, deconstructing or demolishing.9
. .
How does Derrida fctionalize? In other words, what IS the fctIonal
motion that his prefaces impress on everything? As the fourth text, it is
dissemination, 10 deconstruction, diferance: `
"All these texts . . . no doubt are the i nterminable preface to another text that I
would one day like to have the strength to write , or again the epigraph to anothr [tet] ?f
which I would never have had the audacity to write . . . " (Positions [Pans: MlnUl t,
1 972] , p. 1 4) . On margi nality, see David Allison, "Derrid' s Citique of Husserl : The
Philosophy of Presence, " Diss. The Pennsyl vani a State Umverslty, 1 974, p. 1 77.

Jacques Derrida, La Dissemination (Paris : Seuil , 1 972) , pp. 33-35.

Ibid., p. 65: my emphasis onfction.
This unbuilding at times seems close to the negative moment often assigned to the
creati ve imagination. See Ray Hart, Unfnished Man and the Imagination (New York:
Herder, 1 968) , pp. 247-49.
Dissemination ulti mately has no meaning and cannot be channeled i nto a defnition.
. . . If it is not possible to summarize dissemi nation, the seminal diferance, in i ts conce
tual tenor, it is because the force and form of its di sruption break through the
horizon . . . . Dissemination . . . by produci ng a non-fnite number of semantIc efects,
does not allow itself to be reduced ei ther to a present of simple origin (La Dissemination,
La Double Seance. La Mythologie Blanche are practical re-stagings of all the false starts,
beginnings, i nci pits, titles , exergues, fctitious pretexts , etc. : decaptains) or to an e
chatological presence. It marks an irreducible and generative mul tJp!tclty. The s
men! and the turbulence of a certain lack break down the li mit of the text, exempt It frm
exhaustive and enclosing formal i zation or at least prohibit a saturating taxonomy of I ts
themes, of i ts signifed, of i ts i ntended meani ng ( vouloir-dire).
"Here we are playing, of course , upon the fortui tious resemblance, upon the purely
si mulative ki nshi p between seme and semen. They are in no way interconnected by
meaning. And yet, i n this skiddi ng and this purely exteral collusion, he ccident d
produce a sort of semantic mirage: the deviance of the i ntended meant, I ts refl ectlve
efect (efet-refet) in wri ti ng sets a process i n motion. " Taken from OSI:/Ons, pp. 6
1 -62:
ET: "Positions, " Diacritics, 2, No. 4 (Winter 1 972) , 37. See SPI Vak s Preface I n Of
Grammatology, pp. lxv-l xvi .
'' Alli son in hi s Translator' s Introduction to Speech and Phenomena notes: "The term
' deconstruction' (deconstruction), while perhaps unusual , should present no difculties
Dissemination diplces the three of onto-theo-logy according to an
angle of a certain bending-back. A crisi of versus: these marks no
longer allow themselves to be resumed or 'decided' in the two of the
binar opposition nor sublated [relever] in the three of speculative
dialectics . . . they destroy the trinitarian horizon. They textually
destroy it: they are the marks of dissemination (and not of polysemy)
because they do not allow themselves at any point to be pinned down
by the concept or content of a signifed. They 'add' there the more or
less of a fourth term. 1:l
here. It signifes a project of critical thought whose task is to locate and ' take apart' those
concepts which serve as the axioms or rules for a period of thought, those concepts which
command the unfolding of an entire epoch of metaphysics. ' Deconstruction' is somewhat
less negative than the Heideggerian or Nietzschean terms ' destruction' or ' reversal' ; it
suggests that certain foundational concepts of metaphysics will never be entirely elimi
nated, even if thei r i mportance may seem to be efectively diminished. There is no simple
' overcoming' of metaphysics or the language of metaphysics. Derrida recognizes,
nonetheless, that the system of Wester thought is fnite; it has a fnite number of axioms
and a fnite number of permutations that will continue to work themselves out in a gi ven
period of time as particular moments within this tradition, e . g. , as particular schools or
movements of philosophy. I n this sense, Derrida also speaks of the ' completion' of
metaphysics, the terminal point of ' closure' (cloture) for the system. But the work of
deconstruction does not consist in simply pointing out the structural limits of
metaphysics . Rather, in breaking down and disassembling the ground of this tradition, its
task is both to exhibit the source of paradox and contradiction within the system, within
the very axioms themsel ves, and to set forth the possibilities for a new kind of meditation,
one no longer founded on the metaphysics of presence" ( pp. xxxii -xxxi ii ) .
` The a of diferance inscribes the at onceness of difering and deferring i n diferance
(the French verb diferer has both signifcations: to difer, to defer or delay ; etymologi
cally the English words "difer" and "defer" stem from the same root) . Derrida explains
in "La diferance, " translated in Speech and Phenomena, p. 1 37: "the word ' diference'
(with an e) could never refer to difering as temporalizing or to diference as polemos [to
diference as di vision or spacing] . It is this loss of sense that the word diferance (with an
a) will have to schematically compensate for. Diferance . . . refers to [its] whole com
plex of meanings not only when i t is supported by a language or interpreti ve context (like
any signifcation) , but it already does M somehow of itself. Or at least i t does so more
easily by itself than dos any other word: here the a comes more immediately from the
present participle [diferant (added by tr. )] and brings us closer to the action of ' di fering'
that is in progress . . . . But while bringing us closer to the infni tive and active core of
difering, 'diferance' with an a neutralizes what the infniti ve denotes as simply acti ve, in
the same way that ' parlance' does not signify the simple fact of speaking, of speaking to
or bing spoken to . . . . Here in the usage of our language we must consider that the
ending -ance is undecided between active and passive. And we shall see why what is
designated by ' diferance' is neither simply active nor simply passive, that i t announces or
rather recalls something like the middle voice, that it spaks of an operation which is not
an operation, which cannot be thought of ei ther as a passion or as an action of a subject
upon an object, as starting from an agent or from a patient, or on the basis of, or in vi ew
of, any of these terms. "
La Dissemination, p. 32.
1a.siexiaa|crisi .ae:.s.seiiae|.ae.eiiae| .ia.sacc. i. ea
eiiae iea:ia ie:m-iaai ei]ction-masi |e eeaee.vecei.a ie:ms
eiae:iaaaasaea|ea| i aeiae:e:cs. a
ae ea|ea|as . ssem.aai.ea. .saeecec. s.aeeiae
e:.s.seiiae iexi .saei|:eaeaia|eai|voe|vsemve:iaeeve:a|aa |ai:aiae:|viaeve:v. aa|. | :aas ia:eaeaeai De::. ca s iexis. i a si:aeia:e. s.ea.
aac r|av .a iae D.seea:se eiiae uamaa se.eaees. eeaee:a.aeiae
ie .aie:o:eiai.eas ei . aie:o:eiai.ea. iaai a.ea c:eams ei ce
e.oae:.aeiaei:aiae:e:.e.aaaciaaia.ea am:msi:eeo|avaaci:. es
ieoass|eveacmaaaacaamaa. sm.De::.casavs aeceesaei|e|.eve
iaaiiecav iae:e . saaveaesi.ea eichoosing. "15 O: aea. a. . a 1ae
acseiHaa.iae:e. saes. mo|eaacaa.eaeeae. ee|eieeaie
ie:ms eiceeeasi:aei.ea. e.iae: ue.ceeee: s ceeeasi:aei.ea ei eaie
iaee|eev |v meaas ea|aaeaaee e:iae si:aeia:a| .siav-|v a|se|aie :aoia:e aac ~ ae masi
eaveaac. aie:i.aei|"16 1a. s| ii.siaeaei.ea|| analogy, De::.casavs-eaaaei|e
cee.cec svaaa|eev|eeaase. assa:aakeimaaaeies.|. |.iv
aas a :eie:eaee ie|. |.iv. a :eie:eaee iaai masi |e e:essec

1ae||e' ia|es .aie. ise|iia. as e||as iae
aea:eeiiaee||. os. s De::.casavs. are:maacHeaa. ae.
There is, then, probably no choice to be made between two lines of
thought; our task is rather to refect on the circularit which makes the
'` "Freud et la scene de l ' ecriture, " p. 302; ET p. 81 .
` I n L'Ecriture e t fa diference, pp. 427-28; ET: i n The Structuralist Controversy: The
Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man ( Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,
1 970) , pp. 265-66.
"The Ends of Man, " Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 30, No. 1 ( 1 969) ,
56. A French version of this article was published in Derrida' s Marges de la phiLosophie
(Paris: Mi nui t, 1 972) . The above ci tations occur on pp. 1 62-63.
Sarah Kofman, " Un philosophe ' unheimlich, ' ' ' in Ecarts: Quatre Essais a propos
de Jacques Derrida (Paris: Fayard, 1 973) , p. 1 48, n. 1 . The whole essay of Kofman is
i nvaluable for "understanding" Derrida.
" It was necessary to analyze, to put to work, in the text of the history of philosophy
as well as in the so-called 'li terary' text . . . certain marks . . . which I called by analogy
(I emphasize this) undecidables, i . e . , simulative units, ' false' verbal, nominal or semantic
properties, which escape from inclusion in the philosophical (binary) opposition and
which nonetheless inhabit it, resist and disorganize it, but without ever constituting a third
term, without ever occasioning a solution in the form of speculative dialectics" (Po
sitions, p. 58: ET p. 36).
one pass into the other indefnitely. And, by strictly repeating this
circle in its own historical possibility, we allow the production ofsome
elliptical change ofsite, within the dif erence involved in repetition; this
displacement is no doubt defcient, but with a defciency that is not yet,
or is already no longer, absence, negativit, nonbeing, lack, silence.
Neither matter nor form, it is nothing that any philosopheme, that is,
any dialectic, however determinate, can capture. It is an ellipsis of
both meaning andform; it is neither plenar speech nor peiectly
circular. More and less, neither more nor less-it is perhaps an
entirely dif erent question.||e s |ee.e.siaaieiiaee||.os. seiiaee.:e| e. aceie:mec.
ceeeaie:ece. :e|e ~|eae.iaiaee.:e|e.ia. s|ee.eeiiaeaacee. ca|| e. .| .ae.aacsoaeeaaci.meiaemse|ves .
diferance already suggests a mode of writing (ecriture) without
presence and absence-without histor, cause, arche, or telos-which
would overturn all dialectic, theology, teleology, and ontology. This mode
ofwriting would exceed everything that the histor ofmetaphysics has
conceived in the form ofthe Aristotelian grmme: the point, the line, the
circle, as well as time and space themselves.
1a.s| maies. aaa||v.iaeea:|viexiei
De::.cai:aas|aiecae:e .a. sIntroduction ieuasse:|

sOrigin ofGeome
tr. ia Of Grammatology, De::.casavs aai eaa a|se|e sa.ceiia. s
Introduction: ue:e as e| seae:e. ie eese iae e:e||em . aie:ms ei|| .aee: ie|e| .eveeaese|i e|| . aecie aase:.i|vayes e:
no, ieeeaee.eeiaeea:ieaaaeeasaaa| |ea.aaeee:aeaaeea:(eaaaeeas
e|a.|eve|s .eaias .aacsiv| es

iae ceeeasi:aei.ea ei iae a:eae iae e:eie} . eae cees aei mase a tveame:e. mee:iaaii e:ea:ea:eeses. s iae| . ae]asi|eie:e
ia. s De::.casavs. "That is why a thought ofthe trace [diff e rancej can
no more break with a transcendental phenomenology than be reduced
to it. "21
iaeiae:e:cs. sasmaeaaoaeaemeae|ee.siasaei . . sas
"La Forme et Ie voul oi r-dire: note sur l a phenomenologie du langage, " i n Marges, p.
207: ET i n Speech and Phenomena , p. 1 28.
" "Ousia et gramme: note sur une note de Sein und Zeit, " i n Marges, p. 78; ET:
'Ousia and Gramme': A Note to a Footnote in Being and Time, " tr. Edward S. Casey,
in Phenomenology i n Perspective, ed. F. J . Smi th (The Hague: Nijhof, 1 970) , p. 93.
` P. 62.
maeaasi:aeia:a|.siasaei.aaaiae.siase| | asia.a|e:eiiaesae:ec.
asae.iae:. Cae.eesaeecaei|emaceae:e.. aiaei. eaaaei|emace
"To deconstruct" philosophy would. . . be to think the
structured genealogy of its concepts in the most faithful or
interior manner, but at the same time it woul be to determine
from a certain outside unqualiable or unnameable by
philosophy itself what this history could dissemble or prohibit,
becoming history through this somewhere interested
Speech and Phenomena, savs. .s iae essav i va| ae iae
mesi iaia. se:|aeeaesi.easiaeo:. v.|eeeeiiaeve.eesoeee
aac|ai.eaie a||eiwesie:aa. sie:v.


i. s
eaesi.ea| eis. ise|i|eceo.eiec.aiaea.sie:veimeiaoavs.esaacII .is
mesi mece:a. e:.i.ea| . aac v.e.|aai ie:m. uasse:| s i:aaseeaceaia|
oaeaemeae|eev iieaa|eeeas.ce:ec.De::.caiee| s. asa|eaeaei

ieOf Gram mato logy , |ai a aeie iaai aas iae a:sio|aee .a ae|ass..
oa. |eseoa.ea:ea.ieeia:e. O:.aesavs. Speech and Phe

omena eaa|e
eeas.ce:ec as iae eiae: s.ce.i:eai e:|ae|asvea.saeiaaeiae:
essav. oa|| . saec .a i -:. as aa iai:ecaei.ea ie uasse: s Ogin of
Geometr. 1ae:eiaeo:e|| i.aee:ea|:eacvII o|aee
as saea aac eeaaeeiecie iae .::ecae.||e si:aeia:e ei'diferer' .a .is
:e| ai.easieeease.easaess. o:eseaee. se.eaee.a. sie:vaaciaea.sie:vei
se.eaee.iaec.saooea:aaeee:ce| av. aeeiiaee:.e.a.aacseea.
E. Donato in " Structuralism: The Aftermath," p. 25, sees OJ Grammatology, along
with Foucaul t's The Order oj Things, as "the only quest for ti me past and ti me regained
that a fundamentalIy atheist [my emphasis] epistemological confguration might ofer. "
Al so see on this Mi kel Dufrenne, "Pour une phil osophi e non theologique, " i n hi s Le
Poetique, 2nd revised and enlarged ed. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1 97) ,
pp. 7-57. On Derrida and the sacred, see Henri Meschonnic , Le Signe e t Ie poeme ( ParIs:
Gal l i mard, 1 975 ) , pp. 401 -92.
` Positions, p. 1 3 .
` Ibid. Derrida has an even earlier essay on Husserl , gi ven at a conference i n 1 959,
entitled" 'Genese et structure' et l a phenomenologi e. " It was reprinted i n L' Ecriture et
La diference i n 1 967, but frst appeared i n 1 965 i n Entretiens sur les notions de genese :t
de structure, ed. Maurice de Gandi l lac et a. (Paris: Mouton, 1 965) , pp. 243-6. ThIS,
then, is both before and after the work on the Origin, having obviousl y undergone
changes by the time of i ts reprinting in L'Ecriture (the use of the concept dif erance on p.
239 is the cl earest and si mplest exampl e of thi s change) . The article is very hel pful for
understanding Derrida's Introduction.
ia iaese eemmeais o:eseais as .ia aa eoi.ea. ~s ae
saeeesis. eeea|cia|eSpeech and Phenomena asiae :eve:seeia. s
Introduction, a.ea|eeemesiae e|ve:se. iae :.eai e:o:eoe:(recto)
s.ce.i a| .eaieiiaeeemmeaisa|eve. iaeIntroduction ea|ciaea|eiae
essavDe::.cava|aeciaemesi. O:..iia.s. sieeeieeia: . asiae:eve:se
. e: . mo:eoe: s.ce. sIntroduction . s si.||ie |e a.ea| vo:.zec
.aac. sse| . s.aee.i.siaeae|ea.eaaasva|ae ue:e
oe:ve:se|v. iae . mo:eoe: s.ce . aiiae|.ae |v .isve:v . mo:eo:.eiv iae
o:eoe:s.ce. saoo|emeaisiaeva|aeeiiaeeeacessav. Speech and
Phenomena. iaia.seoi.ea.iaeIntroduction . s|eiao:eoe:.s. aee.ias
:.iiea a:si. .a1961, s.xvea:s |eie:e iaeoa||.eai.ea eiSpeech and
Phenomena) .
1aea|eveeemmeais. ia|eai:emHea:.xeases.aie:v.e.iaDe:, aaciaeeoi.easiaevo:eseaio:ev.ceia:iae:]asi.| eai.ea
ie:ae|]e:oa||.saecessav. a.sIntro
duction ieThe Orgin ofGeometr.|||aacia:a.saesa|as.eoa:ieiiaei:amee:|ie:a. s
|aie:. o:eseaie:|.That basic framework-and ae:ei:amee:|saea|c
oess.||v|eeaaaeec.mmec.aie| vieseieio:e||ems. eoi.e.meiaec. .i
a||iaese ie:ms e:e aeia|:eacv.aaceeaaie ieaaiea:e ee.aeie
eeas.ce:-s phenomenology. Heeve:. as .|| |eeeme e|ea:. iae
oaeaemeae|eev.aeaesi.ea.saeiiaai:e] eeiec|vu.eae| reaeaa|i.a
a.s re:ee:c ie iae ae|.sa ec.i.ea ei The Order of Things, a
oaeaemeae|eev a.ea e.vesa|se|aieo:.e:.iv ie iae e|se:v.aesa|
]eei. a.eaaii:.|aiesaeeasi.iaieai:e|eieaaaei. a.eao|aees.isea
oe.aieiv.eaiiaee:.e.aeia||a.sie:.e.iv-a.ea..asae:i .|eacsiea
i:aaseeaceaia|eease.easaess. waaii.saiee|a.m |vsav.aeiaai s i:amee:|.soaeaemeae|ee.ea|.saeiiaaiae.sHasse:|.aae:
He.ceeee:.aa. e: evea .cea| .si e: ex. sieai.a| . e: iaai a. s meiaec .s
oaeaemeae|ee.ea| .xaiae:.iaaiiesaeeesiiaaiDe::.caaasieaac.a
aacat the limits|v ae:e oaeaemeae|eev ia.|s. . . e . . ae:e.i
|eeemes iae mece:a. exemo|a:v :eeao.ia|ai.ea ei wesie meia a ie:i.|e e:eaac ie: ea| eaesi.eas a|eai iae aea

Derrida often refers to and summarizes the resul ts obtained in this study in his later
work. See, for example , Speech and Phenomena, pp. 80-8 1 ; or L' Ecriture et la diff er
ence, pp. 22 and 248.
` The Order of Things: An Archaeology ofthe Human Sciences (New York: Vintage
Books, 1 973) , p. xiv. I cannot resist ci ti ng Foucaul t' s statement to the " English-speaking
reader" concering his relation to the other half of the phenomenological-structural de
bate: "In France, certain half-witted 'commentators' persist i n label l i ng me a 'struc
turalist' . I have been unable to get it i nto thei r tiny minds that I have used none of the
methods, concepts, or key terms that characterize structural analysis" ( xi v) .
oa.|eseoa.ea|per se .iae | . m. is e: ei oa.|eseoav. a|eai
ue:eeve:. iaeoaeaemeae|eevDe::. caexam.aesaaca:eaes.ia. s
iae oaeaemeae|eeveis.ea.||i.i|eciai:ecaei.eaieiae
r:e||em ei s.eas .a Hasse:| s raeaemeae|eev. Speech and
Phenomena |eacsie iae eeae| as.ea. 1ae:e aeve:as aav oe:eeo
i.ea. ra:iae:. ~aceeai:a:vie aaioaeaemeae|eev-a.ea .s
a|avs oaeaemeae|eeveioe:eeoi.ea-aasi:. ec ie ma|e as |e|.eve.
eeai:a:vi eaaiea:ces.:eeaaaeiia.|i e|eiemoiec.aie|e|
thing itself always escapes.

sasec ea iae "absolute will-to-hear

onesel-speak, oaeaemeae|oev masi a|avs ia.|. masi a|avs
ce| aiethe thing itsel, eveatae a|se|aie ieaacai.ea
ie:semaeaeiiecav s iaeaeai. . e . se|ieease.easaess
.s ie: asiespeak, iema|eea:ve.ees:eseaaieia:eaeaeaiiaeee:
:.ce:s .ae:ce:iema|eaoie:iae |:ea|ao eio:eseaee. .ae:ce:ie
saoo|emeaiiae.moaeieieae so:eseaee. se:|iecaie:ema. asinside thi s failure aacneed to speak ei

oaeaemeae|eev ~saesaes,oaeaemeae|eev|:ea|saoeaiae:ee|ei
o:eseaee..i. sasa|]eei.eaeisense eiseaseieiaeseaseei
s.eai . s.aee sease .a eeae:a| .s .a iaei iae eeaeeoi ei eve:v
oaeaemeae|ee.ea|| e|c. Yei|eie:eia.s|:ea|.aeao..aiaem.csi
ei. i. . sae:e e:|s. r:.e:ie iae meiaoavs.ea| e| iaai
oaeaemeae|eevexe:e. sesaac.ia.aiaeoess.|.|
:eve:sa| ei iae a.e:a:eav ei s.eai aac sease. s.aee iaev a:e||e-iaai.sae:ei:a.iia|Hasse:|.aae:|eaa|eceae 1ae
o:e||emeimeiaec.ia.aiaese| .m.i..saaie.||seeceve|eoec.a sIntroduction.
1aeIntroduction ieThe Orgin ofGeometr .sa|eae. exieas.veessav
eeaeeec .ia a sae:i.aceoeaceaii:+emeat .ae|acec. aeee:c.aeie
Hasse:| s o:e|a||e .aieai. asaa ~ooeac.x ie The Crisis of European
See Paul Ricoeur, "Negati vity and Primary Afrmation, " i n hi s Histor and Truth,
tr. Charles A. Kelbley (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1 965) , p. 3 1 2.
p. 1 03 . Al so see the comments of Newton Garver i n hi s Preface to thi s work, xxi i i
xxi v, as well as Note 4 above.
Ibid. , p. 1 04.
`Ibid. , p. 1 02.

Ibid., p. 1 04 and xxvi i i-xxi x.
`' "Form and Meaning, " in Marges, p. 1 88; ET in Speech and Phenomena, pp. 1 08-09.
Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. 1aema]e:ia:eacea. c. a

uasse:| s:eaeei.eas.aiaeOrigin .siaeeaesi.eaei|ee.aa.aese:en

e.ns.ia.ahistor aaciae. sIntroduction


se:| s maaae: eio:eeeec. ae iae:e.a. u. s eemmeaia:vie:o:eiai.ea
ie| | esiaee:ce:eieaesi.ea.aeaaciaeo:e||ems:a. sec|vuasse:| .aac
.ia.a ia.s si:aeia:e e|a|e:aies aac e|ae. caies-aac aaa|v
saoo|emeaisaaiuasse:|:.ies i aaaiie||es. aeev:. i. | |
aei o:eeeec se| v iasieac. i . | | e|ae.caieiaea:ea.ieeia:a|
eeaeeoieia.sie:.e.iv.seasea. sie:vaaciae:|

ieca:easeieaes | s. |aaeaaee.:.|.iv.iaei.v.



i:aaseeaceaia| . 1aeseeemmeais.|||eoa:saec. iamDe:ncas ai
ieoiieaace:siaaciae. aie:o|aveioaeaemeae|ee(s| eeia|||es aac.isaaa|. asi.iai.ea. iae.aie:oav.iameeas..easaess
eiiaeceaa.ieia.aeo:eseai.aoe:seaaaciaeaa.iei ceaasaaa|

ceie::ec 1e| es. De::.caaais ie aace:siaacoaeaemeae|eev as .i . s
., stretched |eieeaiaejnitizing eease.easaessei. ispririple a

injnitizing aaa|institution,


iftung c
a| v ceie::ec .a .is eeaieai |ai a|avs ev.ceai II .is :e

va|ae 1ae c. a| eei.eei iaeseie. eaeaemeaea aac i ca. .s ai
De::icaseemsieiee| . me| .e.i|vaaicecuasse:|. aa. s:eueei.easeaa. s
ie:ie.iv. aaca siacv ei De::.cas eem

eaia:v :evea| s aaiaaeeeas

aeaiaese. me| .eai.easa:emaceexe| . .. i
re:uasse:| .a.sie:.e.iv(Geschichtlichkeit)35 eeaee:asiaee:ie.asaac
i:ac.i.easei.cea|e|]eeis. aaci:ac.i.ea.ise|i.saace:sieecie|e|eia
iae o:eeess ei cea aac iae eaca:aaee ei ia.s o:eeess . a
` Jacques Derrida, Introduction et Traduction de L'Origine de fa gometie de Hus
serl , 2nd ed. (Pari s: Presses Uni versitaires de France, 1 974) . Tran
slatl?ns will be tke
from the text as presented below and the page references wi l l be CIted lU the text withm
parenthesi s. For this quote: ( 1 38) .
. It should be noted that Geschichtlichkeit is the term used many years erlier

Martin Heidegger in Being and Time, 72-77: "Temporal i ty and Geshichtl!chkel t.

Al though the English translators of Heidegger' s work, John MacquITle nd Edw
Robinson, have rendered the term as historicality. most translators, I ncl udIg D
prefer the term historicity for Geschichtlichkeit. I have followed the latter, usmg hlston
ity throughout . However, although both Heidegger and Husserl use the same term, theIr
senses are different . as Derrida's Introduction should make clear
: . .
In addition, David Carr, who translated Husserl ' s Crisis, explaIs In IS Phenomenol
ogy and the Problem of History ( Evanston: Northwestrn UOlversity ess, 1 974 ,
pp. 66-67 , that Husserl ' s concern wi th the problem of hIstory dId not anse from hIS
ae:.iaee. i cea| e|]eeis a:e aai a|eae eaa:aaiee iae oess. |.| .iv ei
a. sie:.e.iv. . . e. . iaea|avs .aie:sa|]eei.veeease.easaesseia.sie:v
(29). i aeiae:e:cs. a. sie:.e.iv. sa|avsasense-histor. iieoe:aiesea
iae |eve| eiseaseaac .s:e|aiecieiaeo:e||emsei|aaeaaee. .cea| . iv.
i:aia.aacaamaas. ac. a.isi.v.aer:eseai-iaesea:eeeia||seaseaac
~eee:c.aeie iae:e a:e ie eeaseeaeaeesie
uasse:| . r.:si. uasse:| s .aea. :v |aes ie iae e:.e.a .. aia.s ease ei
eeemei:v.saa. aea. :v. aieiaeseasea.sie:veigeometrical i:aias. .aie
iaee:.e.aaaci:aasm. ss. eaeigeometrical .cea|e|]eei.v.i.ese:e|]eeis,
aa. aea. :viaaieaaea|v|easease.avesi.eai.ea(a uasse:|aseciae
ie:mofgeometr. 36 De::.casavsa|eaiia. s. 1emec.iaieeae:.aves
i.eaieiaesease(besinnen) saiiaesamei.meie.maseeaese|i
:esoeas.||e(verntworten) ie:iaesease(Sinn) eise.eaeeaacoa.|ese
oav.|:.aeia. sseaseieiaee|a:.ivei. is ia|a| meaii . aacoaieaese|i.a
aoes.i.eaeiresponsibility ie:ia. sseasesia:i.aei:emiaeieia|seaseei
ea:ex. sieaee (31). sease.avesi.eai.ea:evea| siaeeeac.i.easie:aac
iae seaseeia. sie:.e.iv. |ai ea| via:eaeaoe:seaa| :esoeas.|.| .ivaac
seeeac| v. iaee:. e. aei.cea|e|]eeis. asorigin, :a. sesie:uasse:|iae
o:e||emeiiae.:eaca:.aeae:.iaee . iae. :i:ac.i.ea ia eiae:e:cs. .i
.cea|e|]eeisa:ei:a| ve:.e.aa|| .aeeaaiaev|e:eeee
a.zec e:saea waaio|aeesiaem. aa.sie:v.siae.:"essence-of-the-
jrst-time, " iae. :Erstmaligkeit; iaev ceaei eeea:. uasse:| savs. .a a
acquaintance with Heidegger' s Being and Time: " It is hardly to be expected, however,
that a problem with which Husserl is so preoccupied could have occurred to hi m over
night, as i t were, or even have entered his thi nki ng from an outside source-such as
Heidegger' s Being and Time (with its chapter on Geschichtlichkeit) , which HusserJ seems
to have studied careful l y, for the frst time, in 1 932. We intend to show, i n fact , that the
concept of historicity has its roots in refections on various subjects going back as far as
1 9 1 3, and that i ts emergence i n the Crisis i s the efect of an accumulation and confuence
of trains of thought which ul timately force HusserI' s new introduction to phenomenology
to take on its pecul i ar form. " Carr refers, then, to Gadamer' s support of this position i n
his Truth and Method, tr. ed. Garrett Barden and John Cumming (New York: Seabury
Press, 1 975) , p. 2 1 5: "These statements of the later Husser! [concering historicity] might
be motivated by the debate wi th Being and Time, but they are preceded by so many other
attempts to formulate his position that it i s cl ear that Husser! had always had in mind the
application of his ideas to the problems of the historical sciences. "
Sense-i nvestigation, Besinnung, prise de conscience-George Steiner explains thi s
notion wel l i n After Babel: Aspects ofLanguage and Translation (New York: Oxford
Uni versity Press , 1 975): "The complete penetrative grasp of a text , the complete dis
covery and 'recreative apprehension of its l ife-forms (prise de conscience), is an act whose
realization can be precisel y felt but is nearly i mpossible to paraphrase or systematize" ( p.
25) .
"topos ouranios, " .a semeaeavea| v |eea| e. aaciaea ceseeacie iae
ea:ia.xaiae:..cea|e|]eeisa:eirac.i.ena|e|]eeis. aaciaevoesss
a. sie:.e.iv as eaeeiiae.: e. cei.e eemoeaeais (48) . 1aasaavai
iemoiieeeiaiiaee:.e.n eiiaese .cea|e|]eeis. anva. sie:.ea|:e
caei.ea. ea|c |e "reactivating anc aeei.e. aac . iea|caaveie
e:|ia:eaeai:eeoaaaiasv.. ueeve:.astradi
tion, . cea|e|]eeisaaveaee:eiec.anceeni.aaeiecesesec.meaiai.eas
.niae.:i:ansm. ss.ea.iae.:ce|.ve:vieiaeo:eseaianciaia:e.1aevaave
o.e|ec ao|aie:a|anc|a:enisi:aiaa.eaiaea.sie:.ea|:ecae:.eamasi
anaIIv recaee :n ercer :e :eaea iaei anc craso :ae enc:ns ei:ae
: ceaI:::esanueru:seass: en.
i.vai.enenia.| sa:e:ara.nea. :v(Ruckfrage). 1a. s.nea.:va|avss:aris
.iaaa e:.e.n s tradition, a.ea masi .aia:a|e:ecaeecieiaeve:v
e:.e.aiae.nea.:v. ssee|.aeie:eaei.vaie. iaeiae:e:cs. i:ac.i.ea . s
Ruckrage .s iae eaesi.en. ae |ae| through tradition ie iae e:. e. aei
.cea| .iv. Yei . asuasse:| s ie:m saeeesis. ia.
.siae aamaneaoae.ive:a|.|.ivie:eaa|eaiaeo:. me:c.a|senseiaai
.iv. :eaei.vai.ea masi e:i ia:eaea eea.veea| |aaeaaee ie :eea.a a|sease. ii. s. aeee:c.neieDe::. ca.Verantwortung aacBesin
nung, iae:eaa|ea.neaac||||sease
iaai iae eea.veea| i:ac.i.ea eeneea| s . ~s aac mec.aie .. . e. .
i:ac.i.eaa| . iae a|.|.iv ie :eaei.vaie sease eaa |e |esi. a o|.eaiiaai
uasse:|ie|ieave :.seie iae e:.s.s .a oa. |eseoava.eaeaa:aeie:.zec
mece:ai.mes . ~ncvei.uasse:|eoai.aaec. :eaei.vai.en asaeaoae.iv
eiaamaa|.nc.aeeae:a|eaa|e.nan.i.zecia:eaeaiae.cea| .z.neoee:
1ae :e|e eii:ac.i.ea.a uasse:| siaeaeai|eeemese|ea:e:.
oe.aiseai. aeaenei.eeiaaii:ac.i.eaeoe:aiesaaa|eeeas|vieiae
c.a|eei.e ei.niea|i.meeease.easness. iaec.a|eei.eeio:eieai.ea
sense .aie:o|avs. ia iaee:eai.eaeiae sease.ia. aiaeae:.zeaei
o:eseni sease. ~|| eia.ea .s oess.||eie:uasse:| . e saa|| see. |e
eaaseei|aaeaaee.oa:i.ea|a:|v:.iiea|aaeaaee.s: .1aas. a.sie:. e.iv
a:e oess.||een|v|eeaaseiae:e. sane:.e.aanci:ac.i.eaei.cea|e|
]eeis.|eeaaseiae:e.|e.De::.caexo| . saai
eeaeesuasse:| . aaiseemsie||
. s as maea aa eoe:ai.ea .:eaei.vai.en .i|ias iae a|. |.iv ie eoea a
a.ccena.sie:.ea|ae|casiaeaaia:eeiiaeae|c.:se|i.asiaeoess.|.|.iv|.|e:eaei.vai.en (51).
seia:eaave seea iaaia.sie:.e.iv.seeaee:aec.iaiaee:.e. aaac
i:ac.i.eaei.cea| e|]eeis. re:uasse:| iae |aiie: aei.ea. iaai ei.cea|
ei]eeis. :eea. :esexam.nai.eaei|eiae|]eei.v.ivaac.cea|.iv.r.:siiae
o:e||emeiiaeie:me:.iaeaiae|aiie:. a:e | ae. as saea. iaev iae
o:e||emei:eeeea. za|.| .iv. uasse:|aase:s|vsav.aeiaaiiae:emasi
|esemeei]eei.v.:v .a:aee:.e.a eian .cea|.:vie::ae .ceaI.:v:eie
reeecn:zaiIe.`)a:s means. oe:r:ua savs. :aa::ae senseei:aeeen
)ee: .Anu:a: sneeess::v:sne:anex:ernaIia:e. ia:aaessea::aIneees
s::v ei.aieai.eaa| .:v. 1aeprmordial senseeieve:v:niea::eaa| aei.s
only .isfnal sease. . . e. . iae eeasi.iai.eaeiaa e|]eei (64). iaeiae:
e:cs. e|]eei.v.iv .aee::e|aieei. aieni.eaa||.iv-
iae o:e||em ei|.|.iv-ie |e e:asoec a:si ia:eaea .is aaa|
o:ecaei. iae eeasi.iaiec e|]eei. se iae eaesi.ea .s aa::eec. aai
a||esie:iaee|]|sease .aae:. e.aa|sease.s.nee
1a. s |:. aes as ie iae o:e||em ei | aneaaee. iaai |v a.ea sease
. ise|i-e::aiae:. | .| .is
.cea|e|]eei.v.iv. iaa. seemmeais. De::.cae|a|e:aiesia:eecee:eesei
.cea|e|]eei.v.iv. mo|.e.i.auasse:| s ana| vs. s .r.:si. iae:e.siae|eve|ei
iaee:c s .cea|e|]eei.v.iv.1aee:c|.ea. ie:.asiaaee,.s:eeeea. z
a||e.ia.aseve:a||aaeaaees . |ai. s|eaacieiaese|aaeaaees. aa.ea
iaee:c. ise|ima|essease . seeeac|v. iae:e.siae|eve|eiiaee:cs
sease.1ae.aienceceeaienie:s.ea.aeai.eaeiiaee:c| .ea.sava.|
a||eie maav|aneaaees. ie:examo|e.Leo, Lowe, |.ea. saeaiaaiiae
.cea|.ivs. en.aec iae:e|v .si:ee i:em a||iaeiaa| | sa|]eei.v
. iv(71). 1a.:c|v.iae:e. siae|eve|eia|se|aie.cea|e|]eei.v.iv. saea
` Dorion Cairns, in his review-abstract of Husserl ' s "Die Frage nach dem Ursprung
der Geometrie al s intentional-historisches Problem" ("I nqui ry Concerning the Origin of
Geometry: a Problem of I ntentional Hi story")
Philosophy and Phenomenological Re
search, I, No. 1 ( 1 940), p. 1 00, accurately presents Husserl ' s answer to this problem (he
is abstracting from the German transcription Fink publ ished in the same journal in 1 939) :
"Our mathematics, however, exists as an age-long advance from acquisition t o acquisi
tion. Therefore i t must have been a more pri mi ti ve sense that frst was projected and
appeared in the evidence of a successful execution. But the phrase i s redundant. Evi
dence means the grasping of a bei ng in the consciousness of its original 'itslf-thereness. '
And grasping covers other acts besides simply perceptive seei ng. The sense of the meant
object indicates the way to grasp it originaliter. Sense-formations whose nature it is to
exist as subjecti vel y prouced resul ts are 'grasped' originaliter in being produced . Suc
cessful l y realizing a project is evidence; i n the reali zi ng, the efect is there as 'itself. "
asiaei:ee.cea|. i. eseieeemei:v1ae.cea| .iv.aeaesi.eaae:e.siaaiei
iaee|eei.ise|i. Oaia. s|eve|eie|eei.v.iv.iae:e. saeacae:eaeeie
aavceiaeie|aaeaaee.ea|vacae:eaeeieiaeoess.|.|.ivei| aaeaaee. a
eeae:a| . 1a. smeaas iaai i:aas|ai.ea .|v eoea. De::.caaas
e|ae.caieciaeseia:eecee:ees. ae:ce:iesaeiaaiaeauasse:| . .a
iaeOrigin,|eieeaiaee|eei. ise|iaac.issease .
ia.s eaa ea|v eeea: .ia.a iae ia.:c :ee.ea ei .cea| e|eei.v.iv. iae
a|se|aie| vi:ee.cea|e|eei.v.ivei|aaeaaee 1aas|aaeaaee.s iaeiee|
ie::evea| .ae.cea|e|eei.v.iv.a.ea.aia:a:evea|s. s.aee. iceesaei
| .ve. aa"topos ouranios, " iaaie|eei.v.iv.ise|i. ea||va. sie:.ea|
aac masi|eeeaaeeiec.iai:aaseeaceaia| sa|eei.v.iv. 1aee:eaac
ie:i:aaseeaceaia|a. sie:.e.iv. saaeeve:ec.
uasse:| s eaesi.eaiaea|eeemesiaeae ei.cea|.iv.aacaeivei
iaaiei.ise:.e.a . aecees.cea|.iv. oa:i.ea|a:|veeemei:.ea|. cea|.iv.
a::.veaia|se| aie. cea|e|eei.v.ivi:em .is/.oe:seaa|e:.e.a .aiae
.aveaie: s||v. aeeees|ae| eaee aea.aie|aaeaaee.
ue savs iaai . cea|.iv a::.vesai .is a|se|aie e| eei.v.iv |v meaasei
|aaeaaee. iae ve:v ia.aei:em a.ea .i as ie eseaoeasi a
memeaiaee. 1aeoa:acex. De::.casavs. .s iaai. . iaeaiiaeao
oa:eaiia|| |ae|.aie |aaeaaee aac iae:e|v .aie a. sie:v. aia||a.ea
ea|ca|.eaaieiae. cea|oa:.iveisease.seaseea|c:ema.aaaemo.:.
ea|ie:mai.ea. mo:.seaecasiaei.aaosveae|ee.ea|sa|eei.v. ivthe
inventor's head. u.sie:.ea| .aea:aai.ea .a |aaeaaee seis i:ee iae
i:aaseeaceaia| ..asieacei| i . 1ae|asiaei.ea.iaei:aaseeacea
ia| . masi iaea |e :eiaeaeai (77). i . | | :eia:aie ia.s :eia. a|. ae .a
1a. sae.saea. evec|eeaaseaamaa|.ac.s.aeaeaaciaesame
e:|c. aaceease.easaesseiia.siaeiesia||.saesiaeoess.|. |.iveia||aaeaaee. uaa|.ac. s a:sieease.easei. ise|iuasse:| savs
as aa.mmec.aieaacmec.aie |. (79). iaacc.
i.ea. ea:a:ia. asiaeo|aeeeia||e|eeis. . saeiaae|eei.ise|iaac
eaaaei |eeeme eae ie: aa e| se. eaee. ia iaei . eem
meais. iaeoess. |.|.iveiaeeemei:vsi:.ei|veemo|emeaisiae. moes
s.|. |.iveiaaieea|c|eea||eca eee|eev. iaee|eei.vese.eaeeeiiae
a:ia. ise|i (83) . Cee|eev .s as :ac.ea||v . moess. || e. iaea. as . saa
e|eei.vese.eaeeeii:aaseeaceaia|sa|eei.v. iv. ~aceeemei:v.soes
s.||eea|v. aseia: asiae a|eve . si:ae. s.aee oaeaemeae|eev s |as.e o|e eiaa.iacea|avs .aie:o|avs .iaaa. .aacaeae|ee
' However, as Derrida poi nts out i n a note, p. 72 below, thi s ideality occurs and i s di s
covered in a factual language, and thi s occurrence is "the crucial difculty of al l
[ Husserl ' s] philosophy of hi story: what i s the sense of thi s l ast [type of factuality?"
Preface|oe|e-ae:e .ea:a:ia-iaeze:eoe.aieia||oe:eeoi.ea iae
.aaa.ieae:.zea eieve:ve|eei.

1aeo:e||emei|aaeaaeeaac. cea|.iv.

intraoe:seaa||v.1aer:si.| e. masiaave
|eaa|| i eeeea.zeaaceemmaa.eaieaeeemei:.ea|. cea|.iv.ia. a|eease.easaess .seasemasi|e:eeeea.zecaaceem
a|se|aie| memeai eiiae same eee. ue:eaea.a uasse:| :e
i:asio iaeaa.eaeie:meiiemoe:a|.zai.ea.iaei.v.aer:eseai. aese
c. aeei.ea|eaa:aeie:aac o:. me:c.a||eemmaa.
ai.ea. a ease
iaea. eeae| aces . c sa|eei.v.iv .s r:si
lntrasa| eeilv. iv.aiaeiiaaieso|a. asuasse:| s :eve:s.eaeaeeme:eie
iae i.

v.aer:eseai.a|eaiiaee:ae.a|:e|eei:.i. ae.

~seoe:seaa|eemmaa.eai.eaoa:exee| |eaee. :.i.aeeaa:aaiees
ie: uasse:|iaeoess.|.|.iveia|se| aie . cea|eneei.v.iv. ~ac
a:eaesiaai. s.aee iaepossibilit e.ves sease iae a|.|. iv ie
|eeemenonspatiotemporal, :. saaei.easaaceemo| eiesiaeex.s
ieaeeeioa:e i:aaseeaceaia| a. sie:. e.iv (87) , iaas aamaa
|.ac. uasse:| iee| s. ae:ess a ae ia:esae|c-iaai eii:aaseeaceaia|
eemmaa.iv seemmeaieaia.s :esa|i. iaaiiae aaiaeai.eaei sai:aaseeaceaia|:ecaei.eaoe:ie:mec|vaaciea:ciae
" (92), . ac. aer:eseai
.a.aie:oe:seaa|eemmaa.eai.ea. iae:ce:aeiieaave i:aia c. saooea:
i:emiaee:|c.i:em/c sa|eei.v.iv. |eiamea:eve:iieiaei.v. ae
r:eseai. ie iae .aieai.eaa| aei eiiae eee. ieintra sa|eei.v.iv. s. aee
:.i. ae.sintentional-i . e. , .ima|essease-uasse:|a:eaes|ae|ie:.i
.ae s .


eai.eaa| .iv.ieiaeeee s . aieai.eaa|aei.aiaeaeiei:.i. ae. ie

iae r:eseai a.ea e:eaacs eve:v .aieai.eaa| aei .a |eia .is
a|ie:.ivaacsameaess. ssaee.aei:ema:|sa|eaiiae
i.v.aer:eseai.eeea|csav. iaea.iaai:.i.aeeeasi.iaiesiaeeiae:
aseiae:.a.ise|iaaciaesameassame. aiaeeiae:(86) .
Historicity and the Transcendental
u.sie:.e.iv. uasse:|savs. .saamaa|. ac sesseai.a|ae:.zea. iaei.v
.ae r:eseai ieaacs iae a.sie:.e r:eseai. aac iae a.sie:.e r:eseai as
i:ac.i.eaa|.zai.ea.iae. aeessaaiieia|.zai.eaeiiaerasi.aiaer:eseai
:evea||~o:.e:.eia.sie:v.1aei.v.aer:eseaii, ieacaoi
uasse:| se:csiw.eeeaeiec|vDe::. ca. iaev.ia|mevemeaieiiae
eeex. sieaee aac iae .aie:eav. ae . . . ei| ie:mai.eas
aac sec.meaiai.eas ei sease (109). uamaa|. ac . s a eemmaa.iv
eisoea|.ae|e.aes.aiae.:i.v.aer:eseais .iaei.v.aer:eseai|e.aeiae
aaa| :ei:eaeameai aac seea:.iv. savs. ei eve:v
oaeaemeae|ee.ea|:ecaei.ea( 1 1 01 1 ) . ueeace:s.iuasse:| sme:.i
asaei. aaav.aecese:.|ec.. aai:a|vtranscendental meve. iaeeeac.
i.easeioess. |.|.ivie:a.sie:va.eae:eaiiaesamei.meconcrete . .
|eeaaseiaeva:eexoe:.eaeecaace:iaeie:meihorizon " ( 1 1 7) ? ue:.
zea.siaei.v.aer:eseai s c.a|eei.ea|ie:m.iaeaeei. isiemoe:a| .za
i.ea. iae a| :eacviae:eei. isc.a|eei.eseisease
se ia: iae o:e||em ei. cea|.iv s e:.e.a aas |eea |eu .a a|evaaee
ea|.cea|.iv. sa|avsbased on iaeme:oae|ee.ea|. cea|.i.esei. mae.aa
i.ea aac sease. vei .i .s a|avsa|:eacv a:aoia:e.ia iaai seas.||e
me:oae|ee.ea|. cea|.zai.eaweeea|csav. oe:aaos. iaaiuasse:| | eaves
eaeasi:aacaacee.cec.eeemei:v. saaiaasia|eao|aee.aiaeC:ee|, theoretical | eao. sa|avs
|asec ea iae me:oae|ee.ea| . seas.||e .cea| .zai.ea eiiae o:ese.
e:|c. iaeLebenswelt. 1aas ae saves. eeae|aces. |eia iae
a|se|aie|ve:.e.aa|seaseeieaeai:ac.i.eaa|| .ae..isa.sie:.e.ivaac. is
:e|ai.v.iv .ia. aa. sie:v. aeeae:a|( 1 3 1 ) .
ueeve:. iae .cea|.z.aeaei.v.ivei understanding, eioa:e ia.a|
. ae. . e . eiiae aea.mae.aai.veaacaeaseas.||e. . saeve:siac. ec .a
.ise| ii. sa:ac.ea|eoe:ai.ea. apassage to the
limit aese si:aeia:e . siaaieimaiaemai.ea|. cea|.zai.ea. iae aea.a
aacaea.a a.eaDe::.caiee| smasiaave. isprotentional ee::e|aie. a
.aieai.eaa|.iv Oaeeaea.aea:e|ec|ae|ieiaei.v.aer:eseai. iae
oaeaemeae|ee.ea| a|se|aie. iae ae a oasi a.ea .a ia:a
iaeo:eseai.siaeae:.zeaie:oasiaaciaia:e ueeve:. De::.casavs.
iaeaa.iveiia. smevemeai. saeve:e.vea. . imasi|eexoe:.eaeece:
thought .iae:e|vma|.aeiaeoaeaemeaa|.zai.eaeii. meoess.||e 1a. s
aa.iv.iaee:|eiiaeicea.aiaekaai.aasease.. saeve:oaeaeme
aa|.zec.a. ise|iue:eaea.aeseeiaeeeaa.ei|
eease.easaesseioaeaemeae|eev s|e aaciae eea
se.easaess ei . is aaa| . asi.iai.ea. iae i cea iaai aaiae:.zes
waai iaea .s iae a.sie:.e.iveiiae maiaemai.ea|.oa.|eseoa.ea|e:.
e.a. .iiaei cea.saaia||esie:. cea|.iv s e:.e. a:seiaiae iceaaac
xeaseaa:ea. |eiamasiexoeseiaemse||e.
a|iaeaeaae. iae:a:eexaaasiec. aia. sexoes.i.ea1aeva:eeie:aa|vei
`` See L' Ecriture, pp. 242 and 250 on the concept of the Idea i n the Kanti an sense.
a.sie:.ea| . s.aee eie:a.iv .s a mece eia. sie:.e.iv De::.casiaies. .aa
. aieai. eaa|a. sie:.e.iv( 1 42) , acc.aeiaaiiaeeices.eaaiesae.iae:a
sa|eei.veae:e| e . ae.iae:iae ~|se|aieae:. a
ieai.eaa| a.sie:.e.iv aas| :sio|aee iaeiae:e:cs. iaei ceaasaa
iae:.zai.eaei.cea|.iv.asiae|.m.iiea:ca.ea.cea|.ivoasses. reveals
iae |.m.ieia. sie:.e.iv .aac iae:e|v .isea | .m.i . iae
:ea/.e-mevemeai ei.aieai.eaa|.iv 1a. s mevemeai .s
i:ac.i.ea. e: as savs. .aieai.eaa|.iv .s i:ac.i.eaa| .iv
ue:eeve:.s.aee. i . siaec. a|eei.ea|:eeiei iaei.v. aer:eseai. .aiea
i.eaa|.iv. siae:eeieia. sie:.e.iv Ceaseeaeai| v. De::.caeeae|aces.
iae:e. saeaeeci e.aea.:ea|eaiiaeseaseeia.sie:.e.iv. a.sie:.e.iv.s
sense" (150). iaeiae:e:cs. sease.straditionality aac iaeAbsolute is
Passage " ( 1 49) . 1aea|se|aie. s iaeaeieia| | i:ac.i.ea.aac ei a. sie
:.e.ivaac. aieai.eaa|.iv . i:aasm. ss.ea.aiaeaeieie:eai. ea
eDe::.caa| sesavsiaaisease.siaeaooea:.aeei| 1 48) ,
a.eameaasiaai| sie:.ea| seiaeeaesi.eaie:a. m|eeees .
aai .s iaee:.e.aeise.aeasu.sie:v ( l 5 1 ) ? Oaie| eevmav as|iae
eaesi.ea. |aiea|voaeaemeae|eev eaa o:ev.ce iae aooa:aias ie: aa
aase:se. ae. De::.casavs. .ssilently saeaaace:iae aeeai.v.ivei
iaeapeiron " (ibid) . 1aedelay e:lateness eisoeeea.aia. smaa.iesiai.ea . s | aa||v iae oa.|eseoa.ea| . aeiasi iae oaeaemeae|ee.ea| .
a|se|aie De::.casavs.
Here delay is the philosophical absolute, because the beginning of
methodic refection can only consist in the consciousness ofthe
implication ofanother previous, possible, and absolute origin in
generl. Since this alterity ofthe absolute orgin structurally appears in
my Living Present and since it can appear and be recognized only
in the primordiality ofsomething like my Living Present, this ver fact
signies the authenticit ofphenomenological delay and limitation. In
the lackluster guise ofa technique, the Reduction is only pure thought
as that delay, pure thought investigating the sense ofitsel as delay
within philosophy. ( 152 -53)
ra:e iaeaeai .s a|avs ce|av Cease.easaesseiia.s ce|av.
savs. . seease.easaesseiD. ae:eaee . eease.easaesseiiae.moess.|.| .iv . aiae| eaeeiiae i.v.aer:eseai as e|| asiae
r:eseai .iaeaeve:o:eseaie:.e.aeise.aeaacsease. . aie:o|avs.ia
iaea|avsceie::ec~|se|aie .ia.aia.seease.easaess. aeease.eas
aess .iaeai a.ea. eeae|aces. ea|c aooea:
w.iaeai .iseao:eoe:cea.seeaee. iae:eea|c|
Me:e a|si:aei|v.iaea. aaO:.e. a. aaa|se|aieO:.e. a. masi|eac.i
ieaaiO:.e.a-iaeaeve:-vei-a| avs-a|:eacv-iae:easiae|eveace:
|eie:e iaaima|esa||seaseoess.||e. 1aai De::.caeea
eeia:es. . soe:aaosaaia| avsaas|eeasa.caace:iaeeeaeeoiei
' transcendental' ia:eaea iae ea.emai.e a. sie:v c. so|aeemeais||c|ei:aaseeaceaia|-asmasi|||v.
a. sie:.e.ivaac:ereei.easiae:eea.
The "rationalit"-but perhaps that word should be abandoned
for reasons that will appear at the end of thi sentence-which
govers a writing thus enlrged and radicalzed, no longer
issues from a logos. Further, it inaugurates the destruction, not
the demolition but the de-sedimentation, the de-construction, of
all the signifcations that have their source in that of the logos.
Particulrly the signicatin of truth.
Of Grammatology
r:.e:iee|a| iae si:aeia:e eia. sie:.e.iv. i cese:.|eciae ||| e. eidif erance.
ueeve:,|seaaold name, aname sous rature, e||.ie:aiec
|ve|cseases.| aces
iaeaace sec.meaiai.eaaacsaoo|emeaiai.ea. e:sa|si.iai.eaeiaae|c
aameie:aae eeaeeoi. 1a.soa|eeavm.esaoo|emeaia:.iv.sasee
eacmemeaie:|eve|eiDe::.casceeeasi:aei.ea. seeeacmemeaie:
| eve||e.aeaace:sieecae.iae:a. e:a:ea.ea||vae:ea:eae|ee.ea||v.1a. s
saoo|emeaia:v . s aeiee:iav .a s Introduction. ue
aas added semeia. ae ae. i eiae e|c aame ei
1aemevemeaieisaoo|emeaia:.iv. aseaeei a ee:ia.aaam|e:ei
aeasvaeavm.e sa|si.iai.eas ie: .ave|ves. aeee:c.aeie iemae:seases.ia|eai:emiaer:eaeave:|suppleer) : iea||
aceae.eaev.ieeemo|eieaacieia|eiaeo||aee 1a. s.s
"Diferance, " in Speech and Phenomena, p. 147.
4 1 0n the "concept" of supplementarity, see: Speech and Phenomena, ch. 7; Of
Gram ma to logy y Part I I, ch. 2 ; L Dissemination, pp. 1 80-96; and Alan Bass,
" ' Literature '(Literature, " Velocities ofChange: Critical Essays from MLN, ed. Richard
Macksey (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press , 1 974), pp. 348-49.
ceeeasi:aei.eaasiaese.eaeeeie|caames. .ia| |sace| e.eaev.aiaee| c
eeaeeoiaac:eo|aees.ia.| ise| caame De::. caas|s .
What is, then, the "strategic" necessity which sometimes requires that
an ol name be preserved in order to initiate a new concept? With all
the reservations imposed by the traditional distinction between the
name and the concept, one ought to be able to begin to describe this

n: aware ofthe fact that a name does not name the punctual
slmpliClty ofa concept but the system ofpredicates defning the
concept, the conceptual structure centered on such and such a
predicate, one proceeds: (1) to the setti,!-aside (prelevement) ofa
reduced predicative trait, which is held in reserve and limited within a
given conceptual structure (limitedfor some motivations and relations
offorce which are to be analyzed) named x; (2) to the de-limitation, the
grafting, and the controlled extension ofthis predicate which was set
aside, the name x being maintained as a tool ofinterventin (levier


tin) in
order to maintain a hold on the former organization
which It IS efectively a question oftransforming. Setting-aside,
grafting, extension: you know that this is what I called, according to
the process that I have just described, writing. -:
1aese.eaeeeie|caames.|caame. ise|i.
ieimeae:eaea:sesemeeiiaesaoo| emeaiai.easiaaiDe::.caac
vaaees .a iae Introduction . ue savs .s i:aaseeaceaia|-
i:aaseeaceaia| | iae| eia O:.e. a
1aasi:aaseeaceaia|.|eaiiec.aeaai..iaaaa) . . iaai.iaeaia.eaaeia.aeea|cao
oea:. .si:aaseeaceaia|eease.easaess. . e . . se
eeea|csaviaaieease.easaess. . -:l
s.m.|a:|v. iae xecaei.ea. oa:e iaeaeai ei . is ea ce|av. .s
i:aaseeaceaia| . De::.casavs . 1aeoa:eaac. aie:m.aa||ec. sea. eiace
.i iea:c iae .aaa.iv sease aacva|ae . . e . . a.|
D.a:eaee-iaaic. sea.eiaceea|c|ei:aaseeaceaia| ( 1 53) . 1aexe
caei.ea.iaeaeai s . eaaea| v|
aaixecaei.ea.| .s i:aaseeaceaia| ~ac i:aaseeaceaia|
eaee . . e . iaea| .sc.i
ie:aaee..ia aaa) .
` Positions, p. 96; ET: Diacritics, 3 , No. 1 (Spring 1 973) , p. 37.
4:1 See Speech and Phenomena , ch. 5 : "Signs and t he Blink of an Eye . " pp. 60-69. as
well as Note 4 above .
~ac. aaa| | v. |eeaase .i . s a meiaec ie: ea a.sie:.e.iv.
Ruckfrge .s iae:e|vi:aaseeaceaia| .i.s a o:eeess
savs ~ac1aeaeai s oa:e ee:ia.aivea|c|ei:aaseeaceaia| . s.aee
.ieaa|ee|ie:a:cieiaea|:eacvaaaeaaeec1e| esea| v|
ea .e: | .a acvaaee ei iae O:.e. a iaai .|v :ese:ves
.ise|i saeaaee:ia.aivaeve:aacie|ea:aiaai1aeaeaiea|ca|avs
|eieeeme (ibid. ) .
1aasiaexecaei.ea.Ruckfrge, eease.easaess. aac.aieai.eaa|.iv-
a|||as.eeeaeeoiseioaeaemeae| eev-aave|eeasaoo|emeaiec|vdi
ferance; iaeva||oa:ia||ee.eYeiiaeva:esi.||named xecaei.ea.
Ruckfrage, aac se ea raeaemeae|eev aas |eea saoo|emeaiec. .is
meiaoavs.ea| iexi ceeeasi:aeiec. aac iae e|c aames :eia.aec
raeaemeae|eev. sae|eaee:. |aisi. | | . s. oaeaemeae|eeviis .s .siaai
eia|| . sous rature: .
i s iae:eaneed ieeaeeseae:e||| esaace|caames :
i seaeeae.eeme:eia.iaia| s .aieaiiaaaiaeeiae:.. s eae.a
iaei i:em iae eiae:: 1ae exemo|a:v ease ae:e seems ie|e
diernce .ise|||esaace|caamesa:e|eiapresent
aacdeferred .aiaes.|eaiiem|eiiaea, .aai:ae.|e|eiie:iaai.seas. | v
e:asec. e:esseceai. aa iaai .s aa:c|v :eaca||e aac|||e
1aei:aas|ai.eaeae:ecae:e.siaaieiiaeseeeacec.i.eaeiDe::. ca s
Intrduction, oa||.saec |v r:esses r:aaee . a 1 974.
1aea:siec.i.eaasoa||.saec.a 1 962. iaiaeiexi. ise|
eaiec:eie:eaeesieo:eseaiae|.sai:aas|ai.easeie:|siea.eaDe: :eie:s. |ai aave mec.aec iaem ae:e aeeessa:v ie aace:see:e
De::. ca s a:eameaiai.ea 1aesemec.aeai.easaave|eea .ac.eaiec|v
iae e:c mec.aec . ase:iec.ia.a |:ae|eis .a iae iexi 1exisaa
ava.|a||e.aae|.sai:aas|ai.eai aavei:aas|aieci:emiaer:eaea1ae
uasse:| iexis aave |eea mec.aec .a aeee:caaee .ia maav eiiae
saeeesi.easeiDe:.eaCa.:as Guide for Translating Husserl, oa:i.ea|a:|v
aeaiaev| sarea. ae
~|| Ce:maaie:ms.a oa:eaiaesesa:e sacc.i.eas s.m.|a:| v.
a|| exo|aaaie:v |:ae|eis iaai eeea: .ia.a eaeiai.eas a:e s
acc.i.eas i aave . ae|acecee:ia.a r:eaea aac Ce:maa ie:ms .ia.a
saeaie:msasde facto aacde jure aave|eeaaace:see:ecea|vae:e
De::.caaassi:esseciaema.mse|i.s. aeeiaeva:eeueai:aas|ai.easei
iaer:eaeaeaia.iaaceac:e.i. 1aesame. si:aeeiapriori .ac ee|ie:maaca priori .acve:|.a|e:sa|siaai.veie:m .i.|
ie| ||eieeaObjektivitit aac
Gegenstindlichkeit |viaeeao.ia|e:|ee:ease| v .De:||e.aeiaer:eaeai:ac.i.ea.. ac.eaiesGegenstindlichkeit |viae
aee|ee.smobjectite aacObjektivitit |vobjectivite. ) ueeve:. s.aeeiae
r:eaeaobjet |eiaiae meaa.aeeiGegenstand aaciaai ei
Objekt, soess.||eie:iaee:ce|]eei . a|iaeaea.a
eaeiai.easi:emuasse:|. iaas|eea:eia.aec. re:ia:iae:ceia.| seaia.s
o:e||em. seeiae1:aas|aie: sr:eiaeeeiiesie: m|:eeiesazaaae
saeae|a:c s A Study of Husserl's re:ma| aac 1:aaseeaceaia| iee.e
r.aa| | v. iaei:aas|ai.eaaas|eeaceae.a|.eaieiaac.aaeee:caaee.ia
Dav.c~||. sea sea:|.e:i:aas| sSpeech and Phnomena.
i ea|c| .|eieiaaa|va:.eas oeeo|eie:iae.:.ava|aa||ea.c.a iae
o:eeesseiia.s i:aas|ai.ea 1e r:eiesse:sxe|e:i Deie.|e:. w.||.am
sea:cs|ee . aac~:iaa:vaas. i exieacmvs.aee:esiiaaa|sie:iae.:
|eaeie:meaeea:aeemeai i ea|aa|se|.|eieiaaa|r:eiesse:vaas
ie:a.soai.eaieaee|.aaeiiaeeemo|eiea:sic:au.iaiaer:eaeaiexi sexieacecier:eiesse:amesDaeeaa.sie:a.s
.ava|aa||esaaesi.eas.a:e|ai.eaieiaea:siaa|ieiiaei:aas|ai.ea ~ac
i amoa:i.ea|a:|ve:aieia| ie r:eiesse:Dav. c~| |.sea ie: a.s oe:seaa|
i:.eacsa.o aac| a.c. as e|| as a.s .ava|aa||e i:aas|ai.ea ei s eiae:ma]e:e:|eauasse:| r:eiesse:J. u.| |.su.||e:as
a| seve:vae|oia|.iaa. smaav|.|| .ee:aoa.ea|a.csaaceeec.|| .~ac.
aaa| | v. iammesiceeo|v.ace|iecier:eiesse:De::.caa. mse|iie:a.s
oe:seaa|ae| oaac u.s ee:c.a|.iv aac
iea|ca|se| .|eieiaaa|i:.eacsae|.ac|vae|oec.aiaeo:eoa:a
i.eaeiiaeaaa|c:aii.sea:cuaii. xeaxem|e:i. aacmesioa:i.ea
| a:|vsa:|a:aDeCeae.a.aacCa:|asea. sse| ~| se. iewa|ie:xasse||i
aaiieexieace:ai.iaceie:oe:s.sieaieeecaame:aaci:. eacsa.oca: r.aa||v. i ea|c | .|e ieiaaa|iae se|e.aa ~me:.eaa
caeai.eaa| me .ia ie eemo|eieia.s
i|ie iae meme:veimviaiae:. ae ea|v
December 1976
John P. Leavey
" The Orgin of Geomet" caie aac iaemes. ia. s mec.iai.eaei uasse:| [The Origin of
Geometr] ie|eaesieiae|asie:eaoei :.i.aesiaaisa::eaacThe Crisi
ofEuropean Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. i i .sceeo| v
:eeieciae:e aacieiaaiexieai.ise:. e.aa|
.mmec.aie|vaooa:eai iiThe Origin ofGeometr .sc. s:.aea. s aai|ei:em
iaeCrisi, .i .s aeiieeaase ei .is cese:. aeve|iv Nea:| va| | . is
mei.i s a:e a|:eacv o:eseai . a eiae: .avesi.eai.eas. aeiae: iaev ie
|a:ee|vo:.e:iee:a|mesieeaiemoe:a:v.ia. i i aiaei.The Origin of
Geometr s:. | | eeaee:as :ae s:aiasei:ae . cea| eieeis eise. eaee ei
a.eaeeemei:v.seaeexamo|e .iae.:o:ecaei.ea.iv.ceai.iv. aeaeis.
asiaesame . aaciaeeeasi.iai.eaei exaei.iaceia:eaea.cea| .zai.ea
aacoas saeeieiae| . m.i-ao:eeessa.easia:is.ia iae| .iee:|c s
seas.i|e . . aac maie:.a| s ~| se .a eaesi.ea a:e iae
` Die Krisis der ellropiischen Wissenschaften und die tranzendentale Phanomenologie:
Eine Einleitllng in die phanomenologische Philosophie, ed. Walter Biemel , in HlIsser
liana, Vol . 6 (The Hague: Nijhof, 1 954); English translation [hereafer abbreviated as
ET]: The Crisis ofEuropean Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology: An Introduc
tion to Phenomenological Philosophy, tr. David Carr ( Evanston: Northwestern Uni ver
sity Press , 1 970) . [Since the ET does not contain al l the appendi ces that the German
edi ti on does, it wi l l be necessary at ti mes to refer to the German pagination. ] Hereafter
the ET wi l l be ci ted as C, the German as K. The Origin ofGeometr (C, pp. 353-78) is a
text appended to 9a on "Pure Geometry" (C, pp. 24-28) . In a forewording note Derrida
says, after stating that he will translate the version presented in K: "The original manu
script dates from 1 936. Its typed transcription bears no title . The author of this transcrip
tion, Eugen Fi nk , has also publ ished an elaboration of it in Rel ' lIe Interationa!e de
Philosophie , I , No. 2 (January 1 5, 1 939) . pp. 203-25 , under the ti tle ' Die Frage nach dem
Ursprung der Geometrie al s i ntentional -hi storisches Problem: Since then, this text has
been read and frequently ci ted under this form. Its hi story, at l east , then. al ready con
ferred on i t a certain right to i ndependence. "
Jacques Derrida
.aie::e|aiecaac eeae:eie eeac.i.easie:iae oess. |. | .iv eiiaese .cea|
e|eeis . |aaeaaee. .aie:sa|eei.v.iv. aac iae e:|c as iae aa.iv ei
e:eaacaac ae:.zea r.aa||v. iae ieeaa.eaeseioaeaemeae|ee.ea|ce
se:. oi.ea.aeia||viaeseeiiaeva:.eas:ecaei.eas. a:ea|avsai.| . zec
iessiaaaeve:ce iae.:va|.c.iv aaci:a.iia| aessaooea: .moa.:ec . a
uasse:| seves
Ne:. .a.i.a| | v. . s The Origin of Geometr c. saa|| e |v . is
cea||ee|asie:eie:.i.aesiaaia:ec. :eeiec.
ee:ia.aieeaa.e.siaace|]eei.v. si.::eseeas. |. | .iv.a iaee:aei.eeeise.
eaee aacea. |eseeav. aacea iae eiae: aaac. aaa.asi a a. sie:. e. sm
|| .acec|viaeeme.:. e. si ea|ieifact aaceaasa| . sie:esamei.ea 1ae
a:sie:.i. e. smas iae sia:i.aaee. ai ie: Formal and Transcendental
Logic, iae Cartesian Meditations, aac iae Crisis. 1ae seeeac aac
aeeea:ecmaeaea:| . e:. . aiaeLogical Investigations, . a ra. |eseeav
as e. eaee .. a a.ea . ias iae iaacameaia| e:eeeeaea
i.ea:. aac.aIdeas I. 1ae:ecaei.ea ..iaeieeacemaai.ea .eia. sie:. e. si
aeaei. e. sm as a|avs .aie::e|aiec . ia iaai eiesveaeaeaei. e. sm.
eveaaeaaee:ia.aa. sie:.e.ivaas |eeemeeaeaemeae|eav siaeme.
cese.ieiaea. aa eesiei.isc. t ea| . ia. s aei.eaeaaaeieess.||v|e

|eease e:eaa.ea|| vaa.iec as .aThe Origin of Geometr, ae:e iaev
o:eeeeci:emiae same. moa| seaaca:e maiaa| | v.ave|vecia:eaeaeai|

|a:.iv eiea:iexi :esis ea iae iaeiiaai iae eeaaaei.ea eiiaese ie
siaac.aeaaciesiec:eiasa| se:eaiesaaeseaeme.eaiaeeaeaaac..i
|:.aesie| .eaiaaeivoee:o:eiaac.iveia.sie:.e.iv.eaiaeeiae:aaac.
aacee::e|| v. .iceie:m.aesiaeaeiee|saace:. e. aa|c.:eei.eaei
a.sie:.e:eaeei.ea1aea.sie:.e.ivei. cea|e| .. e .iae.:origin
aactrdition ..aiae am|.eaeasseaseeiia. se:ca.ea. ae|aces|eia
iae . e|evs| es. a.eaa:eae.iae:iaeiaeiaa|.aie:eeaaeei.easeiemo.:.
ea| a.sie:v. ae: aa .cea| aac aa.sie:.e ea. 1ae |.:ia aac
ceve| eomeaieise.eaeemasiiaea|eaeeess.||eieaaaaaea:ceisiv|e
ei a.sie:.ea| .aia.i.ea . a a.ea iae .aieai.eaa| :eaei.vai.ea eisease
2 I n efect these pages of H usserl . frst written for hi mself. have t he rhythm of a thought
feel ing i ts way rather than setting i tsel f forth . But here the apparent di sconti nui ty al so
depends on an always regressive method. a method whi ch chooses i ts interruptions and
mul ti pl i es the returns toward i ts beginning in order to reach back and grasp it again each
ti me i n a recurrent l i ght .
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
iaiae. :.::ecae. ||e e:.e.aa| .iv. iaea.sie:.e.iveise.eaeeaac iae :e
aeei.ea iaai .i .av. ies. Geschichtlichkeit aac Historie, aave ee:ia.a
eemmeaao:.e:.eeac.i.eas re:uasse:||esa:e. soess.||e.a|eaacia.ssaea|c| eacasie:eeeas. ce:iaeo:e|||
a.sie:ie.iv.aia-.:|:eacesiexieas.eai aeiae:e:cs. iaeoess. |. |.ivei | . se a a. sie:v ei se.eaee .moeses a aac a :e
aa| ei iae sease ei a.sie:v .a eeae:a| . a| i.maie| v. .i
oaeaemeae|ee.ea|sense . ||me:ee.ia .isie|ee|ee.esense.
uasse:| ie aeeemo|.saas.aea|a:o:eeieiiaeseesseai.a|oes
s.|.| aeeaaeei.ea.iaeeemei:vaaciecee.oae:iae:e. aiaeo:e
se:.oi.ea eia eeae:a| iass 1aas . | .se mesieiuasse:| s iexis. T/c
Origin of Geometr aas|eiaao:ee:ammai.eaacaaexemo|a:vva| ae
Ceaseeaeai| v. ea: ei .i masi |e ma:|ec |v iae exemo| a:v
eease.easaesso:eoe:iea||e. cei.eaiieai.eaaac|eea.cec|viaeoe| e
eiia. s ias|. i:em a.ea oaeaemeae|eev a|eae eaamase. is
av .ea:se|eam|.i.ea. |||eie
:eeeea.zeaacs.iaaieeaesiaeeeiuasse:| s iaeaeai.. ia .
eiuasse:| s :ac.ea||i.maieaeee:c.aeieiaeiaeis ..i.soe:aaos
aeisecea:e uasse:|:eoeaiec|vseemsieae:ee.iaia. s 1ae:eie:e.
e. | | a|avsi:vie|eea.cec|va. sea. aieai.eas. eveaaeaeeei|
1ae maiaemai.ea| e|eei seems ie |e iae o:.v. |eeec examo|e aac
mesioe:maaeaiia:eacea.c.aeuasse:| s:eaeei.ea1a.s.|eeaaseiae
maiaemai.ea| e|eei.sideal. iis | s iae:eaea|v i:aasoa:eai aac
exaaasiec| oaeaemeaa| .iv ~|se| aie| ve| . e . ieia| |v:.c
eiemo.:.ea|sa|eei.v.iv. .iaeve:iae|ess. sea|vaai. iaooea:sie|e|avsa|:eacvreduced ie. isoaeaemeaa|sease .aac. is
| . s. i:em iae eaisei. ie |e aa e|eei [etre-objet ] ie. a oa:e
In our translation [of The Origin of Geometry] , we wi l l i ndi cate t he di stinction be
tween Historie and Geschichte i n parentheses only when t his di sti nction correspnds to
Husserl ' s expl ici t intenti on. which i s not-i ndeed . far from it-always the case.
On the questi on of knowi ng whether. for HusserI
t he mathematical obj ect is the mode
of every object' s consti tution. and on the consequences of such a hypothesis
cf. the
di scussion i n which Walter Bi emel , Eugen Fi nk, and Roman I ngarden parti ci pated fol l ow
i ng Bi emel ' s l ecture on " Les phases deci si ves dans I e devel oppement de la phi l osophi e
de Hu sser\ . i n Husser/ ( Cahiers de Royaumont . Phil osophi e No. 3 ) ( Paris: Minui t. 1 959) .
pp. 63 -7 1 .
Jacques Derria
1aePhilosophy of Arithmetic, uasse:| sa:si. moe:iaaie:|. eea|c
aave|eeaeai.i|ecThe Origin of Arithmetic. Deso. ie aosveae|
. areei.eaaesee:.e.aa| .ivaaseuea aacasi|v|eea emoaas. zec. . i
a|:eacveeaee:as . asceesThe Origin of Geometr, iae:eaei.vai.eaei|seaseeia:.iaei.e s . cea| aa. i. es|v :eia:a. ae ieiae
si:aeia:eeioe:eeoi.eaaaciaeaeiseiaeeae:eiesa|eei.v.iv uasse:|
a. mse|ia|:eacvo:eoesecieaeeeaaiat once cea| .iv
eiaam|e:.a.ea.saeve:aaemo.:.ea|iaeiaeeess.||eieaa. sie:v.a|via.ssamesiv|| . vec o:ecaei.ea
i asaeaaease .aeeve:.iaeeeaes. seia:.iamei.e. saeiiaeaeaieias
aa.sie:veia:.iamei.e.. e . asaea|ia:a|ie:maacacveaia:eeiaamaa
. iv ia 1 887-91 , iae e:.e. aei a:.iamei.e as cese:.|ec . a ie:ms ei
psychological genesis. ia The Origin of Geometr, arie: auv vea:s ei
mec.iai.ea. uasse:| :eoeaisiae same o:eeei aace: iae soee. eseia
phenomenological histor. 1a. sace|||iaeme:e :ema:|a||es. aee
iaeoaiai:ave:sec. s. mmease iioassesa:siia:eaeaiae:ecaei.eaei
a||a. sie:.ea|e:osveae|ee.ea|eeaes. s ~rie:iaai .
meas.eaeioaeaemeae|eev. sc.seeve:ec.eeaes.s. ssi.||aeia. sie:vi a
oass.aei:emsiai.ei aaaeaaeec. aIdeas I aac
iaeaaeeemo|.saec|eieeaiaevea:s1 91 5 aac 1 920, uasse:|si. | | aac
aeieaeaeecoaeaemeae|ee.ea|cese:.oi.ea.aiaeo:e||emseia. sie:.e
.iv1aeiaemai.zai.eaeii:aaseeaceaia|eeaes. sma.aia.aeciaerece
: ; Cf. in particular Biemel , ibid. , pp. 35f. [ A German version of Bi emel ' s l ecture, "Di e
entscheidenden Phasen in Husserls Phi losophie , " ' appeared i n ZeitschriJt fijr phi
losophische Forschung, 1 3 ( 1 959) , pp. 1 87-2 1 3 . An ET of thi s German version, enti
tled "The Deci si ve Phases in the Development of Husseri ' s Phi l osophy, " is i n The
Phenomenology of Husser!: Selected Critical Readings, ed. and tr. R. O. El veton
(Chicago: Quadrangle, 1 970) , pp. 1 48-73. Reference above begins on p. 1 48f. The Ger
man and Engl i sh versions di fer from the French version publ i shd i n Husser; they also
do not i ncl ude the di scussi on mentioned in note 4 above. ] Despite hi s severity as regards
thi s psychologi stic tendency, Husserl conti nual l y refers to hi s frst book , especi al l y in
Formal and Transcendental Logic.
"Numbers are mental creations i nsofar as they form the resul ts of activi ti es exerci sed
upon concrete contents : what these acti viti es create, however, are not new and absol ute
contents whi ch we could fi nd again in space or in the ' external worl d' : rather are they
uni que relation-concepts which can onl y be produced again and again and which are in no
way capable of bei ng found somewhere ready-made. " This remakable asse , whch
already desi gnates the production, therefore the primordi al historiCIty, of ldealt tles whIch
no longer wil l ever belong to the time and space of empi rical hi story , i s from Con
cerning the Concept of Number ( 1 887) , whi ch is taken up again as the frst chapter of
Philosophy of Arithmetic ( 1 89 1 ) . The passage is translated in Bi emel ' s articl e , in Husserl,
p. 37 [ ET: p. 1 50] .
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
so.:.iaac iaeea|ia:a|e:|cas:eo:essec.ia. aiae
e:| c|. aess 1ae:eia :aieo:eo:ec.eai. eesoe:. eaee..aExperience and
Judgment aac.aFormal and Transcendental Logic, exieacecceaiea
o:eea| ia:a|aaco:ea.sie:.esi:aiaei|.vecexoe:.eaee
~ac .a iae Cartesian Meditations, aea uasse:| soeass a|eai iae
aa.iveiaa.sie:v..i.saeaesi.eaeiiaeaa.iveii:aees. ei:eie:eaees .
eisvaiaei.e:es.caes within iaeoa:eeee|ee.ea|soae:e uasse:|aa
ce:see:es ia. s. iae .cea| eoeeis. iae a. eae: ie:s eiproducts ei
:easea. a.eaa| eae assa:e iae oess.|.| .iveia.sie:.e.iv. . e iaea|
avs .aie:sa| eease.easaesseia. sie:v. ce aei|e| eae ieiae
eidos eiiae eeae:eieego (CM, 38. o 78) . ~iiae eac eiiae1a.:c
Ca:ies.aa Mec. iai.ea. iae . avesi.eai.eas iaai oa:i.ea |a:|veeaee:a iae
"theor o eiaa. eiaaaaeeaa.iv.eiea|ia:e .aac seie:ia.
a:eceaaecasa| ie:.e:.:ee.eaa| .aacceoeaceaiias|s( ibid. , 29, o 63) .
~||iaese :ecaei.eas ae|c a fortiori ie:iae cese:.oi.eas ei a|
iemoe:a|.ivaac .maaeaica:ai.ea
1aas iaeaeai:a|.zai.eaeiosveae|ee.ea|eeaes. saaciaaieia. sie:v
a:e si.||ea eeaa| .a iae iexisa.ea o|aee iae i:aaseeaceaia|
ceve|eomeai .aieeas saiaea. .aiae eiiaeCrisis, a. sie:v
eoeaec.eaeiaai.|||ec.mea|iiema.aia.a. aiae:ee.eaa||. m. isa.ea
e:ese| eaeo:ese:.|ecie:.i
wa.|e eeasiaai| vpracticed .a iae Crsis .ise|i.ia. s ae aeeessie
a. sie:v. saeve:made a problem. ~i| easiaeic.:eei|vaacassaea Oa
iae eae aaac. iae eease.ea saesseia e:.s.saaciae am:mai.ea eia
ie|ee|eev ei :easea a:e only ae oaias e: eaas ie: |ee.i.
ceve|eomeai ei wesie:a oa. | eseoav .aie oe:soeei. ve. ie ceaae iae
ra:eoeaaeidos . aacie:eeeaaiiaeacvea
ia:esaac .sacveaia:es eiiae i:aaseeaceaia|mei.i.eeaeea|eceaea|viaeve:veesia:eiaaiaaeeve:s.ia| |ia. sea|ce. vee:ec.iiea
|.aceisvaeoi.e:ei:esoeei.eaiaaiaee:.i.e. sm eia. sie:.e:easeaaac
exo| .e.iva si.aeci:eiaesia:iNe.iae:iaesi:aeia:eseia. sie:.e.iv.a
Edmund Husser! , Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology, tr.
Dorion Cairns ( The Hague: Nijhof, 1 970) ' Medi tation I V, 37 and 38, pp. 75-80
-hereafter ci ted as CM.
On the probl em of hi story in Husserl ' s phi l osophy , we refer particularl y to Paul
Ricoeur' s very fne arti cl e, " Husserl and the Sense of Hi story ," in Paul Ricoeur, Husserl:
An Analysis of His Phenomenology, tr. Edward G. Ballard and Lester E. Embree
( Evanston: Northwester Uni versity Press, 1 967) . pp. 1 43-74. On what obstructs the
di rect thematization of hi story in a transcendental phenomenology which at the same time
calls for this thematizati on, cf. more part icularl y pp. 1 45-5 1 .
Jacques Derrida
aeae:a|.aace ceaeivei|aeaeiae:iaea. sie:.e.iveise. eaeeaac
iaai eiea. |eseeava:eexae|ese:exeeei.eas . aeiae:iaeva:eiae
a. aaesiaacesi:eve|aie:veess. |. | .e:.iiaeva:es. e|v|eveac
a. sie:v.ise|i: .ae:iaeeiaecseiiaeeaeaeeae|eaveia. sie:ve:e
aceiaee|]eeiseiseee. ae . e:. a.aa| aesi.eas

1a. seeaaceaeeas
se|i.a.eaeea|c|eeeas. ce:ecasae:.i. e. sei:easea.aaeae:a| i i
ia. sie|ee|ea.ea|:eac.aaeia. sie:veea|caei|eeaa:aeie:.zec. auas
se:| seves|viaeceaai.e. e:aceaee. ia a. easeaavea. |ese
eae:s.i:eA:.siei|eieueae|ies:aaseav.ea:ee:ee. ve. aiaeeasiea|v
iae|a|e:ece:eseai|eaieiiae. :eaiaeaaai.|i| s|eeaaseia. s :eac|aa
:eie::ecieiaeve:vi ceaeii:aaseeaceaia|eaeaeeae|eav-a.ea. s
aei.ise|iaea. |eseea. ea|svsie
saiia.s :eie::ec ie iaai iceaea|vmediately. ii as si.||
i iaaia.sie:v.asemo.:.ea|se.eaee. as.| .|ea||emo.:.ea|se.eaees .
ceoeaceaieaoaeaeeae|eev~|.eaa|eaeeea|c:evea|i e. i. isiaac
eie.cei. e o:esaooes.i. eas .ia. sceoeaceaee. i:eeaeai|v am:mec. aac
a|avs|eeai:eaiec|vo:eie:.i.ea. s.eaa|ec:aiae:iaaaexo|e:ec .
2 . iaai a. sie:v-aese ea eeaieai eeai:a:v ie iaaieiiae eiae:
maie:.a|aacceoeaceaise.eaeesas. |vv.:iaeei.isseaseei|
a|avs a:|ec |v eaeaess aac .::eve:s. |.|.iv. . e . |v aea
exemo|a:.aess-si.|||eai .ise|iie .mae.aa:v ie e. cei.e
.aia.i.eas .
3. iaai . .aacc.i.ea ie iae emo. :.ea| aac aeaexemo|a:v eeaieai ei
a.sie:v.|e. iaai eieeemei:v as iae
e.cei.eaaa| vs.seisoai.a|aaia:eaac.ise|i|eeao:ecaeece::evea|ec
.a aa. sie:va.ea.::ecae.||v. aaa|.is. is| sease ii. asuasse:|
am:ms. iaea. sie:veiiaeeeemei:.ea|e.cei.e.sexeo|a:v.iaeaa.sie:v
.aeeae:a| ae |eaee::. s|s|
e:e:ac.ea|oaeaemeae|eev sv:ema.a.aeeeo|eie|v.ia. aaceie:
m.aec :e|ai. v.iv. a. sie:v .a eeae:a| ae | ess eemo|eie|v eaeaees
oaeaeeae|eev.ia a||. isoess.|.|.i.esaac:esoeas. |. | .ise:.e.aa|
That, for exampl e, was not the case wi th psychology, whose relati ons wi th
phenomenology have been most abundantly defned, notably in ldeen II [ldeen ZI einer
reinen Phinomenologie und phinomenologischen Philosophie, Vol . I I , ed. M. Biemel , in
Hllsserliana, Vol . 4 (The Hague: Nijhof, 1 952) ] . in the Cartesian Meditations, and i n the
third part of the Crisis . The recent publ ication by Walter Bi emel of the Lectures of 1 925
and of appended texts devoted to Phinomenologische Psychologie ( in Husserliana, Vol .
9 [The Hague: Nijhof, 1 962]) is a very rich testi mony to thi s.
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
Ne cea|i:aeseia:eea|.i.eas. a. eaa:ea|sec. uea|ieaes. aa.

eCrisis aae.: ea| ||aiea:saaeea:eeses . :

eea:| .e:e:ss sa: . :

. s.aThe Origin of Geometr aac. aiaesae:ii:aemeaiseiiaesae
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wemasi|eea:eia|ae:e. iaeseam|.i.easa:eea|vserved |va|:eacv
iam.| .a:iaeesa. eaiaeve:.eai. aaaec.:eei.ea

i asieaceisee. ae. i
asao:e|eaeai.eaeiiaeCrisis, em.eai|esi:eae|viemoiecieseeThe
Origin of Geometr .aiie:ia|.ae.aieaeeeaaiiae||eiea
ea|v as iae o:eiaee ie a:e. ssaeeiFormal and Transcendental Logic,
aeseoa:oeses. mo| vea|c|eacaoiecieamaie:.a|eaie|eevi aa.s
i ai:ecaei.eaie iaai e:|. uasse:|oe:ee.vesiae mei.iei:ac.ea| .a
vesi.eai.easeisease .ia. aiaeo:eseaieeac.i.eaeira:eoeaa se.
eaees saie|aeiaaiie:uasse:|iaee:.i.ea|s.ea.aeaaeeeiia.s
s.iaai.ea:esa|is|essi:esemeeo.siee|ee.ea|eeaa .ei. aae:eai.aiae
ei.iso:ee:essaacsaeeess. aac|.isseaseie:| .ieaaciaeoess. |. |.ivei
||aiecieour ae|ee:|c

1a. si:ee.aeeise.eaee.ia:esoeeiie
.is|ases.aiaeLebenswelt aac.isieaac.aesa|eei.veaeisaacea|iec|v
:ema. asaaeees sa:veeac.i.eaie:.iseeaeaesi s saiia. si:ee.aea|se
.ave|vesiaeia:eaieiaae|eei. v. sia| .eaai.ea.a.eaeeaeea| siae.a
si.iai.aee:.e.asaac:eace:siaemsi:aaeeaac. aaeeess. ||eieas 1a. s
eeea|iai. ea.a. ea. sa| seaieeaa. e. zai.eaaacsaooesesiae"naivete of
a higher level" eiaa . avesi.eaie:|eeeme .::esoeas.||e. aas|ia
aeeas|v:a.aeciae e:eai |e|.ei eiiae se.eaees aac oa. |eseoav .a
iaemse|ves . .iaasaceea:e:|caa.aie| |.e.||e. 1emec.iaieeae:
.avesi.eaieiaesease(besinnen) ma|e
eaese|t:esoeas.||e(verantworten) ie: iae sease(Sinn) eise.eaee aac
oa.|eseoav .|:.aeia.sseaseieiaee|a:.ivei.isia|a|eaii . aacoai
eaese|i.a aoes.i.eaeiresponsibility ie:ia. i:em iae
ieia|seaseeiea:ex. sieaee
1ae sae c.sea.eiace aac iae same .|| a:e aace:see:ec aac ex
o:essec.| v. ceai.ea|ie:msi:emiae| :sioaeeseiThe Origin
1 0 Formal and Transcendental Logic, tr. Dorion Cairns (The Hague: Nijhof, 1 969) , p.
5-hereafter ci ted as FTL. Al so cf. the commentary of Suzanne Bachelard, A Study of
Husserl' s Formal and Transcendental Logic, tf . Lester E. Embree ( Evanston: North
wester Uni versi ty Press, 1 968) , notably pp. xxxi i i-l i i i .
"We must place oursel ves above thi s whol e life and all t hi s cultural tradition and, by
radical sense- investi gations, seek for oursel ves si ngly and i n common t he ul ti mate pos
si bi l i ti es and necessi ti es, on t he basis of whi ch we can take our position toward
actual i ti es in j udging, val ui ng, and acting" (FTL, pp. 5-6) . The citations are from
FTL, pp. 2, 5, and 9.

Jacques Derrida
of Geometr. ~ac(aeeaes(.eaas|ec(ae:eaooea:sa(a:s(s.ea((e|e
ea|vasoee.| ea(.eaei(aeeeae:a|eaes(.ea|eeaaaacce| aec. aFormal
and Transcendental Logic. is.(ae(aeaes(.eaae:eeiaoo|v.aeaeeae:a|
o:e]ee(aese o:ee:amaac a|:eacv|eeae:eaa.zec(ea s. aea|a:aac
ceoeacea(se.eaee:D.cae(uasse:|:. (e. 1aese. aves(.ea(.eas. eea||eseaseaacoess.||eme(aeceieeaa.aese.eaee as
saea.a:eaa(a:a|vc.:ee(ec| :s(eia||(eaa(.sessea(.a| |veemmea(e
a|| oess.||e se.eaees 1aev saea|c|e ie| |eecseeeaca:.|v|vee::e sease.aves(.ea(.eas ie: oa:(.ea|a: e:eaos ei se.eaees aac|ese.eaees(ibid. , o - :

1aeaa(e:.e:.(veiFormal and Transcendental Logic .a:e|a(.ea(e(ae

s.ea.aeaaee 1a.saeeessa:vaa(e:.e:.(v| :s(ce:.vesi:em(aeaa(a:eei
(:ac.(.eaa| |ee.e. a.ea .s a|avs o:esea(ec as(ae eeae:a| (aee:v ei
se.eaee. as (ae se.eaee ei se.eaee 1a.s s(a(emea( a| se :eie:s(e (ae
a. e:a:eaveiea(e|ee. esa|:eacve|a|e:a(ec.aIdeas I. ua(e:.a||vce(e:
oa:e:a|eseiO|]ee(.v.(v.aeeae:a| ' Neeeeme(:v. sama(e:.a|ea
(e|eevaesee|]ee(. sce(e:m.aecas(ae soa(.a|.(vei(ae(|e|eae
1aeiae((aa(eve:vc. meas.eaeiThe Origin of Geometr aeeea(aa(es
(a. sceoeaceaeeaac(a. s:e|a(.vesaoe:ae. a| .(veicese:.o(.ea. ||(aas
|eexo|a. aecOaseve:a|eeeas.eas uasse:|ae(es(aa(aeo:esaooeses
(ae eeas(.(a(.ea ei(ae . cea| e|]ee(.v. (. es ei|ee.eaac |aaeaaee . a
On the "di recti ve" character of logic, al so cf. FTL, 7 1 , pp. 1 8 1 -82.
Cf. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. tr. W. R. Boyce Gibson
( 1 93 1 ; rpt. New York: Col l ier Books, 1 962) , 8-1 O. 1 7 . pp. 56-62 and 70-71 -hereafer
cited as Ideas I. [At times Derrida refers to the notes of Paul Ricoeur in his invaluable
French translation. Idees directrices pOllr line phenomenologie et line philosophie phe
nomenologique pures . Tome I: Introduction Jenerale a la phenomenologie pure (Pari s:
Gal limard. 1 950) . We wi l l refer to thi s translation as Idees . ] Here formal ontology desig
nates formal logic "in the narrower sense" and "al l the other di scipl ines which constitute
the formal ' mathesis universalis ' (thus arithmetic also. pure anal ysi s. theory of mul ti
pl i ci ti es) . " Ideas I, p. 57 [ modi fed] .
"I t is clearl y realized that it is the essence of a material thing to be a res extensa, and
that consequently geometry is an ontological discipline relating to an essential phase of
sllch thinghood (Di ngl ichkei t) . the spatial form" ( Hu sserI ' s emphasi s) . Ideas I, 9. pp.
Al so cf. Ideas I, 25. p. 84: there geometry and ki nematics (which HusserI always
associates with geometry in the Crisis and in the Origin) are al so defi ned as " pure
mathematical . . . material" di scipli nes.
1 5
0n the translation of Gegenstindlichkeit by objectivity [F: objectite (and Objektivitit
or objectivite by Objectivity)] , cf. the French translation of FTL, p. 1 8, n. 3 . and the
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
eeae:a|.(aeee::e|a(.veeeas(.(a(.eao .a(e:sa|]ee(.v.(v.aaca||:e|a(ec
. aves(.ea(.eas iaaee:(a.asease . .(. s(:a|vaeeessa:v(esee(aa((a. s
e:ce:eiceoeaceaee. sae(:eve:sec 1ae oaeaemeaeaeie:. s. s. as
ie:ee(ia|aesseie:.e. as.| v(aeseaseei(a.s(voeei :eve:
sa|( Umkehrung) .
sa(a.|eeemo|e(e|v]as( ee(.easea|ee.e .
uasse:|a| se soee.aes.aFormal and Transcendental Logic (aa( (a.s .s
ea|v eae oa(a ameae e(ae:s "Other paths a:e oess.||e ie: sease
.aves(.ea(.eas.(aa:ac.ea|a. m. aac(aeo:esea(e:|a((emo(s(eeoea
ao. ( |eas( .a

ma.a see(.eas . eae saeees(ec|v(aea.s(e:.ea||ve.vea

(FTL, o 7; uasse:| semoaas.s
~| se. |vaspirling movement a.ea.s(ae ma]e:|aceiea:(ex(. a
ET. p. 3 , tr. note 2 . Of course the notion of objectiv ity here is not in any snse tied to
Schopenhauer' s concept of Objektitit. [On matters of translation related to Husser! we
have fol lowed i n the main the suggestions of Dorion Cairns in Guide for Translating
Hlisser! (The Hague: Nihof, 1 973) . ] As for translations which we have had to do, we wi l l
be l ed to justify them i n the cours of thi s Introducti on.
| 6
Cf. FTL, p. 2: " the original relati onshi p between logic and sci ence has undergone a
remarkable reversal in modern times. The sciences made themsel ves independent . With
out bei ng able to satisfy completely the spirit of critical self-j ustifcati on. they fashioned
extremel y diferentiated methods. whose frui tful ness. it i s true . was pract ically certai n.
but whose productivity (Leistung) was not clarifed by ulti mate i nsight . " Our emphasi s.
oreover, concerning geometrical science and mathematics i n general . Husser! has prin
ci pal l y and most often defned thi s Umkehrung as the fal sifcation of sense . the di splace
ment of ground, and the forgetti ng of origins . He has done this under at least three forms:
1 . Geometry. the model of exact science. i s responsi ble for the naturalization of the
psychic sphere-a fact that was pointed out i n the fi rst part of " Phi losophy as Rigorous
Science, " in Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy, tr. Quentin Lauer (N ew York:
Harper and Row, 1 965) , pp. 7 1 -1 47-hereafter ci ted as "PRS" ( cf. in particular pp. 82,
84, and 93) . We should also remember that i n Ideas I (72-75 , pp. 1 85-93) Husser! de
nonces the absurdity of geometrizing l i ved experience, on account of both geometrical ex
actitude and deductivity.
2 . The geometrical ideal (or that of mathematical physics) , dogmatically recei ved, i s
what impel l ed Descartes t o cover over again the transcendental motif that he had ingeni
ouly brougt to l ight . The certitude of the cogito becomes the axiomatic ground, and
phi l osophy lb transformed i nto a deductive system. ordine geometrico: "only thi s
axioatic foudation l i es even deeper than that of geometry and is called on to partici
pate In the ul timate groundi ng even of geometrical knowledge" (CM, 3, p. 8) ; cf. al so C,
Part II, i n particular 2 1 .
3 . Final l y, the whole Crisis tends to show how geometry, the ground for the mathemati
zation of nature, hides true Nature. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why later on
Husserl will hardl y us-yet without expli ci tl y questioni ng again-the defni ti on of
geometry as an eidetic sci ence or as the material ontology of spatial l y extended, natural
thi ngs, a defni ti on often proposed as an example up to Ideas I.
Jacques Derrid
iae .aieai.eaa| a.sie:v ei a oa:i.ea|a: e.cei.e se.eaee. a sease
.avesi.eai.eaei. iseeac.i.easeioess.|.|.iv.| | :evea|ieasexemo|a:. |v
iaeeeac.i.easaacseaseeiiaea. sie:.e.iveise. eaee.aeeae:a| .iaeaei|a.sie:.e.iv-iae| asiae:.zeaie:a| |seaseaacO|]eei.v.iv. a
eeae:a| . Ceaseeaeai| v. iaea:ea.ieeiea.e :e|ai.eas eve|eca memeai
aeea:eeemo|.eaiec. .iaei.ave:iec.1a.sea|ccemeasi:aie ..i . ie:e
si.||aeeessa:v.aiaaioe.aiiae]a:. c.ea|e:ce:ei. mo| .eai.eas. saeise
|. aea:aacaec.mea|i.i. .
ii.s.aiaem. csieiiaesec.mea|i.esaac. iaexi:emeo:aceaeeiaai
uasse:| ie ma|e a.s oa:oese aace:sieec .a The Origin of
ua sse:|ia|esaame:eas. .aac:aiae:. ai:.eaiemeiaece|ee.ea|
o:eeaai.eas.aiaea:sioaees .
1 . r:ev.ceciaeaei.ea eia.sie:v. s eeaee.vec. aaae sease. iae
eaesi.eaei:eoeai.aeaae:.e.a.i aeiae:e:cs. :ereei.eaceesaeie:|
aoeae:.ia.aeeemei:v.ise|ias:eacvmace.aaaceccea( 1 57) . 1 7
1aeaii. iaceia|ea.iaea..saeiiaaieiaeeemeie:. iae| aiie:aasaia.s
c.soesa|aaa|:eacve.veasvsiemeii:aiasiaaiaesaooesese:ai. | .zes
.aa.|a:eoess.|.| .
eiaeax.emai.zai.easa.ea .evea.ia iae. :o:e||emsaacc.mea|
i.esalready a:eaaaeaaeecasgeometrcal oess.|.| . 1ae :eea.:ec
eiae:.zeaia|aacaa.sie:.eeai.ea| csiacviaesvsiemai.esi:aeia:eei
eeemei:.ea| se.eaee e: eiva:.ea s . seia iaese aii.iaces
ea|c ceoeac ea aai uasse:| aac ceaaec .a Formal and
Transcendental Logic aac:eea||ec.aiaeCrisis asa aa.vei-eiao:.e:.
se|iev.ceaeeiaai|eeos eve:vae:ma|eeemei:.ea|o:e]eei.amei.ea
(C, 9b, o 29) . Nei ea|v a:e iae . aie||.eeaee aaciae ei
eeemei:va|avsoess.||eaaceeas.eaa|| |ai
se. saee:ia.aseeeac:ereei.eaeaeeasi.iaieceeemei:v. a||.iaeai
c.sia:|.aee:saa|.ae[solicitee]|a:.ecseaseeie:.e. a.
1aeCrisis a|avseeaeecia.s 1ae:e. saeaeecie:iaeeaesi.eaeiiae
e:.e.a .a iae aii.iace ei iae eeemeie:. eae aas. arie: a|| .
eeemei:v. eae aace:siaacs eeemei:.ea|eeaeeoisaaco:eoes.i.eas. . s
' The Origin of Geometry. p. 1 57 i n Appendi x. Hereafter all references t o the Origin
wi l l be placed in parentheses, as done here. [When placed in brackets , they indicate the
addition of the translator. ]
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
ia. |.a:.ia eiaecs ei eoe:ai.eaasavsei cea| .ae. ia|v
ceiaecsi:aeia:es . . . " (ibid. ).
l 8
Neeeemei:.z.aeaei.v.ivassaea, aeeve:e:.i.ea| .eaa:eia:aiea
oe.aisae:ieiiaai iam.| .a:.iv
2. sai .i e |eave iae aeiaa| e: v. :iaa| e.veas ei iae :eee.vec
eeenei:v. aac.ieiaeaeemeiea.sie:v sve:i.ea| c. meas.ea. ia:ee
eeaias.easaea.a|.e .aa.iie:as
A) i aiaei:sio|aee.ea:eaei. aie:esiecae:e. a iaemaaae:ei
|e.aea.eaiaeseaseeieeemei:vaac.aCa|.|ee sia.a|.ae. e:.a
iaai eia| | iae | aie . e|ce:eeemei:.e sae|ecee ( 1 57
mec.aec iae va| ae a.ea ea|c |e aiiaeaec ie saea aa
aoo:eaea,iae|aiie:ceoeacs ..aiae|esiavoeiaes.s .ea|veaaosveae|
eeve:a. sie:veieeea.i.ea ~aceveai, |vv.
siv|e . ia. sa.sie:vaacosveae|eev eseaoecaai uasse:|a|avssas
oeeiec.evea.iiaevc. caei:ecaeeiaeae:mai.v.ivei.cea|e|]eeisaac
eeemei:.ea|truth ieiaeemo.:.ea|iaeisei| .vecexoe:.eaee. iaevea|c
ea|v.aie:m asa|eaiiaeiaeiaa| :eeiecaesseii:aia .aaa. sie:.ea|e:
osveae| ee.ea|m.|.eaeiiaei. Necea|iia.s:eeiecaessmav|eaeeess.
|| eieacese:.oi.veoaeaemeae|eeva.eaea|c:esoeeia| | . ise:.e.aa|
.iv. |ai.iea|cieaeaasaeia.aea|eaiiaei:aiaeieeemei:vaac. is
re:Ca| . |ee-aeseaame ae:e.siaeexemo|a:v.acexeiaaaii.iace
aacamemeai .:aiae:iaaaao:eoe:aame -asa| :eacvaa.aae:. ie:ei
eeemei:v ii. .a iaeCrisi, ave:v .moe:iaai o|aee . s :ese:vecie:
Naturall y, here "geometry" serves i n an exemplary way t o designate mathematics
and even l@gic in general .
l !|
Cf. C, 9 1 , p. 57: . . . I have l i nked all our consi derations to hi s name [Gali leo' s] ,
i n a certain sense simplifying and ideali zi ng the matter; a more exact hi storical
anal ysi s would have to take account of how much of his thought he owed to hi s
predecessors. ' ( I shal l conti nue, i ncidentall y, and for good reasons, i n a similar
fashion. ) "
What Galileo inaugurated, openi ng the way for objecti vi sm by making mathematized
Nature an " in i tself, " marks the birth of a cri sis in the sciences and in philoso
phy. All the more, then, does i t command the attention of the author of the Crisis.
Besides, Husserl already i nsists a great deal on the secondary character of Galileo' s
revol uti on and on the scientifc heritage that i t supposed , notably that of . . ' pure
geometry, ' the pure mathematics of spatiotemporal shapes in general, pregiven to Galileo
as an old tradition" (C. 9a, p. 24) , "the relatively advanced geometry known to Galileo,
already broadly applied not only to the earth but al so i n astronomy" (ibid . . 9b , p. 28) .
For Galileo, the sense of the geometrical tradition' s origin was already lost: "Gali leo was
himsel f an heir i n respect to pure geometry. The inherited geometry. the inherited manner
of ' intuiti ve' conceptual i zing, provi ng, constructi ng, was no longer original geometry: in
this sort of ' intuiti veness ' it was already empty ofits sense" (ibid. , 9h, p. 49 [modifed] ;
Husserl ' s emphasis) .
Jacques Derrid
Ca| . |eeaaca. s:eve|ai.ea. a.eauasse:|s.iaaies aiiae e:.e.aeiiae
mece:aso.:. i s oe:. | s . ae:eiae :ac.ea| . sicemaacaaisie aaceiae
as |asec we masireduce iaeve:v :ema:|a||eaesseiiaeCa|.|eaa
aa.vei-iei:eeiaeeaesi.eaasieiae e:.e.aeieeemei:v
ia iae Crisis, a.|e . ave|.ae Ca| .|ee s ||.acaess ie iae i:ac.i.eaa|
soaeeeia. seaacveaia:eaacces. eaai.aea. siaieia| em. ss.ea.
|aie:ea. aiaeOrigin: re:Ca|.|ee.iaea. oa:eeeemei:vasi:ac.i.eai
as e.vea-aac eieea:seae. ea.ieaace:siaaca||v. c. caeiiee| iae
aeecieee. aieiaemaaae:.aa.eaiaeaeeemo|.sameaiei. cea| .zai.ea
e:.e. aa||va:ese .. e . ae .ie:eea iae aace:||as.seiiae o:e
eeemei:.ea| . seas.||ee:|caac.iso:aei.ea|a:ise:ieeeeaova. mse|i
' " It was a fateful omission that Gal i l eo did not i nquire in retur as to the original
sense-bestowi ng production whi ch, as ideali zation practiced on the original ground of all
theoretical and practical l ife-the i mmedi ately i ntuited world ( and here especial l y the
empirical l y i ntui ted world of bodi es)-resulted in the geometrica ideal formations)" (C,
9h, p. 49 [modi fed] ) .
Li ke al l forgetful ness i n general , the "fatefl ness" of t hi s "omission" or negligence
( Versiumnis) , which is never questioned for or i n itself, assumes one of the three fol low
ing signifcations, each varying according to text and context:
a) that of an empirical necessity (on the order of i ndi vi dual or soci al psychology as
well as that of factual history) , and thus, of an extrinsic necessity , one which is thereby
contingent i n comparison with the sense and teleology of reason. This necessity, then,
has the inconsistent negati vity of the "non-essence" (das Unwesen), of the "apparent "
defeat of reason. I ll uminated by the tel eology of Reason, i t ceases to be "an obscure fate,
an impenetrable desti ny" (cf. "Philosophy and the Crisis of European Humanity, " Ap
pendi x I in C, p. 299) . [The ET of das Unwesen ofered by Carr is "disarray. " Paul
Ricoeur in his French translation of thi s text points out the l i teral translation as "non
essence": "La Crise de I ' humanite europeenne et la phi l osophi e, " Revue de
Meraphysique et de Morale, 55, No. 3 (Jul y-October, 1 950) , p. 258. For the relation of
Ricoeur' s translation and the English one, see note 1 49 below. ]
b) that of a radical ethico-phi l osophical fault : the bankruptcy of philosophical fee
dom and responsi bil ity.
c) that of an eideti c necessity: th necessity of sedimentation prescribed for al l
constitution and al l tradi tionalization of sense , therefore for al l hi story . Thi s prescription
i n turn is sometimes valued as the condition of hi storicity and the progressive advent of
reason, sometimes deval ued as what makes origins and accumulated sens become dor
mant . It trul y is a threatening val ue.
I t is a matter of course that these three sigifcati ons, appaentl y i rreducibl e t o one
another, are concei ved by Husserl on the basis of one and the same latent i ntuition.
History itsel f is what this i ntui ti on announces. Even if we managed si multaneousl y and
without contradiction to think the uni tary ground on the basis of which these three
propositions can be recei ved, i t i s history itself that would be thought . But then the
possi bi li ty of a crisis of reason woul d disappear, the negativity of which ought to be
unthinkable in itself.
Introductin t o the Origin ofGeometr
.ia eaesi.eas a|eai iae ei aoec.ei.e. maiaemai.ea| se|i
ev.ceaee (C, 9b, o. 29) .
~ac. i . aiaeOrigin uasse:|soea|sei eaeae.aea. mse|i .a :eree
i. easa.easa:e|vaeve:eeea::ecieCa|.|ee( 1 57) , .i. s|eeaase.asae
iacsa.c. aiaeCrisi: i ic.caeieaie:iaem.aceiaCa| . | eeiaai. i
ea| ceve: |eeeme :e|evaai . .aceec eiiaacameaia| .moe:iaaee. ie
eeemei:v.asa|:aaeaei||ae|eceeeiaai. s.oa.|eseoav .
iema|eeeemei:.ea|se|iev. ceaee-iae aeei. ise:.e.a-.aieao:e|
| em re:as.|eveacCa|.|ee.aea:a.sie:.ea|:ereei.eas. .i
.|| |e eieeas.ce:a||e .aie:esi ie see ae a sa.u eiieeas |eeame
a:eeaiaacaeiae e:.e.aei|ae|eceeaacie|eeemeama]e:o:e|
|em (9b, o. 29) . z
iiiaeCa|. |eaac. seeve:v:es. cesesoee.a||v.aaie:ma| e| Nes. mo|e:esoease . soess.||eie
saea a eaesi.ea we .|| see iaaiiae . aac a|:eacv |:e|ea
ia:eaea.asa|:eacvaie:|.aeaiaea:sieeemei:v|eeaa-iaai. i.
B) ce eiCa|.|ee. .siaeeaesi.ea
aeeaeeisiacv.aeie:.ise|iiaeae:.iaeea.eaase.veaiea. m:Nei
aavme:e 1ae eaesi.eaeie:. e.a.||aei|eaoa.|e|ee.ea| a.sie:.ea|
sea:ea . aiae. avesi.eai.eaei oa:i.ea|a:o:eoes.i.eas ( 1 58) iaai
iaea:sieeemeie:sc.seeve:ece:ieuaa| aiec 1ae:e..iea| cea| v|ea
maiie:ie:iae a.sie:veise.eaee.a iaee|ass.ea|seaseieia|e siee|ei
iaea|:eacveeasi.iaieceeaieaiseieeemei:.ea|eeea. i.eas. .aoa:i.ea| a:
eiiae a:sioesia|ai-. ax.ems. iaee:ems. aac seie:ia. eeaieaisiaai
masi |e exo|e:ec aac ceie:m.aec as|v aac as eemo|eie| vas
oess.||ei:ema:eaee|ee.ea|ceeameais is.aeeaiesia||e.aie:
esi. saea aa. avesi.eai. eaeaaieaea as aeia. ae+|eaiiaeeeemei:. ea|
seaseeiiaea:sieeemei:.ea|aeis iieaaaeievea:eeeea.zeaac. se|aie
iaese aeis as saea exeeoi |v saooes.aeiaaiiae o:. me:c.a| sease ei|:eacv|aea
c r.aa|| v. .ieaemasi:eia:aieiae.asi.iai.aeseaseeia:siaeis. .i
.saeiaia||aeaesi.eaeiceie:m.a.aeaaiin fact e:eiaea:s|aeis.
iaea:siexoe:.eaees . iaea:sieeemeie:saee:ein fact :esoeas.||e
These sentences announce what follows i n the Crisis, devoted to the transcendental
motif i n post-Galilean phi l osophy, as well as i nvesti gations like that of the Origin .
` "Fi rst" (erste) nearly always designates in Husserl ei ther an undetermined primacy,
or, most ofen, a de facto chronological priority i n constituted cosmic time, i . e . , an
original factuali ty. Proto-, Arch-, and Ur- refer to phenomenological primordi ali ty. i . e . .
to that of sense, of ground, of the de jure, afer the reduction of all factuality.
Jacques Derrida
ie: iae acveai eieeemei:v saea a ceie:m.aai.ea. evea .i oess.||e .
|aies ie aee:ia.a:emaai.e. sm . iea|c ea:.eaea:|ae|eceeei
emo.:.ea|e.:eamsiaaees. eiaames. caies. aacseie:ia
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exemo|a:vs.ea.aeai.ea saeaemo.:.ea||ae|eceeeaaasi.aa|| vo:e
seai. ise|iasa.sie:.ea||ae|eceeofia.aes:e|aiecieeeemei:vea| v|v a ia||v ceve|eoec e|a:.iv a|eai iae ve:v sease eiaai .s
ea||ecthe eeemei:.ea| se.eaee ~ac ae:e. ia. smeaase|a:.iva|eai. is
seaseeie:.e. a 1aea:.c.ea|o:.e:.iveiiaeeaesi.eaeioaeaemeae|ee.
saiia.seaesi.eaeaa|eas|ecea| vsecondarily aacat the end eiaa
.i. ae:a:va.ea. .a. isia:a.eaevsameiaece|ee.ea|aac:.eaiia|o:.e:
. iv iaiaei . a||iaeseva:.eas|.acsei.aea.:.eseasic. sm. ssecaave
|eeaeaaeaiao.aiaee|emeaieiaeeasi.iaieceeemei:v 1ae. :e|eei
saooesece:aseeaiasec.ia iae :esa|iseiaready-made eeemei:v
iaaiea|caaveie|ereduced .ae:ce:ieaiia.aaeease.ea
e:.e.a. aeease.easaessa.eaasaiiaesamei.meaa .aia.i.eaei. is
esseaee ia eiae:e:cs. a|iaeaea.i ea|v aas ie:.iseeaieai.cea| es
seaees. ready-made eeemei:v ae|cs ae:e.a |a||iae siaias eia iaei
a.eamasi|e:ecaeec.a .isiaeiaa| sease eaa|e :eac
i aceec..aia.sease.iaefact aasiaeie:eeiieaseaseeiiaeready-made.
sai ia. s:ecaei.ea sia:i.aeoe.aiiae eeasi. iaiec:esa| i. i
aeai:a|.zes 1ae:emasia| avsa|:eacvaave|eeaiaeiaeieiaa.sie:v
eieeemei:v . seiaaiiae :ecaei.eaeaa|eoe:ie:mec i masia|:eacv|ae|eceeeieeemei:vaacmasiaeibegin ai.ise:.e.a
ue:eiaemeiaec s] a:.c.ea|aeeess.iveve:|aesa. sie:v siaeiaa|aeees ea. |eseeae:seimeiaeca:eee:aaes
me:ee:eieaac|vseas.i.veiea. sie:.e.iv.eveaiaeaaaiaevseemie:e
mevec. a:ess. easi:ema. sie:v seaia
seiaiae aeeess.ivieo:eeeec i:em iaeiaei eieeasi.iaiec se.eaee
aac iae :ee:ess.ea iea:cs iae aeaemo.:.ea| e:.e. asa:e ai iae same
i.meeeac.i.easeioess.|.|.iv.saeaa:e .ase|
eve:vi:aaseeaceaia|oa.|eseoaviaeec.ia semeia. ae|.|eiaea. sie:v ~aacameaia| as. aeeve:.|eieea
` On the necessity of starting from existing sci ences that are util ized as the thread
guidi ng the transcendental regressi on, cf. FTL, pp. 8-9: "Thus we are presupposing the
sciences, as wel l as logic itself, on the basi s of the ' experience' that gi ves them to us
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
kaai s . aieai.ea aac iaaieiuasse:| . eae iaai . soe:aaos |esseas.|v||eiaaaea|ca:si|e . mae.aec
ia aa. sie:.ea|:ei:esoeei.eaiea:cs kaai a|se eve|es ia.s
maiai.eae:i:aasie:mai.ea( Uminderung), ia.s revolution" a.eaeave
|.:iaiemaiaemai.eseaieisemeemo.:.ea| e:eo.aes .aiaeevoi.aa
i:ac.i.ea(Kritik der rein en Ver u nft, r:eiaeeie:acec . o x
1aea. sie:veiia. s:eve|ai.ea. aii:.|aiecieiaeaaooviaeaeaiei|emaa .a aa exoe:.meaii:ema.eaiae oaiaiaaihad ie|e
ia|eamust ae|eaee:|em. ssecaaci:ema.eaiaesa:eaveise.eaee
asopened aacprescribed (eingeschlagen und vorgezeichnet war) for all
times and in endless expansion (fur aile Zeiten und in unendlich Weiten),
a|c. seeve:veiiaeoaiaa:eaac
iaeiameasCaoe eiCeec ueoei (ibid. , o x.
1aas. | .|euasse:| . kaai.s ie iae a.sie:.ea| c. meas.eaei
ao:.e:.oess.|.|.i.esaac ieiae e:.e.aa|eeaes. seiai:aia. aese |.:ia
.e: |.:ia ee:i.aeaie . ase:.|es aac o:ese:.|es ema. iemoe:a|.iv aac|.iv-aei ea| oess.|.|.iv. |ai a|se ie:
eaea ei. is ceve|eomeais aac ie: iae ieia|.iv ei . is|eeem. ae i.|e
uas se:| . aeaeai:a| .zesiaeiaeiaa|eeaieaiseiia.s :eve|ai.ea. aiae
mece eiia.a|.ae .iaiae i aeiieei. .i .s ei|. ii|e
eeaseeaeaee ie: a.m iaai .is a. sie:v aas aei :eaeaec as 1ae
seaseeiiaea:sicemeasi:ai.eaeaa|| ve:asoec.eveaiaeaea
aeiae:. as kaai soee.aes. ae |e ea||ec1aa|ese:aaieve:eae
ces. :es(ibid.).
Neve:iae|ess. kaai s|e:.e.a.ase||asie
iaeeeaieaieiiaeexamo|e-iae. sesee|esi:.aae|e-eeaee:a.aea.ea
ae ceve|eos iae .mo|.eai.eas ei . is c.seeve:v . s me:e .mmec.aie|v
|ee.i.maieiaaauasse:| s re:iae .aaaea:a|maiai.eaa.ea.aie:esis
kaaihands over eeemei:v:aiae:iaaae:eaies.i ..iseisi:eeaoess.|.|
.iv. a.ea.|essiaaaa. sie:.ea| . . ae:ce:ieaaac.iieas ~i
a:siia. s:eve|ai.ea. sea|va:eve|ai.eaie:iaea:sieeemeie:ii. s
beforehand. Because of thi s, our procedure seems not to be at al l radical , since the
genui ne sense of al l sciences . . . i s the very thi ng i n quest ion . . . . Nevertheless,
whether sciences and logic be genui ne or spurious, we do have experience of them as
cul tural formations gi ven to us beforehand and bearing withi n themsel ves their meani ng,
their ' sense. '
. .
Cf. also on thi s FTL. I ntrod . , pp. 1 3-1 4
and 1 02, pp. 268-69 : and
eM, 3, pp. 8-9.
We emphasize those Kantian expressions which are also among t he most frequent i n
The Origin of Geometry. [The bracketed expression "of Good Hope" i s added i n con
formi ty to the Engl i sh translation of Norman Kemp Smith. ]
Jacques Derrid
aeio:ecaeecova. m. ii .saace:sieecaace:acai.veeaieee:v. aaciae
iaeemo.:.ea| aaie|c.aeeia o:eieaac:eeeoi.ea waai .s mesieriea
i:aas|aiecov:eve|ai.ea . siaea||as.eaie a | ie
a| .eaicaasea . "Dem ersten . . . dem ging ein Licht auf" (ibid. , o
. 26
uaceaoiec|v. uasse:| s o:ecaei.ea (Leistung)
7 a|se .ave|ves a aia.i.easaiaaimaiie:sae:e.siaaiia.suas se:
|.aa.aia.i.ea. as.ieeaee:asiae.cea|eo] . .saose
|aie| iaeeo]eeise:eo]eei.v. i.esiaai. i.a
ieacsc.cft ex.sibefore .i. aacia.s before" eiiae. cea|eo]eei.v.iv
ma:ss me:e iaaa iae ea:eae|ee.ea| eve eia iaei. .i ma:ss a i:aas
eeaceaia| o:ea. sie:v i a iae kaai.aa :eve|ai . ea. ea iae eeai:a:v.
iae |:si eeemeie: me:e|v oeeemes eease.eas iaai .i saueesie: a. s
maiaemai.ea| aei.v.ivie :ema.a.ia.aaeeaeeoiiaai .ialready pos
sesses. 1aeeeasi:aei.eaiea.eaaee.vesa. mse|i.iaea. .sea|viae
exo|.eai.eaeiaaa|:eacveeasi.iaieceeaeeoiiaaiaeeaeeaaie:s . as.i
e:e. .a a. mse|ia cese:.oi.ea a.ea ae ceaoiie: uasse:| as e||
ea|coei:aeeieve:vaeae:eai.veeeemei:.ea|aei. aaca.eaieaeaes
as aoeai iae sease ei :eacvmace eeemei:v as saea. oaiaei aoeai
eeemei:v .a iae aei ei . as..iaiec re:. as kaai savs. ae
c.seeve:eciaaiaemasiaeiie||eiaei:aeeeiaaiaesa.aiae| ea:e
Cf. for example the French translation of A. Tremesaygues and B. Pacaud, Critique
de la raison pure (Paris: Presses Uni versitaries de France, 1 950) , p. 1 7. Of course , we are
authorized to pay such attention to these Kantian expressions only by the confrmation
that all of Kant' s phi l osophy seems to give them.
Among all the translations already proposed for the notion of Leistung, so frequently
utilized i n the Origin, the word "production" seemed to overlay most properly all the
signifcations that Husserl recognizes in thi s act that he al s designates by some com
plementary notions: pro-duetion, which leads to the l ight , constitutes the "over against
us" of Objecti vity; but this bringing to l ight i s also, l ike all production (Erzeugung) in
general , a creation (Sehopfung) and an act of formation (Bildung, Gestaltung), from
which comes ideal objectivity as Gebilde, Gestalt, Erzeugnis, and so on. To be clear on
this, we have translated by "formation" the notion of Gebilde, which appears so often in
the Origin, and which up to now has been very di versely translated. The very vague
character of the word "formation" seemed to us to suit the indetermination of Husserl ' s
notion. I t also agrees with the geological metaphor which runs throughout t he text, where
all usions to sedimentation, to deposits, to stages, to strata, and to substrata of sense are
everywhere. But we were also unable to designate the act which engenders das Gebilde.
namel y, die Bildung, except by "formation. " Each time BiLdung has th i s active sense,
we wi l l insert the German word between parentheses. Do not forget, fi nally (and thi s i s
especially important here), that i n German Bildung also carries the general sense of
culture. There again, the notion of formation seemed the least foreign to thi s vi rtual
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
e:.aiaeoa:eeeaeeoieiiaaisameaea:e kaiae:aemasioeeei(hervor
bringen) . .iseo]eeiw.iaiaeae|oeiaaiaea. mse|ioai.aie.iaacaai
a priori as :eo:eseaiec .a.iia:eaea iaeeeaeeoi.ia:eaea eeasi:ae
i.ea .~actesaesemeia. aea priori .iaeemo|eie seea:.iv.aemasi
aii:.oaieieia.aes(Sache) aeia.aeoaiaaiaeeessa:. |vie||eeci:em
aaiaeaacoaiiae:ea. mse|i.aaeee:caaee.iaa. seeaeeoi(ibid. ) . 21
Neceaoi. eaee iae eeemei:.ea| eeaeeoiaas:evea|ec .is i:eecem
.ia :esoeeiie emo.:.ea| seas.o.|.iv. iae svaiaes.seiiae eeasi:ae
i.ea . s . ::ecae.o|e ~ac .aceec .i . s aa .cea| a.sie:v sai .i . siae
a.sie:v eiaa eoe:ai.ea. aac iiaaie|csexo|
eesia:es. aiaesoaeeeiaoess.o. |.iva|:eacveoeaieiaeeeemeie:1ae
memeai eeemei:v . sesiao|.saecassaea. iae memeai. iaai .s. seme
ia.aeeaaoesa.cei. i. iaeaeeemei:va|:eacv .||oeeaiaeoe.aiei|ecieiaeeease.easaesseiiaefrst saei .as
.a iae Origin, o:eieeeemeie:. iae| | v (urstiftende)
eeemeie:.~i|easi.i. ||oe:eacvieoe:evea| i.a|eeaeeoi.
iaaieeaeeoiaeseao:.e:.Oo] eei.v. iv.||o:eseai|vsi:.seaavsao]eei
aaieve: .ia eeemei:.ea| . as.eai [lumiere] . ~ac s.aee kaai . s .a
ea|v |ess eeasi:.ei. ae. oai a| se ce]a:e aeeessa:v. iaai iae ce iaeie
sao]eeieisaeaa:eve|ai.eaoe aaveaeaia|| . aaciaaiiaeeeemei
:.ea| examo|e as ea.ce-iae cemeasi:ai.ea ei iae . sesee|es
i:.aae| 1aeao:.e:.aaia:eeiiaaieeaeeoi.ia. aa.ea
eeoe:aieo:ee|acesa| |a. sie:.ea|.avesi.eai.eaaaieve:aoeai.issao
si:aeia:eeiao:.e:.o:ese:.oi.ea. eea|caei oea.sie:.ea| . oeeaase .i .s
aei . assaea .o:ecaeecaace:eaacecoviaeaeieiaeeae:eiesao]eei
ue:e a|| a. sie:v eaa ea| v oe emo.:.ea| ~ac .i iae:e .s a o.:ia ei
eeemei:vie:kaai . .iseemsie oe ea| viae ie:
iaeeme:eeaeeeiai:aia.a.ea.s . ise|ia|avsa|:eacveeasi.iaiecie:
aav iaeiaa| eease.easaess 1aas iae soeaiaaeeas e.cei.e :ecaei.ea
seas. o|eaea:ai.eaase||asi:emiaeeeemeie: sosveae|ee.ea| |.vec
exoe:.eaee-.sie:kaaia|avsa|:eacvceae si:.ei| iae
The Erdmann edition notes that hen10rbringen has no "object" i n Kant' s text.
The absence of the deci si ve notion of "material" or "contingent" a priori , such as
Husserl defned it, thus seems to uproot Kant ' s formalist apriorism from all concrete
hi story and to inhi bit the theme of a transcendental hi story.
On the notion of the contingent a priori , cf. in particular FTL. 6, pp. 29-30. The level
of geometry as a material ontology i s precisely that of such a . 'material a priori . "
Thi s seems true, furthermore, of the whole of Kant' s transcendental analysi s.
, I
Jacques Derrid
:ecae(.ea. sae(ie:e:|vasa|]ee(aema|esa. mse|i:esoeas.||eie:.(
. aa(:aaseeacea(a|acvea( |eseoae::eree(





e( .na:nae
a sea:ee| v a|(e:ec eeavea(.eaa| r|a(ea. sm. kaa(s (e
emo.:.ea|a.s(e:v. sea|v| ee.(.ma(eci:em(aememe



ieaac a. s(e:vaas a|:eacv e:ea(ec aeaemo.:.ea| e|ee(s 1a.s a.

:ema.asa.cceaie:kaa( Caaeae(savae:e(aa(


(aee:ei. cea|

aoo:esses(e|naeme(e| .ea(eiaa
.a(|a.s(e:.e.(vei(aes.. eaeeseisoaeeaacme
(.ea: iisoaeeaac(.mee:e(:aaseeacea(a|:ea|.(.e

. a

eoeaec|e(aie:aaaa.s(e:.eme(aoavs.esaacie:aa. s(ene. s(

se.eaee (e .a(e::e|a(ecoess.|.|.(.es(aa( kaa( a|avs ceaeaaeecm
eaeaad (aesamemevena((eave.cemo.:.e.smi:em(aes(a:(aaca( .kaa(aac(eeeaiaea. s(:aaseeacea(a|c.seea:s

ei. cea|eeas(.(a(ece|]ee(s .aeseee::e|a(eas(ae:

s(.(a(ec sa|]ee( 1a. sae(.ea eiao:e(ea. s(e:v. a.ea (e


.( |eeemesuasse:| s (aeme

uasse:| s(as|.s(aasa||(aeme:eaaza:ceas. aaca. si:eecem

:esoee((eemo.:.ea||ae|ecee. sme:ec.mea|((e]as(iva(i:s(s.ea
iaiae( eaeeace:a|ea((aeseaseei(aeo:ecae(.ea
ea|eeeeo(s|eie:e aac(|a(.ea. |eie:e
aac(| | voa:eaacesae(soaeeaac
(.me s.aeeeve:v.cea|e|]ee(.v.(|v(aeae(eiaeeae:e(e
eease.easaess .(ae ea|v s(a:(.ae oe.a( ie: a (:


oaeaemeae|eev .eve:v.cea|e|]ee(. v.(vaasaas( avs
.(sce(e:m.aeceea(ea( .
uo(eIdeas I (ae me(aece|ee.ea|e:eeas(. (a(.veaaa| vses:emmec
s(n.e(a:a| aac s(a(.e. aac a|| a.s(e:v as "reduced" as iae(aa| . (v e:
` Here we fnd, locally and through a diferent approach, the i nterpretatio prosed
by Fi nk and approved by H usserl concerning the intraworldliness of te Kantlan cntl
compared wi th Husserl ' s investigation of the "origin of the world. Cf. Eug m:
"The Phenomenological Phi losophy of Edmund Husserl and Contemporary Cntlcl sm,
in R. O. Elveton, ed. , The Phenomenology of Husserl, pp. 73- 1 47 . [The above quote I S
found on p. 95. ]
't t'
can only be measured by
Perhaps the depth of vigi lance H thIS Kantmn I ml a Ion
its difcul ty, its failure.
Husserl often stresses that the reference to a hi storical birth be i ncribed wi
ti n the
sense itself of every cultural ideal i ty, especiall y in Beilage XXVI I m the KnS1S, pp.
Introductin to the Origin of Geomety
se.eaeeeieeas(.(a(ecaac.a(:ae:| c|viae(aa|. (v1aas . ( s(e:vei
eeeme(:vaac:ema.aec.a(aeca:|aacas]aceeceicea|(ia|oess. |. |
. (|ee.s(e:ma(aema(.e.aaas
saea Ceeme(:v s (:a(a..(sae:ma(.veva|ae. .s:ac.ea|| v.aceoeacea(
ei.(sa.s(e:va.ea.a((a.smemea(eiuasse:|s. (.ae:a:v..seeas. ce:ec
ea|v as a iae(aa| a.s(e:v ia| | .ae aace: (ae s(:e|e ei(ae sasoeas. ea
(Ausschaltung) . 35 uasse:| savs (a. s . .a (ae ei ra.|eseoav as se.eaee aacIdeas l) .a seme i:aa| ca:asesa.ea. .i(ae
|eve|seieso|.ea(.eaaac(aeseasesei(aee:ca. s(e:vaacae(|eea
e|ea:|vc.s(.aea.saec. ea|c|e.arae:aa(eea(:ac.e(.ea.(a(aese ei
(ae Origin. 1aas . Ce:(a.a|v (ae ma(aema(.e.aa (ee . | | ae( (a:a (e
a.s(e:.ea|se.eaee(e|e(aaea(a|ea((ae(:a(aeima(aema(.ea|(aee:. es
i(. ||ae(eeea:(ea.m(e:e|a(e(aea.s(e:.ea|ceve|eomea(eima(ae
ma(.ea| :eo:esea(a(.eas (ae Ce:maa aac r:eaea ec.(.eas acc aac
]acemea(si.(a(aeeaes(.eaei(:a(a . rxs. o 1 26) . O:aea.a. a(
(ae eac eie:.(.e.z. ae aa emo.:.e.s((aee:v ei(ae e:. e.aeieeeme(:v
ias(eac ei oa. | aac osveae| a|ea( eeeme(:.ea|
(aeaea(aac.a(a.(.eai:emaaea(s.ce s(aacoe.a( .e saea|cea(e:v.
(a||v.a(e(aeseae(.v.(.es. aac(a:eaeac.:ee(aaa|
. mmaaea(sease.i(mave|||e(aa(eaave.aae:.(ecc.soes. (.easie:
eeea.(.eai:em (ae eeea.(.easeioas(eeae:a(.eas . but for the question
concering the sense and value of what we cognize, the history of this
heritage is as indif erent as is that ofour gold currency to its real value "
(Ideas 1, 25 , oo. 85-86 mec.ieci .ea:emoaas.s .
` Cf. in particular Ideas I, 1 , n. I , p. 45, and p. 46, where both hi storical origin and
hi story as a human science are excluded. Conceri ng the human sciences, the question is
"provi si onally" lef open whether they are "natural sciences or . . . sciences of an
essentially new type. "
Of course, i t i s as facts and not as norms that the hi storical gIvens are pa
renthesized. I n asking hi mself, ' which sciences' " can phenomenology " ' draw from' "
i nsofar as phenomenology is itself "a science of ' origins, ' " and what sciences must i t
. . ' not depend on: " Husser! writes: "I n the frst place i t goes without saying that wi th
the suspending of the natural world, physical and psychological, all individual objecti vi
ties whi ch are constituted through the functional acti vi ti es of consciousness in valuation
and i n practice are suspended-all varieties of cultural expression, works of the technical
and of the fi ne arts, of the sciences also (so far as we accept them as cultural facts and
not as validity-systems) [our emphasi s] , aesthetic and practical values ofe very shape and
form. Natural in the same sense are al so reali ties of such kinds of state, moral custom,
law, religion. Therewith all the natural and human sciences, with the entire knowledge
they have accumulated, undergo suspension as sciences which require for their develop
ment the natural standpoint" (Ideas I, 56, p. 1 55 [modifi ed]) .
`` Cf. the defnitions of hi story as an empirical human science in "PRS , " in particular
pp. 1 24-26.

Jacques Derrid
a||e.i:s(. iae(aa|a.s(e:vmas(|
(aeae:ma(.ve.aceoeaceaeeei(ae. cea| e|]ee(.a. (s ea:.ea( (aea
aacea|v(aea.|v(aasave. c.aea||a.s(e:.e. s(e:|ee.e.s(eeaias.ea. .a
e:ce:(e :esoee(aac sae (ae aa.eaea. s(e:.e.(v ei(ae .cea| e|]ee(
.(se|i.1aa(. sav(aesei:s(:eaae(.easeiiae(aa|a.s(e:v.||aeve:|e
1a.s .s |eeaase ra. |eseoav as se.eaee as eeaee:aec
.(a:esoeac. ae(e(ae|.aceia.s(e:.e.sma.ea:ecaeecae:m(eiae(.
aacIdeas I, .(as. (aa(.aeeeeme(:v. aaaesemo|a:viasa.eaameae(ae
oa:e essea(.a| se.eaees s.aeeaeexistential thesis (Daseinsthesis) as
aeeessa:ve:oe:m.((ec.(aesese.eaeese:e. mmec.a(e|vi:eeci:ema||
iae(aa|.(v. Ne seas.||eiea:a(.ea.a(ae:ea|e:|c.
esee:.eaee . ae iae(aa| [ evenementiel] eea(ea(aave. as saea. aav . a
s(.(a(.aesease1aeeeeme(:.ea|eidos . s:eeeea.zec. a(aa(.(. (as(eec
There are pure sciences of essences, such as pure logic, pure
mathematics, pure time-theor, space-theor, theor of movement, etc.
These, in all their thought-constructions, are free throughout from any
positings of actualfact; or, what comes to the same thing, in them no
experience qua experience, i.e. , qua consciousness that apprehends or
sets up reality or factual existence, can take over the functin of
supplying a logial grounding. Where experience functions in them, it
is not as experience. The geometer who draws his fgure s on the
blackboard produces in so doing strokes that are actually there on a
board that is actually there. But his experience of what he thus
produces, qua experience, afords just as little groundfor his seeing
and thinking of the geometrical essence as does the physical act of
production itself. Whether or not he thereby hallucinates, and whether
instead of actually drawing lines he draws his lines and fgures in a
world of phantasy, does not really matter. The scientic investigator of
Nature behaves quite diff erently. (Ideas I, 7, p. 55 [modied ]; Hus-
serl's emphasis) :n
The essential usel essness or the "inadequacy" of sensibl e " i l l ustration" i s already
underscored in the Logical Investigations, tr. J. N. Findl ay, 2 vol s. (New York:
Humanities Press, I 970)-hereafter cited as L/. [ All future references wi11 l i st the vol ume
number, the i nvestigation number or Prologomena, the s ection number, and the page:
e. g. , L/, I , I , 1 8 , pp. 301 -02 means the frst volume, First Investigation,
etc. uss
does this i n a passage (LI, 1, I , 1 8 , pp. 301 -02) where he recalls the Cartesian dl stmctlon
between imaginatio and intellectio concerning the chiliagon and very preci sel y an
nounces the theory of geometrical " idealization" that he wil l maintain in the Origin.
Thi s autonomy of mathematical truth compared to perception and natural reality (on
which mathematical truth could not be based) is described here only in a negative way.
Non-dependence is what is stressed. The positive ground of truth is not i nvestigated for
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr


:e (aeavoe(aes.seiaa||ae. aa(.ea (a|es ao (ae :e| eass.eaec. .a

e. ce(.. ce(e:m.aa(. ea. |e e(.ea .a eeae:a| "the vital element ofphe
nomenology" (Ideas /, 70, o 1 84 mec. eci na(.iaa| |ae.aa|.eacees
ae( (aeeidos ei(ae eeas(.(a(ec . cea| e|]ee( .|eeaase (ae
eidos .aeeae:a|aac (ae .cea|e|]ee(.a oa:(.ea|a:a:e .::ea| . (aeaea
ae(oaaa|asv:ea|.(.es-vea.iaa||ae. aa(.ea:evea|s(aemassaea . .i.


(aeeidos aac(ae.cea|e|]ee(ceae(o:ees.s(eve:v
sa|]ee(.veae(.asmaeeavea(.eaa|ir|a(ea. sm, .i(aea(aevaaveaa. s
e:v.(aevmas(|e:e|a(ec(e.. e .(aevmas(|ee:. me:c.a||ve:eaacec

(ae e:e(e. cea|. za(. eas |asec ea (ae sa|s(:a(e eiaa ae(aa| | v ee:-
e. ve :ea|e:|cua((aevmas(ce(a. s(a:eaea(aee|emea(eiaae:.e-

tself. S
tarting from an anal ysi s of the mathematical " phenomenon: ' or in order to better
Isolate ItS "sense, " one simpl y reduces what is i ndicated in this sense as what cannot
presently be
retained by vi rtue of this gound. Husserl measures the eidetic intangibil ity
of mathematIcal sense by hallucination. In the Theaetetus ( 1 90b) , Plato had recourse to
dream. Hussr\ ' s devel
opment is al so situated on the same plane and dons the same style
as the arteslan anal YSI S before the hypothesi s of the Evi l Demon i n the First Meditation:
"At thl
s rate we might be justified in concl udi ng that . . . arithmetic, geometry, and so
on, whIch treat onl y of the simplest and most general subject-matter, and are i ndiferent
whether i t exi sts i n nature or not, have an el ement of i ndubi table certainty. Whether I am
or asle

p, two and three add up to fve, and a square has onl y four sides; and it
sees ImpOSSIble for
such obvious truths to fall under a suspicion of being fal se" [par. 7:
ET: In Descartes: Phi losophical Writings, tr. El i zabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach
(New York: Bobbs-Merri l l , 1 97 1 ), p. 63] .
For Descartes, only after this phenomenology of mathematical evidence and with the
hypothesi s of the Evil Demon wi l l the critical or juridical question be posed of the ground
that guarantees the truth of naive evidence. The description i tsel f and the "natural "
val i dity of tis tru
th , moreover, wi l l never be put i nto question on their own specific
level . The pnordlal round of these constituted truths, whose mode of appearing is thus
clearly recogmzed, WIll be delegated to a veracious God who i s al so the creator of eternal
ruts .
Husserl . afe an analogous descriptive stage, will investigate this in primally
mstttutmg acts ( Urstiftung) , themsel ves hi storical. In this respect, Descartes' God, like
?at of the gre
at assic rational i sts, woul d only be the name given to a hidden hi story and
woul funct on as the necessary reduction of empi rical hi story and the natural world . a
reductIon which pertains to the sense of these sciences.
But we wi l l see that, despite thi s extraordinary revolution which grounds the absolute
ad eteral truth without the aid of God or infnite Reason, and which seems thus to
dl sc
l o
se (and
eescend toward) a primordial l y i nst ituted fnitude while completel y
aOIdmg mpl ncl sm, Husserl i s less di stant from Descartes than it seems. Thi s hidden
aIstry WIll take its sense from an i nfnite Tel os that Husserl will not hesitate to call God
m hiS
l ast unpb
l i she
d writings. It is true that this i nfnite, which i s always already at
I n the ongms, IS not a positive and actual i nfnite. It i s given as an I dea i n the
KantJan sense, as a r
egulative .. indefnite" whose negativity gives up i ts rights to history.
ot enl y
moraltty but also the historicity of truth itself woul d here prevent thi s
flslfcatton of the actual infnite i nto an indefnite or an ad infnitum, a fal sifcation of
whi ch Hegel accused Kant and Fichte.
Jacques Derrid
ua||ae.aa(.ea. (aea. .s (:a(a s aeeemo|.eeea|v .a a s(


e:|c ei
eeas(.(a(ecs.ea.iea(.eas 1eo:eeeec(e(aee:eaacaacoome:c.a|eea
s(.(a(.eaei(:a(a. e mas( :e(a:a. s(a:(.aei:em(ae :ea|e:| c.

(e a
e:ea(.veesoe:.eaee vea e:e .( aa.eae aac |a:. ec.(a. sesoeneaee
:ema. as. ce]a:ease||asceiae(e.i:s(we:eeeea.ze.(ea. (a(!e:

| | ae. aa(.ea


.aeeae:a|.sae(c.:ee(|voe:eeo(.ea.|a(a. s(e:v:. .ivea

(ae eease.easaesseia.s(e:.e.(vaac (ae :eaa|emaeeieoems .
1aasea|v a( (ae | eve| aac oe.a(ma:|ec |vIdeas I cee

:e]e.a kaa( s (e a |.ac eia.s(e:v (a( ea|c|v |e
es( aacemo.:.ea| ~| se. as seeaas uesse:|s aeeeaa(|e

eeaeeoec.(a(aeeeaes.seieeeme(:v aac ee((.ae|evea (a.

s o:e
|. m. aa:v s(aee. e m.ea( esoee( (e see a.m :emeve (ae e.ce(..

(:aaseeacea(a|:ecae(.easoa:e||v. aac:e(ao(eaeeas(.(a
(.ve a.s(e:v. aa. s(e:v . aa.ea(ae eeas. ce:a(.eaeiiaes (aems| ves
ea|c|eeeme. ac.soeasa||e.|eeaaseae:eie:(aei:s((.me.assmea
|a:a.s(e:.ea|e:.e. a. (ae. as(.(a(.aeiae(ea|c |e.::eo|aeea||e. (ae:e
ie:e invariable. 1a.s .ava:.aaeeei(ae iae(.eiaa(eaa aeve:|ere
peated assaeaea|cce]a:ee

::v ev

e:. (s

e.ce(.e ava:.aaee

eaa|erepeated ve| aa(a:.|vaacmceim(e|vm(eaa.s(e:vei

u.s(e:vas .as(.(a(.veea|c|e(aeo:eiea


ae:esease. s mc. s
see. a||ei:em | ae:e (aeceiae(e .smc.ssee.a||e i:emae e
]a:e 1aeae(.eaeie:.e. ae:eeaes.seea|cae|eaee:|e:eeeemzecm
The interpretation of Trfm-Duc-Thao, Phenomenologie et materialisme di


( 1 95 1 ; rpt. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1 97 1 ) , i s strongly oriented tward thIs kmd f
a conclusion. At the end of Husser\ ' s i ti nerary, the return to the " 'technical and economic
forms of production" (namel y, i n Husserlian languge, he retur to real , factual,
extri nsi c causality outside of every reduction) seems mevI
table to that ator, who thmk
Husserl was himself "obscurely" resigned to thi s at the tme of The Orzgm ofG

" Moreover, this i s what Husserl was obscurely presenting when he
was search 109 10 the
famous fragment on The Origin of Geometr to ground geoetncal truth on humn
praxis " (p. 220). "The phenomenological explication is thus onented towards determm-
i ng the actual conditions in which truth is engendered" (p. 2 2 1 ) .
Husserl ' s reduction never had the sense (quite the contrary) of a negatIon-f n
ignorance or a forgetfulness that woul d ' ' leave" the real conditions of sense and factualIty
in general in order to " come back" or not, in order to "pass on"
or not, to th
anal ysis [of what i s] (for sense is nothing

ther thQ1

the sese of realIty o
of faual It).
Otherwise, his reduction mi ght seem vam and dIssembl Ing, and the rtu to
empiricist histori ci sm, fatal . That does not appear to be the case, since, WIth dl lectIcal
material ism "we fnd oursel ves on a plane subsequent {posterieur] to the reductIOn, the
latter havin suppressed the abstract conception of nature but ot
ctually real ature
which implies in its development the whole movement of subjectiVity (the author s em-
phasis; pp. 227-28).
Intrduction to the Origin of Geometry
(ae oa:e oaeaemeae|ee.ea| sease (aa( uasse:| se ceeeec|v
neeaase. ie:uasse:| . .( aas(ae eaa:ae(e:.s(.ea.eaceiaesiae(-
aame| v. s.aea|a:aac emo.:.ea|es.s(eaee. (ae .::ecae.|.|.(v eiahere
and o-(ae (e(a| iae( ma:|.aeeeeme(:v s es(a|| . samea( ea|c |e
.ava:.a||ei aceec.uasse:|savs(aa((aeaosa:eeeieeeme(:v.a(e:es(s
a.mae:e. aseia:as.(aac(a|eao|aeeeaee(dereinst), ie:(aei:s(
(.me(erstmalig), s(a:(.aei:ema"frst aeea.s.(.ea(aus einem ersten
Erwerben) ( 1 58-59) . na( aa( aa(ae:. zec (ae essea(.a| :eac.aeof aac
within eeas(.(a(eceeeme(:vas(aeoess.|.|.(vei. mae. aa(. ve|
(aeaa(a:a|here and now ei(aeiea:ee:(aeosveae|ee.ea|esoe:.eaeeei
(aeeeeme(e:ae. aseaaveseea.asae(.(s. as(.(a(e:ue:e .ea(ae
eea(:a:v.(aehere and now ei(ae i:s((.me. s. as(.(a(.veaace:ea(. ve
i s (a.sesoe:.eaee .aa.eaeei. (s|.ac .ae(as.aea|a:iae(-eaeie:a.ea
i s(a. s(esav(aa((a.s.aseoa:a|.|.(veiiae(aacsease.a(aeeaeaess|acesaeeessie:oaeaemeae|eev(ea| |a. s(e:v
aac(e(aeoa:eeidos eiaie:eve:sa|me:eece:.e.a:
Ne(a( a| | 1ae .ac.ssee.a|. |.(v. (se|iaas| vce(e:m. aa||e
oaeaemeae|ee.ea| sease 1ae .mae.aa:v va:.a(.ea ei s(a(.e oae
aemeae|eev|v saooesec a (voe ei :ecae(.ea aese s(v|e .||
aave(e|e:eaeec. aaa.s(e:.ea|oaeaemeae|eev.1aee. ce(.easoee(ei
(a. s:ecae(.eaas(aeiteration eiaaeema s.aee(aeeidos . seeas(.(a(ec
aace|]ee(.ve. (ae eiae(sa.ea.a(eacec .(eea|cae(|a(. a
ceia.(e| v:es(e:e(ae. cea|.cea(.(veiaseasea.eaasae(e|sea:ec
. se|a(.ae.aacce(e:m.|]ee(.ve.ace
oeaceaee 1aea.s(e:.ea|:ecae(.ea. a.eaa| seeoe:a(es|vva:. a(.ea.
. | | |e reactivating aacaee(.e. i as(eac ei:eoea(.ae (ae eeas(. (a(ec
seaseeiaa.cea|e|]ee(. eae.||aave(e:eaa|ea(aeceoeaceaeeei
Opening Ideas I (Chapter 1 , l a, p. 45, passage already ci ted), this defnition of
phenomenological origin ( in disti nction to genesis in the worldly human and natural
sciences) was already clearly specifi ed i n the LI, I , Prol. , 67, pp. 237-38; i n The
Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness, ed. Martin Heidegger, tf. James S.
Churchill ( Bloomington, I nd. : I ndiana University Press, 1 97 1 ) , 2, pp. 27-28; and i n
"PRS," pp. 1 1 5-1 6. This di stinction, whi ch Husserl wi l l always j udge as deci sive, wil l
sti l l be underscored qui te frequently i n Experience and Judgment: Investigations in a
Genealogy of Logic, tf. from rev. ed. of Landgebe by Jaes S. Churchi ll and Karl
Ameriks ( Evanston: Northwestern Uni versity Press, 1 973)-hereafer cited as E
paricularly 1 , p. 1 1 ; i n FTL, in parti cular 1 02, p. 269; i n the eM, 37, pp. 75-76; and of
course in the Origin.
Jacques Derrid
sease.(a:esoee((eaa.aaaea:a|aac. as(.(a(.eae(eeaea|ec

seeeaca:v oass..(.es aac .aia.(e sec. ea(a(.eaa one:

c.a| e(
a.ea e:ea(ec (ae e|]ee( aese eidos .s ce(e:.aec|v (ae .(e:a(.e
:ecae(.ea see(aa((ae:e. saes.o|e:e

1ae s.aea|a:.(v ei(ae .aa:.a||efrst time a|:eacv aasa aeeess.(v

aesee.ce(.eiaac. s.aceec:a(ae:eeo|es.
First, (|e:e. s aaessence-of-the-frst-time . aeeae:a| .anErstmaligeit,
aa. aaaea:a|s.ea.iea(.ea(aa(.sa|avs:eo:ecae.||e. aa(ee:.(sce
iae(e esao|e av |e waa(ee: e:e (ae eo.:.ea| eea(ea( ei(ae
e:.e.a..(. saoec.e(.ea| |vaacao:.e:.aeees sa:v(aa(eeee:vaas

aae:.e.aaac(aas aasaooea:ecai:s((.e .i cea|eeee(nea|e|ee(s
eaaae(aae(ae.:e:.e.aa|o|aee.aseetopos ouranios. uase:|a|:eacv
eoaas.zec (a.s . a(aeLogical Investigations, ae:e ae

c. seasseca

. cea|s.ea.iea(.easaace|]ee(s. ' 1ae. :a.s(e:..(v.

(ea. .s

e.ce(.eeeoeaea(s. aac(ae:e. saeeeae:e(ea.s(eoe. (v:a.aceese(
aeeessa:.| v. o|. ea(e. a. (se|i(ae:eie:eaee(eaaEr

tmaltgkelf. wesa.c.
aeea(aee.(aa(.(ea|c|e. oess.||e(eSa|s((a(eanothe iae(ie:
(aeaa. eaeiae(ei(aefrst time. uacea|(ec| v na(ea|v.iother .saa(
(eeaa|.iv esseaee aacae( eo.:.ea| es. s(eeeas saa. re: ameae
iae(a|:eacvaas.(sesseaeeasaa.eaeiae(wa..a.|vem ae(mee(ae:
(aaa(aeiae(.(se|i.(a. s.s(ae(aes. sei(aeaeaie(. e.::eaa(v?i(ae
esseaee ..sae((aeiae(aa| .(veiiae(|a((aeseaseei iae(-(a((aea(
a.ea(aeiae(eea|c ae(
c.seea:se . ~| :eacv. aeauasse:|:e(e. a ra.|eseoavasx. ee:es
se.eaee(aa(. ie:(aeoaeaeeae|ee.ea|sa|sao(.ea .aes. aa| a . s
e(e:aa||v (aeapeiron. raeaeeae|eev eaa:eeeea.ze w.(a ?|ee(. e
a|.c.(v ea| vesseaeesaacessea(.a|:e|a(.eas . o 1 1 6 ecic . ae
iae(aa|.(v aac ae( (aa( ei (ae e. ce(.e s.aea| a:.(. esceiaec mIde

s I
( 1 1 , 1 4, 1 5 .oo62-63 aac66-69) asa|(.a(ea(e:.a|esseaeeswa..a.
` In its substantive form, this notion does not seem to have been employed b Husserl
himself. It is found i n place of the adverbial expression erstmalig in the transcnpt of the
Origin published by Fink in Revue Internationale de Philosophie ( 1 939), pp. 203-225:
Fink, who also italicizes erstmalig (p. 207), speaks of Erstamaligketsmous [po 208] and
thus gives a thematic value to a sigifcation aimed at by a profound mtentIon of Husserl .
` Cf. in particular I , 1 , 3 1 , p. 330. There Husserl completely condems i
n a latonic
manner those who, like the "sons of the earth, " can "understand by ' bemg (Sem) nlY
I b "
e "being" in the world of natural reality, and he simultaneously rejects rea emg, . . .
h the hypothesis of the intelligible heaven. " They [the significaton] are not for t a reasn
objects which, though existing nowhere in the world, have bemg m a top ouramos or U
a divine mind, for such metaphysical hypostatization would b absurd.
I ntroductin to the Origin of Geometry
as x.eeea:ae(es. ese|aceea|veo. :.ea|. ac. .caa| .(v .eai v iae(aa|
.(v ` (Idees I, o. 239, a 1 ei(: . . e .(aetode ti ei|:a(ees.s(eaee 1ae
o:e||eeiceoeaceaeee:.aceoeaceaee. ei(ae a|s(:ae(e:eeae:e(e
eaa:ae(e:ei(aesee.ce(.es..aa|a:.(. es . oesec. aIdeas I i:e(aeae(.eas
ei(ae1a.:ciee.ea|i aes(.ea(.ea..s:ea||ve:ec.meaa(ese| eaea
.(eeaee:asa. s(e:.ea|s.aea|a:.(.es . aeseeo.:.ea|).:. saee:. e
c.a(e|v o:esea( . i( eea|c |e sa.c (aa( (ae e.ce(.e oaeaeeae|eev ei
a.s(e:v.|vs.aea|a:. (.esassaea . .s.aeaesease(ae
es(ceoeacea(aac(aees(a|s(:ae(eise.eaees . na(. ae:se| v. s. aee
ee:(a.aaeaeo.:.ea|s.aea|a:.(.es. asuasse:|savs. eaa|eeeas. ce:ec.a
ee:(a.a:esoee(sas(aees(eeae:e(eaaces(.aceoeacea( .s.aee(ae
s.aea|a:.(.es ei a:e (aese ei .as(.(a(.ae ae(s ei ee:v .cea|
s.ea.iea(.ea aac. .a oa:(.ea|a:. ei (ae oess.|.|.(.eseise.eaee aac ei
oa.|eseoav. (aea (ae.:a. s(e:v .s (ae es(.aceoeacea(. (ae es(eea
e:e(e.aac(aei:s(eise. eaees
i aceec.(ae(aeeeie. ce(.es.aea|a:.(.es. sa|:eacv(.es| . saeaeaea. a
Ideas I. ueee:. s.aee(aee|ae(ae:e. s(ae. aaea(| .ecesoe:.eaee
e:(aeseas.||e(a.aeoe:ee.ecoriginaliter, s. aea|a:iae(aa| .(|avs
o:esea( . a|(aeaea :ecaeec. (e ea.ce aac eea(:e| (ae .a(a.(.ea ei(ae
a|(. a(ea(e:.a|esseaee. na( as seea as a. s(e:.ea|c. s(aaee .s . a(e:
oesec. (ae . aes(.ea(.eaeie:.e. asae |eaee:o:eeeecs .a (a.s av ~
cee(:.aeeitradition as(aee(ae:eia. s(e:.ea|oe:eeo(.ea(aea|eeees
aeeessa:v .(. sa((aeeea(e:eiThe Origin of Geometr.
Oa|vaace:(aeseeeac.(.easeaauasse:|:.(e ea:. a(e:es(saa|||e
(ae. aea.:v|aes.a(e(ae es(e:.e.aa| sease .a a.ea eeee(:veaee
a:ese.aso:esea(as(ae(:ac.(.eaei. ||eaa.a . e.aea. :e.a(e(aa(
sease.aa.ea.(aooea:ec.aa. s(e:vie:(aei:s((. ewhich it must
have appeared ea:eoaas. s .eea(aeaeaesaeae(a.aeei(aei:s(
e:ea(e:saaca:eae(eeaass. aeai(e:(ae ( 1 58 ec.iec .
ue:e.(ae"in which it must have appeared" e|ea:|v:eea| suasse:| s
.a(ea(. eaaacsasao(aeseaseei ee:v:ecae(. ea1a. s"must " .aae
aooea:eca:|s(aeaeeess.(vae:eeeea.zecaac(.e| ess| vass.eaec
(eaoas(iae(eiaae.ce(.eo:e se:.o( i eaa
s(a(e (a.s a|ae ei aeeess.(v .aceoeacea(|v ei a|| iae(aa| eeea.(.ea .
He:eee:. (a.s .s a cea||e aeeess.(v .( .s (aa( ei a Quod aac a
Quomodo, aaeeess.(v eihaving had a a.s(e:.ea|origin
aacsuch aae:.e.a.saeaaseaseeie:.e. a. na(aa.::ecae.||ea.s(e:.e. (v
.s:eeeea. zec.a(aa((a.s must" .saaaeaaeecea|vafter (aeiae(ei(ae
eea( .i eea|cae(ceiae(aeaeeessa:vseaseaac(aeaeeess.(vei(ae
Thi s notion of "must , " of apriori requi si te, concerning H past is frequently util ized i n
the Origin. It marks the possibility of a recurrent structural determination i n the absence
Jacques Derrid
e:.e.a|eie:eeeeme(:vasin fact |eoaac|eie:e.(aac.a iae(|eea
e.vea(eme. ~|se|a(e|vi:ee.(a:esoee((eaa|.(eeveos. (ae|a
ia| aesseisease. sae(|i
~|se. aacsecond, aa(eve:in fact (aei:s(o:ecaeece:c.seeve:ec
eeeme(:.ea|. cea|.(.ese:e . .(.sa priori aeeessa:v(aa((aevie||eec
i:em ase:(eiaeaeeeme(:v. (aa((aev so:aae i:em(ae se.| eio:e
(aaa|s(ea:ecae(.eaaac(eaaaoo:eo:.a(ecesec. mea(a(.ea
Third, aac | aa| |v. aeeve:in fact (ae | :s( eeeme(e:s e:e . aac
aa(eve:in fact (aeemo. :.ea| eea(ea(ei(ae.:ae(sas . .(. sa pror
aeeessa:v (aa( (ae es(a|| ees(a:es aac a sease . saea (aa(
eeeme(:v . ssaeci:em(aemwith the sense as we now know it. re:. ei
eea:se . (ae :eae(.va(.ae:ecae(.ea saooeses(ae.(e:a(.ve:ecae(.eaei
(aes(a(.eaacs(:ae(a:a|aaa| vs. s.a.ea(eaeaesa s eaeeaacie:a||aa(
(ae eeeme(:.ea| oaeaemeaea .s aac aea .(s oess.|.| . (v .s eeas(.
(a(ec. 1a.smeaas-|vaaeeess.(va.ea.sae|ess(aaaaaaee.cea(a|
.( . s ae . ae. :ea|a(.ea aac a.eai eaa a|avs oaeaemeae|ee.ea||v|ae|(a:eaea. (aaceaes(.ea(aeseaseei.(se:.e. a.
1aas . |e(a (aaa|s (e aac ceso.(e (ae sec.mea(a(.eas . i eaa:es(e:e
aae(.eaaecea|(ea::ea(eaeaea .|a(a.eaae(a|eseaasaa:oaac sease. weaave(:aas|a(ec. (|vretur inquir (question en re
tour) . i.|e. (sCe:maasvaeavm.:e(a:a.aea.:v.aacquestion en retour
ase| | .sma:|ec|v(aeoes(a|aaceo.s(e|a:v:eie:eaeee::eseaaaee
eiaeemmaa.ea(.eai:emac. s(aaee i.|eRuckfrage, :e(a:a. aea. :v.s
as|ec ea (ae |as.s eia i:s( oes(.ae. r:em a :eee.vec aac already
:eaca||edocument, (aeoess.|.|.(v.seae:ecmeeias|.aeaea.a.aacin
return, a|ea((aeo:. me:c.a|aaciaa| .a(ea(.eaeiaa(aas|eeae. vea
me|v(:ac.(.ea.1ae|a((e:.a.ea. seo|vmec.aev.(se|iaaceoeaaess(e
a(e|eeemmaa.ea(.ea. aeeae:a| .. s(aea.asuasse:|savs. eoea. (e
eea(. aaec.aea.:v ( 1 58) .
1aeseaaa| (aeme(aoae:.ea|ieeaseiea:(es(. eeai:ma(aa(
oe.a(.s:eea. :ec(ae"zigzag"
of every material determi nati on. And if thi s apriori normativity of hi story is recognized
starting from the fact , after the fact, thi s after i s not the i ndication of a dependence. The
fact does not teach us through its factual content but as an example. It i s due to thi s
qfters own specifc character, in the necessity of preserving transcendence or reduced
factuality as clue , that the parti cular hi storicity of phenomenological di scourse is
Introduction to the Origin ofGeometry
Crisis o:eoesesas ase:(eiaeeessa:v "circle "":l aaca.e|.s ea|v(|e
xe(a:a. aea. :v. (ae:eae(.eaa:vaac(ae:eie:e:eve| a(.eaa:vmeaea(
ei (a. s .a(e:o|av ( Wechselspiel) , ea|c |e . mo:ae(.ea|| e .ieeeme(:v
e:e essea(.a||v seme( a.ea eea(.aaa||v e.:ea| a(ec as eemmea
ee.a.a(aeva|.c.(vei.cea|.(v. tacea|(-c|v.aeme:e(aaa(ae|. s(e:v
ei.(s(|aeeiee|c.eaaaave:c|va.s(e:v seaseei(|a(.eaaseemmeaee.a. s.aee . ea (ae eea
(:a:v. a. s(e:v saooeses. ( xa(ae:. (aema.a(eaaaeeei( :ea|a(.ea
oe:m.(s(aeaea(:a| .za(.eaeie:|c|va.s(e:v. Nea(:a| . za(.ea(aeaeoeas
(aesoaeeie:aa.a(ea(.eaa|aac. a( sve:ve.:ea|a(.ea
aacoe:m.(s(aeeemo:eaeas.eaeiaea(:ac(.eaei(:a(a.soess. ||e.a
eeae:a| . iasae:(.aa(seems(e|eeia(mes(. moe:(aaee(euasse:|.s
a.s(e:.ea| ie|c as (ae aa(a:e ei(aa( ie|c .(se| oess.|.|.(v ei
seme(| .|e:eae(.va(.ea
1aas ea|vaace:(aeeeve:eis(a(.eoaeaemeae|eev s :ecae(.easeaa
ema|ee(ae:.aia.(e|vme:e sa|(|eaacaaza:ceas :ecae(.eas. a.ea
v.e|c |e(a (ae s.aea|a: esseaees ei . as(.(a(.ve ae(s aac. .a (ae.:
esemo|a:ve|.(aeae|eseaseeiaaeoeaa. s(e:v.aeeae:a| w.(aea(
(aeWechselspiel ei(a.s cea||e:ecae(.ea. (ae oaeaemeae|eev eia.s
(e:.e.(vea|c| avaa.(v.asea|c|ea||oaeaemeae|eev.
a. s(e:vaac(ae. moe(eaeeeiaaaa.s(e:.ea|:a(.eaa| .sm.(aeae:ea|.ze
~||(aeseo:eeaa(.easaavemaceasseas.(.ve(e (aees(:emec.mea|(v
ei (ae (as| 1aas uasse: aace:see:es (ae o:e|.m. aa:v aac eeae:a|
eaa:ae(e:ei(a. smec.(a(.ea. aasea(eaeea.eaaooea:s|e::eece:c
` "Thus we fnd oursel ves i n a sort of circle. The understanding of the begi nni ngs i s to
be gained ful l y onl y by starting with science as gi ven i n its present-day form, looking back
at its development. But in the absence of an understanding of the beginnings the
development i s mute as a development ofsense. Thus we have no other choice than to
proceed forward and backward in a ' zigzag' pattern . . . " (91 , p. 58 [modifed]) .
[ Derrida puts the phrase "pas plus que I ' hi storie de sa transmi ssion ne fonde la
valeur de I ' or" in quotations . I have been unable to locate thi s phrase, and Professor
Derrida himself does not remember from what i t is taken. It might simpl y be an adapta
tion of the l ast phrase quoted from Ideas I on p. 43 above. ]
Jacques Derrida
ie: e:ci:emFormal and Transcendental Logic .i a(:ecae(.ea. o. 6) :
1a. s :e(a:a . aea.:v||v .(a.a (ae soae:e eieea
e:a|. (.es . |a( . asesaa| | seeasee.(aesea:eeeae:a| . (.esa.eaeaa|e
:.ea|veso|.ea(ec . . . " ( 1 58 mec.ieci
Dea|(|ess. as ao:.e:. ce(e:m.aa(.ea. oaeaemeae|eev . | | aeve: |e
a||e(eea:.ea(aeseeeae:a| .(.es .| .~ac(aev
.|| |e :.ea|veso|.ea(ec ea|v .aao:esoee(.ve. :ee.eaa| . aac. .aa
ee:(a.a sease. naive s(v|eeie:|. sa((a. ea|cae |eaee:
aave (ae sease .(asec(e aavebefore (ae sease.aves(.ea(.eaei(aese
eeae:a|.(.es . asease.aves(.ea(.ea(aa(uasse:|(e:msae:.(.e. smaac
a.ea.||aave a:eea| a(.veaacae:ma(.ve va|aeie:(a. se:|. Cea
(.aaa||vea| | . aeas|ae|(e(aeaaae(.eeco:esaooes.(.easeieve::eea:
:.aeo:e||ems. sease.aves(.ea(.ea. | | |eeoasi:ema|e::a(
ia|aess. aac . ::esoeas.|.| .(v. ii se.eaee. .(a :ac.ea| :esoeas.|. | .(v.
aas :eaeaec cee.s.eas. (aev eaa .mo:ess ea | .ie aa|.(aa| ae:ms as
ve| .(.eaa||ea(s.aso:ece|.aea(ecie:ms.(a. aa.ea(|cee.
s.easeaea(. aaavease(eeeaiae(aemse| ves. aaceaaeeaiae(aem
se| vesseia:as(|cee. s.easaave|eeemeae(aa| | vaoo:e
o:.a(ec. re:a:a(.eaa|o:ae(.ee. (aee:vao:.e:.eaa|eea|vace| .m.(.ae
ie:m..(eaaea|vo|aa(ieaees. (aee:ess.aeeia.ea. ac.ea(esa|sa:c.(v
e:a|e::a(.ea (FTL, o. 6) .
1ae | :s( ei (aese :ac.ea| eeae:a| .(.es .s|v (aa( a.ea aa
(ae:. zes(ae:e(a:a.aea.:v. (aeaa.(veieeem
(:v s sease .s(aa(eia
(:ac.(.ea. Ceeme(:v s ceve|eomea( .s ahistor ea| v |eeaase .( .s a
a. s(e:v. ueeve:ia:. (s|a.|c.aeaoo:ee:esses. aeeve:eeae:eas(ae
o:e| .ie:a(.eaei.(sie:msaacme(ame:oaesesmav|e .(aevceae(ea||
aea.a.a(eeaes(.ea(aeaa.iecseaseeiaa(. .a(a.sceve| eomea( ..s(e
|e(aeaea(eiasthe eeeme(:.ea|se.eaee .1aee:eaacei(a.saa.(v.s(ae
e:|c .(se|i. ae( as (ae ia.(e (e(a| .(v ei sea(.ea( |e.aes . |a( as (ae
.aia.(e(e(a|.(veioess.||eesoe:.eaees.asoaee.aeeae:a| .1aeaa.(vei
the eeeme(:.ea|se.eaee .a.ea. sa| se.(seaeaess. . sae(eea| aec(e(ae
svs(ema(.eeeae:eaeeeia eeeme(:vaeseas.emsa:ea|:eacveeas(.
(a(ec. .(saa. (v. s(aa(eia(:ac.(.eaa|eeeme(:.ea|sease. aia.(e|veoea
(ea||its own :eve|a(.eas . 1eoese(aeeaes(.eaei(a. s(:ac.(.eaa|aa.(v. s
(eas|eaese| historically, aavea||eeeme(:. es|eea.e:. | | (aev
|e.eeeme( :
ra:(ae:me:e.(a. saa.(vei eeeme(:v s sease. saeaas . ( . s announced
.a(aeOrigin, . sae(a eeae:a|eeaeeo((aa(. ses(:ae(ec e:a|s(:ae(ec
i:em va:.eas|aeaeeeme(:. es . Oa(aeeea(:a:v. .(. s( a|
oess.||e . Ne:.s(a.sseaseaa.(v(e|e eeaiasec.(a(aeeeaeeo((aa(
uasse:|in fact ce(e:m.aecas(ae. cea|e:.ea(.aeeeeme(:.ea|o:ae(.ee. a
Introductin to the Origin ofGeometry
eeeme(:v s objective (aema(.eie|c 1a.seeaeeo(.a|:eacvma:|ec|v
a.s(e:v .s.ase|ae.(aa(eia"defnite" aeme|eevaacaaesaaas
(. vececae(. v.(v.s(a:(.aei:emasvs(emeias.emsa.ea eeve:as a
ma|(.o|.e.(v.eve:vo:eoes.(.ea.sce(e:m.aa||eeither asaaa|v(.eeease
eaeaeeor asaaa|v(.eeea(:ac.e(.ea. 1aa(ea|c|eaaa|(e:aa(.vee
|e.aeeea(:ac.e(ec. .aceec.(s va|ae:a|. |.(vaas|eeae||saea. oa:
(.ea|a:|vaea Cece|c. seeve:ec(ae :.ea oess.|.| .(vei"undecidable"
o:eoes.(.eas.a 1 93 1 .
sa(a|| (aeeaes(.easa|ea((aeoess. |.|.(ve:. moess. |. |. (v eima.a
(a.a. aeuasse:| s cemaacs~e.(ae:asaaessea(.a||v. aaeeess.||e:eea
| a(.ve.cea|e:asame(aece|ee.ea|:a| eaacae(aa|(eeaa.eae.a.eaae
| eaee:. aeeae:a|seemsoess.||e~a:e(aevae(as||vwithin
(a.saa.(vei(aeeeeme(:.eema(aema(.ea|ae:.zea.aeeae:a| .. (a.a(ae
eaes(.eas(aa((aeo:eeeeaoa(.ea.(acee. ca|. | . (v|e|eaes . | a.(sve:v
aeea(. v.(v. (aeae(.eaei(||e~aoa:(i:em(aeiae((aa( .(
ea| v aas saea a sease |v seme .::ecae.||e :eie:eaee (e (ae .cea| ei
cee. ca|.| .(v~a|se :e( a ma(aema(.ea| va|ae ce:.veci:em see
aa.eaesea:eeeiva|aevas(e:(aaa(aeo:e]ee(eidefniteness .(se|i.1a. s
ae|ece|a(e. sea| vaace:s(aaca||e. (a. aseme(|.|ethe eeeme(
:.ea|e:ma(aema(.ea|se.eaee. aeseaa.(||to come ea(ae|as.sei
aa(. saaaeaaeec .a.(se:.e.a. waa(eve:mav|e(ae:esoeaseseea
(:.|a(ec|v(aeeo. s(eme|ee.s(e:|v(aeae(.v.(vei(aese.ea(.| e.aves
On the two ' ' faces" of science' s thematic and the objecti ve character of the thematic
on which the sci entifc researcher i s excl usi vel y focused in his activity as researcher. cf.
FTL, 9, pp. 36-38. "Thus the geometer . . . wi l l not think of explori ng, besides geomet
rical shapes, geometrical thi nking" (p. 36) .
``On these questions, cf. i n particular Jean Cavai l l es, Sur f a Logique et f a theorie de fa
science (Pari s: Presses Uni versitaires de France, 1 947) , pp. 70f. : Trm-Duc-Th{,
Phenomenofogie, p. 35 : and especi al l y S. Bachel ard, A Study ofHusserl' s Logic [Part I ,
Ch. 3] . pp. 43-63.
Thi s i deal is cl early defi ned by Husserl , notably in the LI, I , Pro! . , 70, pp. 24 1 and
243, before a section in which the relations of the phi losopher and the mathematician are
defned: in Ideas I. 72, pp. 1 87-88: and in FTL. 3 1 , pp. 94-97.
`' Moreover, that the anal yses of the Origin concerning the synthetic style of mathe
matical tradition serve as an example of tradition i n general is thus confrmed. The very
movement whi ch enriches sense retains a sedimentary reference to the antecedent sense
at the bottom of the new sense and cannot di spense with i t . The intention which grasps
the new sense is original i nsofar as the prior project stil l remains and the i ntention wi l l
si mpl y not "gi ve way" to i t. Thus, undecidabi l i ty has a revolutionary and di sconcerti ng
sense, i t i s itsel onl y if i t remains essentially and intrinsically haunted i n its sense of
origin by the te/os of decidabi l i ty-whose di sruption i t marks.
Jacques Derrid
aac eemo|e(eaess. (aev eaa ea|v|e.a(ee:a(ec. a(e (a.saa. (v ei(ae
ma(aema(.ea|(:ac.(.eaa.ea.seaes(.eaec. a(aeOrigin. ~ac(aev. ||
aeve:eeaeeo. .a (ae e|]ee(.ve (aema(.e soae:e eise.eaee ae:e
(aevmas(exe||v:ema.a. aav(|a((ae ce(e:m.aecaa(a:e ei
cee:ceae(aa(ae:.ze sa((|ee|ee(.ve(aema(.eie|ceima(aema(.es
va|aeseieeaseeaeaee aac. aeeas.s(eaev(e|e:eace:eco:e||ema(.e.
aac .a e:ce:(e|ea||e( e|ass.eam:ma(.easeiuas
se:| . "tertium datur. "
Ceaseeaea(|v.. i(aee:.e.aeima(aema(.esaac(aeaa.(vei.(ssease
e:e .auasse:| s eves essea(.a||v(.ec(e (a. s.cea|eiexaaas(.vece
cae(.v.(v.aacevea .i(aeve:e .cea(.ea|.(a(a.s. cea| .(aeOrigin' s
eaes(.eaea|c|e(a.a(eca((aeea(se(|vaee:(a.aa.s(e:.ea|:e|a(. v. (v.
aema((e:aa(uas se:|a. mse|imav|ave(aeaea(a|ea((a. s:e|a(.v.(v
aacceso.(eaa(eve:.a(e:es(.(mavs(.||ae|cassae| iae(ae:e:cs.
.i(|ae(|.saes(ee|.e.([solliciter ;
.as(.(a(.eaeiax.ema (.esaac(ae. cea|eicecae(.v.(v.aeeae:a|-aac.i
(a.s. as(.(a(.ea as cese:. |ec as (aa( eima(aema(.es. (se|i-(aea(ae
uasse:|.aao:e]ee(ea|c |e se:.eas|v(|:ea(eaec|v (ae eve|a(.eaei
+x.ema(. z. a(.ea(ea:ca(e(a|ie:ma|.za(.ea. (a. aa.eaeaeaeeessa:
.||.m.(ss(a(ec|vCece| s(aee:em.aac:e|a(ec
(aee:ems sa((|a(. sae(se vea.iuasse:|a(eae(.meaceo(ec(ae
eeaeeo(.eaeie:eaac.aeax.ema(.esaaceveao:eoesec. (as(ae .cea|
ie: a|| exae(e.ce(.ec. se.o| . aes(Ideas I, 7, o 56) , .(seems|eea|v
eeas.ce:ec(a.s(e|easecondar e:eaac.ae1ae:e.saecea|(. . aaav
ease.(|a((|e|.acseio:. me:c.a|ev.ceaeeae.aves(.ea(esae:ea:eie:
+' l
Husserl wri tes i n FTL, 3 1 , p. 96: "the idea of a ' nomolofical science ' , or correla
ti vely the idea of an infnite province (in mathematico-logical parlance , a multi pli ci ty)
goverable by an expl anatory nomology, includes the idea that there is no truth about
such a province that is not deduci bly i ncluded i n the 'fundamental l aws' of the corre
spondi ng nomological science-just as, in the ideal Euclid, there i s no truth about space
that is not deducibly included in the ' complete' ( vollstindigen) system of space-axioms . "
Then , defi ning the "multiplicity-form in the pregnant sense, " Husserl conti nues: "Such a
multi pli ci ty-form is defi ned, not by just any formal axiom-system, but by a 'complete'
one. . . . The axiom-system formally defni ng such a mult i plicity i s di sti ngui shed by the
ci rcumstance that any proposition (proposition-form, natural l y) that can be constructed,
in accordance with the grammar of pure logi c, out of the concepts (concept-forms) occur
i ng [sic] i n that system, i s either ' true'-that i s to say: an anal ytic (purely deducible)
consequence of the axioms-or 'false'-that is to say: an analytic contradiction-; ter
tillm non datllr . . .
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
a. mo:.e:(e(|eseeiax.emsaacse:veas(ae.:e:eaac i aiae(. eeaa
:eac .a (aeOrigin ( 1 68) : eaemas(a| se(a|eae(eei(aeeeas(:ae(.ve
ae(. v.(.es(aa(eoe:a(e.(|eeeme(:.ea|.cea|.(.es|.e||ave|eea ex
o| .ea(ec |a(ae(|:eaea((|ev.ceaee .r:. me:c.a|ev.ceaee
mas(ae(|eeeaiasec. (a(aeev. ceaeeei ax.ems ; for axioms are in
principle the results ofprimordial sense-fashioning . s. aa|.|caaeand al
ways have this behind them)" mec.iecj .
~x.ema(.es .aeeae:a|.i:ema.e| a|eaeeve:v .cea| eiex|aas(.ve
aacexae(cecae(.v.(veaa(a|e.(ssease .i:ema.e|a|eaeeve:vo:e|
|em ei|.|.(v eaa (aea a|:eacv saooeses. (ae:eie:e . a
sec.mea(a(.ea ei sease . . e . ax.ema(.es saooeses a| ev.
ceaee .a:ac.ea|e:eaaca.e|. sa|:eacvoas( i(. s(aeaa|:eacvex.|ec
Ceaseeaea(| . .iuasse:|.i:em (aeLogical Investigations (eIdeas I
aac (eFormal and Transcendental Logic) .aceecass.eaec(ae aa::e|. | . (v(e(aeae(.eaeieeeme(:.ea|ce(e:m.aa|.| .(v.(a.s.s
|eeaaseae|e(a. mse|i|eea.cec.aa.s aeaa.s(e:.ea|.aves(.ea(.eas|v
(aeo:esea(s(a(eeiaready-made se.eaee sa(asseeaas(aeeaes(.eaei
e:.e.a eeeme(:.ea| ce(e:m.aa|. |.(v seems .aceec (e aave (ae
seaseeieeeme(:.ea|ce(e:m.aa|.|.(vin general, as(ae.aia.(eae:.zeaei
ase.eaee.aa(eve:ia(a:eie:msceve|eo. waeauasse:|soea|s.a(ae
:;O Our emphasi s. "Expl i cati on" ( Verdeutlichung) i s not to b confused either with
clarifcation (Klirung) or reacti vation: remai ni ng wi thi n const ituted sense, expl ication
makes that sense distinct wi thout restoring i t to its ful l clarity, i . e. , to i ts value as present
cognition, and above all without reactivating its primordi al intention. It is for reasons of
grammatical construction (the use of past or present parti ci pl es, of substanti ve or infni
ti ve forms, etc. ) that we have kept the classic translation of Verdeutlichung as expl i ca
tion. S. Bachel ard comments more rigorousl y on the sense of thi s notion by translating i t
as "process of di sti ngui shi ng" or "process which renders di sti nct . " On al l the problems
concerning expl i cation, clarificat ion, and reactivation of proposi tions in general . problems
to whi ch al l usi on is made i n the Origin, cf. notably FTL, 1 6 and 1 7, pp. 56-63, and
Appendix I I , pp. 3 1 3-29: also S. Bachelard, A Stlldy ofHusserl ' s Logic, Ch . 1 , pp. 1 4-23 .
I n his formulation of the Origin, Fi nk specifi es these di stinctions. Instead of opposing
"reacti vation" and "expl ication, " he di sti ngui shes between two moments or types of
reactivation in general: reactivation as "l ogical explication" and reactivation of the
"tradi tion of sense-formation (Sinnbildungstradition) i nternally present i n a t hemati c
sense-formation. " "When reactivation i n the first sense i s completed, when i t comes to
an end, only then does reactivation as return i nquiry concerning the ' pri mal i nstituting'
begi n" ( "Die Frage, " p. 2 1 5) . Thus, t hi s formulation confi rms and underscores the
necessary anteriority of the static analysi s and the static fi xi ng of sense, both of whi ch
must control al l genetic bearing [demarche] .
' Geometrical determi nabi l i ty i n the broad sense would onl y be the regional and
abstract form of an i nfnite determi nability of being in general , which Husserl so often
called the ultimate horizon for every theoretical attitude and for al l phi l osophy.
. ,
Jacques Derrid
Origin eia ae:.zeaeieeeme(:.ea|ia(| v(a. ss(v| e . i .
eeae:a| . i:ema.eaasve(aaca|avs(||ese:aave(ae:
1a.smeaas (aa( i:em ae ea aea .aes(.ea( (ae . cea|
.(se||.|.(v. a|eae.(aee:viae(aa| s(aeeei(aea.s(e:v ei
ma(aema(.es as saea . . sreduced; se. (ee. .s eaea ce(e:m.aeciae(aa|
(:ac.(.ea-|v| (ae oa:e|v ma(aema(.ea| (:ac.(.ea aac oa:e
(:ac.(.eaa|.(v.aeeae:a| .1aaseaace:s(aacuasse:| s :eoea(ecs(.oa
|a(.ea.a(aeOrigin (aa( .eeaee:a.aeesae(se.eaees. ae.ssoea|.aea|ea(
(aeseea||ec cecae(. ese.eaees .||ec. a|(aeaea(aev
|vaemeaasme:e|vcecaee . | -s 1ae:e.s(aasa(:a(a.e::a(ae:a
eeeme(:.eema(aema(.ea|(:a(a sease.aeeae:a| .a.eaceesae(oe:m.(
.(se|i(e|e|eaac|v(aea|(e:aa(.eei"true" e:ia|se. aso:ese:.|ec
|v(ae.cea|eiace| a.(ema|(.o|.e.(v..aa.ea"the concepts ' true' and
'formal implication of the axioms' are equivalent, aac|.|e.sea|se(ae
eeaeeo(s ia| se aacie:ma||v. mo|.ecas(aeeooes.(eeiaie:ma|. mo| .
ea(.eaei(aeas.ems (Ideas I, 72, o | ss 1aeaa.(veieeeme(:.ea|
(:a(a|sease.(aa(aa.(va.eae:.ea(s(aeOrigin, eea|c(aea
|eoesec.aaeaes(.eaei(a.s|.ac aa(. sma(aema(.ea|ce(e:m.aa|.|
.(v. aeeae:a| ..i(|.| .(veiao:eoes. (|e.. ss(.||
ama(aema(.ea|ce(e:m.aa(.ea:ssea(.a| | v. saeaaeaes(.eaeaaae(es
oee(ace(e:m.aec:esoease. .(saea|cea|
s. aeeaiae( seoae.(veea|c|e:ecaeeci:em(ae e:v|ee.aa. ae|v
(ae o:ecae(.ea ei.cea|e|]ee(s. a.s(e:.ea| .a(e:eeaaee(.eas a:e .a(e:
eeaaee(.easeiseaseaaca|ae. a.ea-|veao.(a| .z.aead infnitum aac|mece~aaaee:|eeo(ae.:sec.mea(a:vce
oes.(sea(eie.:ea|a(.ea1aa(. saoess.|.|.(v.|a(ae(aaeeess.(v.s.aee
(ae.a(e:es(aac(ae c.mea|(v eiuasse:| s aaa|vs. s :esa|(i:em aa(
(a.saaa| vs.saee:aesea|e(a o|aaesa(eaee
Sometimes uasse:|eeas.ce:seeeme(:vaacse.eaee.aeeae:a|asee:
(a.aie:msameaee(ae:seiaa(aeea||s(aeea|(a:a|e:|c iaeaee(
(aev|e::ea||(ae.:eaa:ae(e:.s(.esi:em.( 1a. se:|ces.s(sea(.:e|v
(a:eaea(:ac.(.ea. | s ~ac(ae se.eaeesa:e ea|v seme(:ac.(.eas
ameaee(ae:s Oa(ae sa|]ee(ei(:ac.(.ea .aeeae:a| . e aae seme
ao:.e:.e.ceaee(aa(ae.eae:aaeeeiiae(aa|a. s( Oa
(ae eae aaac. e |ae .(a a |ae|ecee ei aaassa.|a||e|.e.(|ae||.(s(a.siae(aa||ae|
ei|ae||| v( I s-(aa(ea|(a:a|ie:a
(.eas a|avs :eie:(e aamaao:ecae(.eas . (aea. (aev :eie:(e so.:.(aa|
ae(s.asuasse:|. mmec.a(e|veeae|aces. aameea.eae .||eea
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
s.ce: |a(e: 1a. s :eie:eaee (e (ae o:ecae(.e ae( .s . ase:.|ec .a (ae
(.ea s aa(eaemv ueaee (ae aeeess.(v (e :eea|| (ae ao:.e:. |aaa| .(.es
| |v se.eaee aac ea|(a:e ia a s.m. |a:iasa. ea. e |ae(aa(
aamaa.(vaasaoas(aac(aa( . i:em (a.siae(. .(.s.a(aeoas((aa((ae
r :s(.aea(e:s. | s(aemse| esa:eieaac.aaca|(aeaea(aevaae
.as(.(a(ec ae so.:.(aa| ie:ms. (aevaae|eeaa||e(ece se ea|v|v ei :a e: a|:eacv (:ac.(.eaa| . . e . so.:.(aa||v saaoec.
ma(e:.a| s
sa(ea (ae e(ae:aaac. (:ac.(.eaa| cee|eomea( . i:em a.ea ee:v
ea|(a:e aeea.:es(e(a|.(v a( eaea memea(. .a amec.a(ee:.mmec.a(e
svaea:eav . cees ae( aaea eaasa| s(v|e eieeaes. s ia (ae e:|c ei
ae((aa(eiaaaeea.:ecsease(aa(.seea(.aaa||vaac.a(e:aa| |v:eeao.(a
|a(ec1ae:e. saeaa(a:a|a.s(e:vie:uasse:|aavme:e(aaaie:ueee| .
aacie:(aesame:easeas 1aeaaa|eev.|||eeeae:ea(e:aeaesee
(aa( .ie:uasse:|asie:ueee| .ea|(a:e.(se|i.a.(s| a.(eemo.:.ea|aa.(s.s
ae(same.ea((eeeas(.(a(e(aeoa:eaa.(veiaa.s(e:v 1a.s.|||e(ae
ease ie:a|| aa(a:eoe|ee.ea|ea|(a:es a.ea ce ae( oa:(.e.oa(e . a(ae
ue:e(aeOrigin :eoea(suasse:| s e:.(.eaeei D.|(aev. ara.| eseoavas eaee wa.|eeemo|e(e|vaeeeo(.aeD.|(aev s e:.(.e. smei
(ae eaasa|.s( aa(a:a|.za(.ea eiso.:. ( aac(ae|e eiaa e:.e.aa|
(voeme:oae|eev eiea|(a:a| (e(a|.(. es. uasse:| .saes (e es(:ae( (ae
.ceaeise.eaee.. e .a|eea|| .oa.|eseoavi:em(aesa|] ee(
~sea|(a:a|ie:m.(ae.ceaeise.eaee. saacea|(ec|va|seoa:(ei(ae
Weltanschauung, aac(aeeea(ea(eise.eaeeaacoa.|eseoav.saacea|(
ec|v(:aasm.(( sameo:eeessasa||e(ae:ie:s ei
ea|(a:eaac(:ac.(.ea. aeeae:a| 1aeo:eeess. saaa|eeeas..iae(.cea(.ea|
(e (aa( ei .a(e:aa| (.meeease.easaess cese:.|ec i:em (ae aeema(.e
.eoe.a(.a(ae 1 904-1 0 |ee(a:es 1aeo:esea(aooea:sae.(ae:as(ae
ao(a:eae:(aeeaee(eiaoas(. |a(as(ae:e(ea(.eaeiao:esea(oas(.
. e . as(ae:e(ea(.eaeia:e(ea(.ea.aacseie:(a s.aee(ae:e(ea(.eaa|
oee:ei|. .ae eease.easaess .s |a. (e . (a.s eease.easaess o:ese:es
s.ea.iea(.eas. a|aes. aac oas( ae(s as aa|.(aa|.(.es (habitus) aac
sec.mea(a(.eas 1:ac.(.eaa|sec.mea(a(.ea.a(aeeemmaaa|e:|c.||
aae(aeiaae(|eveac(ae:e(ea(.eaa|| a.( .caa|
eease.easaess Oieea:se .sec.mea(a:v:e(ea(.ea.sae(ea|v(aeeeac.
This requirement ofTrivialitit i s frequently justified by Husserl, notably i n C. 9h, p.
Jacques Derrid
(.eaie: (ae oess.|. | .(veio:e(ea(.ea. .( a|se|e|eaesessea(.a| | v(e (ae
eeae:a|ie:meio:e(ea(.ea. a.ea .s .(se|ieeaee.vecaace:(ae a|se
|a(e|v aa.eae aac| ie:m ei (ae r:esea( 1ae | a((e:.
a. ea. s(|a|se| a(eei(emoe:a|.(v..sea| v(aema.a(eaaaee
eia+(.aceecmas(|eea||ec(aedialectic eio:e(ea(.eaaac:e(ea(.ea.
ceso.(e uasse:| s :eoaeaaaeeie:(aa( e:c ia (aemevemea(eio:e
(ea(.ea. (ae o:esea( . s :e(a.aec aac eeae |eveac as oas( o:esea( . . a
e:ce:(eeeas(.(a(eanother| aac e:.e.aa|~|se|a(e. aae(ae:
i. v. aer:esea(.w.(aea((|se|a(ea|(e:a(.eaeiaa(
a||.vecie:meiaaa|se|a(er:esea( .
.(aea((a. s a|avs:eaeece:.e.aa| .(veiaaa|se| a(eo:. me:c.a| .(v.
a|avso:esea(aaca|avs|.vecassaea .aea. s(e:vea|c|eoess.||e
~| se. aa(.s(:aeei(aei.v.aer:esea(.s(:aeeiaa(saooeses.(as.(s
e:eaac.(aea. s(e:.eo:esea( .(ae|a((e:a|avs:eie:sme:ee:|ess. mme
c.a(e|v (e (ae (e(a|.(v eia oas( a.ea . aaa|. (s . (aac a.ea a|avs
aooea:saace:(ae eeae:a| ie:m eiaproject . ~( eve:v memea( eaea
a.s(e:.e(e(a|.(v. saea|(a:a|s(:ae(|vao:e]ee(a.ea.saa
.cea 1aas " Weltanschauung, (ee. .saa .cea .rxs . o 1 35) .
na(at other times, ea(ae eea(:a:v. uasse:|cese:. |es se.eaeeas a
aa.eae aac a:eae(voa| ie:m ei (:ac.(.eaa| ea|(a:e. nes. ces a|| (ae
eaa:ae(e:.s(.es (aa( .( aas .a eemmea .(a e(ae:ea|(a:a|ie:ma(.eas.
se.eaee e|a.msaaessea(.a| o:.v.|eee . . ( cees ae( oe:m. ( . (se|i( e|e
eae| esec.aaava. s(e:.ea||vce(e:m.aecea| (|va| . c.(veitruth. ~saea|(a:a|ie:ma.ea. sae(o:eoe:(eaav
ce iae(e ea|(a:e. (ae . ceaei se.eaee .s (ae . aces eioa:e ea|(a:e .a
eeae:a| . .(ces.eaa(es ea|(a:e s eidos par excellence. ia(a.s sease . (ae
ea|(a:a|ie:m se.eaee .eia.eaeeeme(:v .s eaeesamo|e .s . (se|i
esemo|a:v .a(aecea||eseaseei(a. se:c.e. ce(.eaac(e|ee|ee. ea|
.(.s(aeoa:(.ea|a:esamo|ea.eaea.ces(aee. ce(.e:ecae(.eaaac.a(a.
.(s . cea| . se.eaee . s (ae . ceaeiaa( . i:em (ae i:s( memea( ei.(s
ea|(a:a|a:ea. i (. s(ae.aia.(eeidos eooesec(e(aeia.(e.cea|a.ea
Weltanschauung, too, is an "idea, " but ofa goal lying in the fnite , in
principle to be realized in an individual lie by way ofconstant
approach . . . . The "idea" ofWeltanschauung i consequently a
dif erent one for each time. . . . The " idea" ofscience, on the
contrar, is a supratemporal one, and here that means limited by no
relatedness to the spirit ofone time. . . . Science is a title standing for
absolute, timeless values. Every such value, once discovered, belongs
Introduction to the Origin ofGeometr
thereafter to the treasure trove ofall succeeding humanity and
obviously determines likewise the material contel1t ofthe idea of
culture, wisdom, Weltanschauung, as well as ofWeltanschauung
philosophy. (Ibid. , pp. 135-36)
iaaaeacese:.o(.veoa:ese. eaee .(aemeceeisec.mea(a(.ea. ssaea
|e:eeeaee.vecaac:eaa|eaec. a.(se.:ea|a(.ea. ii. (asaeeessa:v
(aea (e c.s( |e(eea aa(a:a| :ea| .(v aac so.:.(aa| ea|(a:e. e
mas( ae .a e:ce: (e aace:s(aac oa:e ea| (a:e aac
(:ac.(.eaa| .(v. aeeae:a| .|e(eeaemo.:.ea|ea|(a:eaac(aa(ei(:a(a i a
e(ae:e:cs. |e(eeaceiae(e a.s(e:.ea| ea|(a:e.ea(aeeae aaac. . a
a.ea seasesec.mea(a(.ea cees ae( ese| ace (ae iae( (aa( va| .c.(v
.a.ea. s:ee(ec.aa|aaeaaee.(e::a. a. eoeea. aacseie:(aeaa|eeeme
ca(ec[eremption] , aacea(aee(ae:aaac. (aeea| (a:eei(:a(a.aese
. cea|.(|se|a(e| vae:ma(.ve. Necea|(. (ae|a((e:ea|c|einfact
. moess.||e.(aea((aeie:me:na(ea(aeeaeaaac. (aeea|(a:eei(:a(a
. s(aea.eaes(aacmes(.::-cae.|| eoess. |. | .(veiemo.:.ea|ea|(a:e .ea
(aee(ae:aaac. (aeea| (a:e ei(:a(a . s. (se| iea| v(aeoess.|.| . (v eia
reduction eiemo.:.ea|ea|(a:e aac .smaa.ies(ec(e. (se|iea| v(a:eaea
saeaa:ecae(.ea.a:ecae(.eaa. eaaas|eeemeoess.|| e|vaa.::ao
(. eaei(ae. aia.(easa:eve|a(.ea.(a.aemo.:.ea|ea| (a:e
~((ae same (.me. (ae ea|(a:e aac(:ac.(.ea ei(aetruth a:eeaa:ae
(e:.zec |v a oa:aces.ea| a.s(e:.e.(v ia eae sease. (aev eaa aooea:
c. seaeaeeci:ema||a.s(e:v.s.aee(aeva:eae(. a(| |vaaee(ec|v
(aeemo. :.ea|eea(ea(ei:ea|a.s(e:vaac|vce(e:m. aecea|(a:a|.a(e:
eeaaee(.eas 1a.semaae.oa(.eaeaa|eeeaiasec.(aa|:ea|.aei:em
a.s(e:v.aeeae:a| re:(aeseaeeeaiae(aemse| ves(ea.s(e:.ea|iae(a
a| .(v. as e|| asie:(aeseae eae|ese(aemse| ves . a(ae .cea| .(v ei
va| . c.(v.(aeaa::a(.eaei(ae(:a(aeaaea| vaave(aea. s( e.aa| .(vei
na(.aaae(ae:sease.eae(aa(ee::esoeacs(euasse:| s . a(ea(.ea.(ae
(:ac.(.eaei(:a(a.s(aemes(o:eieaacaacoa:es(a. s(e:vOa| v(aeoa:e
aa.(v ei saea a (:ac.(.ea s sease .s ao( (e es(a||. sa (a. s eea(.aa. (v.
i aceec. . (aea((a. saeaa(aea(.ea.s(e:vea|c|e(aeaea(e:o:e]ee(ec
assaea. (ae:eea|cea|v|eaaemo.:.ea|aee:eea(eei| a.(eaacaee.
cea(a| aa.( s ~s seea as oaeaemeae| eev |:ea|s i:e |e(a eea
vea(. eaa| r|a(ea. sm aac a. s(e:. e.s( emo.:.e. sm. (ae mevemea( ei
` As Husserl had already stressed in the LI (I, I , 32, p. 3 3 1 ) , ideality i s not always
normative. Validity is a higher ideality which can or cannot be attached to ideality i n
general. We wi ll see this much later: the sense of error has i ts own particular i deality.
Jacques Derrid
i :aiaiaai.i.saesiecese:.|e.s :ea||viaaieiaeeae:eieaacsoee. ie
a. sie:v-iae ieaacai.eas ei a.ea a:e a iemoe:a| aac sa|
]eei. v.iv s aei s|aseceaiaeseas.||ee:|caaciae|.iee:|casea| ia:a|
1a.s o:ee:ess .s |:eaeai a|eai |v iae oe:maaeai ieia|.zai.ea aac
:eoei.i.eaei.isaeea. s.i.eas . Ceemei:v. s|e:aeaieiafrst aeea.s. .weaace:siaac.
ei| .i. saeiea|vame|.|eie:a:co:eeessi:emeaeseieiaeea. s.
i.easi eaaeiae:|aia eeai.aaeas svaiaes.s. aa.ea a||aeea. s. i.eas
ma.aia.aiae.:va|.c.iv.a||ma|eaoaieia|.ivsaeaiaai .aieve:vo:eseai
siaee. iaeieia|aeea.s.i.ea .s. se ie soea|. iae ieia| ie: iae
aeea.s.i.eas eiiae ae |eve| . . . . 1ae si:ae eieve:v
se.eaee ( 1 59) .
iei as aace:siaac ia. s as i:ae ei eve:v se. eaee .
1aese svaiaeses ce aei eeea: .a a osveae|ee.ea| meme:v. aeeve:
ee||eei. ve. |ai :aiae: .a iaai "rational memor" se o:eieaac| v ce
se:.|ec|vCasieanaeae|a:c.ameme:v|aseceaa"recurrent fruitul
ness, " a.eaa|eae .seaoa||eeieeasi.iai.aeaac:eia.a.aeiae"events
of reason. " ia a.sPhilosophy of Arithmetic, uasse:|a|:eacv
ea.saec |eieea osveae|ee.ea| iemoe:a|.iv as saeeess. veaess .aai
uamecese:.|ecaaciaeiemoe:a|.iveiiaesvaiaei.e. aie:eeaaeei.eas
eisease. ue eeai.aaecieeso|.eaieia. . aac.aiaeOrigin
( 1 66) aeemoaas.zesiaaiase.eai.iesiaee.sae(ea|vaseasea.ea.a
iaei eemes|aie:. |aiiae . aiee:ai.eaeiiae ae| eea:| . e: sease. aa
ee|ee.ea|sa|]eei.v.iveaaaei|e:esoeas.||eie:ia. sceve|eomeai .||vieia|. zec.aaaa|se|aier:eseai.Oa| vaeemmaaa|
sa|]eei. v.iveaa o:ecaeeiaea.sie:.ea| svsiemeii:aiaaac|eae||v
:esoeas.||eie:.i.ueeve:.ia. sieia|sa|]eei.v.iv.aeseaa.ivmasi|e
a|se|aieaaca priori .eiae:.seeveaiaes|.eaiesii:aiaea| c|eaa
. mae.aa||e .s |ai iae eemmeao|aee eia|| eee|ee.ea| sa|]eei.v. i. es.
aeiae:aeiaa||vo:eseaie:oess.||e. aeiae:oasi. o:eseai.e:iaia:e.
aeiae:|aeae:aa|aea. ve:vse.eaee. s:e|aiecieaaeoeaeaa.a
eiiae eeae:ai.eas eiiaese ae e:|ie:aac .iaeae aaeiae:. :e
sea:eae:se.iae:|aeae:aa|aeaieeaeaaeiae:aeeiae o:e
caei. vesa|]eei.v.iveiiaeieia||. v. aese.eaee ( 1 59 mec|iec .
s.aeeiae ieia|.iveise. eaee.s eoea. iae aa. ve:sa|eemmaa|iva|se
aasiaeaa.iveiaae:.zea.ra:iae:me:e.iae. maeeeiiae eoeaeaa|a
cees aeiesaaasiiae ceoia eiia.seemmaaa| sa|]eei. v.iv. re: |iaei
,'4 Cf. in particular Le Rationalisme applique, 4th ed. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de
France, 1 970), pp. 2 and 42-46.
1 ntroduction to the Origin ofGeometr
ea| vaasiaeaa.ivei.aie::e|aieaaess aac ee:esoeas.|.| .iv-eaea. a
vesi.eaie:aeiea| viee| sa. mse|itied to a| |iaeeiae:s|viaeaa.iveiaa
e|]eeie:ias|-|aiiae. avesi.eaie: seasa|]eei.v.iv.seeasi.iaiec|v
iae.ceae:ae:.zeaeiia. sieia|sa|]eei.v.iva.ea.smace:esoeas. || e
.aaacia:eaeaa. mie:eaeaeia. ia
aacia:eaeaa.m.iaaimeaas.iaeai|e.aesa|si.iaiecie:a. m. |eeaase.
ai asiaea|se| aie e:. e. a. iaeeeasi.iai.aeaaco:es
eaisea:eeeii:aia. raeaemeae| ee.ea| |v.iaei:aaseeaceaia|we .saei
something other iaaaiae i:aaseeaceaia|Ego . 1ae |aiie: s aei .eea
aeaiaevseemmaacaiec|vaa.cea|eemmaa.iv.ceaeieeaseie|e. ::e
cae.|| viaeseeiameaac.e"[ think" -iea.ea.isameesie:ecaeeiae
emo. :.ea|eee| ee.ea|eeaieaieiiaeego .ae:ce:iec.seeve:iaec.mea
s.eaeiiae"we" asamemeaieiiaeeidos "ego. Oaeea|c. aceec
|eiemoiecieia.a|iaai.i. siaewe iaaima|esoess.|| eiae:ecaei.eaei
iae emo.:.ea|ego aac iae eme:eeaee eiiaeeidos "ego, " .isaea aa| eac. aea.asiuasse:| s mesieso|.e.i.aieai.eas. ie
o| iae eee|ee.ea|meaac.aa|si:aei:e|ai.eaie iaeieia|sa|]ee
i.v.iv. ia aav ease. .iiae:e .s a a. sie:v eii:aia . .ieaa ea| v|e ia.s
eeae:eie .mo|.eai.eaaacia.s:ee.o:eea|eave|eomeaieiieia| .i.esaac
a|se|aies . 1a. s. soess.||eea| v|eeaaseea:ecea|.ae.ia.cea|aac
so.:.iaa| . mo|. eai. eas. 1ae cese.. oi.ea eiiaese ie eaa:aeie:. si. es.
. cea|.ivaacse.:.iaa| .iv. sei:eeaeai|vevesec.aiaeOrigin, ceesaei
ee::eseeac. asesae.ieaavmeiaeavs.ea|asse:i.ea taacc. i. eaie
a.ea. iaeva:e"founded" .aiaeseaseeiFundierung.
1ae.::ecae.||ea.sie:.e.iveieeemei:.ea|| seaa:aeie:.zec
|viaeiaeiiaaiiaetotal seaseeieeemei:v .aac.isaeeessa:vaeei.e
ee::e|aie .ieia|sa|]eei.v.iveea|caeiaave|eeao:eseaiasao:e]eei
aaciaeaasme|.|eia|i||meaiaiiae| ] 59) . iiiaea.sie:vei
iae | e ea|c aave ie cea| ea|v .ia aa eso|.eai.ea e:a
eaas.e:eai.ea. we ea|c aaveea eae s. ce a|ess
[uchronique p6 e:eaacaac.eaiaeeiae:s.ce.aoa:e| vemo. :. ea|c.aea
:eav .ia .is . ac. eai. veiaaei.ea|ai.iaeaiaavo:eoe:aa.iv
ea.Ne. iae:oa:ec.aea:envae:oa:esvaea:eavma|eaa. sie:v.1ae
Then begins the formidable difculties grappled with in the ffth of the Cartesian
Meditations, and into which we do not want to enter here.
[Derrida wants to suggest by the word uchronie a temporality akin to the spatiality of
utopia. We should also note Derrida' s use of the roots "temporalite" and "chronie" in
various words: panchronie and uchronie versus omnitemporalite and intemporalite (as
ell as synchronie, diachronie, and anachronie) . When uchronie occurs again on p. 73 , i t
lb translated as intemporality. ]
, * |

Jacques Derrda
:e]ee(ec avce(aes.s .s eaee e:e (aa( ei a eec| .e.(v -e(eea
~saa((e:eiiae(. evea-eie:e(aeoess.-.|.(vei(aeeoeac:e]ee(ei
eeee(:v. a e:ec:..(.veie:a(.eaeisease(Sinnbildung) aeeessa:
.|vea(-eie:e. (asao:e|. . aa:v s(aee. aacea-(ec|v. asaeaaav
(aa(.(aocea:ecie:(aei:s((.e.a(aeev. ceaeeeisaeeessia|ae(aa| .z+
(. ea( 1 59-60 ec.r eci
IV :eaeaec (a. s ce.a( . uasse:| oe:ie:s a ce(ea:a.ea av
seec.seeaee:(.aei as( sc:..(.veeeaes.seisease
.a. (se|iaac.a. (sErstmaligkeit, ae(ae.(|vaacc:ev. s. eaa||veeas. ce:s. (
(e-ealready ceae. . (ssease-e. ae a|:eacvev.cea( ue. seea(ea((e
:eea||(aa(e|ae(aeeeae:a|ie:mei(a.sev.ceaee. (ae|a((e:mas(
-e~.(eaaae(ae(-e-|.|ea||ev. .
(ae.a(a.(.eaeiaaa(a:a|:ea| .(ve:eiaa.cea|e|]ee( .. e .e:aso. aeaa
es. s(ea( . a (ae eease. easaess ei.(s e:.e.aa| |e. ae.(se|i(ae:e ( 1 60
ec.iec 1a.s:eea||s(ae"principle ofall principles" ceiaec.aIdeas
I. ueeve:| .((|eeav|aea-ea((aei:s(eeee(:.ea|ev.ceaee. e
ce|aea priori (aa(. (aasaac(eassae (a.sie: ua(evea(aeaea
aco|.ec(eaa. s(e:.ea|e:. e.a. a(a.sease. ( priori |ae|eceeeea ceaee. sae(| ess(aaaa. s(e:.ea| Deia. aea
"source ofauthority" [Ideas I, 24, ie:(aeeeea.(.eaeiaave-]ee(
. aeeae:a| ..(. seaeei(aeseformal a prori sacoesec-veve:va(e:.a||veeee(:vaaca. s(e:v s.aee(aei:s(eeee::.ea|ev.
a-ea(.( .a (ae a|seaee eiaav e(ae: a(e:.a| |re|ecee ueaee (ae
content eieeee(:.ea|ev. ceaee.aeea(ea(a.ea. sa. s(e:.ea|-eeaase
e:ea(ecie:(aei:s((. e.sae(ceiaecie:(aeeea( uasse:|eeas. c
e:s .(a|:eacvaeea.:ec|s(ea(.ea-eie:e(aeeea(ea(ei(aeo:.e:c.a|ae(aacev. ceaee
. so:ev.s.eaa| i ( . saeaes(.eaeiae(aece|ee.ea||. . (a(.eaaac.eaee
aea.a. ei(ae aeeess.(v(e(a|eeae s s(a:(.aeoe.a(. a(aeeeas(.(a(ec
ua((a. se(aece| ee.ea| aeeess.(v .s ea|v|ee. (.a(e ea (ae -as. s eia
o:eieaacca. |eseoa.ea|cee.s.ea uav.aee|ea:ec(a. ss(aee.uasse:|. a
eaee(eea(.aaesa.sec.(a(.ea.aec:e(ee(ec-v(aa(ie:ma| |ee. (.a
(.eaas.ia. s(aeee:eae|eaee:(aee:.e.aeieeee(:.ea|sease.|a(
` Thi s i s done i n terms which recall those of Ideas I, no doubt, but above al l those of
FTL: cf. notably FTL, 59, pp. 1 56-59.
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
(ae genesis of the a-se|a(e. . e . .cea| Objectivity eisease. (a. ssease
| a|:eacvc:esea(ie:aav eease.easaessaa(seeve: uasse:|:e
cea(ec|vaace|s(.aa(e| v:e(a:as(eaeaes(.eaa. ea. sa(-e((e(ae
ie|| aeeaa(aesa-]ee(.veeee| ee.ea|ev.ceaeeeisease|eeee
e|]ee(.veaac.a(e:sa-]ee(. ve:ueeaa.(|aac(:ae
e-]ee(. .(a a||(aeeaa:ae(e:.s(.es(aa(e|ae.((eaave. ea. (e
ce:a| va|.c.(v. aa. ve:sa| ae:a(. v.(v

.a(e| | . e.-.|.(vie:"everyone, " ac

:ee(ecaessea(eia||"here and now" iae(aa|.(v.aacseie:

a:1a. s.s(ae
a. s(e:.ea|:ece(.(.eaei(aeeaes(.eaeiO-]ee(.v.(vsei:eeaea(|vas|ec.a
(aeive|ee(a:eseiThe Idea ofPhenomenolog: aeeaasa|]ee(.v.(vee
ea(ei. (se|i. ae:ce:(eeaeeaa(e:e:eeas(.(a(e(aee-]ee(:
uasse:|aas. (aea. o:ev.s.eaa|| va|s(a.aec-eie:e (ae a.s(e:.ea|eea
(ea( eiErstmaligkeit ea|v (e as| (ae eaes(.ea ei .(s e-]ee(. iea(.ea
[objectivation], . e . ei.(s| s(e:vaac.(sa.s(e:.e. (v re:a
Husserl had posed thi s question i n the same terms but in i ts most inclusive extension
and with a more cri tical , but less historical, infl exion i n FTL, 1 0, pp. 263-64. There,
however, i t is l i mited to the egological sphere of Objecti vity. Here it i s focused on the
possibi l ity of objecti ve spi ri t as the condition for history and i n thi s respect takes the
opposite vi ew to Di lthey' s questi on. Di l they, in efect, starts fom the already constituted
objective spi ri t . For hi m, what matters i s knowing how the signifcations and the values of
thi s objecti ve mi l i eu can be interiorized and assumed as such by i ndi vidual subjects-first
of al l in the hi stori an' s work on the basi s of testionies which are i ndi vidual in thei r origin
or object . Moreover, this question led Di lthey to di scover, like Husserl , a non
psychological di mensi on of the subject. Di lthey writes: "Now the followi ng question
ari ses: how a nexus which i s not produced as such i n a mind [tete], which consequently i s
not di rectly experienced and can no more be l ed back t o t he l i ved experi ence of a person,
how can it be constituted as such i n the historian on the basis of the statements of thi s
person or of statements made about t hi s matter'? Thi s presupposes that some logical
SUbjects, who are not psychological subjects, can be constituted" (Part I I I : "Plan der
Fortsetzung zum Aufau der geschi chtlichen Wel t i n den Geisteswi ssenschaften. En
twiirfe zur Kritik der hi storischen Verunf" [ "Plan for the Continuation of the Forma
tion of the Hi storical World in the Human Studi es. Sketches for d Critique of Historical
Reason"] , in Di l they' s Der Aufau der geschichtlichen Welt in den Geisteswissenschaf
ten, ed. Bernard Groethuysen, 2nd ed. (Stuttgart: B . G. Teubner and Gottingen: Van
denhoeck and Ruprecht, 1 958), Vol . 7 of Gesammelte Schriften, p. 282.
Thi s question i s "turned over" i n the Origin i n formulas which are strangel y si milar to
those of Di lthey. Thi s "reverse si de" of the question concers the radical origin and the
conditions of possi bil i ty for the objecti ve spirit itself. Afer the interconnections of sense
and the evidences of a monadic ego from which we cannot not start , de facto as wel l as de
j ure, how can an objecti ve spirit i n general be constituted as the pl ace of truth, tradition,
co-responsi bi l ity, and so forth? We wi l l see that, according to Husserl, a "logical "
subject wi l l no more be able to be responsible for such a possi bi l ity than could the
psychological subject .
Jacques Derrid
. . e . aa .cea| e|]ee(a.ea. oa:aces.ea||v. mas(aave|:esea a|| (ae
mee:.aesa.easeea:ec.((e(aeemo.:.ea|e:eaaceia. s(e:v.1aeeea
waeauasse:|ia:(ae:eaceve(esaie| .aes(e(aeo:ecae(.eaaac
ev.ceaeeeieeeme(:.ea|seaseassaeaaac.(seao:eoe:eea(ea(. ae
.||ce se ea|vafter ce(e:m.aec(ae eeae:a| eeac.(.eas ei . (s
O|]ee(. v.(v aac ei(ae O|]ee(. v.(v ei.cea| e|]ee(.v.(.es 1aas. ea|v
retroactively aacea(ae|as.sei. (s:esa|(seaae.|i am.aa(e(aeoa:e
sease ei(ae sa|]ee(.ve o:as. sa.ea aas eaeeace:ec eeeme(:v. 1ae
seaseei(aeeeas(.(a(. aeae(eaaea|v|ecee.oae:ec.a(aee|ei(ae
eeas(.(a(ece|]ee( ~ac (a.saeeess.(v .sae( aa es(e:aa|ia(e. |a(aa
essea(.a|aeeess.(vei. a(ea(.eaa|.(v 1aeprimordial seaseeieve:v. a
(ea(.eaa|ae(.sonly . (sfnal sease. . e .(aeeeas(. (a(.eaeiaae|]ee(..a
(ae|:eaces(seaseei(aese(e:ms 1aa(. savea|va(e|ee|e.veaa
eoeaaoaoassaee.aav|aes(ea:c(ae|ee. aa.aes
ii (ae sease eieeeme(:.ea| sease .s O|]ee(.v.(v e:(ae .a(ea(.eaei
O|]ee(.v.(v..ieeeme(:v.sae:e(aeesemo|a:v. acesei|e.aese.ea(.ie .
aac.ia.s(e:v.s(aea.eaes(aacmes(:eve|a(e:voess.|.| .(
sa|a.s(e:v.(aeeeaeeo(eia.eaea|cae(es.s(.(aea(.( . (aea(ae
seaseeisease .aeeae:a| .s ae:e ce(e:m.aecasobject: as seme (
(aa(.saeeess.||eaacava.|a||e. aeeae:a|aaci:s(ie:a:eea:ce:eaze
1ae e:|c|v .maee eigaze ea|cae(|e(ae aaae(.eecmece| ei(ae
|aee:e(.ea|a((.(aceeioa:e eease.easaess|a( . ea(aeeea(:a:v.ea|c
|e::e.(sseasei:em(aa(a((.(ace1a.s. sve:vmaea.aaeee:c.(a(ae
. a.(.a| c.:ee(.ea ei oaeaemeae|eev (ae e|]ee( .aeeae:a| .s (ae iaa|
ea(eee:v eieve:v( (aa( eaa aooea:. . e . (aa( eaa |e ie: a oa:e
eease.easaess .a eeae:a| O|]ee(s .a eeae:a|]e.a a|| :ee.eas (e eea
se.easaess. (aeUr-Region. 59
~| se. aeauasse:|am:ms (aa( asease o:ecae(.ea mas(aavefrst
o:esea(ec. (se|iasev.ceaee.a(aeoe:seaa|eease.easaessei(ae.avea
(e:. aac aea ae asss (ae eaes(.ea ei .(s subsequent ..a a iae(aa|
ea:eae|ee.ea|e:ce:e|]ee(. iea(.ea.aee|.e.(sas.aceiie(.eaces(.aec
(e mase (ae eaa:ae(e:.s(.es ei .cea| O|]ee(.v.(v o:e||ema(.e aac (e
sae(aa( (aeva:eae(a ma((e:eieea:se 1:a| v. (ae:e. sae(i:s(a
sa|]ee(. veeeeme(:.ea|ev.ceaeea.eaea|c (aea |eeemee|]ee(.ve
Ceeme(:.ea|ev.ceaeeea|vs(a:(s(aememea( (ae:e. s ev.ceaeeeiaa
. cea|e|]ee(.v.(v.1ae|a((e:.s saeaea|v|eeaoa(. a(e
. a(e:sa|]ee(.vee.:ea|a(.eaCeeme(:.ea|es.s(eaee.sae(osvea.ees. s
(eaee .(ceesae(es.s(asseme(a.aeoe:seaa|.(a. a(aeoe:seaa|soae:e
eieease.easaess . . (.s (ae es. s(eaee eiaa( .s O|]ee(.ve|v(ae:eie:
Cf. Ideas I. in particular 76, pp. 1 94-97.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
eve:veae .ie:ae(aa|aacoess.||eeeeme(e:s. e:(aeseaeaace:s(aac
eeeme(:v i aceec. .( aas. i:em .(s o:. ma| .as(.(a(.ea. aa es.s(eaee
a.ea. soeea| .a:|vsao:a(emoe:a|aaca.ea-ei(a. sea:eee:(a.a-.s
aeeess. ||e (e a|| mea. i:s( ei a|| (e (ae ae(aa| aac oess.||e ma(ae
ma(.e.aaseia|| oeeo|es . a||aees. aac (a.s . s(:ae eia|| .(s oa:(.ea|a:
ie:ms ( 1 60 mec.iec
neie:eaacaue:mas((aea|eaea(:a| .zec. a(ae.:iae(aa| . (vaac
asec .a eae(a(.ea ma:ss na( eaa e|v :eo|aee (aem . (a (ae
(.me|ess.iaaco:ev.cec(aa(ei(aeeeac.(.eaeioess. |.| .(v:
1ae |aaeaaee eieeaes.s eea|c e|| seemie(.ve a( (a. s oe.a( . (ae
ea||ie:. (. |a(||.ea((aeie:ma|eeac.(.easeioess.|.| .(v.(ae
ce]a:e .mo| .ea(.eas. aace.ce(.e s(:a(.iea(.eascees ~:eeae((aea
cea|.ae.(aa.s(e:v:Dees(a. sae(:e(a:aas(eae|ass.e(:aaseeacea(a|
:ee:ess.ea: ~ac .s ae( (ae . a(e:eeaaee(.ae ei(:aaseeacea(a| aeees
s.(. es . evea .inarrated (e ae. (ceve|eos. a(|e((em(ae
s(a(.e. s(:ae(a:a| .aacae:ma(.veseaemaie:(aeeeac.(.easeiaa.s(e:v
:a(ae:(aaaa.s(e:v. (se|i:
Oaes(.easei(|v. moaea(aeae|ee:.e.aa|.(vei
(a.s a((emo( na(. ( seems (aev :ema.a ea(s.ce uasse:| s .a(ea(.ea
uacea|(ec|v(ae:e.sae(.a(a. saccount (ae|eas(e:a.aeia. s(
aace:s(aac|v(aa((aeiae(aa|eea(ea(eiceve|eomea(. na((aeaeees
s.(vei(a. s:ecae(.eaaas|eea]as(.ieca((aeea(se( ~ac(aeaaaevec
| e(ceaei(aeseaeea|c esoee(uasse:| (e(e||(aemwhat really
happened, (e(e||(aemas(e:v[leur raconte une histoire], eaa|e saa:o
aac eas.|v.mae.aa||e aeeve:. ( saooe.a(mea(.s . ||ee.(.ma(e.
uasse:|ea|v.saec(ecee.oae:.aacvaaee(ae(es(a. cceaaace:eve:v
emo.:.ea|s(e:va|ea(a.eaeea| c|eea:.eas rae(aa|a.s(e:veaa
(aea |e e.vea i:ee :e. a ae ma((e: aa( .(s s(v|e. . (smeiaec.
philosophy, .(.||a|avs me:ee:||vsaooese(aeoess.|.|.(v
aacaeeess.(vei(ae.a(e:eeaaee(.eascese:.|ec|vuas:| .uacea|i
ec|v (aese .a(e:eeaaee(.eas a:e a|avs ma:sec |v a ]a:.c.ea| aac
(:aaseeacea(a| s.ea.iea(.ea. |a((aev :eie: (econcrete ae(slived .a a
unique svs(emei. as(. (a(|.ea(.eas . . e ..aasvs(em(aaiaas|eea
e:.e.aa||vo:ecaeecea|vo:e-(aa(:ema.asce iaeie c ce]a:e,ir
reversible. 1aese(aeaa:e (aeinterconnections-of aa(.s. . a(aen||es(
seaseei(aee:c.histor itsel. 1aas. eeai:ea(.aeaa(.s(a:eaaac
(a:eaea aa.s(e:.ea|acvea(a:e .(ae iae(eia.ea.s .neo|aeea||ei , a
Cf. in particular Tran-Duc-Thao, Phenomenoiogie, p. 221 . Following this interpreter,
"the subjectivist point of view" in The Origin ofGeometr would have prohibited Hus
serl from "going beyond the level of common sense remarks. "
Jacques Derrid
ao:.e:. aac e.ce(.e:eac.aeaac c.seea:se saea|c |e oess.|| e uasse:|
c.cae(.avea(saeaaoess.|.| .(v. .(|vc. se|esecasaa(.m
o| .e.(|vaasa| avseeac.(.eaec(aees.s(eaeeei(ae.cea|e|]ee(seia
oa:ese.eaeeaac(aaseiaoa:e (:ac.(.ea. aaceeaseeaea(| veiaoa:e
a. s(e:.e.(v.(aemece|eia.s(e:v.aeeae:a|
Pure-interconnections-of a.s(e:v.apriori-thought-of a. s(e:v. cees(a. s
ae(meaa(aa((aeseoess.|. | .(. esa:eae(.a(aemse| vesa. s(e:.ea| :Ne(a(
a|.ie:(aeva:enothing but (aeoes s.|.|.(.esof(aeaooea:aaeeofa.s(e:v
as such, ea(s.ce a.ea(ae:e .s ae( u.s(e:v.(se|ies(a||. saes (ae
oess.|.| .(vei.(
1a.soess.|.|.(v.s| :s(ea||ec"language. " iieas|ea:se| vesa|ea(
(aemaaae:.aa.ea(aesa|]ee(.veev. ceaeeeieeeme(:.ea|
.(s .cea|O|]ee(.v.(v.emas(i:s(ae(e (aa(.cea|O|]ee(.v.(vae(ea| v
eaa:ae(e:.zeseeeme(:.ea|aacse.ea(.ie(:a(as . .(.s(aee|emea(ei| aa
eaaee. aeeae:a| i(. so:eoe:(eaae|ee| asseiso.:.(aa|o:ecae(sei
(aeea|(a:a|e:| c. (e a.ea ae(ea| va| | se.ea(.ie ie:ma(.eas aac(ae
se.eaees(aemse| ves |e|eae |a( a| se. ie: esamo|e. (ae ie:ma(.eas ei
|. (e:a:va:( . | -mec.ieci
1a.smevemea(. saaa|eeeas(eaa(eaaa|vzecea:| .e:. (ae.cea|
O|]ee(.v.(veieeeme(:v. s| :s(o:esea(ecasaeaa:ae(e:.s(.eeemmea(e
a|ie:msei|aaeaaeeaacea|(a:e.|eie:e. (s esemo|a:v o:.v. |eee.s
ceiaec ia aa . moe:(aa( ae(e . uasse:| soee.ies (aa( (ae |:eaces(
eeaeeo( ei| . (e:a(a:e . i - eemo:. sesa| | . cea| ie:ma(. eas . s. aee. . a
e:ce:(e|esaea.(aevmas(a|avs|eeaoa||eei|e.aeeso:ess.||e. a
c.seea:se aac (:aas|a(a||e . c.:ee(|v e:ae(. i:em eae| aaeaaee .a(e
aae(ae:.iae(ae:e:cs. .cea|ie:ma(.easa:e:ee(ecea| v.a|aaeaaee.a
eeae:a| .ae(. a(aeiae(aa| .(vei|aaeaaeesaac(ae.:oa:(.ea|a:| .aea. s(.e
i ( . s (a:eaea(aese(aemes. a|:eacvo:esea(. a(aeLogical Investiga
tions aac(aei:s(see(.easeiFormal and Transcendental Logic, (aa((ae
ve:vsa|(| eaa:ae(e:ei(aeuasse:|.aaeaes(.eaaooea:s
1ae.cea|e|]ee(. s(aea|se| a(emece|ie:aave|]ee(aa(eve: .ie:
e|]ee(s .a eeae:a| . ' i(. sa|avsme:ee|]ee(.ve(aaa (ae :ea| e|]ee(.
6 I
This ideality of the object, i . e . , here, of the mathematical thing itself, i s not the
non-reality of the noema described i n Ideas I (especially 88, 97f. ) . The l atter charac
terizes the type of intentional i ncl usion of every noema i n conscious l i ved experience,
whatever the intended type of exi stent may be and however i t may be intended (even if
Introuctin to the Origin of Geometry
(aaa(aeaa(a:a|es.s(ea( re:.i(ae|a((e::es.s(se:eooesesaav(
ea|ca|avs|eaceiae(eemo.:.ea|sa|]ee(.v.(v1ae:eie:e .(ae:ea|
e|]ee(eaaaeve:a((a.a(aa(a|se| a(eO|]ee(.v.(va.eaeaa|eo:eoesec
ie:a||sa|]ee(.v.(v.aeeae:a|.a(ae.a(aae.||e.cea(.(vei.(ssease 1ae
eaes(.ea"how is any object in general possible? " assames.(ssaa:oes(
aacmes(aceeaa(eie:m. (aea. .a(aeOrigin, aea uas se:| eace:s
"How is ideal Objectivity possible? " ue:e (ae eaes(.ea a| sea((|s
e:ea(es(c.mea| (v.s.aee:eeea:se(e(aeaa(a:a|O|]ee(.v.(veiae:|c|v
es.s(ea(.sae|eaee:oess.|| enes.ces| eve|ei
Necea|(|aaeaaee. s (ae:eaea|vmaceaoei.cea|e|]ee(.v.(.es . ie:
esamo|e. (ae e:cLowe |.eai eeea:s ea| veaee .a (ae Ce:maa | aa
eaaee ..(. s.cea(.ea|(a:eaeaea(.(s.aaame:a|| ea((e:aaees|vaave. vea
oe:seas. | - | mec.ieci
1aas. (aee:co i aasaa.cea|O|]ee(.v.(vaac. cea(.(v.s. aee.(. s
ae( .cea(.ea| .(a aav ei. (s emo. :.ea| . oaeae(.e . e: e:aoa.e ma(e
:.a|.za(.eas i(.sa|avs(aesame e:ca.ea.smeaa(aac:eeeea.zec
(a:eaeaa||oess.||e| .aea.s(.eees(a:es i aseia:as(a.s.cea|e|]ee(eea
i:ea(s|aaeaaeeas saea.(ae|a((e:saooesesasoea(aaeeasaea(:a|.za
(.eaei(aeiae(aa|es.s(eaeeei(aesoea|.aesa|]ee(. eie:cs. aacei
(ae(a.aeces.eaa(ecsoeeea[La parole], (aea.. sea|v(aeo:ae(.eeeiaa
. mmec.a(e e.ce(.e ~ac:- ce Ha:a|( ae(es ve:v| v (aa( (ae
we are deal i ng wi th perception of a real thing) . However, there is no doubt that thi s
non-reality of the noema (a very difcult and deci si ve notion) may be what, in the last
anal ysi s, permits the repetition of sense as the "same" and makes the idealization of
identity i n general possible. Undoubtedl y, we coul d show this in a precise way on the
basi s of 62 of FTL, devoted to ' ' The I deali ty of All Species of Objectivities Over Against
the Constituti ng Consciousness" and the "universal ideality of all intentional unities"
(pp. 1 65-66).
The l i nguistic neutralization of exi stence is an original idea only in the technical and
thematic signifcation that phenomenology gives it. Is not this idea the favorite of Mal
larme and Valery? Hegel above al l had ampl y expl ored it. In the Encyclopedia ( one of the
few Hegel i an works that Husserl seems to have read) , the l i on already testifes to thi s
neutralization as an exemplary martyr: "Confronting the nae-Lion-we no longer
have any need ei ther of an intuition of such an animal or even an image, but the nae
(when we understand i t) i s i ts simple and imageless representation; in the name we thi nk"
(462) . (Thi s passage i s ci ted by Jean Hyppolite i n hi s Logique et existence: Essai sur La
logique de Hegel [Pari s: Presses Uni versitaires de France , 1 953] , p. 39, a work which , on
a great many points, lets the profound convergence of Hegelian and Husserlian thought
appear. )
Hegel also writes: "The frst act , by which Adam i s made master of the animal s, was to
i mpose on them a name, i . e . , he anni hi l ated them i n thei r existence ( as exi stents)"
( "System of 1 803- 1 804") . Cited by Maurice Blanchot i n La Part dufeu (Pari s: Gallimard,
1 949) , p. 325.
Jacques Derrida
"reduction is implicitly carried o.-s. mo|voe:ie:mecaac ae(ve(mace
eso|.e.(-asseeaas|aaeaaee. seeas.ce:ecea.(seaaeeeaa(
ue:e e a:e eeaeeec .(a (ae e.ce(.e :ecae(.ea. na(. oa:aces.
mevesse|e|vea(ae|eve|ei |aaeaaee. saeeessa:. |v.a(aea((.(aceei(ae
phenomenological reduction ea: emoaas. si . .( . s se( seaa:e|v . a (ae
e.ce(.ee:|ceis.ea.aea(.ease:oa:e| .vecesoe:.eaees
re:.i(ae oaeaemeae|ee.ea|:ecae(.ea.s (a|ea .a.(sia||es(sease. .(
mas(a| seea(a.|(ae:ecae(.eaeieeas(.(a(ece. ce(.esaac(aeaei.(sea
|aaeaaee 1aeo:eeaa(.eaeieae(a(.eama:|sea| vsa(.s| es(a.s.m
oe:a(.ve.aaaeea. veea|iasa.ea1a.s(:aaseeacea(a|:ecae(.eaeie.ce
(.es. a.ea.a.(smes(:ac.ea|memea(mas(s(.||(a:a as|ae|(ea:ca
ae aac .::ecae.||v aeeessa:v e.ce(.e . (aa( ei oa:e eease.easaess.
e:ea(es .a eaee( seme eeas.ce:a||e c.mea|(.es uasse:| . s ve:v eea
. aIdeas i.
1ae:eie:e . (e (ae ve:v es(ea( (aa( |aaeaaee .s ae( aa(a:a| . .(
oa:aces.ea||v eae:s (ae mes( caaee:eas :es.s(aaee (e (ae oae
aemeae|ee.ea| :ecae(.ea. aac (:aaseeacea(a| c.seea:se .|| :ema.a
B:l The Idea of Phenomenology: Husser/ian Exemplarism, tr. Garry L. Breckon
(Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1 974) , p. 1 28.
`Ibid. [modifed] .
"Meanwhile we cannot disconnect transcendents indefnitel y, transcendental purif
cation cannot mean the disconnection of all transcendents, since otherwise a pure con
sciousness might i ndeed remain over, but no possbi lity [sic 1 of a science of pure con
sciousness" (Ideas I, 59, p. 1 59) . I n thi s section, devoted to the necessary but difcult
reduction of formal ontology and fonal logic once all the transcendents of the material
ei detics have been excluded, Husserl concludes in favor of the possibility of such a
reduction, provided the "logical axioms " are maintained, axioms (li ke the principle of
contradiction) " whose uni versal and absolute val idity" the description of pure con
sciousness could "make transparent by the help of examples taken from the data of its
own domain" ( p. 1 60) . But he says nothing about the language of this ultimate science of
pure consciousness, about the language which at least seems to suppose the sphere of
fonal logic that we j ust excluded. For Husserl, the univocity of expression and certain
precautions taken within and with the help of language itself (di stinctions, quotation
marks, neologi sms, revaluation and reactivation of old words, and so on) wil l always be
sufcient guarantees of rigor and nonworl dliness.
That is why, despi te the remarkable analyses which are devoted to it , despite the
constant interest i t bears (from the Logical Investigations to the Origin) , the specific
problem of language-its origin and i ts usage i n a transcendental phenomenology-has
always been excl uded or deferred. Thi s is explicitly so in FTL (2, p. 2 1 , and 5, p. 27)
and i n the Origin, where he has written: "we shall not go i nto the general problem which
also arises here of the origin of language i n i ts ideal existence and its exi stence in the real
world" ( 1 61 ) .
Introuctin to the Origin of Geometry
. ::ecae.||ve||.(e:a(ec|vaee:(a.aam|.eaease:|c|.aess nv. mae .|| | :s(.ac.ea(e(aeoess.|.| .(veia. s(e:vas(ae
oess.|.|.(vei|aaeaaee.ea:eea|ea| a(.aeaec.mea| (. seve:va((emo(
(e :ecaee ..a seme a|(. ma(e aac :ac.ea| (:aaseeacea(a| :ee:ess.ea a
oaeaemeae|eeveia. s(e:.e.(v ~acseeaeeme:ee seeaee:(a.aaea
ceoeaceaeeeeaa:mec.a(aa( oaeaemeae|eev
Thi s is a di fculty that Fink has frequently underscored (particularly in hi s famous
article i n Kantstudien of 1 933 [ "The Phenomenological Philosophy of Edmund Husserl
and Contemporary Cri ti ci sm"] ) . For hi m, the phenomenological reduction "cannot b
presented by means of simpl e sentences of the natural attitude. It can be spoken of only
by transforming the natural function of language" ( Letter of May 1 1 , 1 936, cited by
Gaston Berger, The Cogito in Husserl's Philosophy, tr. Kathleen McLaughl in [ Evanston:
Northwestern Uni versity Press. 1 972] , p. 49).
And i n his admirable lecture on " Les concepts operatoires dans la phenomenologie de
Husserl , " he attributes a certain equi vocation in the usage of operative concepts (that of
"constitution, " for exampl e) to the fact that "Husserl does not pose the problem of a
'transcendental language. ' " He wonders if, after the reduction, one can sti l l "have at hi s
di sposal a Logos i n the same sense as before" (i n Husserl, Cahiers de Royaumont, p.
229) .
Si mi larl y, concerning the expression "intentional life, " S. Bachelard evokes the
danger of " a surreptitious return to psychologi sm. " for " language does not know the
phenomenological reduction and so holds us in the natural attitude" (A Study of HusserI' s
Logi c, p. xxxi ) .
On the basis of the problems i n t he Origin, we can thus go on t o ask oursel ves, for
example , what i s the hi dden sense, the nonthematic and dogmatically received sense of
the word "hi story" or of the word "origin"-a sense which. as the common fous of
these signifi cations, permits us to di sti nguish between factual "hi story" and intentional
"hi story, " between "origin" i n the ordinary sense and phenomenological "origin, " and
so on. What i s the uni tary ground starting from whi ch this difraction of sense is permitted
and i ntelligible? What i s history, what i s the origin, about which we can say that we must
understand them sometimes in one sense, sometimes in another? So long as the notion of
origin in general i s not criticized as such, the radical vocation i s always threatened by thi s
mythology of the absolute beginning, so remarkably denounced by Feuerbach in hi s
"Contribution to the Critique of Hegel ' s Phi losophy" ( 1 839) ( cf. Maniestes
philosophiques, tr. L. AIthusser [Pari s: Presses Uni versitaires de France . 1 960] , pp.
1 8-2 1 ) .
These questions can show the need for a certain renewed and rigorous phi lological or
"etymological" thematic, which would precede the discourse of phenomenology. A
fonidable task, because it supposes that all the problems which it would have to precede
are resolved, in particular, as a matter of fact : the i nterloutory problem of history and
that of the possibility of a hi storical philology. I n any c
se, this task never seems to have
appeared urgent to Husserl , even when the i dea of l i ngui stic "reactivation" takes on so
much importance for him. Unlike Heidegger, he almost never indulges in etymological
variations, and when he does so (cf. FTL, 1 , pp. 1 8-1 9) , it does not detenine but
fol l ows the orientation of the i nvestigation. For Husserl , it would be absurd for sense not
to precede--e jure (and here the de jure i s difcult to make clear rune evidence
difcile D-the act of language whose own value wi l l always b that of expression .
It is rather signifcant that every critical enterpri se, juri di cal or transcendental, is made
Jacques Derrid
na||ae e:c s cee:ee ei. cea| O|]ee|.v.|v .s ea| v. e eea|c sav.
primar. Oa|v.|a.aa iae|ea.s|e:.ea| |aaeaaee . s|ae aeaa"Lowe"
i:ee. aac |ae:eie:e . cea| . eemca:ec . |a . |s seas. ||e. caeae|.e . e:
e:aca.e.aea:aa|.eas . na|.|:ema. asessea|.a||v|.ec.asaCe:maae:c.
|e a :ea| sca|.e|emce:a| .|v .| . a|e::e|a|ec .a . |s ve:v .cea|
O|]ee|.v.|v .|a |ae ce iae|e es.s|eaeeeiae.vea |aaeaaee aac |aas
.|a|aeiae|aa|sa|]ee|.v.|veiaee:|a.ascea|.aeeemmaa. |v i|s. cea|
O|]ee|.v.|v.s|aea:e|a|.veaacc.s|. aea. saa||eea|vasaaemc. :.ea|iae|
i:em|aa|ei|ae r:eaeae:ae| .sae:c lion. "
1ae:eie:eee:ess. a|eaa.eae:cee:eeei. cea|O|]ee|.v.|v-|e|as
ea||. | secondar-as seeaasecassi:em|aee:c| e|aeaa.|vei|ae
sease "lion, " i:em "the expression" |e aa| uasse:| ea| | s .a |ae
Logical Investigations |ae "intentional content" e: |ae aa. |v ei . |s
s.ea.iea|.ea. 1aesame eea|ea|eaa|e. a|eacecs|a:|.aei:emseve:a|
vulnerable by the irreducible factuality and the natural naivete of its language. We be
come conscious of this vulnerability or of this vocation to silence in a second reflection on
the possibility of the jurdico-transcendental regression itself. Despite its necessarily
speCUlative style, this refection is always focused, without having to succumb to empiri
cism, on the world of culture and history. Attentiveness to the "fact" of language in
which ajuridical thought lets itself be transcribed, in which juridicalness would like to be
completely transparent, is a retur to factuality as the de j ure character of the de jure
itself. It is a reduction of the reduction and opens the way to an infnite di scursiveness.
This explains why the retur on itself of thought which has never wanted to prescribe
anything but a turning back [rep/i]
oward its own proper conditions remains more dif
fcult for the "master" than for the "disciple. " Did not Herder. in his Verstand und
Erfahrung: Eine Metakritik zur Kritik der rein en Verunft [Leipzig, 1 799; rpt. Bruxelles:
Culture et Civilisation, 1 969, 2 vols. ] . already reproach Kant for not taking into consid
eration the intrinsic necessity of language and its immanence in the most apriori act of
thought? Did not the author of the Essay on the Origin of Language [tr. Alexander Gode
in On the Origin of Language (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1 966)] also conclude that
language, rooted in cultural experience and in history, made all aprioriness of s ynthetic
judgments impossible or illusory? The inability of received language to be treated themat
ically, an inability which precedes every critical regression as its shadow-is not the
unavowed dogmatism he thus denounces that geschichtlose "Naivitit" about which
Fink wonders whether it i s not the basis for "phenomenology' s methodological revolu
tion" (cf. "L' Analyse intentionnelle et Ie probleme de la pen see speculative" [French tr.
Walter Biemel and Jean Ladriere] , in Problemes actuels de La phenomenologie, ed. H. L.
Van Breda [Pari s: Desclee de Brouwer, 1 952], pp. 64-65)? That i s only one of the
numerous analogies which could be taken up between the diferent futures of Kantian and
Husserlian transcendental idealisms, such as they are already outlined. Thus, in any
case, an irreducible proximity of language to primordial thought is signified in a zone
which eludes by nature every phenomenal or thematic actuality. Is this immediacy the
nearess of thought to itself? We would have to show why that cannot be decided.
Vol . I , Introd. to Vol. I I of the German ed. , 5, and 1 , 1 1 , particularly pp. 259 and
284-85. Like those of FTL, the analyses concering linguistic ideality in the Origin
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
|aaeaaees. aac. |s .cea| .cea|.|v assa:es . |s|:aas|a|a|.|.|v 1a. s. cea|
.cea|.|veiseaseesc:essec|v| .ea.leo, Lowe, aacseie:|a ..s|aeai:eec
i:ema||iae|aa| linguistic sa|]ee|.v. |v.
na| |ae "object" itsel . s ae.|ae: |ae esc:ess.ea ae: |ae sease
eea|ea| 1ae resa aac ||eec |.ea. . a|eacec |a:eaea |e s|:a|a ei
. cea|.|.es. . saaa|a:a| .aac|ae:eie:eeea|.aeea| .:ea| .||aece:eec
|.eaei|ae. mmec.a|e| vc:esea|seas.||e|a. aee:eaacs.cea|.|.esaace:
|aesee.:eamsiaaees. se|aeeea|.aeeaevei|ae| .ea.|e:eve:|e:
a|e . a |ae . cea|.|v ei|ae esc:ess. ea aac .a | aa| ei . |s sease. 1ae
|:aas|a|a|.|.|vei|aee:clion, |aea. . ||ae|.|e|ea|se|a|e| i|.|||eemc. :.ea|| veeac.|.eaec|v|aeeea|.aeea|ea
eeaa|e:. aa:eeec|.ve. a|a. | .eaeiseme|a. ae| .|e|ae| .ea.1ae|a||e:. s
ae|aae|]ee|. v. |vei|aeaace:s| |a|aa e|]ee|ei:eeec|.v
.|v 1ae .cea| . |v ei . |s sease aac eiaa| .| eve|es .::ecae.||v
acae:es|eaaemc.:.ea|sa|]ee|.v.|v.1a. sea|c|e|:aeevea.ia||mea
aac|eea a|| e|e aaceea|cin fact eaeeaa|e:aacces.eaa|e |ae |.ea.
uace:|aese e.:eams|aaees|ae | .e |eaceiae|eaa|a:ece|ee.ea| eea
e:a|.|vea|cae||e:ecaeecaavia:|ae:1a.s. s|eeaase|ae.cea|.|vei
sease.eeas.ce:ec. a. |se|iaac| .|e|aa|ei| aaeaaee. .sae:ea"bound"
directly suppose the subtle as well as indispensable distinctions found in the LI (nos. 1-5) ,
especially in the first and fourth Investigations.
In the First Investigation, the notion of " intentional content" or "unity of its significa
tion" announces in the linguistic sphere the notion of "noematic sense, " or the " nuclea
tic layer" (Kernschicht) of the noema, a notion the former implies and which is fully
elaborated only in Ideas I (in particular, cf. 90, pp. 241 f. ). Just as the core unity of
noematic sense (which is not the reality of the object itself) can be intended according to
various intentional modes (the sense "tree" can be attained in a perception, a memory,
an imagining, and so on) in order fnally to constitute a "complete" noema with all its
characteristics, so the ideal identity of signifi cation is made accessible to several lan
guages and allows itself to be "translated. " In the Foreword to the 2nd edition of LI
( 1 91 3 ; p. 48 of Vol. I of ET) , Husserl recognizes that the notion of noema and of the
noetic-noematic correlation lacks completion in the First Investigation.
Husserl used a great number of examples when analyzing this distinction for the fi rst
time i n the LI (I, 1 , particularly 1 2, pp. 286-87).
The diference between these two types of Objectivity, which comes back to the
diference between ideal objectivity and real object, is amply described in E (63 , pp.
250t. ) . The objectivities of the understanding are on a "higher level" than those of
receptivity. They are not preconstituted, like the latter, in the pure passivity of sensible
receptivity, but in predicative spontaneity. "The mode of their original pregivenness is
their production in the predicative activity of the Ego . . . " [po 25 1 ] . Another diference:
that of their temporality (64). Whereas the real object has its individual place in the
objective time of the world, the irreal object i s, with respect to this latter, tot

lly free,
i . e. , "timeless. " But i ts timelessness (ZeitLosigkeit) or i ts supratemporality ( Uberzeit
lichkeit) is only a "mode" of temporality: omnitemporality (Allzeitlichkeit).
Jacques Derrid
.cea|.|vaacae|a"free" eae 1a. sc. ssee.a(.ea|e|eea"free idealities"
aac"bound idealities, " a.ea.sea|v. mo|.ec.a(aeOrigin70 .|a|. ac.s
oeasa||e ie: .(s aace:s( . eaa||esas |eeemo:eaeac aa| (ae
a|se| a|e .cea|O|]ee(.v.(vei. ie:esamo|e. (aeeeeme(:.ea|e|]ee( eaa
|eaacaa(c.s|.aea.saes.|i:em|aa(ei|aaeaaeeas such aaci:em|aa(
ei|ae seaseeea(ea(as such.
1ae.cea|O|]ee(.v.|veieeeme(|se|a|eaac. |aea(aav|.acei
|. m.|i(s.cea| . (vtertia. sae|eaee:ea| v|aa|ei|aeeso:ess.eae:.a
(ea(.eaa|eea|ea( ..|. s|aa|ei|aeobject itself. ~| |acae:eaee|eaav:ea|
eea|.aeeaev.s:emevec1aeoess. |. | .(vei(:aas|a|.ea. a.ea.s.cea(.
ea| .|a (aa(ei(:ac.(.ea. . seoeaecad infnitum: 1ae rv|aaee:eaa
(aee:em..aceeca||eieeeme||sea|veaee. aema||e:aeeuea||aaeaaee.|mav|eeso:esseci | .s. cea|.ea||v(aesame
.a(ae e:.e.aa||aaeaaee eiae| . caac.aa|| |:aas|a(.eas .aac. (a.a
eaea|aaeaaee.(.saea.a|aesame. aema(|e:aemaav|. mes. | aas
|ae .aaame:a||ee:a|a|(e:aaeese::. ||eaaac e(ae:ceeamea(a|.eas
(Dokumentierungen) " . | -
1ae sease eiea|veaee e:eieaee aac ie: a| | . wa.ea .s |ae
essea(.a|meceei(aee|]ee( s. cea|es. s|eaeeaac(aas|aa(a.eac.s
| .aea.saes |ae e|]ee(i:em (aema| (. o|.e.(v ei:e|a(ec ae(saac|. vec
esoe:.eaees. seems(eaave|eeae|ea:|vceaaec.a(aeseve:v(e:ms|v
ue:|a:|(Pschologie als Wissenschaft, i i . i :. o 1 75) aac(a|eaao
aea.a|vuasse:| .1ae|a((|eue:|a:(
aaco:a.s.aea.mie:aav.aec.s(. aea. saec|e|(e:(aaakaa(|e|eea|ae
` From the perspective of our text, this dissociation fi nds its most direct and illuminat
ing explication in E (65, p. 267). In particular, we can read there: "Thus it appears that
even cultural systems are not always completely free idealities, and this reveals the
diference between free idealities (such as logicomathematical systems and pure essential
structures of every kind) and bound idealities, which in their being-sense carry reality
with them and hence belong to the real world. All reality is here led back to spatiotempo
rality as the form of the individual . But originally, reality belongs to nature : the world as
the world of realities receives its individuality from nature as its lowest stratum. When
we speak of truths, true states of afairs in the sense of theoretical science, and of the fact
that validity 'once and for all' and 'for everyone' belongs to their sense as the telos of
j udicative stipulation, then these are free idealities. They are bound to no territory, or
rather, they have their territory in the totality of the [mundane] universe and in every
possible universe. In what concers their possible reactivation, they are omnispatial and
omnitemporal. Bound realities [the German and Derrida' s translation thereof reads:
Bound idealities] are bound to Earth, to Mars, to particular territories, etc. " (Husserl ' s
emphasis) . Husserl immediately specifes, however, that by their "occurrence, " by their
coming on the scene and their " 'being discovered' " in a historically determined territory,
free idealities are also factual and worldly. Thus he states the crucial difculty of all his phi
losophy of history: what is the sense of this last factuality?
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
|ee.ea|aac|aeosveae|ee.ea| . :eo:eaeaesa. m. aeae(ae| ess.
eeaiasec.cea|.(vaacae:ma|.v.|v(LI, i . r:e| . 59, oo : | --i s
1a.s :eo:eaea . s ve:v ea|.ea( s.aee a|se|a|e|v e|]ee| .ve.
|:aas|a(a||e. aac (:ac.|.eaa| .cea| .cea(.|v .s ae|]as|aaveeeme(:.ea|
e|]ee|.v.|v. |a|genuine e|]ee|.v.(v Oaee e ee( |eveac |ae |eaac
.cea|.(. es aac :eaea .cea| e|]ee(.v.(v .(se|i. e eaa s(.|| eaeeaa(e: a
iae|aa| :es|:.e(.ea . |aa| ei c.sva|ae . ia| seaess. e: ca(ecaess
[eremption] . Necea|(|aee|]ee(.veseaseeiaia| se] acemea|. sa| se
.cea| re:|a.s:easea.(eaa|e.ace| a.|e|v:eoea(ecaac|aas|eeemes
ema.(emoe:a| 71 na(|ae e:.e.aaac |ae oess.|. |.|vei|a. s.cea|ema.
.a|eacec |v |ae]acemea| e: (aa( ei sa|]ee|.ve ae|s 1aas . .a ce
se:.o(.ve]acemea| s|ea:.aeeae:|c| v:ea| .|. es. seaseeaa|ese .|sva
|.c.(v.|aea||(aaeeas|v||sema.(emoe:a|.cea| .(v re:.|e
|a|eaouasse:| sesamo|eaea. a. I eaa.ace| a.|e| v:eoea|.as(aesame,
(ae o:eoes.(.ea 1ae aa|eme|.|e .s |ae ias(es| meaas ei (:ave| .
ae:easi|ae. || e|eia| seaacea(eica|e 1aeaaaea:eaveiva|. c. (v
.aaeavaaee|s(ae.a(emoe:a|.|v[uchronie] e:oaa|emoe:a| .|v[an
chronie] ei .cea|.(v i.| .a (ae .a|e:eeaaee|.eas ei a aea
cese:.o|.vese.eaee saeaaseeeme(:v. e::e:a| se aas a eea(ea( a.ea
eaa |eeeme .cea| aac ema. |emoe:a| .e::e: :esa||s e.(ae: i:em (ae
' Once again it is in Experience and Judgment that the omnitemporality of simple
ideality is scrupulously distinguished from the omnitemporality of validity : " Furthermore,
it should be noted that this omnitemporality does not simply include within itself the
omnitemporality of validity. We do not speak here of validity, of truth, but merely of
objectivities of the understanding as suppositions [Vermeinheiten] and as possible, ideal
identical, intentional poles, which can be ' realized' anew at any time in individual acts of
judgment-precisely as suppositions; whether they are realized in the self-evidence of
truth is another question. A judgment which was once true can cease to be true, like the
proposition 'The automobile is the fastest means of travel , ' which lost its validity in the
age of the airplane. Nevertheless, it can be constituted anew at any time as one and
identical by any individual in the self-evidence of distinctness: and, as a supposition, it
has its supratemporal. irreal identity" (64 C . p. 26 1 [modifed)) . Also cf. LI. I. I , I I , p .
In the Origin Husserl also alludes to the ideal identity of judgments which not only
would be anachronistic in their validity but also contradictory and absurd in their sense
content. These analyses, at the same time that they announce and orient a phenomenol
ogy of the specific ideality of negative validities (of the fal se , the absurd, the evi l , the
ugly, etc. ) , assign limits to the "freedom" of those idealities which will always be, as we
wiII soon try to show, idealities "bound" to an empirical, determined temporality or to
some factuality. For what absolutely frees and completes the ideality of sense (alrady
endowed in itself with a certain degree of "freedom") is the ideality of positive validity
(by which evidence is not only distinct but clear when it reaches judgment) . It alone
causes sense to attain infi nite universality and infinite omnitemporality.
Jacques Derrid
. a(e a.ea. aa|aea(e as. a seas.||e iae(aa|.(v . s :e.a(:ecaeec. e:
i:em semeosveae|ee.ea|eea(.aeeaevaav.aeae sease . aeemoa:.sea
.(aeeeme(:.ea|(:a(a 1aeeea(ea(eie::e:eaa |eeeme saea evea
aea .. a e::e: e: assamo(.ea . eaee (ae s(:a(a ei a|:eacv ceiaec
. cea|.(.es . s(:ave:sec. e aave ae(:eaeaec(ae(:a(aeieeeme(:.ea|
Sachverhalt, 72 aaceveaaea(aeve:v(aemeei(aes(a(emea(
|eaac(eiae(aa| .(v1ae.cea| .(veiseasesvm|e|.ea||voa(sao.(aa
ce| acec e: . aaa(aea(.ea||v sa(. siec (:a(a. a(ea(.ea7:; i( ie||es.
(aea.(aa(. i(aeema.(emoe:a|.(veic.sva|ae. soess.||e.. (. sa|avs. a
(aeseaseeiemo.:.ea| oess. |. |.(v. . e . eieea(.aeea(evea(aa| .(v ne
s.ces. ema.(emoe:a|.(v. sma.a(a.aec. a. (seventualit ea|v|vasease
a.eaa|avs |eeos aoaee:(a.aessea(.a|:e|a(.ea.(a(aea|sea(e:
(.eahad been true aacs(.||:ema.asaa.iecaacaa. ma(ec|vaa. a(ea(.ea
ei(:a(a. aa(aea(.e.(v. e:e|a:.(vk|.|e/, (aese(e:msa:e .aee:
.cea| aa.(vei.(s sease ~aevea(aa||vabsurd intention, a|sa:c .a(ae
seaseeiaeaseasee:eeaa(e:sease . (e|eaa(.(. s. mas(eea(.aa
a||voe.a(..aso.(eei. (se|n(ea:c(aetelos eiaa(aea(.e.(vaac|e(.(se|i
|eea.cecsvm|e|.ea||v|v.(. a(aeve:vees(a:e.aa.ea(ae.a(ea(.ea
o:e(eacs(e| a(aea:ve|e.aa| aa
eaaeea.ea(aeStranger ei(aeSophist soea|s eaao(e [dire] (ae
telos . ae:ce:(ec.sea[de dire ] .(
1a.s (:aase:ess.ea ei |.aea. s(.e . cea|.(v. (aea. :ea||v cese:.|es a
mevemea(aaa|eeeas(eaa(eea:|.e:cese:.|ec se. eaeeasaea|
(o:a|ie:m. |a(.(s oa:eoess.|.|.(vaooea:ecas(aeoa:eoess.|.|.(vei
` A notion difcult to translate other than by the clumsy, strange, and l ess exact (but
for so long accepted) expression "state-of-afairs. "
`` I n the LI, I . 1 , 1 1 , pp. 285-86, these themes are already greatly explicated. For
example, Husserl writes: "What my assertion asserts, the content that the three perpen
diculars of a triangle intersect in a point, neither arises nor passes away. (The frst
German edition and the French translation continue: " Each time I (or whoever else it
may b) pronounce with the same sense this same assertion, there i s a new judgment .
. . . But what they judge, what the assertion says, is all the same thing. "] It is an identity
in the strict sense, one and the sae geometrical truth.
" It i s the same in the case of aB assertions, even if what they assert is false and absurd.
Even in such cases we distinguish their ideal content from the transient acts (of] afrming
or asserting it: it i s the sigifcation of the assertion, a unity in pluraity. . . .
"If ' possibility' or ' truth' is lacking, an assertion' s intention can only be carried out
symbolically: it cannot derive any 'fulness' from intuition or frm the categorial functions
performed on the latter, in which 'fulness' its value for knowledge consists. It then lacks,
as one says, a ' true' , a 'genuine' signifcation. Later we shall look more closely into this
distinction between intending and fulflling signifcation" (modifed] .
I ntroductin to the Origin ofGeometry
ea|(a:e ea| v aue: a :ecae(. ea ei eve:v ce iae(e ea|(a:e se ae:e
se. aee. s. |.|e |aaeaaees aac |aaeaaee .aeeae:a| . eae ei(ae ie:ms
ei . cea|

O|ee(. v.(v. |a( . (s oa:e oess.|.|.(v aooea:s ea|v (a:eaea


ie(ei|aaeaaee.aeeae:a| . 1aasuasse:|soee.aes.aaaa|se|a(e|v
ce..s.vesea(eaee na((ae. cea|.(. eseieeeme(:.ea|e:cs sea(eaees
(aee:. eseeas. ce:ec oa:e|v as |.aea.s(.e ie:ma(.eas-a;e ae( (a

. es (aa( ma|e ao aa( .s eso:essec aac |:eaea((e va|.c.(v as

(:a(? M eeeme(:v. (ae |a((e: a:e .cea| eeeme(:.ea| e|]ee(s. s(a(es ei

e(e.wae:eve:seme( s
(aema(.e . (aa( a|ea( a.ea .( . s sa. c ..(s sease . i:em (ae asse:(.ea
a.ea .(se| saeve:aaceaaaeve:|e(aema(.e
~ac (ae (aemeae:e .s|v.cea|e|]ee(.v.(.es. aac ea.(
eaes i:em (aese aace: (ae eeaeeo( ei |aaeaaee .| - |
ie( as i:s(ae(e (aa( .a (a. ssea(eaee(aeseaseei(aeasse:(.ea (ae
: (aeea|ea(a.ea seme(a.aei.ssa.c. aac(aee|ee(. (se|f a:e
.cea(.ea| .aiae(a.eaeea|caeve::esa|(.a(aeeaseei:ea|e|ee(se:ei
: |eac .cea| e|ee(.v.(.es re: (ae i:s( (.me. . (a (ae a|se|a(e
. cea|.(v ei aa e|ee(-(ae eeeme(:.ea| e|]ee( a.ea . s (a:eaea aac
(a:eaeaea|v(aeaa.(v ei.(s (:ae sease-e oass |eveace::.cea:
se|vesei(ae. cea| .|a(s(.|||eaac. O| ee(.v.(vei||
(aaeeas|veae? aO|ee. v.(v(aa(. sa|se|a(e|vi:ee.(a:esoee((ea||


ae(|eas|ecao:eoes| .aea. s(.e.cea|.(vassaea.|a(

ao:eoesaa( . sm(eacec ae:ess[d travers ] aac ea(aee(ae:s. ce ei
[u-eld de] (a.s.cea|.(|se|a(e. cea|e|ee(.v.(vceesae(
|.veM atapas ouranios, .(ie||es(aa(.
1 . (si:e?em.(a:esoee((e a|| iae(aa|sa|]ee(.v.(v aas ea|v|a.c
|a:e.(s|ee. (. ma(e[de droit ] (.es.(aa(:aaseeacea(a|sa|ee(.v.(v.
2. . (s a.s(e:.e.(v.s .a(| .
Taasaesoaeeie:atranscendental historicit .so:ese:.|ec.a a||. (s
mea(.eco(a. ~i:e:aav.aece(e:m.aecaaco:ev. cecaeeess.. (aa||
.(s c.uea|(.es (e (a.s soaee . uasse:| eaa (aea as| (ae a. s(
`` By the distinction they propose, these sentence.s give the greatest and most
exemplary sharpness to the central question of the Origin. Husserl added them after the
to Fink' s typed version of the manuscript. They do not appear in the published
verSIon of 1 939.
At the end of a similar analysis, Husserl writes in FL: loutions "are not thematic
ends but theme-indicators" (5 , p. 27).
Jacques Derrid
(:aaseeacea(a|eaes(.eaa.eaieeasesa|| (ae c.sea.e(ace eia.s (ex(
Oa:o:e||emaeeeaee:aso:ee. se|v(ae. cea|e|]ee(.v.(.esa.eaa:e
(aema(.e.aeeeme(:vaeceeseeeme(:.ea|. cea| .(vas(|.|e(aa(eia||
se.eaeeso:eeeeci:em .(s o:. ma:v .a(:aoe:seaa|e:. e. a. ae:e .( . sa
ie:ma(.eao:ecaeec. (a. a(ae eease.eas soaeeei(ae i:s(.avea(e: s
sea| . (e.(s . cea|O|]ee(.v.(v:( 1 6 1 mec.ieci
uasse:| s||v. i(aas(aes(v|e
eiaturnabout a.eaeaa| icea|.(veemes(e.(sO|]ee(. v. (v
|v meaas ei |aaeaaee. (a:eaea a.ea .( :eee. ves. se (e soea|. .(s
|.aea. s(.eresa( 1 6 1 mec.ieci .uasse:|ae(es(aa(esee(a.s. a
acvaaee 1aeea|v eaes(.ea. (aea. . s ae (Quomodo): ae cees
| .aea.s(.e. aea:aa(.eama|eea(ei(aeme:e|v.a(:asa|]ee(.veie:ma(.ea
(aeObjective, (aa(a.ea. ie:examo|e.aseeeme(:.ea|eeaeeo(e:s(a(e
eiaaa. :s..s. aae(aa|iae(o:esea(. .a(e||.e.||eie:a|| .aeaaca|avs.
a|:eacv|e.aeva|.c. a. ( s| .aea.s(.eexo:ess.eaaseeeme(:.ea|c.seea:se.
as eeeme(:.ea| o:eoes.(.ea .a .(s eeeme(:.ea| .cea| sease: ( 1 6 1
mec.iec .
we m.ea(|esa:o:. sec. ~r(e:aav.aeseoa(.ea(|vex(:ae(ec(ae(ae
ma(.e(:a(aeiSachverhalt i:em| .aea.s(.e. cea|.(vaaci:ema|||eaac
.cea|. (. es. uasse:|(aeaseems(eredescend (ea:c|aaeaaeeas(ae .a
c.soeasa||emec. amaaceeac.(.eaeioess.|.| .(vie:a|se|a(e.cea|O|
]ee(.v.(v. ie:truth .(se|i. a.eaea|c |e aa( .(.s ea| v (a:eaea .(s
a.s(e:.ea|aac.a(e:sa|]ee(.vee.:ea|a(.ea.1aas. ceesuasse:|ae(come
back (e|aaeaaee.ea|(a:e. aaca.s(e:v.a||
(eaave(aeoa:eoess.|.| .(vei(:a(aeme:ee:isaeae(|eaacaea.a(e
|eac. a(ea.s(e:v(aa(aesea|se|a(ei:eecemae]as(cese:. |ec:r:em
(aeaea. .||aeae(|eeemoe||ec(e:emevea||(ae:ecae(.eass(eo|v
s(eo. .ae:ce:(e:eeeve:iaa||v(aereal (ex(eia. s(e:.ea|exoe:.eaee
i a:ea| .(v-aac e (a.a| .( (ae mes( . a(e:es(.ae c.mea|(v ei (a.s
(ex(-uasse:|ceesexae(|v(aeeooes.(e. 1a.sreturn (e|aaeaaee. asa
return home (eea|(a:eaaca.s(e:v.aeeae:a| .|:. aes(e.(siaa|eemo|e
(.ea(aeoa:oeseei(ae:ecae(.ea. (se|i.|eveac |eaac.cea|.
(.es(ea:c(ae(aemeei(:a(a. s.(se|ia:ecae(.eaa.eama|es(ae
.aceoeaceaeeei(:a(aaooea:.(a:esoee((ea||ceiae(e ea|(a:eaac
|aaeaaee. aeeae:a| .na(eaeeme:e.(. sea|vaeaes(.eaei. se|

]a:. c.ea|aac(:aaseeacea(a|ceoeaceaee. Necea|(eeeme(nea|(:a(a. s
|eveac eve:v oa:(.ea|a: aac iae(aa| | . aea.s(. e ae|cassaea. eae ie:
I ntroduction to the Origin of Geometry
ce(e:m.aecea|(a:a|eemmaa.(v.s. arae(:esoeas.|||]ee(.v
.(vei(a. s(:a(aeea|cnot |eeeas(.(a(ecwithout (aepure possibility eiaa
.aea.:v.a(eaoa:e|aaeaaee.aeeae:a| w.(aea((a. soa:eaacessea(.a|
oess.|.|.(v. (aeeeeme(:. ea|ie:ma(.eaea|c:ema.a.aera||eaacse| .
(a:v. 1aea.( ea|c |eabsolutely bound to the psychological lie of a
factual individual, (e(aa(eiaiae(aa|eemmaa.(v..aceec(eaoa:(.ea|a:
memea(ei(aa(|.ie. i(ea|c|eeemeae.(ae:ema.(emoe:a| .ae:.a(e|
|.e.||e ie:a| | . .(ea|c ae(|eaa(.(. s. wae(ae:eeeme(:v eaa|e
soeeaa|ea(.sae( . (aea. (aeex(|oess.|. |.(veia
ia|| . a(e (ae |ecv eisoeeea e:eia s| .o .a(e a a. s(e:.ea| mevemea(.
soeeea. sae|eaee:s. mo|v(aeexo:ess.ea(Aiisserung) eiaa(.w.(aea(
.(. ea|calready |eaa e|]ee( eaaea(aea.a.a. (|oa:.(v.
soeeeaconstitutes (ae e|]ee(aac .s a eeae:e(e]a:.c.ea| eeac.(.ea ei
aac(ae:e|v. a(ea. s(e:v.aia||a.eaea|ca|.eaa(e(ae.cea|oa:.(vei
sease.seaseea|c:ema.aaaemo. :.ea|ie:ma(
aosveae|ee.ea|sa|]ee(.v.(vthe inventor' s head. u.s(e:.ea|.aea:aa
(.ease(si:ee(ae(:aaseeacea(a|| ( 1a. s|as(ae(.ea.
(ae(:aaseeacea(a| . mas((aea|e :e(aeaea(
eaaee.:eve|a(.ea.zeuasse:| s(aeaea(:Dees (a. s:e(a:a(e(aesoea|
. aesa|]ee(asaa(eeas(.(a(es(ae.cea|e|]ee(.aac(aeaa|se|a(eO|
]ee(. v.(v. o:eeeec (e eea(:ac.e( a o:ev.eas oa. |eseoav ei|aaeaaee:
He:|eaarea(vsoea|seia s(:.|.aeeea(:as(.a(a.s:esoee(|e(eea
(aeOrigin ea(aeeaeaaacaac(aeLogical Investigations ea(aee(ae:
73 According to the same movement, omnitemporality and universal intelligibility (al
though they may be concrete and experienced as such) are only the reduction of

tual historical temporality and factual geographical spatial ity. "Supratemporality"

( Uberzeitlichkeit) and "timelessness" (Zeit/osigkeit) are defined i n their transcendence or
their negativity only in relation to worldly and factual temporality. Once the latter is
reduced, they appear as omnitemporality (Allzeitlichkeit). the concrete mode of temporal
ity in general.
The expression "transcendental language" that we use here does not have the sense
o"tanscendental discourse. " This latter notion, invoked earlier, has been utilized by
lOk 10 the sense of discourse adapted to transcendental description. Here we are speak-
1 09 of transcendental language insofar as, on the one hand, the l atter is "constituting"
compared with ideal Objectivity, and, on the other hand, insofar as it i s not confused in
its pure possibility with any de facto empirical language.
Cf. "On the Phenomenology of Language, " in Merleau-Ponty' s Signs. tr. Richard C.
McCleary (Evanston: Northwester University Press, 1 964) , p. 84, or even
"Phenomenology and the Sciences of Man, " tr. John Wild in Merleau-Ponty' s The Pri
macy of Perception, ed. James M. Edie (Evanston: Northwester University Press,
1 964) , pp. 83-84.
Jacques Derrid
uacea|(ec| v(aeLogical Investigations s

mere .a(e:e(c ea| v . a

aa(ee::esoeacs( eai:s(oaaseeiceseoo(.eaa(aeOrzgln: (aea
(eaemveieeas(.(a(ec.cea| e|]ee(seemoa:ec. ( | aaeaaee(a(.
.(se|ieeas(.(a(ec na(. a:eae(|ee(..s(osveae|
(ae eaes(.ea .s a|ee a|| (e c.ssee.a(e (ae .cea|

e|]ee( i:em a|

ee(. .(v aaca|| emo.:.ea| |aaeaaee. |ea e



eeac ea|v eea

iase (ae(:aasoa:ea( . aa. eea| . aace|ee(.es.eaie


| ee.e na((ae:e(a:a(e(aeo:. me:c.a|.(vei(aesoeasmesa|ee(.ae
me:e . a eea(:as( .(a (a.s i:s( aoo:eea (e |aaeaaee



. cea| . smeiIdeas I . s. asas(aeaea(. .(a(aeaooa


|e.e. sm
e: :ea| . sm ei(aeLogical Investigations. 1aeeaes(.ea .. o|v(e

ce .a Formal and Transcendental Logic and m (ae Orzgl n, m e:ce:.
sa|seeaea(| v. (e |e( (ae e:.e.aa| .(v eieeas(.(a(.e |aaeaaee eeme(e

i 1econstitute aa.cea|e|]ee(.s(eoa(.(a((aeoe:maaea(c. oe.(.ea ?
aoa:e eaze Ne. |eie:e | (ae eeas(.(a(ec aac eseeecc as.

.a:v eiaaae( a.ea o:eeeecs (ea:c (ae (:(a ei sease. | mea. s(.

.cea|.(v .s (ae m.|.ea .a a.ea (ae .cea| e|ee( se((|es as a( .
sec.mea(ece:ceoes.(ecna(ae:e(aeae(eio:. me:c.a|depositing . ae(
(ae:eee:c.aeeiao:.a(e(|a((aeo:ecae(.eaeiacommon e|ee( .
. e .eiaaobject aesee:. e. aa|eae:.s(aasc. soessesec1aas|aa
eaaee o:ese:es (:a(a. se (aa( (:a(

a ea |e:eea:cec .a (ae a

ie:(a aeaeoaeme:a|. | |am. aa(.eaei.( seea:a. |a(| se se(aa(.(eaa
|eae(aea (aa( s(av. re: (ae:e ea|c |e ae (:a(a .(ae( (aa( e:c
aea:c. ae [thesaurisation] , a.ea . s ae( ea

| vaa(
deposlts aac seeos
ae|cei(ae(:a(a.|a(a|se(aa(.(aea(wa..aaproJect ei(:a(aaac(e
.ceaeiaa. aia.(e(assea|c|eaa. mae.aa||e 1aa(.sav|aaea

(aee|emea(ei(ae ea| v(:ac.(.ea.aa.ea.|eveac. ac..caa|im(ace
ia (a. s :esoee( (ae:e .s se | .((|e c.seea(.aa.(v e:eea(:as( |e(eea
uasse:| sea:| .es(aac|a(es((aeaea((aa(eiacoaees.

Investigations a.eaeea|c|e. ase:.|ec.(aea(ec.iea(.ea.

gin ' oaeesea(aeessea(.a|iaae(.eaeiDokumentlerung, ea(ae spmtual
cororeality" ei|aaeaaee. aacea(aes(a(eea(as(a ia|i||.aeei(ae
(:a(a.a(ea(.ea 1a.s . s a|| (ae me:e se .ie eeas.ce:Formal and
` Thus, for example, Husserl writes: "All theoretical research, though by no meas
solely conducted in acts of verbal expression or complete
stateent, none the less termi
nates i n such statement. Only in this form can truth, and 10 particular t
he truth of theory,
become an abiding possession of science, a documented, ever available trasure for
knowledge and advancing research. Whatever the connection of thought with speech
may be , whether or not the appearance of our fnal judgements in the form of verbal
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
Transcendental Logic .oa:(.ea|a:| v 1 -5, oo 1 8-29) aac(aeCartesian
Meditations (4, o. I I ) . aea(.me .uasse:||ee. as|vao:ee(.ae(aeaea(
i:emaa(. (ea|c|e se|e|v. . a(aeae(eie:|a|eso:ess.ea. .a
e:ce:(e soee.iv (aea (aa( .(eea|c ae( |eeeme (:a(a .(aea((aa(
"stating" aac"communicating . . . to others, " eia.eaaea| sesoese
. a(aeInvestigations (LI, i. i a(:e ve| II eiCe:maac . 3, o255) .
re:..s(ae:eeeea.(.ea.a|aaeaaeeeiaa(constitutes a|se| a(e.cea|
O|]ee(..( (states (a.sO|]ee(..(v. ae(]as(aae(ae:avei e: :eoea(.ae (aa( (:aaseeacea(a| .a(e:sa|]ee(..(v .s (ae
eeac.(.eaeiO|]ee(..(v:~(|e((em. (aeo:e||emeieeeme(:v s e:.e.a
oa(s (ae o:e||em ei(ae eeas(.(a(.ea ei. a(e:sa|]ee(..(v ea oa:.(a
(aa( ei(aeoaeaemeae|ee.ea|e:.e.aei|aaeaaee. uasse:| . se:veea
se.easei(a. s na(ae.||ae(a((emo((|(:ee:ess.ea. a(ae
Origin, a|(aeaea ae savs .( ae:e ( 1 6 1 ) . re: (ae memea( .(
samees(esae..iae(how, a(|eas(that |aaeaaeeaaceease.easaessei
ie||e aamaa.(v a:e . a(e::e|a(ec oess.|. |.(.es aac a|:eacv e.ea (ae
memea((aeoess. |.|.(veise.eaee. ses(a|| .saec1aeae:.zeaeiie||e
. (saa.(v aea. as([se detache et articule son unite sur] (ae aa.(v ei(ae
e:| c. Oieea:se. (ae e:|c aac ie||e ae:e ces.eaa(e (ae
a||.ae|as.e .|a(. a| a.(e|veoea. aa. (veioess.||eesoe:.eaeesaacae(
(a. se:|c :.ea(ae:e . (aeseie||emea :.ea(ae:e.aeseiae(aa| .(vie:
uasse:| .s aee:aav( |a( a a:.a||e esamo|e. Cease.easaessei
|e. ae.aeemmaa.(v.aeaeaac(aesamee:|ces(a||.saes(aeoess.|.|
.(veiaaa.e:sa||aaeaaee s| :s(eease.easei.(se|t asaa
. mmec.a(eaac mec.a(e|.aea.s(.eeemmaa.(v ( 1 62) .
iaeeaaee(.ea .(a (a. seaeec(eae(e(a:ee. moe:(aa(oe. a(s
i w.(a.a(aeae:.zeaei(a. seease.easaesseiie|| .(. s
ma(a:e .ae:ma| maas. ac(aa(. so:. .|eeec

eie. .| . za(.ea aacas (ae|. aea. s(.eeemmaa.(v ( 1 62) . 1ae(aeme ei
pronouncements has a necessary grounding i n essence, i t is at least plain that judgements
stemming from higher intellectual regions, and in particular from the regions of science,
could barely arise without verbal expression" (LI, I , Introd. to Vol . II of German ed. , 2,
p. 250) .
7! Already in FTL, on the subject of the "idealizing presuppositions of logic" and tying
the problem of constitution with that of expression, Husserl concluded: " The problem of
constitution is again broadened when we recall that verbal expression, which we excluded
from our considerations of logic, i s an essential presupposition for intersubjective think
ing and for an intersubjectivity of the theory accepted as ideally existing; and that accord
i ngly an ideal identifability of the expression, as expression, must likewise raise a prob
lem of constitution" (73, p. 1 88) .
Jacques Derrida
aca| ( ae:ma|.(v. a.ea (ee| ao me:e aac me:e :eem .a uasse:| s
aaa|vses. . s ae:e(:ea(ecas ama((e:ei eea:se.we.||ae(s(:ess(a. s.
ceso.(e (ae se:.eas o:e||ems (aa( .( seems (e aave e oose e: a
(.aaa||vs(em(aesee(ae:emo.:.ea|eases. macaessaacea.|caeec:
na( ae:e (ee uasse:| aas eve:(a:ea (a.s e| ass.e ae(.ea ei
(:aaseeacea(a| . (e (ae oe.a( ei a sease (e (ae .cea ei
(:aaseeacea(a| oa(ae|eev. 1ae ae(.ea ei .aca|( ae:ma|.(v s
o:.v. |eee ceae(esae:eatelos' mecc|.ae|eie:eaaac.a(aeeidos. 1e
aaveaeeess(e(aeeidos eimaa|.acaacei|aaeaaee. ee:(a.ameaaac
ee:(a.asoea|.aesa|ee(s-macmeaaacea.|c:ea-a:eae(good esam
o|es .~aca:s(.aecea|(. |eeaase(aevceae(oessess.a(ae.:ea:.ea(
a|vce(e:m.aa||eesseaee. na(.i(a.s. sse.ceesaca| (
s(a:(s.aaveaaesseaee:neeaaseae:e(aeeso:ess.eaeiaca| ( ae:ma|.(v
.sae(ae.veae.ce(.ece(e:m.aa(.ea.|a((ae.aceseiaa. cea|aea(.v
.(va.ea.son the horizon eiceiae(eae:ma|aca|(s. iao:eoe:(.ea(e
ea:acvaaeemea(. a(ae so.:.(aa|e:|caac(aea.aa.s(e:v. (aeeidos
eeases(e|eaaesseaee. ae:ce:(e|eeemeaae:m.aac(aeeeaeeo(ei|vsa|s(.(a(ecie:(aa(eis(:ae(a:eaacesseaee.
2. 1ae oess.|.| .(v eia mec.a(e e: .mmec.a(e ae:.zea|
|aaeaaee:.s| essea(.a|c.mea|(.esaac|. m.( s. 1a. soess.
.(veiaoa:ee:amma:aac"a priori ae:ms ei|aaeaaee. s:ese| vec.
aoess.|.|.(v uasse:|aeve:eeasec(e(a|eie: e:aa(ec.

i ( saooe .
aes(. (aa(eve:v( .saama||e.a(ae|:eaces(sease. . . e. .aaems(.
We propose to come back to this elsewhere. [Cf. Derrida' s Speech and Phenomena:
And Other Essays on Husserl' s Theor of Signs, tf. David B. Allison (Evanston: North-
wester University Press, 1973), pp. 97-99. ]
In "Philosophy and the Crisis of European Humanity" (i C), the
phenomenn f
crisis is presented as a "sickness" of European society and culture, a SIckness whIch s
not "natural" and gets no relief from "something like natur dotos" (p. 270). ThiS
"pathology, " moreover, has the profound ethical sense of a fall into "passivity, " of
inability to be rendered "responsible" for sense in an authentic activity or authent1
"reactivation. " Technical activity (that of science als) as such is a passivity in compan
son to sense; it is the agitation of the sick and, already, the tremors of delirium.
Cf. LI, J, 4. On Husserl ' s faithfulness to this theme and the philosophical option that
orients i t, cf. in particular S. Bachelard, A Study of Hussert' s Logic [part J, Ch. 1 ] , pp.
8-1 1 .
Introductin to the Orgin ofGeometr
ea||veso:ess.||e . eve:veae eaa (a||a|ea(aa( .s . (a.a (ae sa:
:eaac. ae e:|c ei a.s e. v. | . za(. ea as O| ee(. ve| v es. s(. ae ( 1 62
mec.aec . iae(ae:e:cs. asae(e:eeeaeeasas(aeessea(.a|s(:ae(a:es
e.o|e .saaa|avs oess.||e(as|. (enormal mea.||a|avs aavea
prioriH3 eease.easaessei(ae.:|e| aac(ae same
aamaa.(v. | e:|c. i.aea. s(.e
aacaa((aev .mo|v-.||aooea:(e(aema((ae|e((emeiaaao:.e:.
ae:.zeae:s(:ae(a:e.(ae|.aea. s(.eeemmaa.(v.. . e. .(ae.mmec.a(eee:
taa(vei|e(a | soea|.aesa|ee(saeeaaaeve:ces.eaa(e aav
(ame|a(aa(|e|eaes(e(aeae:.zeaei(ae.:e:|cas(ae .::ecae.||v
. mmea.a(e|ve:ae( . s(aac(eee(ae:|eie:e(aesameaa(a:a|es. s(ea(-
a.ea e eaa a|avs s(:.o ei (ae ea|(a:a| saoe:s(:ae(a:es aac
ea(eee:.esieaacec(fundiert) ea.( .aacaeseaa.(vea|ca|avsia:| (.ma(ea:|.(:a(.eaie:eve:vmisunderstanding. Cease.easaess
eieeai:ea(.ae(aesame ( aae|ee(oe:ee.vecas saea. .seea
se.easaesseiaoa:eaaco:eea|(a:a|we. ue:e(ae:e(ao(eo:eea|(a:e. s
ae(:ee:ess.ea(ea:cea|(a:a|primitiveness |a((ae:ecae(.eaeiace
(e:m.aecea|(a:e. a(aee:e(.ea|eoe:a(.ea a.ea . seae ei(aea.eaes(
ie:mseiea|(a:e.aeeae:a| .1a. soa:e|vaa(a:a|e|ee(.vees. s(ea(. s(ae
(.ea.(aeoe:maaea(eaaaeeie:(ae:e.avea(.eaei|aaeaaee~s(aemes(| .(aemes(e|ee(.ve|vesa.|.(ece|emea(e.vea(eas. (aeea:(a
.(se|i.saa(ia:a.saes(aea:s(ma((e:eieve:v seas.||ee|ee( iaseia:
as .( .s (aeexemplar e|emea( .| me:e aa(a:a||v e|ee(.ve. me:e
oe:maaea(.me:ese| .(aaaa||e(ae:elements;
aac.aa|:eace:sease. .(eemo:. ses(aem . .(.sae:ma|(aa((aeea:(a
aasia:a. saec(aee:eaacie:(aea:s(.cea| .(.es. (aeaie:(aea:s(a|se
|a(e|v aa. ve:sa| aac e|ee(.ve identities, (aese ei ea|ea| as aac
na(o:eea|(a:a||vpure Nature .s a|avs| se. as (ae a|(.ma(e
` But both still have to meet. The question here, then, is only that of a material ,
therefore in a certain sense contingent, a priori (cf. above) .
H4 Jt i s the "as such" of the object' s substantial and objective unity which i s deci sive
here. In paricular i t di stinguishes human intersubjectivity from that which i s created
between animal s, men and animals, children, etc. All those finite communities al so rest
on the feel i ng of a presence to the same world whereby they confront the same things , and so
on, but in a nonobjecti ve, nontheoretical consciousness-which does not posit the object
"as such" in its independence and as the pole of infi nite determination. Those lower commu
nities can also gi ve rise to a specifc phenomenology, and Husserl devoted i mportant
unpublished fragments to them.
Jacques Derrida
oess.|.|.iv ie:eemmaa.eai.ea. . i. sa|.ac ei.aaeeess.||e. ai:a. cea| .
Caaeaeisav. iaea.]asiiae eooes.ieeiaaiuasse:|sa.c:~:eaei
a|iaeaeaiae|aiie:. sa|avsaaaeaaeecseiaai|aaeaaeeeaa|ee.a. .s
1ae a|eve seems a|| iae me:e i:ae. esoee. a||v s.aee a|se|aie
i:aas|aia|.|.ivea|c |e sasoeacec iae memeai iae s.ea.iec
eea|cae|eaee:|e|ec|ae|. e. iae:c.:eei|| v.:eiaemece|ei
aa e|] aac seas.||e es. sieai. ve:v | ceas.ea iaai
ea|ceseaoeia. sa|se|aiei:aas|aia|.|.ivea|c:ema.ama:|ec|viae
emo.:.ea| sa|]eei.v.iv eiaa . ac.v.caa| e: see.eiv. re: uasse:| . iae
mece| ei|aaeaaee.siaee|]|aaeaaee eise.eaee. ~ oeei.e |aa
eaaee. aese s.ea.ieai.easea|caei|eobjects, . ||aeve:aaveaav
i:aaseeaceaia| va| aeie: a. m 1aaiiaei ea|c aave ae eeaseeaeaee
within uasse:| .aaiaeaeai. .ia.s iaeaeaie:e aei a| seiae iae:eaea
. avesi.eai.ea [approfondissement ] eisa|]eei.v.iv. Ne sa|]eei.v. iv .a
eeae:a| . as maea emo.:.ea|asi:aaseeaceaia| . aooea:ecve:vea:| vie
uasse:| as. aaeeess.||e ie ac.:eei. aa.veea| . aac |aaeaaee.
sa|]eei.v.iv.siaacaeaia||v. aeaa||e ~|:eacv.aThe Phenomenology
ofInteral Time-Consciousness, uasse:|:eie::ecieiaea| i.maie.ceai.iv
eiiaeeeasi.iai.verasei. mmaaeaii. meaaca|se|aiesa|]eei.v.ivaac
eeae|acecre:a||ia. s. aamesa:e|ae|.ae( 36, o. 100).85 ~ac. aiae
aaoa||.saecaaase:.oiseiC:eaoCeao:eieiemoe:a| .iv.aeeace:s
.io:ee|]eei.veieoe:a| .iv.o:eiemoe:a|.iv(Vorzeit) , .saei|eveaca||
c.seea:se(unsagbar) ie:iae oaeaemeae|ee.z.aeee.HsC1 31 1 5 i i .
i 1. o 9). 1ae:eie:e . |aaeaaee. i:ac.i.ea. aaca. sie:v es.siea|v.a
3 . ~siae.aia.ieae:.zeaeieve:voess.||eesoe:.eaee. iaee:|c.s
eeaseeaeai|v iae ei O|]eeis a.ea .s | .aea. si.ea| | v es
o:ess.||||e.aesaea( 1 62) . 1aas. iaes. ea.ieai.ea
eiiaee:|casae:.zea. se|ea:| veso| .eaiec. . . e. .asiae.|veoea
eemea o|aee ie: e eaa eaeeaaie: . ai:eai eiaac ie:
In the same sense, cf. al l he subtle analyses in the LI devoted to expressions
" lack[ing] an objective sense, " such as personal pronouns which " indicate" mediatel y
bl lt can never gi ve anythi ng to be seen. "The word T has not i tself di rectl y the power to
arouse the specifc I -presentation; thi s becomes fxed i n the actual pi ece of tal k. I t does
not work like the word ' l ion' which can arouse the idea of a l ion i n and by i tself. I n i ts
case, rather, an i ndicati ve function mediates, cryi ng as it were, to the hearer ' Your
vis-a-vis i ntends himself' " (I, 1 , 26, p. 3 1 6) .
Introduction to the Origin of Geometr
ea:se| ves . i ai:eaieiaac ie:ea:se||.es. iaea.e. veaas aae|
]eei .1aee:|c. iae:eie:e .. sesseai.a||vceie:m.aec|viaecai.veaac
ae:.zeaic. meas. eaei|e.aeoe:ee.vec[l' etre-perqu] .aaeazeaese
e|]eeimasia|avs|ea||eie|eatheorem. Ceemei:.ea|esemo|a:.aess
aacea|iec|v:esa|isi:emiaeiaeiiaai. asaaa|si:aeimaie:.a|se.
eaee .ia. sesemo|a:.aessi:eaisiaesoai.a| .ivei|ec. es.a.ea. sea| v
eae eiiae|ecv s e.cei.eeemoeaeais . . . e . i:eaisaaieeaie:s sease
eaiaeaei.eaeiae:.zeaaace|]eei. Deso.iea||
a.eaaa.maieoaeaemeae|eev. soaee s o:. v. |eeeiae:e.a .s .a ee:ia.a
:esoeeis:ema:|a||e. iiiesi.iesieiaai e|] ieaceaev a.ea
uasse:||iaaeeas| veooesessev. ee:eas| v. aacveia.ea. sea|va
period, aa esseai.a| . aac iae:eie:e .::ecae.|| e. mevemeaieiiaeaeai.
1ae o:eieaac :aviam eiia. s ieas.ea |eieea e|] aac iae
i:aaseeaceaia|mei.i.aieas.ease:ema:|a|| vcese:.|ec.aiaeCrisis, .s
a| se . moa:iec ie oaeaemeae|eev. ia ia.s :esoeei. iae o:e||em ei
eeemei:v. s:evea|.ae.
Ceemei:v. .aeaeei. .siaese.eaeeeiaai. sa|se|aie|ve|]
. e. . soai.a|.iv-.aiaee|]eeisiaaiiaea:ia.our eemmeao|aee. eaa
.|viao. saasea:eemmeae:eaac.iaeiae:mea
e|]eei.vese.eaeeeiea:ia| via.aes.s eess.||e. aae|]eei.vese.eaeeei
iaeta:ia.ise|i.iaee:eaacaacieaacai.eaeiiaesee|]eeis . .sas:ac.
ea| | v .oess.||e as iaai eii:aaseeaceaia| sa|]eei.v.iv. 1ae i:aas
eeaceaia| a:ia . s aei aa e|]eei aac eaa aeve: |eeeme eae ~ac
aaieea|c |e ea||eca"geo-logy, " iaee|]eei.vese.eaeeeiiaea:ia
.ise|i 1a.s .s iae sease eiiae i:aemeai a.eareduces, :aiae: iaaa
On the theme of "our Earth" as the "l ife-world" "i n the most comprehensive
sense" for a humanity which lives i n community and where one can be "understood" in a
communication whi ch must always say and pass through the thi ngs of our Earth , cf. E,
38, pp. 1 62-67. Thi s section efecti vely i l l uminates, especially by its degree of elabora
tion, the si mi l arly i nspired fragment on the Earth cited below. In thi s section, the uni ty of
the Earth i s grounded in the unity and oneness of temporal ity, the " fundamental form"
(Grundform), the "form of all forms" [ibid. , p. 1 6] .
Thi s fragment , whi ch i s entitled "Grundlegende Untersuchungen zum
Phanomenologischen Ursprung der Rauml i chkeit der Natur" [ "Fundamental Investiga
tions on the Phenomenological Origin of the Spatiality of Nature"] , dated May 1 934, was
publi shed i n 1 940 by Marvi n Farber in Philosophical Essays in Memor of Edmund
Husserl [rpt . Greenwood Press, 1 968] , pp. 307-25 . From the perspective of the science of
space, i t sketches a movement analogous to that of the Origin, but di rected toward
ki nematics . In a certain sense , it completes the Origin, although in the Origin Husserl
clearly specifi es that geometry is onl y a title for all mathematics of pure
spatiotemporali ty.
Thi s text, very spontaneous and not greatly worked out i n its wri ti ng, is presented as a
Jacques Derri
preface to a "science ofthe origin of spatiality, " of "corporeality, " of "Nature in the
sense of the natural sciences, " and to a "Transcendental Theor of Cognition in the
Natural Sciences" [po 307] . Husserl first wonders about the sense of the world in the
infnite openness of my surrounding world whose frontiers I can always go beyond. Over
against a determined objectivation [representation] of the world, that of the "Negroes"
or ' ' Greeks, " he sets that of the Coperican world. "We Copericans, we men of moder
time, we say: the earth is not ' the whole of Nature, ' it is one of the planets, in the infnite
space of the world. The earth is a spherical body which certainly is not perceptible as a
whol e, by a single person and all at once, but in a primordial [rimordiale] synthesis as
the unity of singular experiences bound to each other. But nonetheless it is a body!
Although for us it may be the experiential ground for all bodies i n the experiential genesis
of our world-objectivation" (p. 308).
H usserl then " reduces" the Coperican thesis by making the certainty of an Earh-as
the origin of every objective kinetic determination-appear as the transcendental presup
position of this thesis. The question is to exhume, to unearth, the Earh, to lay bare the
primordial ground buried under the sedimentary deposits of scientifc culture and
For the Earth cannot become a mobile body: "It is on the Earth, toward the Earh,
starting from it, but still on it that motion ocurs. The Earth itself, in confority to the
original idea of it, does not move, nor is it at rest; it is in relation to the Earh that motion
and rest fi rst have sense. But then the Eath does not 'move' nor is at rest-and it is
entirely the same for the heavenly bodies and for the earth as one of them" (p. 309) .
The Earth is the fnal ground of our co-humanity (Mitmenscheit), for it is "the same
Earth for us, on it, in it, above it, there are the same bodies existing on it-'on it, ' etc. ,
the same corporeal (leiblichen) SUbjects, subjects of bodies (Leibern), who, for all, are
bodies (Korper) in a modified sense. But for us all , the Earth is the grund and not a body
in the full sense" (p. 3 1 5) .
But toward the end of the text, the Earth takes on a more formal sense. No longer is it a
question of thi s Earth here (the primordial here whose factuality would fnally b irreduc
ible), but of a here and a ground in general for the deterination of body-objects in
general. For if I reached another planet by flying, and if, Husserl then said, I could
perceive the earth as a body, I would have "two Earths as ground-bodi es. " "But what
does two Earths signify? Two pieces of a single Earth with one humanity" (pp. 3 1 7-1 8) .
From then on the unity of all humanity determines the unity of the grund as such. This
unity of all humanity is correlative to the unity of the world as the infnite horizon of
experience, and not to the unity of this earth here. The World, which is not the factuality
of this historical world here, as Husserl ofen recalls, is the ground of gounds, the
horizon of horizons, and it is to the World that the transcendental immutability attributed
to the Earth returs, since the Earth then is only its factual index. Likewise
correlatively-humanity would then only be the facto-anthropological index of sub
jectivity and of intersubjectivity in general , starting fom which every primordial here can
appear on the foundation of the Living Present, the rest and absolute maintenance of the
origin in which, by which, and for which all temporality and all motion appea.
Just as here he reduces the Copernican "relativity" of the earth, Husserl elsewhere
reduces Einstein's "relativity": "Where is that huge piece of method subjeted to
critique and clarification-that method that leads from the intuitively given surrunding
world to the idealization of mathematics and to the interpretation of these idealizations as
Objective being? Einstein's revolutionay innovations concer the foulae thrugh
which the idealized and naively Objectified physis is dealt with. But how formulae in
general , how mathematical Objectivation in general, receive sense on the substrtum of
Introuctin to the Origin ofGeometry
:eiaies. iae Ceoe:a.eaa aa.vei- aac saesiaaiiae a:ia .a .is|.iv cees aei meve. asi as eae s ea |ecv. asiae| here aac zero-point ie: eve:v objective ceie:m.aai.ea ei
soaee aac soai.a|mei.ea. . saei.ise|i.amei.ea.a ia.s soaee as aa
e|]eei. se-aaa|eeeas||a||ecv.asiaee:eaac
|ecv (Bodenkorper) i:em a.ea a|eae a Ceeen|eaa ceie:m|aa
i.eaeiiaeea:iaas|ecve|]eei|eeemeseess||| e. | saei|ise|ieae|ecv
ameaeeiae:s.aiaemeeaaa.ea|||v. iaea:iameves
|aiehere; a:esia.ea.saeiiae:esieiiaee|]eei.:esias meceei
mei.ea . |aixesisia:i.aei:ema.eamei.eaaac:esieaaaooea:aac
|eiaeaeaiassaea.iaexesieiaground aacahorzon .aiae.:eemmea
e:.e.a aac eac. 1ae a:ia . s. . a eaeei. |eia sae:i eiaac |eveac
as iae ae:e ei .is :e| nai iae a:ia eseeecs eve:v
|ecve|] ie:.i.saeve:esaaasiec|viaee:|
eie|]eei.aeai.eaiaaio:eeeecs.ia.a.i. 1aea:ia.sawae|eaese
oa:is . . . a:e | |ai as a wae|e .i .s aei a |ecv
C:aac|eeeace . o 3 1 3] . 1ae:e. siaeaase.eaeeof soaee..aseia:as soaee.
iiiaeoess.|.|.ivei|aaeaaee. sa|:eacvgiven||v. asi.iai
.ae eeemeie:. .i samees iaai iae |aiie:aas o:ecaeec .a a.mse|iiae
.ceai.ivaaciae.cea|oe:maaeaeeeiaa e|]eei .ae:ce:ie|e a||eie
eemmaa.eaie .i neie:eiae same .s:eeeea.zecaaceemmaa.eaiec
ameaeseve:a| .ac.v.caa| s. .i.s:eeeea.zecaaceemmaa.eaiec.ia.a
iae. ac.v. caa|eease.easaess aiie:ea.e|
aaa. .is seaseeaab :eo:ecaeecas
iae same .a iaeaeiei:eee||eei.ea .is seaseaasaei:eia:aec ie
life and the intuitively given surrounding world-of this we lear nothing; and thus
Einstein does not reform the space and time i n wh ich our vi tal life (unser lebendiges
Leben) runs its course" ("Philosophy and the Crisis of European Humanity," in C, p.
295 [modified]) . In the Crisis (34b, pp. 1 25f. ), a similarly oriented analysis also ques
tions the objectivism of Einstein' s relativity.
In referring to this fragent, Trm-Dlc-Thao (Phenomenologie, p. 222) speaks of an
"undaunted refutation of the Coperican system. " However, it is a matter of course that
Husserl does not at any moment or on its own proper level contest the particular truth of
the objective Copernican science. He only recalls that Copernican science presupposes a
primordial Earth which this science will never be able to integrte into its objective
l '
Jacques Derrida
ae| a. aeaess |a (a. scoincidence of identity [recouvrement d' identitf] ,
ideality . s aaaeaaeecas saea aac .aeeae:a| .aaa eee|ee.ea| sa|]ee(
Ceaseeaea(| v. aa(ases(a. s. cea| .(vageometrical .cea|.(v. ||ea|v
.a(e:es(as|a(e:eawe.||:esoee(uasse:| se:ce:eicese:.o(.eaaac
. a(aeeaa(.e.||ce| ae(aeeeac.|.easie:.cea|.(v. aaa. a(e:sa|]ee
(. eeeaa.(v
1aas. |eie:e|e. ae(ae .cea| .(veiaa .cea(.ea|e|]ee(ie:e(ae:sa|
]ee(s. sease. s(a. s. cea|.(vie:other eea(sei(aesaesa|]ee( iaa
ee:(a.aav. (ae:eie:e. . a(e:sa|]ee(. . (v .s i:s| (ae aeaeo. :. ea| :e|a
(.eaeiee|eee.eivo:esea(o:esea((ee(ae:o:esea(sassaea .. e .
as e(ae:s aac as o:esea(s .as oas| o:esea(s | a(e:sa|]ee(. .|v .s |ae
:e|a(.eaeiaaa|se|a(ee:.e.a(ee(ae:a|se|a(ee:. e. as. a.eaa:ea|avs
v ea. ceso.(e (ae.: :ac.ea| a|(e:.(v 1aaass (e (a. s e. :ea|a(.ea ei
o:.e:c.a|a|se|a|es. (aesame (a.aeeaa|e(aeaea((a:eaeaa|se|a(e|v
e(ae:eea(saacae(s wea|avseee|aes(e(aeiaa|.as(aaeeei
|a. s. (ae aa.eae aac essea(.a| ie: ei |eoe:a|.za(.ea nv . (s e:v
c.a|ee(.ea|aess. (aea|se|a(eo:.e:c.a|.(vei(aei. .aer:esea(oe:.(s
(ae:ecae(. ea..(aea(aeea(.ea.eia||a|(e:.(v1aei. .aer:esea(eea
s(.(a(es (aee(ae:ase(ae:. a.(se|iaac(ae sae as (ae sae . a(ae
I These processes are abundantly described in The Phenomenology of Internal Time
Consciousness, Ideas I, and in FTL. The passage from passi ve retention to memory or to
the acti vi ty of recollection, a passage which ' ' produces" ideality and pure Objectivity as
such and makes other absolute origins appear as such, i s always described by Husserl as
an already given essential possibility, as a structural abi l i ty whose source i s not made a
problem. Perhaps thi s source is not questioned by phenomenology because it is confused
wi th the possibility of phenomenology i tself. I n i ts "factual ity, " thi s passage i s also that
of the lower forms of Nature and conscious life. I t can also be the thematic site of what
today is cal led an "overcomi ng. " Here phenomenology would be "overcome" or com
pleted i n an interpretative philosophy. Thus Tran-Duc-Thiw, after a remarkable interpre
tation of phenomenology, exposes the " Dialectic of Real Movement, " starting from the
concepts of retention and reproduction and from difculties attached to them in
phenomenology, which alone. however, can give them a rigorous sense.
`The possibility of constituting, withi n the unique and irreduci bl e form of the Li ving
Present (unchangeable in itself and always other i n its ' ' content") , another now and on its
basi s another here, another absolute origin of my absol utel y absolute origin, this possibil
ity i s el sewhere presented by Husserl as the root of i ntersubjecti vi ty. I n the Cartesian
Meditations, this di alectic of temporalization is i nvoked as an analogous example of the
dialectic of i ntersubjecti vity. In order to illuminate the extraordinary constitution of
"another monad + in mi ne , " Husserl al ludes to temporalization, i n what he cal l s an
"i nstructi ve comparison" C52, p. 1 1 5) .
But i n some unpubli shed material , he seems to go much further: "Urhyl e, " i . e . ,
temporal hyl e, i s defned there as the " core of the other than the Ego' s own" (Ichfremde
Kern) . Cf. Group C 6 ( August 1 930) , p. 6. On the sense of this notion of "alien to my
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
A cee.s. es(eo:ea. as(e|e(aseanv. (se|i(aesoeas.aesa|]ee(. .a
(ae s(:.e(seaseei(ae (e:. . s. aeaoa||e eia|se|a(e||ae
.cea| O|]ee(. .(v ei sease O:a| eeaa.ea(.ea . . e . o:esea( . .
ec.a(e.aacsva.a:ea.eeeaa.ea(.eaaeae(aeo:e(eeeee(e:s. s
ae( same.ea(( ee. e .cea|e|]ee(.. (. es(ae.: eea(.aa. ae( e|e aac
"persisting factual existence, " (aaass(ea.ea(aevoe:ca:eeeaca:
.aeoe:.ecs.aa.ea(ae. aea(e:aaca.sie||esa:eae|eaee:aase(e
saea aa eseaaaeee:eea. e:e aa.e:sa||v. ae|eaee:a|.e 1e |e
a|se|a(e|v .cea|. (ae e|]ee( as( s(.|| |e i:eec eiever (.e .(a aa
ae(aa||v o:esea( sa|]ee(. .(v .a eeae:a| 1ae:eie:e. .( as( oe:ca:e
eea aea ae eae aas ae(aa|. zec .| .a e.ceaee ( 1 64 ec.ieci
soeeea[langage oral] aasi:eec(aee|]ee(eiindividual sa|]ee(. .(v|a(
|eaes.(|eaac(e. (s|ee.aa.aeaac(e(ae svaea:eaveiaaeseaaaee
.(a.a(aeinstitutive communit.
1aeoess.|. |. (vei writing .||assa:e(aea|se|a(e(:ac. (. eaa| .za(. eaei
(aee|]ee| . .(sa|se|a(e.cea|O|]ee(. .(v~. e .(aeoa:.(vei. (s:e|a(.ea
(eaaa.e:sa|(:aaseeacea(a|sa|]ee(. .(vw:.(.ae.||ce(a. s|veaa
e.oa(. aeseasei:e.(sactually present e.ceaeeie:a:ea|sa|]ee(aac
i:e. (so:esea(e.:ea|a(.ea.(a.aace(e:. aeceeaa. (v 1aece
e.s. eiaae(. eaei:.((eaeso:ess. ea.eieso:ess.eaa.eaceeaea(s..s
(aa(.(aseseeaa.ea(.eaoess.||e. (aea(. ec.a(e e:ec.a(e
acc:ess. .( . s. se (e soeas. eeaa. ea(.ea |eeee .:(aa| ( 1 64
ec. ieci
1aa(virtuality, me:eee:. .s aa a|.eaeas a|ae. .( s. a|(aaeeas|v
asesoass. .(|aess .aaca| |(aeoaeaeeaaeicrisis oess.||e||aea.a.a(ea:ea|reale] a.s(e:v.a(:a(a(aa(e
aae ea.aec i:e (a. s a.s(e:v-se:.o(a:a| soa(.e(eoe:a|.(v .aese
e..e. aa|.(ve .||seea aeec(ece(|e(es
(ae es.s(eaeeeioa:e(:aaseeacea(a|a. s(e:.e. (v w.(aea( (ae a|(.a(e
e|]ee(. iea(.ea (aa(:.(.aeoe:.(s . a|||aaeaaee ea|c asve(:ea.a
Ego, " "the intrinsically frst other, " or of " the frst ' non-Ego' " i n t he constitution of the
alter ego, see notably CM, 4S-49, pp. 1 05-0S.
Preobjecti ve and preexact temporali ty, which had to become the principal theme of the
transcendental aesthetics projected by Husserl (cf. notably FL, Concl usion, pp. 291 -92:
and CM, 6 1 q p. 1 46), i s then the root of transcendental intersubjecti vity. Al l the egos,
beyond al l possible diferences, can be encountered, recognized, and understood also in
the identity of the concrete and universal form of the Li vi ng Present. I n E, " tie as the
form of sensibility" i s described as the "ground" of the "necessary connection . . .
between the intentional objects of al l perceptions and positional presentifcations of an
Ego and a community of Egos" (3S, p. 1 62 [modifed)) .
Jacques Derrida
eaoi.veeiiaeceiaeieaacaeiaa|. aieai.eaa|.iveiasoea|.aesa|]eeie:
eemmaa.iv eisoea|.aesa|]eei s. nv a|se|aie|vv.:iaa|.z.aec.a|eeae.
:.i.aee:eaiesa|. aceiaaieaemeasi:aaseeaceaia|ie|ci:ema.ea
i aeeaaeei.ea.iaiaeeeae:a|s.ea.ieai.eaeiiaeepoche, eaauvo
oe|.ie .ave|es iae oess.|.| .iveia sa|]eei|essi:aaseeaceaia|ie|c.
eae. aa.eaiaeeeac.i.easeisa|]eei.v.ivea|caooea:aacae:e
iae sa|]eei ea|c |e eeasi.iaiec i:em iae i:aaseeaceaia|
ie|c as iae o|aee eia|se|aie|v oe:maaeai .cea| e|]ee
i. v.i.esaaciae:eie:eeia|se|aieO|]eei.v.|veeasi.iaiessaea
ai:aaseeaceaia|ie| c. ~ac| .| ie|e sa:e. i:aaseeaceaia|sa|
]eei. v.iveaa|eia||vaaaeaaeecaacaooea:eaiae|as. seiia.sie|ce:
. is oess.|. |.iv. 1aas a sa|]eei|essi:aaseeaceaia| ie|c .s eae ei iae
eeac.i.eas eii:aaseeaceaia|sa|]eei.v.iv
naia|| ia. seaa |e sa.c ea|vea iae |as.seiaa .aieai.eaa|aaa|vs. s
a.ea i:em :. |ai s oa:e :e|ai.ea ie a
eease.easaessa.eae:eaacs.i as saea. aacaei. isiaeiaa|.iva.ea.
|euie. ise|i..sieia||v.iaeais.ea.ieai.ea[insignifante] . re:ia.s a|
seaeeeisa|]eei. v.ivi:em iae i:aaseeaceaia| ie| c. aaa|seaeeaese
oess.|.|.iv i:ees a|se|aieO|]eei.v.iv. eaa |eea|vaiaeiaa| a|seaee.
evea.i.i:emevecie:a||i.meiaeieia|.iveiaeiaa|sa|]eeis. 1aee:.e.
aa|.iveiiaeie| . s. isa|. | .iviec. soease .ia.due to its
sense, eve.v o:eseai :eac. ae .a eeae:a| . nai .iiae iesi cees aei aa eaoa:eceoeaceaeeeaa:. ie:e::eace:.aeeae:a|.. e .
.i.i.s aeiaaaaiec|vav. :iaa|. aieai.eaa|.iv .aac.iiae:e.saeoa:e|v
]a:.c.ea|oess. |.|.ivei.i| aie| |.e.||eie:ai:aaseeaceaia|sa|]e

.aeeae:a| .iaeaiae:e.saeme:e.aiaevaea.ivei.issea|iaaaaeaaei.e
ceo:.vecei.isi:aaseeaceaia|iaaei. ea.1aes.|eaeeeio:ea.sie:.ea:eaaa
aac|a:.ece.v. |.zai.eas. iaeeaiem|meaiei|esi. aieai.easaaceaa:cec
see:eis. aac iae . | |ee.|.|.iv ei iae | .ase:.oi.ea|ese iae
|aie o:.v.|eee ei . aieai.eaa|.iv . a iae ve:v . asiaaee ei .is esseai.a|
]a:.c.ea|ia.|a:e [en ce qui l' unit a l' absolu du droit intentionnel dans
l ' instance meme de son echecl .
waeaeeas.ce:.aeiaece]a:eoa:.ivei.aieai.eaa|aa. mai.ea. uas-
|ecv e//,.e:aso. :.iaa|ee:oe:ea|.iv(geitige Leiblichkeit) (FTL, 2, o.
21 ) . r:em iaea ea. :. . s ae |eaee: ea|v iae e:|c|v aac
` We refer here to a comment by Jean Hyppolite during the discussion which followed
the lecture of Fr. Van Breda on "La Reduction phenomimologique, " in H usserl, Cahiers
de Royaumont, p. 323.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
maemeieeaa.ea|a.cieai:aiaaeseea|e. aeseaseea|cc.soease
.iaa||:.i.aecea 1aeoess.|.| .ive:aeeess.ivei|
.ia.cea|O|]eei.v.iv. .i.siaesine qua non eeac.i.eaeiO|]eei.v.iv s
.aie:aa|eemo|ei.ea ~s|eaeas .cea|O|]eei.v.iv. saei .e: :aiae:.can
aei |eeae:avec.aiae e:|c-as |eae as . cea|O|]eei.v.iv.s aei .aa
oes.i.eaie|eoa:ivieaa.aea:aai.ea.a.ea. .aiaeoa:.ivei. issease .
.s me:e iaaaasvsiemeis.eaa|s[signalisation] e:aaeaie:ea:meai-
iaea .cea| O|]eei.v.iv . s aei ia||v eeasi.iaiec 1ae:eie:e. iae aei ei
:.i. ae .s iae a.eaesi oess.|.| .iv eia| | "constitution, " a iaei aea.asi
a.ea iae i:aaseeaceaia| ceoia ei .cea| O|] eei.v.iv s a. sie:.e.iv .s
waai r. a| :.ies a|eai soeeea .a a. s esee| |eai i:aase:.oi eiiae
Origin . sa fortiori i:aeie: :.i. ae. i a seas.||e em|ec.meai eeea:s
iae |eea|. zai.eaaaciae iemoe:a|.zai.ea (Temporalisation) eiaai. s.
||e.aesease. aa|eeaiecaacaaiemoe:a| . D. er:aee. o 2 1 0) .
saeaaie:ma|ai.ea:ema:|a||v saa:oeasiaeo:e|| emaacaa|eas
iaeoeea|.a:v.:iaeei|aaeaaee .iie|ea:|vi:aas|aiesuasse:|
eae:iieeaieaiae. cea| .iveiiaemai.eseaseaaceie:cs[mots] .aiae. :
:e|ai.eas.iaiae| naiceesaeiia. s ie:ma|ai.eaoe:
This sensible embodiment has the peculiar qualities [l'errngete] of both sense' s
inhabitation of the word [mot] and the here and now use of the word' s ideality. In the first
case, embodiment is at its l i mit the inscription of an absolutely "free" and objective
ideality (that of geometrical truth, for example) within the ' 'bound" ideality of the word,
or i n general of a more free ideality within a less free ideality. In the second case,
embodiment is that of a necessarily bound ideality, that of the word' s identity within
language, in a real-sensible event. But this last embodiment is still done through another
step of mediate ideality whi(h Husserl does not directly describe, but which we think can
be located on the basi s of strictly Husserlian concepts. It is a question of ideal forms or
vague morphological types (a notion that we will have ocasion to specify farther on) ,
which are proper to the corporeality of graphic and vocal signs. The forms of graphic and
vocal signs must have a certain identity which is imposed and recognized each time in the
empirical fact of language. Without this always intended and approximate ideal identity
(that of letters and phonemes, for example), no sensible language would be possible or
intelligible as language, nor could it intend higher idealities. Naturally, this morphological
ideality is still more "bound" than the word' s ideality. The precise place of the properly
termed realizing [realisante] embodiment is ultimately therefore the union of the sensible
form with sensible material, a union traversed by the linguistic intention which always
intends, explicitly or not, the highest ideality. Linguistic incaration and the constitution
of written or scriptural space suppose, then, a closer and closer "interconnection" of ideality
and reality through a series of less and less ideal mediations and in the synthetic unity of an
intention. Thi s intentional synthesis is an unceasing movement of going and returing that
works to bind the ideality of sense and to free the reality of the sign. Each of the two opera
tions is always haunted by the sense of the other: each operation is already announced in the
other or still retained i n it . Language frees the ideality of sense, then, in the very work of its
"binding" ("interconnecting" [enchainement] ).
Jacques Derrida
.(| .aea.s(.eem|ec.mea((e|eaace:s(eecas(a|.aeo|aeeea(s.ce(ae
|e.aesease ei .cea| e|]ee(.v.(v: ~s e: aaesoee(ec|v .aacc.(.ea(e(ae|e. aesease:Deesae((a.sie:a|a(.ea (ae . mo:ess.ea(aa(.cea| e|]ee(. v. (v . sia||veeas(.(a(ec as saea
before aacindependently of .(sem|ec.ea(.e::a(ae:.|eie:eaac.ace
oeacea(|vei.(sability to be embodied?
sa(uasse:|.as. s(s(aa((:a(a.sae(ia||ve|]ee(. ve .. e ..cea| ..a(e||.
e.||eie:eve:veaeaac.aceia.(e|voe:ca:a||e. as|eaeas.(eaaae(|e
sa.cand :.((ea s.aee (a. s oe:ca:a|.|.(v . s(:a(a s ve:v sease. (ae
eeac.(.easie:.(ssa:v. va|a:e. ae|acec. a(aeseei. (s|.ie uacea|(ec|v.
|a:ceiae(e| .aea.s(.e.aea:aa(.eas .aaceeoa:ec( ea|||.aea. s(.eiae(a
a|.(v.(:ema.asi:ee. sa((|voess. |||vi:e
(aemoment (:a(acan .aeeae:a||esa.ce::.((ea.. e. .on condition (aa(
(a.scan |eceae.ra:aces.ea||v.(aeoess.|. | .(vei|
lite graphique] oe:m.(s (ae a| (.ma(ei:ee.aeei.cea| .(v. 1ae:eie:e . e
eea|ca|||a(:eve:se(ae(e:mseir.a| s ie:a|a (aeability eisease(e
|e| .aea.s(.ea||ve| (ae ea|v eaas|va.easease|eeees
aeasoa(. e(emoe:a|
soeeeaaac:.(.ae.aacs. aee.(ceoeacseaaoa:e|.aea. s(.e. a(ea(.ea.
.( .s :ac.ea||v .aceoeacea(eiseas.||e soa(.e(eoe:a|. (v. 1a. s eaas
(aa(asoee.iesoa(.e(emoe:a|.(v. so:ese:. |ecie:eeaa.ea(.ea. aac
(ae:eie:e ie: oa:e (:ac.(.ea aaca. s(e:v. a soa(.e(emoe:a|.(v (aa( es
aac(aee(eo.:.ea| .Ceaseeaea(| v. (:a(a.sae|eaee:simply es.|ec.a
(aeo:.e:c.a|evea(ei. (s|aaeaaee.i(sa.s(e:.ea|aa|.(a(aa(aea(.ea(es
(a.s evea( .]as(as (ae o:e(eceeamea(authenticates ae(ae: . (. s(ae
e:.e. aa|aaco:. e:c.a|ae( iae(ae:e:cs. ae(ae:(ae|. aea. s(. eevea(
:eie:s(eaaauthentic ae(..a(aeuasse:|.aaseaseei(aee:c .|eeaase
.(es(a|| . saesa(:a(ava| ae. . smace:esoeas.||eie:. (. aaceaaaooea|
(e(ae| .(vei.(s (es(.eav
(ea ( soee.iea||v. cese:.|.ae(ae |ee| .a .(s aa.(v asaeaa.aei
s.ea. r ea(.eas 1a.saa.(veaa|ee:ee:| ess. cea|aacaeeessa:v.aac
(ae:eie:e aa. ve:sa| . (ae|ee| s seaseeea(ea(

!J:l l n the Origin, Husserl di stinguishes between literature i n the broad sense, the realm
of all written di scourse, and literature as l iterary art. The literary work i s often chosen by
Husserl as the cl ue for analyzing the ideality of cultural objecti vi ties. The ideal identity of
the work wi l l never be mistaken for i ts sensible embodi ments. It does not derive i ts i ndi
vi dual identity from the latter. The origin of identity , moreover, i s the criterion which
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
ea|veaa(aa(.cea|aa.(v|ee:ee:|ess|eaac(eiae(aa| .(v.|a(a|se eemo|e(e|ve:.e.aa|ie:msaacmeca|.(.es
He:eeve:.(ae:e|a(.eaei(ae eseo|a:s ( e(ae.:a:eae(voa|aa. (v. s
(.eas. esoee.a||v (aese ei (ae aea|.(e:a:v a:(s r.aa||v. (ae |ee| s
o:eoe:ve| aeaacca:a(.eaa:eae.(ae:oa:e|vseas.||
oa:e|v.a(e||.e.||eaeaeaa 1ae.:soee.ieeaa:ae(e:sees. ::ecae.||e
1a.s | ei(ae |ee|. (a.s .as(aaee eiprinted (aeaea( aese
| aaeaaee.sae(aa(a:a| . Cas(easaeae|a:cea||sa"bibliomenon.
permits us to di stinguish between the real and the ideal . Husserl writes in E (65, pp.
265-66) : "We call real i n a specifc sense all that which, i n real thi ngs i n the broader
sense. is, according to its sense, essentially individualized by its spatiotemporal position;
but we call irreal ever determination which, indeed, is founded with regard to
spatiotemporal appearance in a specifcally real thing but which can appear in dif erent
realities as identical-not merely as simil ar" ( Husserl ' s emphasis) .
Thus the relation between the ideal and the real in all cultural objectivities (and frst in
all the arts) can be expl icated. That is relati vel y easy for the literary work. Thus,
"Goethe' s Faust i s found i n any number of real books (' book' denotes here what i s
produced by men and intended to be read: it i s already a determination which i s itself not
purely material. but a determination of signifcance !) , which are termed exemplars of
Faust. This mental sense which determines the work of art. the mental structure as such,
i s certainly ' embodied' i n the real world. but i t i s not i ndi vidual ized by thi s embodiment.
Or agai n: the same geometrical proposition can be uttered as often as desi red: every real
utterance has . . . identically the same sense" (ibid. , p. 26) .
But how can we determine the ideality of a work whose proto individualization is tied to
the work' s single spatiotemporal embodiment? How can we make i ts i deality appear by
varying factual exemplars. si nce the latter can only imi tate a factuality and not express or
" indicate" an i deal sense? I s i t, i n short. the same for the ideality of the pl astic arts. of
architecture? Or of music. whose case i s even more ambiguous? Although repetition may
be of a di ferent nature here. which in each case requires an appropriate and prdent
anal ysi s. i t i s no less possible in principle and thus makes an incontestable ideality
appear: "To be sure, an ideal object like Raphael ' s Madonna can in fact have only one
mundane state (Weltlichkeit) and i n fact i s not repeatable in an adequate identity (of the com
plete ideal content). But in principle this ideal is indeed repeatabl e, as is Goethe's Faust"
(ibid. ) .
From the frst perception, then, of a work of plastic art as such (whose i deal value i s
primordially and intri nsically rooted i n an event), there i s a sort of i mmediate reduction of
factuality which permi ts, next, the neutralization of the necessary imperfection of re
production. Here is not the place to prolong these analyses of aesthetic perception and
ideality. Husserl i s content to si tuate their domain and to defne prel i mi nary, i ndispens
able distinctions . He proposes some analogous di stinctions in the cultural sphere of pol i
tics and stri ves to bring to light both the ideality of the constitution of the state (of the
national wil l . for exampl e) and the originality of its "boundness" to the factual ity of a
territory, a nation, etc . , wi thi n which this constitution can be i ndefnitely repeated as i ts
ideal validity (ibid. , pp. 266-67) .
9 L' Activite rationaliste de l a physique contemporaine (Pari s: Presses U ni versi tai res
de France, 1 95 1 ) , pp. 6-7.
Jacques Derrid
ia(aeOrigin, uasse:|.||am.aa(esme:ec.:ee(|v(aa(m. |. eaei:.

aesec.uea|(s.ea.iea(.eaaac. moe:(aaeeaeaaca|:eacv:eeeemzec
. a(aeLogical Investigations . 1aec.mea|(vei. (sces:.(.ea.scae(e
(aeiae((aa(:.(.aeceiaes aac eemo|e(es (ae am|.ea.(veia|||aa
eaaee. ~s (aeo:eeessei(aa(essea(.a|aaceeas(.(a.veeao


em|ec.mea(. ||se ae:eeve:va|se|a(e|v. cea|e|ee(.. . e. .
ae:e(:a(a. s iae(aa||vaaceea(.aeea(|vem|| v.(:a(a

eeas(.(a(ec .(eeac.(.easeso:ess.ea. . a. (s (a:a. asaaemo.:. ea|iae( .
1:a(a ceoecsea(ae oa:e oess.|. | . (v eisoea|.aeaac :.(.re.

|a(. s
.aceoeacea(eiaa(. s soe|eae::.((ea. .aseia:

as(aev a:e m (ae

e:|c ii. (ae:eie:e. (:a(asaae:s.a aac (a:eaea .(s| aaeaaee i:em a
ee:(a.aeaaaeea||eaess. .(sceaia||.|||e|essaia||(ea:c|aaeaaee
(aaaacee:aca(.ea.(a.a| aaeaaee.

r:em(aeaea..aeaee(|ecie:. (. sease.sea(ae:ecm(ea

s.ea. aac (ae s.ea|eeemes(aee:|c|vaacesoesec:es.ceaee

aa(aeaea((:a(a.weaaveo:ev.eas|vseea(aa((:a(aeaoe:ca:e. (a.s
av.(aea(|e. ae(aeaea(.aae(e:.aiae(aac(aa(. saa(:c.ea||v
emaae.oa(es(:a(ai:em a||emo.:.ea|sa|ee(. v. (v. a||iae(aa|| .e.

(ae ae|e :ea| e:|c. ~( (ae same(.me. maa s eemmaaa||eme . s
|. uec(eaae|eve| . i -1 ..(eaaaooea:..aeaee( . asa(:aaseeace(a|
eemmaa.(v.1aeaa(aea(.eae(ei:. (.ae. sa(:aaseeacea(a|:ecae(.e
oe:ie:mec|vaac(ea:c(aewe. na(s.aee. .ae:ce:(eeseaoee:|

aess seasemust i:s(be able (e|ese(cea. a(aee:|caac|eceoes.(ec
.asas.||e soa(.e(emoe:a|. (v. .(mas(oa(.(sp:.a(ea(

.eaa|. cea|. (v.

. . e . . .(s (:a(a sease. .a caaee:. 1aas a oess.|.| .(v. a.ea evea ae:e
Cf. LI, I, Prol. , 6, p. 60: "Science exists objectively only in its literature, ni in
written work has it a rich relational being limited to men and their intellectual atlvltIes:
in this form it is propagated down the millennia, and survives individual s, generatIons and
nations. It therefore represents a set of external arrangements, which , ju
st as they arose
out of the knowledge-acts of many individuals, can again pass over into Just such a
ct of
countless individual s, in a readily understandable manner, whose exact de
would require much circumlocution" (our emphasis) . On this level of anaiysl
s, which
above all should disengage the objective autonomy of signifcat
ion, th questIo I S cearly
that of "external arrangements": sensible exemplars on which neither the Ideahty of
sense nor the clear intention of cognition depends. But this fact neither prohibits nor contra
dicts at all the subsequent theme of writing as the intrinsic possibilit and intr.nsic c

of acts of objective cognition. The Origin maintains these two themes. That IS the difculty
we are striving to il l uminate here.
We take this word in the broad sense of sign-signifer or "sign-expression" (graphic
or vocal), the meaning that Husserl gives this term by opposing it to the " indcative" sig
(LI, I , 1 , 1 -5, pp. 269-75) . On the basis of this distincion, we ould Interpret the
phenomenon of crisis (which, for Husserl , alwas rfer
s to
a dl sord or I11?
ess of lnguae)
as a degradation of the sign-expression into a Sign-indIcatIOn, of a clear (klar) intentIon
into an empty symbol .
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
aeee:asea|v.(aemo.:.e.smaacaeaoa. | eseoav.aooea:s. aaoa.|ese
oava.ea. s.a(|eas(|eeaaseeiee:(a.ame(.n(aeeea(:a:veiemo.:. (ae oess.|.|.(v ei(:a(a s diappearance. weoa:oese| vase (ae
am|.eaeas e:c c. saooea:aaee waa(c. saooea:s .s aa( .s aaa. a.
| a(ec.|a(a|seaa(eeases..a(e:m.((ea(|ve:ceia.(e| v. (eaooea:inJact
ve(.(aea(aaee(.ae.(s|e.aee:| sease.1ece(e:m. ae(aeseaseei
(a.s c. saooea:aaeeei(:a(a. s(aemes(c.mea|(o:e||emoesec|v(ae
Origin aaca||eiuasse:| soa.|eseoaveia. s(e:v.ra:(
ea|vma|es(aa(eioaeaemeae|eev. (se|i:e(a:a.aa(. s(aeseaseei.(s veea(.ea.| |o:esea(|v:evea||e(aaemaea(ae
aa(ae:ei(ae Crisis as a s(:aaee: (e a. s(e:v e: ae iaacamea(a|| v
. aeaoa||eaeasei(a|.ae. ( se:.eas| v. aaca(aa(oe.a(. . a(aesame
memea( ae s(:. ves(e :esoee(a.s(e:.e.(v s ea oeea| .a: s.ea. | ea(.ea
aacoess.|.i .(vaac(:a| v(eoeae(:a(e(aem.
waa( (aea .s(a.soess. |. |.(veic.saooea:aaee:
i . ia(aei:s(o|aee.|e(as:a|eea((aeavoe(aes. seiadeath oj sense
.aeeae:a|.(a.a(ae. ac. v. caa|eease.easaess uasse:|e|ea:|vsoee.| es
.a(aeOrigin aace|seae:e (aa(. eaee sease aooea:ec .aeee |ee.ea|
eease.easaess. .(s(e(a|aaa.a.|a(.ea|eeemes. moess.|| e. ~sease(aa(
.(v eaa cea:e |e . sae( :e(aoec (e ae(a. aeaess|v(ae ra:i:em|e.aeaoaeaemeae|ee
.ea|ae(a. ae. (aeseea||ec' unconscious' ` e: ' universal substratum"
ae:e sease.sceoes.(ec.s a | .m.(meceeieease.easaess(FTL, o.
i C|ea:|v.a(a.s(voeeiaaa| vs. s.||ec.mea|
(.esa|:eacve. ea .uasse:|. sea|ve::.eca|ea((aeoe:maaeaeeaac
v. :(aa|o:eseaeeeisease.(a. a(aemeaac.esa|ee(.aacae(a|ea((ae
i:em(aa(sa|ee(. v.(v.Ne(a.sO|ee(. v.(v.sieaac(a:ea(eaecas(:a(a
. a(aee:| c. ProfoundJorgetJulness (ae:eie:ees(eacs.a(e(aesoaeesei
.a(e:sa|ee(.v.(vaac(aec.s(aaee|e(eeaeemmaa.(.es Forgetfulness
.s aa.s(e:.ea|ea(eee:v.
` I n Ideas I; in E; but above all in FTL ( i n terms which are literally taken up again in
the Origin) , cf. in particular Appendix I I , 2c, pp. 3 1 8-1 9.
On the naivete of the classic problems of the Unconscious and on the question of
knowing whether an intentional analysis can open a methodical access to the Uncon
scious, see " Fink' s Appendix on the Problem of the ' Unbewussten,' " i n C, pp. 385-87 .
Forgetfulness is a word that Husserl rarely employs in the Crisis; he never uses it i n
the first text of the Origin, perhaps because habit relates it very easil y t o i ndividual
consciousness or to its psychological sense: perhaps also because it can suggest an
annihilation of sense.
Jacques Derri
2.|]ee(.v.(v.eaaa|sein fact |e
ces(:evec. 1a.scaaee:. s.aae:ea(.a(aeiae(aa|e:|c|.aessei. ase:.o
(.ea.(se|i.aacae(a.aeeaaceia.(.ve|vo:e(ee(. ase:.o(.eai:em(a. s. i a
saeaacase, |eeaaseuasse:|eeas.ce:sseaseae.(ae:aa.a.(se|iae:a
oa:e so.:.(aa| .a(e:.e:.(v |a( aa e|]ee( (a:eaea aac (a:eaea. e
m.ea(i:s((a.a|(aa((aeie:ee(ia|aessa.eaie| |esaoea(aeces(:ae
(. eaeiO|]ee(.v.(v s eas(ec.a|s. ea[signe gardien] ea| cae(aaee(.as
. aa r| a(ea. sm e: ne:esea. sm (ae sa:iaee eia sease .(aea( sease.(se|i. saeaaie:ee(ia|aessea|cae(ea|vsao
o:ess(a. ssease|a(ea|caaa. a. |a(e.(.a(| a(aee:|c
(e a.ea .(s O|]ee(.v.(v .s ea(:as(ec. re: uasse:| e|ea:|v sa.c (a. s.
.aseia: as s.easeaa|e. mmec. a(e|voe:eeo(.||e |veve:veae. a(ae. :
corporeality; .aseia: as (ae.:| aac ee:oe:ea| ie:ms a:e a|avs
a||]ee(.veae:. zea.(aeaseaseeaa|eceoes.(ec(ae:e
aaceemmaaa|.zec[mettre en communaUf] . Ce:oe:ea|es(e:.e:.(vaa
cea|(ec|vceesae(constitute (aes. eaassaea|a(..aasease(aa(e
mas|ma|ee|ea:.. sindispensable (e.| .
Ye( (ae avoe(aes. s ei saea aiae(aa| ces(:ae(.eacees ae( . a(e:es(
uasse:| a| a| | . wa.|e eemo|e(e|v :eeeea. z. ae (ae (e::.iv. aereality ei
(aeea::ea|:. s|. aeea|cceav.(aav(a.a|a|| e. . . e. .aavoa. |eseoa. ea|
s.ea.| eaaee. Necea|(aeea|cacm.((aa(aaa. ve:sa|eearae.a(. ea.
a e:|c.ce|a:a.aeei|.|:a:. es. e:aea(as(:eoaeeimeaamea(se:
ceeamea(s .a eeae:a| ea|c. a(:. as.ea| | v:avaee |eaac ea|(a:a|
. cea|.(. es. aeseae(.eaeeve|eca|eve. nv(ae.:acae:eaee(eseme
iae(aa|.(v.(aese. cea| .(.es. in their ver sense, ea|c|eva|ae:a||e(e
(aa( e:|c|v aee. cea( Dea(a .s eess.||eie:(aem a|eae aac aas (ae
(:aaseeacea(a|s.ea. aea(.eae]as(aee:aa(ec.(. |a(ea|v.aseia:as
(ae |eaac . cea| . (v .s aa. ma(ec e: (:ave:sec |v a (:aaseeacea(a|
.a(ea(.ea.ea|v. aseia:as.(.sea. cec|v(ae1e| eseiaaa|se|a(
a.eaaasae(|eeaia| |va((a. aecua(| .|e(aa(a.eae:.ea(suasse:| s
:euee(.ea. seee.aea||v.(aeia||vi:eec.cea|.(vaaca|se|a(eO|]ee(.v.(v s (aemece| ). (ae(a:ea(eiaa.a(:. as. e
ces(:ae(.ea|v(ae|ecvei(aes.eaeaa|e:a|ecea( ~| |iaeaa|:.(.aes.
.aa.ea|:a(aeea|c|esec. mea(ec. . | | aeve:|eaav( a(aem
se| ves|a(seas.||eesemo| a:s. . ac.v.caa|evea(s. asoaeeaac|.me
.a.ea. sea|v(:ae(e+ ee:(a.ace.:eeie:|eaac. cea|. |. es. s. aee
(:a(a ceesnot essea(.a| |v ceoeac eaany of them, (aev eea|call |e
ces(:evec .(aea(eve:(a|.aethe ver sense of a|se|a(e. cea|.(v. ua
cea|(ec|v. a|se|a(e. cea|.(v ea|c|e eaaaeec. ma|.|a(ec. +ac eve:
(a:eain fact; ce:aaos.(ea|cc. s+coea:.aiae(i:em(ae sa:i+eeei
(aee:|c. |a| .(s seaseei|e.aeas(:a(a. a.ea.s ae(.a(aee:|c-
ae.|ae:.aea:e:|cae:e.aeaave(ae:-ea|c:ea. a.a(ae(.a.(se|i
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
i(s |e. aesease ea|c o:ese:ve .(s eaintrinsic a. s(e:. e.(v. . |s ea
.a(e:eeaaee(. eas. aac(aeea(as(:eoaeeie:|c|va. s(e:vea|c:ema.a
exterior (e.( .
1aa( .s aa( uasse:| meaas aea ae eooesesinternal e: .a(
(innere) a.s(e:.e.(v(eexternal (aussere) a.s(e:v.1a. sc. s(.ae(.ea. a.ea
aasea|vaoaeaemeae|ee.ea|sease.. i(ea|c|ei:a. (|ess
ie: a. m(e e|]ee((aa( a.s(e:.e.(v e:| s(e:v .s| v (ae
oess.|.|.(v ei|e.aeintrinsically esoesec (e (aeextrinsic, ie:(aea(ae
a. s(e:.e.(va|se|a(e|vo:eoe:(eaav(:a(a seaseea|c|em.
uasse:| s c. seea:seea|c|eo|aaeec. a(eaeeaias.eaeis.ea.iea(.eas
aac :ee.eas . we ea|c (aea |e aoa:e.cea|.(veaa |e
eaaaeec|va:ea|eaase .a.ea.s(e|esesease. iieeeme(:v.s(:ae. .(s
.a(e:aa|a.s(e:vmas(|e savec.a(ee:a||vi:ema| |seas. ||eaee:ess.ea.
s. aeeeeeme(:v.s(.ecae.(ae:(e(a. smemea(|cae:e.|a((ea||(aee:|c( Weltall) , ae(a. ae.| |
aacaa((aevaave|eeaaaea. a. c.seeve:.aeai:esa..(aea(aav(:aees
aacaue:(ae sa:eac.aeei(a. se:|cae:e(ae oa(as eiaaacvea(a:e
| . a aae(ae: :ea| a.s(e:v. i aeemoa:.sea . (a veritas aeterna,
aese o:eoe:a. s(e:.e.(vuasse:|.saes(ee:aso aac a|ea|a.eaae
soea|sme:eaacme:eeueaasa. s(aeaea(|eeemesa|| a:ec|va. s(e:v.
ae :ea| ceve|eomea(e(ae: (aaa (aa( ei(ae va:.a||eesamo|e.a(e:es(s
evease:veasa:eve|a(e:v| e(.ea.
1aas. esaea|c|ea||e(e:eoea(analogously (aeiameasaaa|vs.sei
see(.ea 49 eiIdeas i ' 1ae aaa|vs.s eeae| acec(aa(. ai:e: a ee:(a.a
e.ce(.e(:aaseeacea(a| :ecae(.ea. oa:e eease.easaess .s . a(aae. ||e.
evea aea (ae es. s(.ae e:|c .s aaa. a. | a(ece:iae(aa|esoe:.eaeec.s
se|vec (a:eaea.a(e:aa|eear.e(. . . . a(e.||as.ea(Ideas I, 49, o. 1 37
mec.ieci . uasse:|c. cae(c. soa(e(aa(aace:(aesee.:eams(aaeesa||
eease.easaessea|cin fact |eces(:evecaac(aa(.(se:|c|ves. s(eaee
The opposition between intrinsic penetration and extrinsic circumspection is al
ready announced in Ideas I, preci sel y concering the hi story of geometry. There Husserl
shows how psychologistic or hi storicist empiricism remains "outside" [ Derrida' s empha
sis] "geometrical thought and intuition, " whereas "we should enter vital ly into these
acti vi ti es and . . . determine their immanent sense " (25, p. 85 [modifi ed]). Once exter
nal hi story i s "reduced, " nothing i s opposed to the fact that thi s immanent sense may
have its own parti cular hi stori ci ty. The opposition between the two hi stories i s an expl i ci t
theme i n the Crisis ( see, for exampl e, 7, pp. 1 7-1 8, and 1 5, p. 7 1 ) , i n "Philosophy as
Mankind' s Self-Refection" (c, pp. 338-39), and above al l in the Origin.
l 0 l
P. 1 36. The movement i s taken up again i n CM, 7, pp. 1 7-1 8.
Jacques Derrd
(a. saaa|vs.saacie(.ea. s(eeso|.ea(ea:ecae(.eaa.eamas(:evea|(e
(ae(rkegion-(:aaseeacea(a| eease.easaess-(aeessea(.a|:e|a(. v.(v
ei(ae e:|c s sease .(ae e:|c | (ae (e(a|.(vei:ee.eas s.aee
mec.ive:sasoeac(ae(aes. seieach .(ae:eie:eeiall) eea(.aeea(es.s
(eaee aac eieach .(ae:eie:e eiall) (:aaseeaceaee. .(s ve:v sease . s
ce]a:eaaca|se|a(e|v. aceoeacea(ei(aeae|ee:|c.1aes.(aa(.eaei
(:a(a. oa:(.ea|a:|v ei eeeme(:.ea| (:a(a. . s aaa|eeeas. i( (ae:eie:e
o:eve|es(aesameeaes(.eas .
i aiae(. (a. se.ce(.e. aceoeaceaee. |:eaea((e| .ea(. aame(aece|ee.
ea|.cea|.sm|vaie(.ea.eaa|eeaes(.eaecas(e. (sva|ae|eveac(ae
memea(eiIdeas I; . e . |eveac(aememea((aee. ce(.e(:aaseeacea(a|
:ecae(.ea aas ae( ve( a((a.aec .(s iaa| :ac.ea|.(v aac. s o:ev.s.eaa||v
. mme|.|.zec. aeae:ee.ea.i aeaee(. (ae:ee.eaeioa:eeease.easaess.s
(ae:es. caeeia sasoeas.ea (aa(s(.|| :ema.asme:ee.ce(.e (aaa
Ye((a. ssasoeas.ea.a.ea(eacs(ec|seeve:(aeo:e(e:ee.easessea(.a|
s(:ae(a:es aac .s ee:(a.a|veeas(.(a(.veei(aee:|c. .s eeas(.(a(ec.(
se|i.~ac. asuasse:|.||sav. . (. sae((aea|(.ma(e (:aaseeacea(a|
:ee:ess.ea(ibid. , 8 1 , o.2 1 6) . 1 02 wea|cuasse:|aave]aceec(a. sie(.ea
va|.c(aememea(aes(|e..a(aeCartesian Meditations)
(aeeeae(.eeeas(.(a(.eaei(aeego . a(aeaa. (vei. (s a. s(e:v:
i a
aee:(a.aseaseeeaa savves 1a:eaea(ae se| .os.s(.eavoe(aes. s. a
a.ea(aeCartesian Meditations a:ei:s(eeaeaec. oa:eeease.easaess
. ss(.||eeas.ce:ecas(aa(a.eaaee:|c|viae(aa|.(veaaoeae(:a(eas
saea. as "a selfcontained nexus of being" (Ideas I, 49, o 1 39
mec.ieci . uacea|(ec|v. (ae .a(:aeee|ee.ea|sec.mea(a(.ea. (ae oe
(ea(.a|ev. ceaee.(ae :es. caes. aac(ae:eie:eaees

(aa((a. s a.s
(e:v ma|es aeeessa:v a:eea|vaae(e:|eisease . na(|v(ae.::e
o|aeea|. |.(v. .::eve:s.|.| .(v. aac.ava:. a|.| .(vei(ae.:.a(e:eeaaee(.eas.
a:e(aevae(a| se iae(s e:iae(aa| s(:ae(a:es.(a:esoee((ea.ea
s(:ae(a:es ce]a:e |a(.ea. (aeeve:(a:e. .aae:c.
(ae eemo|e(e va:.a(.ea eiiae(aa|.(v: ~s sease. ea|c (aev ae(|e
ma:|ec|vaee:(|e:|c(ea.eapast eease. eas
aess. s(.ec-aeease.easaess(. ec(ae:e|v. (sea.a(e:eeaaee(.easaac
s(:ae(a:a||v. mo| .ea(ec.aeve:vo:esea(eease.easaess:
I 02
These fi rst reductions lead us to "the very threshold of phenomenology" (Ieas I,
88, p. 237) .
' `` Already cited [see note 7 above] . Al so cf. on thi s FTL. Appendi x I I , 2h .
pp. 3 1 6-1 7 .
` `` Already cited [ see note 7 above] .
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
iae(aa| s(:ae(a:es . a(ae |.ie ei(aeego-i . e. , s(:ae(a:es |eaac (e
seme :ecae.||e eea(.aeeaev-aac ae(essea(.a| eaes :ecaeec(e (ae.:
oa:e .cea|.(v. 1ae aa.(v ei(aeego' s "histor" .s(aa( ei(aeeidos
"ego. " uasse:| s cese:. o(.ea meaas (aa( (ae essea(.a| ie:m eieve:v
.a(e:eeaaee(.ea. eve:vsec.mea(a(.ea. aac(ae:eie:eeve:va.s(e:v ie:
eve:vego .sse|isaue.ea(. w.(a.a(a.s)oeia. s(e:.e.(v(aa(
(ea((a.aasaa.ava:.aa( .a||iae(ea.s(e:.ea|.a(e:eeaaee(.easa:eva:.
a||e a(. ||
s. m.|a:|v.s. aee(ae.a(e:eeaaee(.easaacsec.mea(a(.easeieeeme(
:.ea|(:a(aa:ei:eeeia||iae(aa| .(v.aee:|c|vea(as(:eoaeeaaoa(truth
.(se|i.acaaee:.~||iae(aa|oe:.| .(ae:eie:e.s(eosa((ae(a:esae|cei.(s
.a(e:aa|a.s(e:.e.(v vea. ia||eeeme(:.ea|ceeamea(s -aacase|| .
aaevea(eieeeme(:vea|c|e(eeemm.(ave:v se:. easeeaias.ea
eiseaseaac(ea|c.ea(e:esoeas.|.| .(vie:a|| Oae
eaaae(eeme|ae|(ea| |(a.sev.ceaee.(aea(ma|.ae(aeseas.||e(ae
e:eaaceieeeme(:.ea|(:a(a aac. (ae:eie:e. .(aea(eaes(.ea. ae eaee
me:e(aeseaseeieeeme(:veeas(.(a(ecasaae.ce(.ese.eaee Ne(a.s
seaseasseea:e|vcee.cec.(a.a(aes(a(.eaaa| vses(aa(.asesa
a|eve. e:e (ae .ac.soeasa||eeaa:c :a.| s ie:a|| eeae(.e e:a. s(e:.ea|
3 . weea|c|eia||veeav.aeec..iae:e-as.a a.s s(a(.eaaa| vses-
uasse:|aaceeas.ce:ec:.(.ae(e|ea seas.||eoaeaemeaea na(c.c
eae(]as( iac ea( (aa( :.(.ae. .aasmaea as .(as .e:
eea(:.|a(.ae(e(aee:eaac.aeei(:a(a s a|se|a(eO|]ee(.v.(v.asae(
merely aeeas(.(a(ec seas.||e |ecv(Korper), |a( as a|se a o:eoe:|v
Neei(:a(a: ii:.(.ae .sboth aiae(aa| evea(aac(aeaosa:e.aeei
sease. .i.( .s |e(aKorper aaa Leib, ae ea|c :. (.ae o:ese:ve . (s
Leiblichkeit i:emee:oe:ea||. sae(ee. ae(e. mme|. |. ze
a. saaa|vs.s.(a.a(a.sambiguity, a.eaie: a.m .s ea|vao:ev.s.eaa|
aaciae(aa| eeaias.eaei:ee.eas 1aeoaeaemeae|ee.s(mas(c.sse|ve
(aeam|.ea.(v. . iaeceesae(aa((e|e:ecaeec(e eea. veea(.ea. (e
eaeese s. |eaee. e:(eo:ee.o.(a(eoaeaemeae|eev.a(ephilosophy. uas
se:| .(ae:eie:e .ma.a(a.asa. sc. ssee. a(.veaaa||a(es(ae
am|.ea.(v iae:ce:(ee:aso(aeaa(a:eei(aecaaee:(a:ea(
itsel .a.(seeas(.(a(.vesoeeeae::.(.ae. .ae:ce:ae((e|eave. a(e:
aa| a.s(e:.e. (|cea(ae.a(ea(.eaei:.(.ae.e:ei .a.(se|iaac .a .(s oa:.(v. .a a ae :ecae(.ea ae . (e
.se|a(e(ae.a(ea(.eaa|ae(a.eaeeas(.(a(esKorper as Leib aacma.a(a.a
(a.sae(.a.(sLeiblichkeit, . a.(s| sease saeaaaaaa| vs.sae
| eaee:aasaavaeeceiKorper assaea Oa|v.a(ae.a(ea(.eaa|c. mea
Jacques Derrid
s.eaeiao:eoe:| vaa. ma(e|ecv. ei(aegeistige Leiblichkit, me:eo:e
e. se| v. .a (ae Geistigkeit ei(aeLeib .(e (aeese|as.ea eia| | iae(aa|
ee:oe:ea| .(v . . s sease .a(||v (a:ea(eaec ~|(aeaea .a a word
[mot], Korper aacLeib, |ecvaacresa .a:einfact aame:.ea| | veaeaac
(aesamees.s(ea( .(ae.:seasesa:eceia.(.ve|vae(e:eeeaeeas. aacae
(a. aeeaaeeme(e(ae|a((e:(a:eaea(aeie:me:Forgetulness ei(:a(a
:esoeas.|. | .(v.a|aoseme:e(aaaaceiea(-aac(a.sie:ee(ia|aesseaa|e
mace(eaooea:.aoe:seaea|v ea(ae|as. s eiaa.a(ea(.eaa|a. s(e:v
r:em(aea c.saooea:aaeeei.a(e:sa|
]ee(.ve(:a(|eve. aa.s(e:.ea|ea(eee:v.forgetfulness
eaaaeve:(ae|ess|ecese:.|ecasaoaeaemeaeaei(aeego, aseaeei.(s
.a(ea(.eaa| ec.iea(.eas ~s. a(ea(.eaa|sease. eve:v(a.aeeaaaac
saea|c|ecese:.|ecea| vasamec.iea(.eaei(aeoa:eego, o:ev.cec(ae
seaseeieaeaec.| ea(.ea.s o:acea(| v:esoee(ec. asuasse:|(|e.|(eeas(.(a(.eaei(aealter ego.
wea|sesee(aa( .ie:(|aess. ||aeve:|e:ac.
ea| .aeeve:o:eieaac.(mav|e.aacseaseeaaa|avs.|eaac
ce]a:e .|e:eae(.va(ec
iaFormal and Transcendental Logic aac(aea .a(aeCrisis, | .aea. s(.e
e|]ee(.iea(.eaaacma(aema(.ea|svm|e| .za(.eae:e o:esea(ecas(ae
eeeas.ea ei (ae (eeaa.e. s( s aac e|]ee(. v. s( s a|.eaa(. ea. a.ea ce
e:acecse.eaee. a(eas|.||e:eame'1a.saeeasa(.ea.(a|eaaoaea.a.a
(aeOrigin, . sme:eoa:(.ea|a:|vc. :ee(ecaea. as((aeme(aece|ee.ea|aac
eoe:a(.ve (eaea. ae ei ma(aema(.es Oae |ea:as (e ase s.eas aese| sease .a.ea . s ae( a|avs |ae |ee.ea| sease (aa( .s
sec. mea(ec aac aeeess.||e (e aa explication) . s eeaeea|ec e: oe(ea
(.a| .zecaace:sec.ea(a(.eas 1ae| a((e:. a.eaa:eea| v.a(ea(. ease:
.a(ea(.eaa| seases mace ce:maa(. a:e ae( ea|vsuperimposed .a (ae
.a(e:aa||eeem.aeeisease.|a(a:eme:ee:| essv. :(aa| | vimplicated .a
(ae.:(e(a| .(v.aeaeas(aeee:s(eo.ia(aeOrigin, (aeae(.eaeiStufe aas
|e(aas(:ae(a:a|aaceeae(.eseaseaaceaa|e(:aas|a(ec|v s(eo e:
|v s(aee 1ae eee|ee.ea|. maee ei sec. mea(a(.ea (:aas|a(es :e
a:|a||ve||(aes(v|e ei(aa(. mo| .ea(.ea i(|:.aes(eee( a||
.a(ea(s aac oa:oeses. (ae ie| |e. ae . aees. 1ae .maee eilevel e:
stratum-what .s ceoes.(ec |v aa .a:eac e: a o:ee:ess.ea ai(e: (ae
:ac.ea|aeve|(v eiaa .::ao(.eae:upsurge: eve:vacvaaee. eve:v o:e
oes.(.ea(Satz) eiaae sease .sat the same time aleap (Satz) aac a
` `` Cf. in particular C, 9f On "meaningless signs" [signes depourvus de signifcation]
and "games-meani ng" [signifcation de jeu] , cf. LI. I , 1 , *20. pp. 304-06. On vocables
and real signs as "bearers" of signifed idealities, cf. E, 65, p. 268.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
sedimentar (satzartig) ia|||ae|eisease ~|se . (ae .maeeei(ae sa|
s(aa(.a|oe:maaeaeeeiaa(. s(aea'upposed e:situated under (aesa:
iaee eiae(aa|| vo:esea(ev. ceaee ~ac iaa||v. (ae . maeeei(ae eea
eea|eco:eseaee(aa(aa ae(.v.(veieseava(.eaeaaa|avs:eo:ecaee
a|eve e:eaac as (ae ieaaca(.ea. (aa( . s .(se|ie:eaacec. ei a. eae:
s(:a(.iea(.eas i(|:.aesa|| (a.s (eee(ae:. a(ae s(:ae(a:a|aacinternal
aa. (veiasvs(em.eia:ee. ea. aa.eaa||ceoes.(s..a(e::e|a(ec|a(
Ceai:ea(.ae sec.mea(ec sease. ea: i:s( caaee: . spassivity. ia (ae
Origin, uasse:|ce|| sme:eea(ae:eeeo(.veaeeeo(aaeeeis.eas-i:s(|e:|ee.ea|ae(.v.(v(aa(. s
ae(ea|vae(eea(:ac.e(e:v (e(aei:s(oass.v. (v |a(. ea(aeeea(:a:v.
saooeses. ( 1ae sva(|eas (ae s.ea (e s.ea.iea(.ea. s
i:s(. .aiae(. aeeessa:.|voass. veaacassee. a(.ve 1aeoess.|. | .(vei
e.v.aeav(e(| as(.aecaaee: na(ea|v
freedom eaa|e(.(se|i|e(a:ea(eaec. a(a.sav.ea:ea|avsi:ee(e
:eaa|eaaavoass. ve| v:eee.vecsease.(||. (sv.:(aa|.(.es.
aac(e (:aasie:m(aem|ae| . a(e(aeee::esoeac.aeae(.v.(v s(ae eaoae.(vie::eae(.va(.ea(aa(|e|eaese:.e.aa||v(e
eve:v aamaa| as a soea|.ae| ( 1 6) . nv(a. s :eae(.va(.ea.
a.ea. uasse:|s(a(es . .sae(.aiae( (aeae:maac.(aea(a.eaa
ee:(a.a eemo:eaeas.ea .s a|avs oess.|| e. i ae(.ve| v :eo:ecaee (ae|ev.ceaee .ima|emvse|iia||v:esoeas.|| eie:aaceease. eas
ei(aesease (aa(i (a|e ao Reaktivierung . s. .a (aecema.a ei.cea|
e|]ee(.v.(.es . (ae ve:v ae(eia||Verntwortung aaceia| |Besinnung, . a
(aeseasesceiaecea:|.e:Reaktivierung oe:m.(s||.ie.aace:
(ae sec.mea(a:v sa:iaees ei | .aea.s(.e aac ea|(a:a| aeea. s.(.eas. (ae
seasea:.s.aei:em. as(.(a(.aeev.ceaee1a.ssease.s:eaa. ma(ec|v(ae
iae((aa( i :es(e:e.((e.(s ceoeaceaeeeamvae|aac :eo:ecaee.( .a
mvse|isaea as.(aac|eeao:ecaeecie:(aei:s((. me|vaae(ae: Oi
eea:se.(aeae(. v.(vei:eae(.va(.ea.sseeeacwaa(.(e.ves|ae|(eme
l 0
This theme of passi ve synthesis is copiousl y explicated i n EJ and eM, but once
again it is in FTL that it i s particularly focused (as in the Origin) by the problem of the
sign and of the sedi mentation of ideal objecti vities. Cf. i n parti cular Appendix I I , pp.
3 1 3-29. On the sense of acti vities and passi vities in a phenomenology of reading as
outlined in the Origin, also see FTL, 1 6, pp. 56-60.
Of course, the themes of passivity and sedimentation, i . e . , of the potentiality of sense ,
deri ve all thei r seriousness from the fact that they are imposed on a philosophy of actually
present evidence whose "pri nciple of all principles" is the immediate and actual [en acte]
presence of sense itself. If reactivation is valuable and urgent, that is because it can bring
back to present and acti ve evi dence a sense which is thus retrieved out of historical
vi rtual i ty. If, on the surface, phenomenology allows itself to be summoned outside of
itself by hi story, i t thus has found i n reactivation the medi um of its fdel i ty.
Jacques De"id
|s(aee:|e.aa||vo:esea(|ve|a(a| (|ea.(aa(ei(aeeeeme(:|ea|ie:ma(|ea.
ie:esamo|ea|ea| s|e(aaaae(|v|(vaacaoass|v|(v.i i(a| sae(|v|(v|s
e:ec |s (aa(eie:ea(ecaaces(a|||saec|cea|ie:ma(|eas .
xeseeas||| ||(vie::eae(|va(|ea| saee:eseeas|||||(v. t(eaeaees(ae
eaeae:eee|ves .|a(a|seaaca:s(eia||(aeeaeaee:ea(esaac(aea
ese:esses(aeseaseie:sec| mea(a(|ease|||(e:a(eseaseea|v|aseia:as
(ae:ea:esa:iaeesava||a||eie:(a| s. 1aeequivocit eiese:ess|ea|s(ae
eaeseaae|ceisec|mea(a:vceoes|(s .1aa(.sav(aeo:|ma||v| as(|(a(
|aeeeeme(e:aac(aeseaeie| |eai(e:a|mmas(|eeeaee:aeca|ea(
(aeaa|vee|(vei| |aea|s(|eeso:ess|eaaaca|ea(seea:|ae. |vave:v
ea:eia|ee|a|aeeie:cs. o:eoes|(|eas.aaceemo|eseseio:eoes|(|eas.
( ae:esa|(sa|eaa:e(e|eaa. veea||veso:essec( 1 65 mec|aec .
uasse:| aeve: eeasec (e aooea| (e (ae |moe:a(|ve ei aa|vee|(v
ea|vee|(v|s(aeoa(aeia| | oa||eseoa|ea|a|e::a(|ea. i ( |sa| | (aeme:e
c|uea|(ae((e|eaas(v ae:e . as(ae sease eieea|vee|(v |aeeae:a| |s
|(se|ieea|veea| . 1ae:e |sacontingent o|a:|vee|(v e:ma|(|s|ea|aeaaee
aacaaessential eae. 1aese a:ea|:eacvc|s(|aea|saec|a(aeInvestiga
tions (LI, i . 1 , 26, o 3 1 4) . 1aea:s(ceoeacseaaae|]ee(|veeeavea
(|ea. (aas (aee:c cee s|ea|aes |e(a a(voeeiaa|ma| aac.|a
Ce:maaa(voeeiaeea. asec| am|aes . 1a|so|a:|vee|(vceesae(
m|s|eacaaveaeaacea:ea|avsi:ee(e:ecaee|(. 1aeseeeac|sei
To try to illuminate this point, we first would have to approach directly and fo itself
the difcult and decisive problem in phenomenology of activity and passivity in generl
on the basis of texts directly devoted to thi s (EJ, FTL, eM) . Such a study would perhaps
have to conclude that phenomenology has only argued with the arbitrary sense
[exigence du sens] of this couple of concepts, or indefnitely struggled with them, nael y,
wi th the most "irreducible" heritage (and indeed thereby perhaps the most obscuring
heritage) of Wester philosophy. In one of the fnest analyses where he works with the
concepts of passivity, activity, and passivity in activity, Husserl notes that the distinction
between these two notions cannot be "infexible, " and that in each case their sense must
be "recreated" according to "the concrete situation of the analysis, " as "for every
description of intentional phenomena" (E, 23 , p. 1 08) .
I 08
LI, I , 1 , 26, p. 3 1 4: "The class of ambiguous expressions illustrated by this last
example are what one usually has in mind when one speaks of 'equivoation' . Ambiguity
i n such cases does not tend to shake our faith in the ideality and objectivity of
signifi cations. We are free, in fact, to limit our expression to a single signification. The
ideal unity of each of the difering signifcations will not be afected by their attachment to
a common designation" [modifed] .
The purpose of univocity supposes, then, a decisive rupture with spontaneous lan
guage, with the "civil language " of which Leibniz used to speak; after that, "philo
sophical" or "scholarly [savant]" language can freely be given its own particular con
ventions. Does not the sentence just cited sound like the faithful echo of another sentence
of the Nouveaux Essais sur l' Entendement Humain, well known to Husserl and where
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
sa|]ee(.vee:|e.a. aac.(ceoeacseae:|e.aa||a(ea(.eas. eaa|avsae
ea(e: .a(e aaie:eseea||e eeaaea:a(.eas . 1a. s o|a:. vee. (v . s aa aa
ave|ca||e:a(ae:(aaaeaaaeeam|.ea.(vflurivocite], eae(aa(eaaae(|e
:emevec i:em ea: |aaeaaee |v aa a:(|ae. a| e: eeavea(.ea
(LI, o 3 1 4) .
ueeve:.(a|s|as(eea.vee.(v. saa(se|eaeeaacoa. |eseoav mas(
eve:eeme. i ( . s||e ea|v.a aa(a:a| |aaeaaee. | e . |a(ae
iae(eea|(a:a|oaeaemeaeao:eeec|ae(ae:ecae(.ea 1aa(uasse:|. sse
aas.eas (e :ecaee (ae eea|veea| sease eiea|(a:a| :evea| s a
aacasaceeoice|.(v(e(aeoa:eseaseeia|s(e:|e.(vOn the one hand, .a
eaee( . aa|vee.(v :emeves(:a(a ea(eia. s(e:v s :eaea ua. veea|ex
o:ess|ea eemo|e(e| v |:ea|s (ae sa:iaee aac eae:s ae ( |ae|
[rep/i] (e(aeme:ee:| essv.:(aa|s|ea|iea(|eas(aa((ae.a(ea(.easeea|c
ceoes.(a||a|eae(aeacvaaeeseia|aaeaaeee:ea|(a:e. 1aasuasse:| s
eeas(aa(assee|a(|eaeieea. veea|o:eeeec.aes. (a ae:.(|e.smei pro-
fundity |saace:s(aaca||e neeaase.(|:|aeseve:v(a|ae(ev.e|(a.a
ao:esea(ae(eiev. ceaee. |eeaase ae(a|ae. sa|cceae:aaaeaaeec|a
(aeoeaam|:aeioe(ea(.a||a(ea(|eas. |eeaase . (aas mas(e:eca| |(ae
cvaam|eseisease.aa. veea||aaeaaee:ema|asthe same. i((aas|eeos
|(s. cea| . cea(|(v(a:eaeaea(a| | ea|(a:a| ceve|eomea(. i(.s(aeeeac.
(.ea(aa(a| |eseemmaa|ea(|eaameaeeeae:a(|easei|aves(.ea(e:sae
ma((e:ae c|s(aa( aac assa:es(ae esae(|(ace ei(:aas|a(.ea aac(ae
Theophilus says: "i t depends upon us to fix their meanings [signifcations] , at least in any
scholarly language, and to agree to destroy this tower of Babel" (Book I I , Ch . i x, 9 [ET:
New Essays Concerning Human Understanding, tr. Alfred Gideon Langley (Chicago:
Open Court, 1 91 6), p. 373]) 7 This optimism i s only one of the afnities between Leibniz' s
and Husserl's philosophies of language: More broadly speaking, Husserl also very early
felt himself the heir to the Leibnizian conception of logic in general. Cf. notably LI, I ,
Prol . , 60, pp. 21 8f.
On this, cf. above all "PRS, " p. 1 44: "Profundity [Tiefsinn] i s a mark of the chaos
that genuine science wants to transform into a cosmos, into a simple, completely clear,
lucid order. Genuine science, so far as its real doctrine extends, knows no profundity. "
Husserl then proposes t o re-strike (umprigen), as i n the case of a currency rvaluation,
"the conjectures of profundity into unequivocal [German: eindeutige; French: uni
voques] rational forms" and thus to "constitut[e] anew the rigorous sciences. " Likewise,
Husserl ' s criticisms written in the margins of [Heidegger's] Sein und Zeit attribute to a
Tiefsinnigkeit the responsibility for the Heideggerian "displacement" toward what Hus
serl defnes as a facto-anthropological plane. Husserl prefers the value of interiority to
that of profundity or depth, interiority being related to the penetration of interal, intrinsic
(inner), i . e. , essential (wesentlich), sense.
Jacques Derrida
oa :.|v ei |:a!. |.ea | a e(|e: e:!s the other hlnd(| e e:v
eea(aa. ee.|v:eeessease-eveac(ae:eaeaeia. s(e:.ea|ec.i
ea(.ea..(a|eaeasesoa:ea. s|e:voess. -| e.. e .as(ae(:aas. ss. eaaac
:eee||ee|.ea[recueillement] eisease ua. ee.(vea|v. ac. ea(es(ae|. m
o. c. |vei||e |. s(e:.ea|e(ae: Oaeeaea. a. uasse:| s !eaa!ie: aa.
ee.(v .|.e| |e ie:a|a(ec -eie:e (aeo:ae(.ee ei|ae:ecae(. ea . s
|ae:eie:eea|v(ae:ecae|. eaeieo.:.ea||. s(e:v(ea:caoa:ea. s(e:v
ae| a :e!ae(.ea as| -e :eeeeaee! .aceia.(e| v. ie: |aaeaaee
ae.(|e:eaaae:saea| !-ea. a(a.aecaace:(aeo:e(ee(. eaeiaa. ee.(v
iia:ac.ea|eea. ee.(vo:ee|aces|.s(e:v..aeaee( . -vo| a(e
(|eaee(a:aa|aac . | |(|e:.eaesei -eaac .cea| . (. es. a-se
| a(|c.(se|iaaeaee(ae:eeaseeaeaee(aaa(es(e:.| .ze
e: oa:a|vze |.s(e:v . a(|e .ac.eeaee eiaa .aceia.(e .(e:a(.ea s.aee
eea. ee.|va|avse.ceaeesaee:(a.aceo(aeicee| eoea(aaceeaeea|
ea(eiaoas(. aac|eaeae. saes( eassaeaacinteriorize (|eee:v
eiaea|(a:e. aas. aceirecollection (Erinnerung) .a(|eueee| . aasease.
eaeaas. iae. ae(|.|aeeae.eeei(eeaceae:s Oaeea|c
:esem-|e(aa(eiamesevee.(e:eoea(aac(ase:esoeas. -.| .(vie:a| |
eea.eea(.ea.(se|i.a(. | .z.aea|aaeaaee(aa(eea|ceeaa| .ze(aee:ea(es(
oess.-|esvaea:eav.(|| aee:ea(es(oe(ea(.a|ie:-a:. ec. aeeaa|a(ec.
aac .a(e:eea .a(ea(.eas.(a.a eaea | .aea.s(.e a(em. eaeaeea-|e.
eaea e:c. eaea s.o|eo:eoes.(.ea. .a a|| e:c| vea|(a:es aac (ae. :
es( .aeea.easie:s .v(ae|eev. :e|.e.ea. se.eaees. a:(s. | . (e:a(a:e.
oe|.(.es. oa. | eseoav. aac se ie:(a ~ac. | .se evee. (a. s eaceae:
ea|c(:v(emase(aes(:ae(a:a|aa.(veia||eo.:.ea|ea| (a:eaooea:.a
(aeeeae:a|.zeceea. eea(.eaeia:. (.ae(aa(.ae|eaee:(:aas|a(.aeeae
| aaeaaee . a(e aae(ae: ea (ae -as. s ei(ae.: eemmea ee:eseisease.
e.:ea| a(es(a:eaeaea(a| ||aaeaaeesa(eaee.aeeama|a(es(ae. :eae:e. es.
ae(aa|.zes (ae.: mes(see:e( eeaseaaaees.|eses(ae.:a:(ae:mes(
eeea ae:.zeas . ea|(. a(es (ae.: assee.a(.e sva(aeses . as(eac ei
ae. c. ae(aem. aac:ec.seee:s(aeoee(.ea|aeeioass..(v i asae:(.
:a(ae:(aaaoa(.(ea(eio| av .(aeae(a(.eaa:ss. :a(ae:(aaa :e
caee. (. (a. s:.(.ae:ese| a(e|vse((|es. (se|iwithin (aelabyrinthian ie|c
eiea| (a:e-eaac-v.(seaeea.eea(.eas.. ae:ce:(e(:ae| (a:eaea
aac eso| e:e (ae as(es( oess.-|e a.s(e:.ea| c.s(aaee (aa( .s ae a( a||
Exactitude and univocity are overlapping notions for Husserl . Moreover, the exac
titude of expression will have as its condition the exactitude of sense. Geometry, the
model of the sciences whose objects are exact, will therefore more easily attain univocity
than will the other sciences, phenomenology i n particular. We will retur to this l ater.
About the relations between exactitude and univocity in geometry, also cf. Ideas I, 73,
pp. 1 89-90.
Introduction to the Origin of Geometry
1aee|ae:eaceae:. suasse:| s. |e:ecaeee:. oee:.s|eo.:.ea|
|aaeaaeeme(|ec.ea||v(e(aeoe.a(|e:e.|saa. eea|aac(:aas|a(a-|e
e|eea(s a:e ae(aa| |v (:aasoa:ea(. .a e:ce: (e :eae| -aesaac e:aso
aea.aa( .|s oa:esea:ee aa.s(e:.e.(ve:(:ac.(.eaa|.(v(aa(ae ceiae(e
a.s(e:.ea|(e(a|.(v. | | v.e|cei.(se|i1|. sa.s(e:.e.(ve:(:ac.(.eaa| .(v.s
a|avsa|:eacvo:esaooesec-vee:vOcvsseaa:eoe(.(.eaeievee s
(voe .as -va||philosophy ofhistor ..a(aeea::ea(seaseaac-vee:v
phenomenology ofspirit. 1aeesseaeeseiaa.(e(e(a|.(.esaac(ae(vee|
eeveiaea:esei(aese. :.(. | | a|avs-e. cea| .(.es(aa(a:e -eaac(e
ee.:.ea|a. s(e:vOa| v-vmeaaseia. s(e:.e. sm. s .(eess. -| e(e:ema.a
(ae:eaaceeaiase(ae. (a(aemevemea(ei(:a(a
l l l
na(uasse:| s o:e]ee( . as(|e (:aaseeacea(a| oa:a| |e| (e evee s.
saes(aesae:e| a(..(vevee so:e]ee(. a.eaa|seo:eeeececi:e
aee:( a.s(e:.e.smaaca. | |(eaasei:em(aea.e|(ma:e
ei |.s(e:v.
* ! ! 2
a. | |(eas(e: (aa(a.ea(ma:e.a a(e(a|aaco:esea(
:esamo(.ea. eea|c ea|v saeeeec -v a| |e((.ae .(s saa:e (e
ae(ae:.(.ea(c:ai:eae.eaaa. ee.(ve:(:v(eo:ecaeeaae(ae:
O( (aee:v(es(ei. (s:eoe(.(.eaea|caae-eeaaa.a(e|| .e.
-| e . a( |eas( .( ea|c |ae :ea.aec se ie:ee: aac ie:ee:veae uasse:| aac (eac.(aa .::ecae.-|e.|avs
:eaaseea(eea. ee.(v. a(eoa:e|. s(e:.e.(viaeaee( .a-se|a(eaa. ee. :v
.s. ae.aa-|eea|v. a(e| . m.(.aeeases First: saooese(aeces.eaa(ec
(| vaaa-se|a(e|vs.aea|a:. .mma(a-|e.aacaa(a:a|e-]ee(.
-a( a| se aa es.s(ea( aese aa.(v . . cea(.(v. aac O-]ee(..(v ea|c .a
(aese| es-eo:.e:(ea| |ea|(a:eNe.iesaooese(|a|saeaa(|. ae
e:oe:eeo(.ea es. s(s. |.aea.s(.e.cea|.(vaac .(s o:e]ee(
. e . (ae ae( ei |aaeaaee .|se|i. a(e:eae aac i:e (|e ea(se( o| aee
(aa( saooes. (. ea .aaea| (a:e. .aa ae(e:sei| .aea.s(.e :e| a(.eas aac
eooes|(. eas. a.ea ea|c |eac ae:c .(a .a(ea(.ease:. (a |a(e:a|
aac. :(aa|:e. aseeaees s(ae eeaeea(.a| a:seiee:v
ea|(a:e 1a.s i:s( avoe(aes.s eia aa. eea| aac aa(a:a| | aaeaaee .s.
(ae:eie:e. a-sa:caaceea(:ac.e(e:v
Second: .sae((ae:esa| ((aesame.i.a((aee(|e:oe|eei| aaeaaee.aa
a-se| a(e| v.cea| e-]ee(mas(-eces.eaa(ec:1a.s(.me. (ae eaaaeeie:
Husserl has always associated "Hegelianism" with "romantici sm" and wi th "hi s
tori ci sm, " to which romanticism is led when "belief" in its "metaphysics of history" has
been lost. (Cf. especially " PRS, " pp. 76-77. ) Was not the e xpression Weltanschauung
frst Hegelian? (Cf. on this J. Hyppol ite, Genesis and Structure ofHegel' s "Phenomenology
of Spirit, " tr. Samuel Cheriak and John Heckman [Evanston: Northwester Uni versity
Press, 1 974] , pp. 469-70. )
I I ?
James Joyce, Ulysses (New York: Random, 1 961 ) , p. 3 4 [ "Hi story, Stephen sai d, i s
a nightmare from which I am trying t o awake. "] .
Jacques Derrida
aa.vee.(vea|cae(|eeae:ec|vao:eea|(a:a| .|a(|va(:aasea|(a:a|
e|ee(. ie: esamo|e. (ae eeeme(:.ea| e|ee(. ia aav ease. aa. vee.(v
ee::esoeacs(e(aeve:v veea(.eaeise.eaee. uasse:|:. (es.a(aeOri
gin: ia aeee:c .(a (ae esseaee ei se.eaee. (aea. . (s aae(
ma.a(a.a (ae eeas(aa( e| a. m. (ae oe:seaa| ee:(a.a(v. (aa( eve:v(
(aevoa(. a(ese.ea(.ieasse:(.easaas|eeasa.c eaeeaacie:a|| . (aa(. (
s(aacsias(. ie:eve:.cea(.ea||v:eoea(a||e.asa||e.aev.ceaeeaacie:
va(ec.(a(ae. cea(.(vei.(seeaa. ae sease ( 1 65-66 mec.ieci .
na((a. s.cea(.(veisease.(aee:eaaceiaa. vee.(vaac(aeeeac.(.ea
ie::eae(.va(|avs:e| a(. ve. |eeaase.(.sa|avs.ase:.|ec.(a.a
ame|.|esvs(emei:e|a(.easaac(a|es. (ssea:ee.a.aia.(e|veoea
o:eee(eiaeea.s.(.ea. vea .i(aese :e| a(.eas a:e. . (a. aa se. eaee.
:e|a(.easeioa:e. cea|.(.esaac(:a(as. (aevceae(( ve:.
aav|ess(esemes.aea|a:o|ae.aes.aoe:soee(.ve[mises en perspectives],
semema|(.o|e.a(e:eeaaee(.easeisease. aac(ae:eie:esememec.a(e
aacoe(ea(.a| i i. .aiae(.eea.vee.(v. sa|avs.::ecae.||e. (aa(. s
|eeaasee:csaac| aaeaaee.aeeae:a|a:eae(ceaaaeve:|ea|se
|a(eobjects. ' 1aevceae(oessessaav:es. s(aa(aacoe:maaea(.cea
(.(v(aa(.sa|se|a(e| v(ae.:ea. 1aev aave(ae.:| . aea.s(.e|e.aei:em
aa.a(ea(.eaa.ea(:ave:ses(aemasmec.a(.eas.1ae same e:c.s
(ae:e|vma|eae:cs.ea.iea(.ve [signiant] . 1ae:e . sase:(eipure
eea.vee.(v ae:e. a.ea e:es .a (ae ve:v :av(am ei se.eaee. Cea
seeaea(|v. uasse:| soee.ies . a a ae(e (aa( (ae se.ea(.ie s(a(emea(.
.(aea( | eaes(.eaec aea.a as (e .(s (:a(a. a|avs
o:ev.s.eaa| .aac(aa(O|ee(.ve.a|se| a(e|vi:m|ae|eceeei(:a(a. s
aa.aia.(e.cea( 1 66) . ~|se|a(eaa.vee.(v. s.aaeeess.|| e. |a(ea|vas
aaicea.a (ae kaa(.aaseaseeaa|e. ii(ae aa. vee. (v .aves(.ea(ec|v
(aeva:e. (ae:eie:e. ae(sesymmetrically. re:(ae.:eemmeatelos, (ae
oes.(.ve va|ae eiaa.vee.(v. . simmediately :evea|ec ea| v .(a.a (ae
:e|a(.v.(v(aa(uasse:| vee.(|se(aea|se|a(eae:.zeaei
eea. vee.(v iae. v. ae.((aeseaseeiaa. aia.(e(as|. uasse:|ceesae(
ma|eaa|vee.(v.aseea|c|eiea:ec. (aeva| aeie:a|aaeaaee. moeve:
. saecaac (aas:emevec ea(eia. s(e:v s :eaea. xa(ae:. aa.vee.(v .s
|e(a(aeao:.e:.aac(ae(e|ee| ee.ea|eeac.(.eaie:a||a. s(e:.e.(v..(. s(aa(
I l3
That is why, as we noted above, Husserl could not inquire as to the absoLute ideal
Objectivity concering language itself, whose ideality is always that of a "thematic
index" and not a theme. This irreducible mediacy thus makes illusory all the safety
promised by speech or writing themseLves .
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
.(aea(a.ea(aeve:veea.veea(.easeiemo.:.ea|ea|(a:eaac a. s(e:v
ea|cae(|eoes.||e .
1aeo:e||emeiaa.vee.(veeaees. mmec. a(e| vaoea(aa(ei:eae(.va
(.ea.i(sseaema.s(aesame .ie:..(aea(am.a. ma|| .aea. s(.e(:aasoa:
eaev. ae :eae(.va(.eaea|c|e. mae.aa|| e. na(.iaa. vee.(v . s.aiae(
a|avs :e|a(.ve. aac .i.(a|eaeoe:m. (s(ae :ecae(.ea eia| |emo.:.ea|
ea|(a:eaaceia||sec. mea(a(.ea. .s(aeoess.|.| .(veiaoa:ea.s(e:vei
sease(e|ecea|(eccea:e:He:eoa:(.ea|a:|vs. aee. aue:aav.aeo:e
sea(ec (ae eaoae.(v ie: :eae(. va(.ea. uasse:| cees ae(ia.|(e as|(ae
se:.easeaes(. eaof itsjnitude. iaase. eaee| . |eeeeme(:v.aeseoe(ea
(.a|.(vie:e:e( .(. s.moess.||eie:eve:veeeme(e:.
a( eve:v . as(aa( aac eve:v(.meae :esames a.s (as| ai(e: aeeessa:v
.a(e::ao(.eas. (e oe:ie:m a (e(a| aac . mmec.a(e :eae(.va(.ea ei (ae
. mmease eaa. a ei ieaac.aes |ae| (e (ae e:. e.aa| o:em. ses ( 1 66
mec.ieci . 1aeaeeess.(vei(aese. a(e::ao(.eas.saiae(aa|eae. s|eeo.
o:eiess.eaa||:ea|s. aac seie:(a .a.ea aas aeseaseeemoa:ec.(a
eeeme(:.ea|(:a(a|a(.sae| ess.::ecae.||e(e. (.
~total :eae(.va(.ea.evea. i(aa(e:eoess.|| e. ea|c oa:a|vze(ae
.a(eoa|a.s(e:veieeeme(:vas(assa:e| vasea|c(ae:ac.ea|.moess.
|.|.(veia||:eae(.va(.ea.uasse:|. sae(e::.eca|ea((aa(.a((a. soe.a(
a(e(a|:eeaoe:a( s(.||ea|va(e|ee| ee.ea|ae:.zea. re:
aace:(aees(|ae(. v.(v|e.a(e:m.((ea(. s
a| sea.cceaaaessea(.a| aac.a(e:aa|aeeess.(v. s.aee aeo. eeeei(ae
eeeme(:.ea|ec.iee.sse|i same.ea(.aeimmediate :eae(.va(.ea.soess.
||e. eaaav|eve| . 1aa(. sav . uasse:|:ema:|s. (ae .ac.v.caa| aac
evea(aesee.a|eaoae.(v ie::eae(.va(.ea. seiaae|v.easia.(ace
( 1 68) . i ( . || a| avs||.(v.
1ae e|v.easaess [evidence] ei (aa( ia.(ace aac ei (aa( aeeessa:v
mec.aeveea|cs(amouasse:| s ae|eoa:oeseasaeasease. s. aee(aa(
ia. (ace. s.aiae(.::ecae.|| e. saea|c.(ae(
aac.(a.a(aeavoe(aes. seiaaa| |oee:ia| :eae(.va(.ea.aa(ea|c
eease. easaesseia. s(e:.e.(v |e: ~| se. ae cea|(. (aa( eease.easaess
ea|c |e ae( . i.( as :ac.ea| |v o:ea.|.(ec aeeess (e e:.e. as .
na(. se (aa( a. s(e:v mav aave .(s o:eoe:ceas.(v. mas(ae( (aea (ae
ca:|aessa.eaeaea|is (ae e:.e.aa| o:em. ses.. (eaa|e oeae(:a(ec
|a( ae( ea| v a.ce (ae iae( |a( a|se (ae . as(.(a(.ae
sease:~acmas(ae((aee:.(.ea| ie:ee(ia||e(aeia.(a
ia| saace. a (:a(a s acvaaee :a(ae: (aaa aa aee.cea(a| a|e::a(.ea:
1a. sc. s(. ae(.ea|e(eeaiae(aacsease.e:(aeceiae(eaac(aece a:e
na(ie:uasse:| .ase|ae.(aa(ia.(aceeaaappear|v.a.(s
Jacques Derrida a| .|vea|ve.ea|aeiceaeiaa. aia.|ea.s|e:v1aas . iaeec.|a
|aeia.|aceei:eae|.a|.ea.uasse:|ceesae|e.eao.asesasoee| .|ae
i:s|c.:ee|.eaeia. s. aes|.ea|. ea ueoes|oeaes|aeo:e||emaa|.|| a|e:
aac.a.|es h. .|aas| .ea(|vea.ema|.e|:e. |v.|eae|.ee|aa||ae:e
es. s(saa.cea| . za|. ea aame| v. |ae:emea|ei|.m.(si:emea:eaoae
.(v .aaee:(a.a sease.|s .aia.(. za|.ea ( 1 68) . ~ seeeaca:v.cea| .
eoe:a|.ea |aea eemes|e:e| . ee|ae:eae|.a|.ea|. | .(vei.|s ia.|ace
aac|e|s. (ee||eveac.|se|i 1a.s meemea|.saaa|eeeas |e|aeeea
s|.(a|.ea. ie: esamo|e. ei|ae aa.|vei|ae e:|c s .aia.|e ae:.zeae:
. |eveac|aeia.|e.a(e:eeaaee(.eaei:e|ea|.easaaco:e|ea|.eas|e|ie
eeas|.|a|.eaei(aee. ceaeeie:a|e|a|aa.|vei|ae.mmaaea(rasasaa
icea.a|aekaa|.aasease sa|a|eea|| .(a.smeemea|.saaa|eeeas
|e|ae o:ecae|. eaeieeeme|:v s esae|.|ace |aeoassaee|e|ae .aia.|e
| .m.(eiaia. |eaaceaa| .(a|.eseas.||e.a(a. (.ea s(:.e||vsoea|.ae.eea
ae:e .|. seeeme|:.ea| .cea|.za|.eaa.ea oe:m. |s.aia.||ae :eae
|. a|. e a|. | .|v we:|.ae .a(aec.aoaaaeasaess eioa:e . cea|.|v. (a. s
a|.|.(veas. |vaacce]a:e|:aase:esses.|s| .m.|s.a.eaa:e(aeaaeme:e
(aaa(aeaem.aa|| . m.|seioa:eiae|aa| .|v1a.s. cea|.za(.ea.a.eaaas
ie: .|s ee::e|a|e aa .aia.(e icea. a|avscee.s. e|v .a|e:eaes .a(ae
c.uea| | memea|s ei uasse:| s cese:.o|.ea 1ae oaeaemeae|ee.ea|
s(a|asei.(se. ceaee:ema. as:a|ae:mvs|e:.eas 1ae.moess.|.| .|vei
aceeaa(e|vce|e:m.|aeeea|ea|ei|a. si ceaceesae|
uasse:|savs.aIdeas I, |ae :a|.eaa||:aasoa:eaevei. ||ia|e.

mec.a(e| vaacassaeao:esea|. (se| a|a. |.ea saea|coese seme
se:.eas o:e||emsie: oaeaemeae|eev .o:e||ems s.m.|a: |e |aese. ie:
esamo|e .ei|aeeeas(.(a(.eaei(aealter ego |vaa.::ecae.||vmec.a(e
.a|ea|.eaa| .|v we.||eemec.:ee(|v|ae|(e|a. s|a|e:.aea|aeo:ec
ae|.eaeieeeme|:.ea|esae(.|ace|v.cea| .za|.ea.|||eea:eeaee:a~(
(ae o:esea(]aae|a:e. uasse:| o:e.s.eaa| |v ae:|s (a. s c. mea| (v ue
:.|es . 1aeoeea| .a:se:|eie.ceaee|e||esaea. cea| .za(.eas
. ||eeaee:aas|a|e:( 1 68 mec.iec
1aeeaoae.(vei:eae(. a(.eamas||aea|e(:aasm. ||ec.. ae:ce:|aa|
se.eaee ae| ceeav |a(e a (:ac.(.ea emo(.ec eisease ~s |eae as
! t +
Cf. Ideas I, especially 83, pp. 220-22.
Ibid. , p. 221 . [ I n hi s translation of the Origin, Derrida translates Einsicht by "evi
dence rationnel le . " In this he foll ows, as he says, the j ustifcation and practice of S.
Bachelard (see A Study ofHusserI' s Logi c, p. \ 0). This helps elucidate the phrase "l a
transparence rationnelle de son evidence" as a "translation" of "Einsi chtigkeit . " I n his
Guide for Translating Husserl, Dorion Cairs suggests the fol lowing: i nsi ght, i nsightful
ness, i ntellectual seenness, apodictic evidentness, evidentness. Note adapted by Tr. ]
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
se.eaeemeesaavi:em.(s|ee|aa.aesaac. |s|ee.ea|saoe:s|:ae|a:es
cavaea|ae a|. |. |v aaooeas|eia. |. uaie:|aaa(e|v |a. s.s ea:
s. |aa|.ea.aac|aa|ei|aeae|emece:aaee ( 1 69) . 1aeacaaeemea|s
eise.eaeeeaa|eoa:saec. eeaaea(ae seaseei.(se:.e.aaas|eea
| es| sa(|aea(aee:v|ee.ea| .(vei|aese.ea(.ieees(a:es. . mo:.seaec.a
mec.aev. |:ea|scea .a|ea se:|eieae.:.eaac.aaamaaa|sa:c.|v
D.cae|r|a(ecese:.|e|a. ss.(aa|.ea:wasae||aee|e:a.|veiesseaees
ie: a.m oe:aaos ea|v aae(ae: aame ie: a aeaemo.:.ea| a.s(e:.e. (v:
Ceeme(:vaac|aes(ac. es[sciences ] |aa|aeeemoaav. |a:ees.iecia:
i:em |ae.: iaacamea(a| .a|a.(.eas. 1aev a:e .aeaoa||e ei . s.ea
(idein) aac:.e|ec(e(aeavoe(aesesae|cas(ae.|es Ceaias. ae
svm|e|.(a(:a(a. |aev seem(eas|ec:eam(oromen os oneirottousi)
(Republic vi i .e 1ae:e|a:a.aea. :v.s|ae:eie:ea:eea||a:eae|
asaacie:as.|.||:eaa|ease.eaee|e. (|sease.. e .ase
|ae. .(siaa|sease
.||am.aa|eca|(ae same |.meas|aeeeac.(.easie:|ae|:ac.(.eaeise.
eaee. aeeae:a| ia e|| .m. aa:v eeas.ce:a(.eas. uasse:|
:eea|| s(ae.:esemo|a:vaacia| | va.s|e:.ea|eaa:ae|e:..a|aeseaseei
Historie) : e:vae:e|aeo:e||ems.(aee| aes|.ea|.eas. (ae
. as.ea|s .a(e|esa:ehistorcal (historsch) . o wes|aac.|aea.
.(a.a(aea.s|e:.ea|ae:.zea. aa. eaee:v| sa. s(e:.ea| .aeee:
|.((|eemav |ae a|ea|ce|e:m.aec(a. aes sa(|a. sae:.zeaaas .|s
essea|.a| s(:ae|a:e (aa(eaa||esec|a:eaea me|aec.ea|. aea.:v
( 1 7 1 -72 mec.iec
w.(a:esoee(|ee(ae:se. eaees. as.|a:esoee|(e|aee:|ceio:ese.
ea(.ieea||a:e. e|ae::e(a:as(e(ae.:e:.e. asa:e |ae:eie:eo:ese:.|ec
1aeva:ea|avsoess.||e .a|(aeaeaaso:e||ems|aev s|.| | :ema.a aa
as|ec. 1a.sie|cei.aea.:vaasae|.m. (s. s.aeea.s(e:.e.|vem|:aees
|ae .aia.|e |e(a|.|v ei|e.aeaac sease. Na(a:a| |v. o:e||ems ei|a. s
oa:(.ea|a:se:|. mmec.a(e|vaa|ea|ae|e(a|o:e||emei(aeaa.e:sa|
a.s|e:.e.(v ei (ae ee::e| a(. e maaae:s ei |e.aeeraamaa.|v aac (ae
ea||a:a|e:|caac(aeao:.e:.s(:ae(a:eeea(a.aec. a||v
( 1 72) .
' ' Plato, The Collected Dialogues, ed. Hamilton and Cairs (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, \ 96 \ ) , p. 765. The translation is that of Paul Shorey.
Jacques Derrid
~r(e: eoeaec a.s eaes(.ea a|ea( eeeme(:v (e .(s |:eaces(
ae:.zea. |a(||ae|(e(aece(e:m.aece:.e.aei(aa(se.
c.ame(:.ea||veooesecme(aece|ee.ea|e|] ee(.eas.
Ce:(a.a|v. (aea:s(ea|co:eeeeci:em as(aaca:ceo.s(eme|
eeo(s .s aa .ac.soeasa||e (as|. na( (ae:e. sae(a. aea.s(e:.ea|(e(aa(.
1ae.||as.eaeia.s(e:veaa|ee.vea(e(a. sa:s(e|]ee(.eaea|v|vve:|a|
e: svm|e|.e a| |as.eas (e seme aac.seeve:a|| e [ 1 72] |a( aa:c|v
mv(a.ea| 1aa|es . uasse:| a. mse|iaac aaac|ec (a.s e|ass.e e|]ee(.ea i oa:(.ea|a:. ae
a((ae|ecemo.:.e.smaaces(ena|a.s(e:v. ue ae:e]ee(s.(|eeaase
.( m.seeas(:aes . (sea s(v|e eia.s(e:.ea| .aves(.ea(.ea. a.ea .s as
interal aacaeaemo.:.ea|asoess.|| (aseia|(e:eea||(aa(aeve:aas
eeeme(:v:na((e:eaeaaeeiae(aa|a.s(e:v. sae(a(a||(eea(eaese|iea
i:em a.s(e:v.aeeae:a| . Oa(aeeea(:a:v. . ( . s(eeoeaeaese|i(e (ae
seaseeia. s(e:.e.(v. ~ac.aasea(eaeeaeses(:ess. a(|eas(. eea(:as(s
.(a (aa(eia.s ea:|v oaeaemeae|eev . |a(a.eaea|v eeaa:ms aac
ceeoeas. . (a aaacm.:a||eace|.(v. (ae. a.(.a|c.s(:as(.(a:eea:c(e
eeavea(.eaa|a.s(e:v . uasse:|soee.aes( 1 72-73) :
The ruling dogma of the separation in prnciple between epistemo
logical elucidation and historical, even humanistic-psychological
explanation, between epistemological and genetic origin, is funda
mentally mistaken [is fundamentally turned upside down: Derrida 's
translation], unless one inadmissibly limits, in the usual way, the
concepts of "histor, " "historical explanation, " and "genesis. " Or
rather, what is fundamentally mistaken is the limitation through which
precisely the deepest and most genuine problems of histor are
.s(e.aves(.ea(e(ae seaseei. (seemo|e(ea. s(e:.e.(v. r:em(a. siae(.
eve:v . a(:ase.ea(.ae eso|.ea(.ea. eve:v :e(a:a (e a:s( as. ems. (e|ev.ceaeesaac. as(.(a(.aeeeaeeo(s. .sa((aesame(. me a.s
(e:.ea| c. se|esa:e [ 1 73] . waa(eve:ea:.eae:aaee ea (ae sa|]ee(ei
I I 7
I n Ideas I, 25, pp. 84-86, will be found a long pissage i n which Husserl develops
on his own, and in curiously similar terms, the objection that he prtends to addrss here.
The confrontation of this text with that of the Origin can b rmarkably i l luminating as to
the sense and fdelity of Husserl ' s itinerary.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
ae(aa|a.s(e:v. e |aea prori (aa(eve:vea|(a:a| o:esea(.(ae:eie:e
1aeaa.(vei(a. saaeeas. ae(e(a|.za(.eaa.ea. sa|avs|:eaea(a|ea(
.a(aeie:mei(aea.s( r:. me:c.a|.a.(se|i[Primordial
e soiD |eacs as. .iee::ee(|v.aea.:ecei. (e (ae| ~o:. e:. ei
a.s(e:v.As(|eA|se|a(eaae|aaeea||e.a.(se|iei(aeL. v. aer:esea(. a
a.e.(. se:eaacec, (|ea. s( sa( a:s(s.ea(ea| v(ae.:
(:ac.(.eaa|. za(. ea.
1ae |. s( (aea. s(e:.ea|A|se|a(e~
(ae v.(a| evemea( ei (ae eees. s(eaee aac (ae .a( (des
Miteinander und Ineinander) ei o:. me:c.a| ie:ma(.eas aac sec.
mea(a(.eas ei sease (Sinnbildllllg [lind Sinnsedimentierllng] ) " ( 1 74
mec.aec .
ve:voa:(.ea|a:a.s(e:.ea|. aves(.ea(.eamas(ce]a:eae(e.(sme:ee:
|ess . mmec.a(e ceoeaceaee ea (aa( .as.ea( . a(e aoec.e(.e o:. ae.o|es
[evidence absolument principielle] . ~||aa|.(aa|iae(aa|a.s(
.aeemo:eaeas.|| e( 1 74) as|eaeas(aesea o:. e:.aaveae(|eeaeso| .
ea(ecaacas|eaeasiae(aa|a. s(e:vaasae(acao(ec. (sme(aec(e(ae
ae(.eaei.a( a.s(e:v. (e (ae ae(.eaei(ae .a(ea(.eaa| a.s(e:v ei
1a.s|eacsas(e(aeseeeac:.oes(e. (a. s(.mec.:ee(|a.s(e:v.1aeseaemaei( (.e. sm. saaa|
eeeas(e(aa(a.eaaace:|.esra. | na(
(ae a.s(e:.e.smuasse:|aea((ae|s. ceso.(eama.(.eseeaaee(.ae.((e
D.|(aev s (aee:vei(aeWeltanschauung, seems(eaave ame:ee(aae
see.e|ee.ea| . a me:emodern s(v|e. ~ac ae:e aa( uasse:| aa(s (e
:es(i:ema.s(e:.ea|:e|a(. v. sm.s| ess(ae(:a(ae:.cea|ae:mseise.
eaeeaacoa.|eseoav(aaa(aeao:.e:.eia.s(e:.ea|se. eaee.(se|i.
ia eaee(. e(aae|ee. smse(s(ae a|aacaa(ma|(.o| .e.(vei(es(
a((es(.ae(aa(eaeaoeeo|e.eaea(:.|e. eaeaaamaae:eaoaas. (se:|c.
.(sao:.e:. . .(s e:ce:..(s|ee.e . .(sa.s(e:v.|a
o:.e:. . (ae aaeeac.(.eaecaacaoec.e(.es(:ae(a:es . (ae aa.(a:ve:eaac
eia.s(e:v. saeaasuasse:|meaas(ecese:.|e(aem.
Ne. on the one hand, (aeseaa.moeaeaa||e(es(.mea. esceae(|e
| .e |a(. ea (ae eea(:a:v. o:esaooese (ae s(:ae(a:e ei(ae aa. ve:sa|
ae:.zeaaac(ae ao:.e:.eia.s(e:v (aa( uasse:| ces.eaa(es . (aeseo:e
` Naturally, it is a question, as Husserl clearly states, of the hi storic Present in
general as the ultimate universal form of every possible historical experience, an experi
ence which itself is grounded in the Living Present of egological consciousness.
Moreover, Husserl emphasi zes i n a footnote [ 1 74] that all of intrinsic hi story passes
through the intrinsic history of the totality of individual persons.
Jacques Derrid
saooes.(.easea|veaases.aea|a:aacce(e:m. aecao:.e:.(e |ea:(.ea
|a(ec (ae:e. a i(sauees. (aea. (e :esoee( (aesea:(.ea|a(.eas aac (ae
ao:.e:.(e(aeao:.e:||a. s(e:|e.(v.On the other hand,
(aeiae(s. a.eaa:e(aas. ave|ec(esaooe:((a. s:e|a(. v. sm.eaa|e
ce(e:m.aec asee:(a.aa.s(e:.ea|iae(sea|v .iseme(| . |e a. s(e:.ea|
(:a(a . s ce(e:m.aa||e . aeeae:a| . xaa|e s ae .( :ea||v as
| :-i . (ae a|(.ma(e:eie:eaeeie:a| |iae(aa|a. s(e:v.o:esaooesesas. (s
ae:.zea a a.s(e:.ea| ce(e:m.aa|.| .(v (aa(eve:v emo.:.ea| se.eaee. |v
.(se|ia|eaeaacassaea.. soee:|ess(ee:eaac.|v. eaeec
a.s(e:.e. sm. .(. seaeaea(aa((aee|a.mei(ae. :iae(aa|.(va|:eacvo:e
saooeses(aea. s(e:.ea|ao:.e:..i(a. se|a.m.s(eaaveaavsease. | :-
iae:ce:(e|ea||e(ees(a|| . saiae(sasiae(sof a.s(e:v. emas(
a|avs a|:eacv |ae aa( a. s(e:v . s aac aace: aa( eeac.(.eas-
eeae:e(eeeac.(.eas-.(|s oess.|| e. we mas(a|:eacv|e eaeaeec .a a
o:eeemo:eaeas.eaeia. s(e:.e.(v. . . e. . ei(ae .ava:.aa(seia.s(e:v (aa(
|aaeaaee. (:ac.(.ea. eemmaa. (v. aac se ie:(a a:e. ia e:ce: ie: (ae
e(aae|ee.ea| iae( (e aooea:. e(aae|ee.ea| eemmaa.ea(.ea mas(a|
(aeoess.|.|.(. es.|| aaeaaee.1aee(aae|ee.s(
mas(|esa:e .aoec.e(.ea||v. (aa(other meaa|seaeeessa:.|v| .ve.(a.aa
sa:e.a|se. eiaa(a||(aa(meaas.aeeae:a| ta(aea|(. ma(e:eeea:se..(
. saeeessa:v(e|ae(aa((aea. s(|-(ae.::eaae.
|| eie:meieve:va.s(e:.ea|esee:.eaee-. s(aee:eaaceia| | a. s(e:.e.(v.
aac(aa(t eea|c a|avseeme(e(e:ms .a (a. s r:esea(. (a (ae mes(
c.s(aa(.(aemes(c. ne:ea(e(ae: ueeve:s(:aaee(eeaeae(ae:(e
mea mav |e. (aev a| avs a:e aaae:s(aaca||e-a( (ae | . m.(-.a (ae
eemmeaa| . (v ei(ae. :i. v. ae r:esea(. aa. ea(aea. s(e:.e r:esea( . s
:ee(ec 1aa( eaea ei(ae.: iaacamea(a| r:esea(s . s. also, ma(e:.a||v
ce(e:m.aec |v .(s .ase:(.ea.(a.a(ae iae(aa|eea(ea(eia (:ac.(.ea.
see.a|s(:ae(a:e. |aaeaaee. aacseie:(a. (aa(eaeacees ae(aave(ae
same seaseeea(ea(. (a. s .a ae av aaee(s (ae eemmeaa|(v ei(ae.:
ie:m 1a.s|ie:m. a.ea. s(ae mes(prmordial aacconcrete
|.vec esoe:.eaee. .s saooesec |v a|| | 1a. s ie:m a| se
seems(e|e(aeiaa|:e(:eaeamea(.(ae:eie:e(aemes(responsible seea
I I !I
Some analogous developments will be found in the Vienna Lecture, "Phi losophy
and the Crisis of European Humanity, " i n C, p. 296.
1 11
Introductin to the Origin of Geomet
:.(v. eieve:v oaeaemeae|ee.ea| :ecae(.ea ia (a. s a|(. ma(ejurdical
instant [instance] .s aaaeaaeec(aemes(:ac.ea|aa.(vei(aee:|c.
1aas eve:vo:e||emeia.s(e:.ea|iae(s .ave|vesa.s(e:.ea|.ava:.aa(s
(ae ve:v memea((ae o:e||emaa(ae:.zes aee:(a.arelativism. 1 20 1ae
|a((e::e(a.asa||.(sva|ae.o:ev.cec.(s|eve|eimateriality aac.(sao:.e:|
eeac.(.eas a:e aoo:eo:.a(e|v ce(e:m. aec. 1ae oa:( ceve(ec (e :e
| a(.v. sm.a (ae ee|e|:a(ecie((e:(e i-vvn:aa| eaa|e .a(e:o:e(ec. a
(a. sav r:em(aa(|e((e:.:.((eaavea:ea:|.e:(aaa(aeOrigin, e

. a|. ea (ae eea(:a:v. (aa( uasse:| :eaeaaeec(ae a.s(e:.ea| a

o:.e:.c.seeve:ec|v. mae.aa:vva:.a(.eac:eeeea.zec (aa((aeoa:e
oaeaemeae|eev eia. s(e:vaac(eesoee(seme(a.aee(ae:(aaaesam
o|esi:em(aeeea(ea(ei(aeemo.:.ea|se.eaees. e(aae|eev. aoa:(.ea|a: .
1a.s.sae(a||v(|eaarea(vo:eoesec taa|e((e:(e
i-vvn:aa|a.eaaas|eeao:ese:vec. uasse:|seems(eacm.((aa((ae
iae(s ee |eveac aa( e . aac (aa( (a.s oe.a( |ea:s a :ea|
s.ea.ieaaee. i( .sas|i(ae. mae.aa(.ea.|eu(e.(se|i..saaa||e(e:eo:e
sea((ae oess.|.|.(.eseies.s(eaee a.eaa:e:ea|.zec ea|
(a:es. . . . uasse:|sa(aa(. (. soe:aaosae(oess.|||.ve
. aee:(a.aa. s(e:.ea|(:ac.(.eas. (eeeaee.veei(aea.s(e:.ea|oess.|.|.(vei
(aeseo:.m.(.vemea|vame:eva:.a(.eaeiea:. mae.aa(.ea.
Historical relativism is now no longer dominated at one stroke by a
mode ofthought which would have all the keys ofhistory and would be
in a position to drw up a table ofall historical possibles before any
factual experimental inquir. On the contrar, the thinker who wishes
I 20
Is it necessary to underscore that the question here is not that of a criticism of
historical or socio-ethnological science as such? Husserl simpl y wants to cal l the problem
back to its presuppositions. Phenomenol ogy, whi ch alone can bring them to light as such ,
at times has been, moreover, taken up by the researchers themsel ves wi th various de
grees of explication.
This precaution had been formulated as an hommage to history as human science i n
"PRS, " p. 1 29.
I i
Letter of March I I , 1 935. Husserl there speaks notably of the "indubitable legiti
macy" that "historical relativism" involves "as anthropological fact" (our emphasis)
and of the possible and necessary task of a comprehensi ve Einfiihlung with respect to
pri mi ti ve societies that are "wi thout history" (geschichtlos) . [A great deal of this letter i s
availabl e i n Merleau-Ponty' s articl es cited beiow. See notes 1 22-1 25-tr. ] He insi sts
v igorously on the fact that the rights of relativi sm thus understood are preserved and
"conserved" by "the i ntentional anal ysi s" of transcendental phenomenology.
Cf. "Phenomenology and the Sciences of Man, " pp. 90-91 . The sae interpretation
is presented i n Merleau-Ponty' s article, "The Philosopher and Sociology, " i n Signs, pp.
98-1 ] 3.
1 12
Jacques Derid
to dominate history in this way must learnfrom the facts and must
enter into them . . . . The eidetic ofhistor cannot dispense with
factual historical investigation. In the eyes ofHusserl, philosophy, as a
coherent thought which leads to a classication offacts according to
their value and truth, continues to have its fnal imporance. But it
must begin by understanding all lived experences. (Our emphasis)
i ssaeaaa.a(e:o:e(a(.ea]as(. iec:
1aeea|v:e|a(. v. smuasse:|ae|ae|eceesasva|.c. s (aa(a((aeaec(e
a.s( aa(a:eoe|ee.ea| iae(s assaeaaac .a(ae.:iae(aa| .(v uas
se:|aeve:eea(es(ec(a.sva|.c.(vevea. a ra.|
eaee. 1aea. s(e:.ea| ao:.e:. (e a.eaae aac a|avs aooea|ec.aac
me:eaacme:e .asama((e:eiiae(e:eaeve:o:esea(ec..(
|evseia.s(e:v e:asa(a||eeia||a.s(e:.ea|oess.||es|eie:eaav
iae(aa|esoe:.mea(a|.aea.:v. ~acs. aeea.s(e:vaac(aea.s(e:.ea|oes
s. ||es a|ea(a.ea He:|eaarea(v soea|s:eo:esea( (aema(e:.a| aac
ce(e:m.aeceea(ea(eia. s(e:.ea|mec.iea(.eas. . . e. .(aeiae(aa|oess.||e
:ea| . zec. asaeaaacsaeaa see.e(v. ea|(a:e. eoeea. aacseie:(a . (e
.a(e:o:e(uasse:|. a(aea|evemaaae:. s(ease:.|e(ea.m(aeo:e(ea
s.eaeicecae.aeiae(aa|.(v.(se|ia priori. weeaaae(s(eo. (a saea a
avoe(aes. s. a.eaeea(:ac.e(s (ae ve:v o:em. ses eioaeaemeae| eev.
uasse:|aacea|(ec| v(aeaea((aa(a||eia.s(e:v sce(e:m.aecoess.||es
oess.||eea| (a:e.eve:voess.||e|aaeaaee.eve:voess. ||e(:ac.(.eana(
aeve:c.caec:eam(eie:esee .|vsemee .ce(.ececae(.ea.a| | (aeiae(s.
a||(ae oa:(.ea|a:oess.|| es a.ea mas( eeaie:m (e (aese a o:.e:. ei|a. s(e:.e.(v.
na(ae((ececaeeiae(aa|.(va prori, .s(aa((e | ea:ai:em(aeiae(s :
Ne( aav me:e. .i (aa( s.ea. ies (aa( e.ce(.e .a(a.(.ea. ||aave (e |e
a|aaceaec-evea o:ev.s.eaa||v-aac iae(s asec e( (aaa as
esamo| mae.aa:vva:.a(.ea.1aeoa:oeseei(aeva:.a(.ea(eea
a.eae. ae.ce(.e:eac.aeaacaeve:|eea(eesaaas((aema|(.o| .e.(vei
oess.||eiae(s ea(aeeea(:a:v.(ae(eeaa.eaeeveaaas(aeo:.v.|eeeei
|e.aea||e (e e:|ea ea| veae ei(aese oess. ||es .a aa esemo|a:v
eease.easaess[conscience d' exemple] . 1aas. (a. s(eeaa.eae aas aeve:
aac (|a.s(e:.ea|. aves(.ea(.ea .
e:a(|eas(. .i.(cees(a. s. .(. sae(|vo:e( sa|s(.(a(eie:(ae
a.s(e:.ea|. se|.(a:v:eree(.eaeia
a. s(e:.aa. .(|vde jure o:eeeceseve:vma(e:.a|a.s(e:.ea|.aves
(. ea(.eaaacaasaeaeeceiiae(sassaea(e:evea|(e(aea.s(e:.aa(ae
ao:.e:.seaseeia.sae(.v.(vaace|]ee( s. 1ece(e:m. ae(a.
l 33
Ibid. , pp. 9 1 -92 [modifed] .
I ?4
Ibid. , p. 92.
1 13
Introductin to the Origin ofGeometry
uass:| .se|!((|eaeaes(.eaei||vaace:s(aac.aea||| .vec

e:eaees. eia| e:|.m.(.ae(ae (eeaa.eae ei. mae.aa:v

va.uea. (a

a (ae|a((e:.s eso| .e.(|vaaci:eeaea(|vo:ese:.|ec.a(ae


lgm, awn(ae(aa

(eaa|eeeas.ce:eceaeeiuasse:| s |as( re:a.m.


s(eeameae:emaas(aeme(|(a.a a
a. e:sa|aaca| seisecao:.e:.ei(aea. s(e:. ea|e:|ca.ea. s a| avs
enema| |veeaa. ae( 1 77) .
ra:ae:ea. ae savs. e a|seaave . aac |ae (aa( e aave . (ae
eaoa..(veie?moe(ei:ecem(e(:aasie:m. .a(aeaea(aacoaaa(asv.
ea:aaa a.s(ene|ex.s(aee. . . . ~aco:ee. se|v.a(a. sae(.v.(vei
i:eevanauea.aaca:aamae(a:eaea(||eoess.|.| .(.esie:
(ae|.iee:|c.(|iev.ceaee. aaessea(. a||v
eeae:a|se(eie|emea(seeae(a:eaeaa||(aeva:.aa(s . 1ae:e|ve
aave :emeveceve:v|eac(e (aeiae(aa| |v va| .c a. s(e:.ea| e:|c aac
a ree
:cec(a. se:|c .(se|ime:e|vaseae ei(ae eeaeeo(aa| oes
s.|.|.(.es ( 1 77) .
ue:eea. a. ecea?(. .

mae.aa:vva:.a(.eaaac(ae:ecae(.eade facto

(ae.:s(a:(aeoea(aiae(aa| .(v na(aea.a (aev :e(

?a|v.(sesmo|a:.(vaac.(sessea(.a|s(:ae(a:e..(soess.|.| .(vaacae(
.(siae(aa| .(v.
ii(e csev:vei(aeao:.e:.s(:ae(a:esaac(ae.ava:.aa(
sa|a.s(e:...(v .s

me(aee!ee.ea||v aac]a:.c.ea||vi:s(. (a. sc.seeve:v


as ae(aae-(a.s . sev.cea( . aaci:s((e uasse:|-a|ea(eaea

:ea| see.e(v s e:eaea:ea|a.s(e:.ea|memea( s eaa:ae(e:
o:eoesecie:(aese.e|ee. s( se:a. s(e:.aa s ae(.v.(v 1ae:eie:e. . (aas
eie(ae:esoeneaeesaace.v. |.za(.eas|vaoa:e|v. mae. aa:vva:.a(.eaei
eae s eaesoe:.eaees

Neve:(ae|ess. .iie:ea||e(eeeas(:ae((ae seaseeie(ae:esoe

neaeesaace. v.| .za.eas . a(aa(maaae: .iea|
(aeva:ealso esoe:eaesaace. v.|.za(.eas. aacae(ae(aeva:edef
ent. i ae:ce:(ea((aa(a.sseaseeiever e. v. |.za(.eae:ever esoe:.eaee.
1 25 Mereau-Ponty, "The Philosopher and Soci ology, " p . 1 07 [modifed] . Always
commentlfl on the same letter, Merleau-Ponty wri tes: "Here he [ Husserl] seems to admit
tat the philosopher ou
ld not pos
sbly have immediate access to the universal by refec
tIon alone-that he s H no posItIon to do without anthropological experience or to
onsruct wha c?nstItuts the meaning of other experiences and ci vilizations by a purel y
Imagmary varIatIon of hI S own experiences" (p. 1 07) .
I n e
rleau-Ponty' s Phenomenology of Perception [ t r. Col i n Smith ( New York:
ss, 1 962)] .
the wol e l ast period of HusserI' s thought was already i nter
preted as t
Cl tly [ break n] Wlt the phi losophy of essences, " a rupture by which
Hussrl as merely explICItly laYIIg down analytic procedures which he had long been
appl ymg' ( p. 49) .
1 14
Jacques Derrid
i. | | a:s(aave(e:ecaeeaa((ae:e. s eimy own ..a(aeiae(aa|sease.
eieea:se.a(aeexoe:.eaeeaace. v. | .za(.eai:ema.eai .aiae(s(a:( .
Oaee(aa(seaseei(ae exoe:.eaeee: e.v. |.za(.ea.a eeae:a|aas |eea
macee|ea:. ieea|c|ee.(.ma(e|v(:v(ece( |e(eea
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isaea|ca|aaceaeve:ve.ce(.ea((.(acei:em(aa(memea(ea. w.(a. aa
maeae:ea(e:iae(aa|ce(e:m.aa(.ea. e(ae::ecae(.easa:es(.||oess.|| e
aacaeeessa:v.:ecae(.eas(aa(mas(|eo:acea(| va:(.ea|a(
(e (ae.: cee:ee eieeae:a| .(v. ceoeaceaee. aac se ie:(a. ve( a|avs
:esoee(.ae. as uasse:| soee.| es .a (ae Origin, (ae :a|e ei(ae s(:.e(
sa|samo(.ea | ei(aes.aea|a:aace:(| .iao:eoe:(.ea
(e (ae .ae:ease ei ma(e:.a| ce(e:m. aa(.ea. :e|a(.v. sm ex(eacs . (s
:.ea(s. |a(.s. aee.(. sceoeacea((e(aea.eaes(cee:ee..(.||aeve:|e.
as uasse:| ae(es .a (ae same |e((e:. (ae |as( e:c ei se. ea(.ae
Ce:(a.a|v(ae e:|ei(ae a.s(e:.aa. see.e|ee.s(. e(aae|ee.s(. aac se
ie:(aeeas(.(a(esa|.acei:ea|.zec. mae.avva:.a(.ea.a(aeeaeeaa(e:
.(aiae(aa| (a. s|.aceiva:.a(.eaeaa|easecc.:ee(|vie:
aeeess(e(aeeeae:e(|eemoeaea(seisee. a|.(ve:a. s(e:.e
.(v s.aee (aese . ava:.aa(s .| | (eaea as ae( a|ea( (ae
emoa(a.ze (einzufuhlen), as uasse:| sa.c(e i-vvn:aa| . na((a. s
emoa( lung) , as(aeiae(aa| ce(e:m.aa(.ea
eaaae(exae(|v. as(.(a(ese.eaeece]a:e. Einfuhlung .(se|i. s oess.||eea|v
within aacby virtue ei(|s(:ae(a:eseisee.a| .(vaac
a.s(e:.e.(v. i(saooesesaa.mmec.a(e(:aaseeacea(a|eemmaa.(veia||
a. s(e:.ea| e. v. | . za(.easaac(aeoess. |.| .(veiaaEinfuhlung . aeeae:a| .
ia (ae ma(e:.a| ce(e:m. aa(.ea ei a. s(e:. e.(. es. Einfuhlung, me:eeve:.
s(:.e(|v eeaie:ms .(a (ae me(aec ei a|| a.s(e:.ea| oaeaemeae|eev.
s.aee.(oeae(:a(esa. s(e:.ea| s.ea.| ea(.easi:em . (a.a aac ma|es(ae
external .aea.:vceoeaceainternal . a(a. (.ea.
na(. (aea. ae cee:eeeae.|e(ae am:ma(
a.s(e:.e.(v .s aaessea(.a|s(:ae(a:eei(ae ae:.zeaie:a||aamaa.(v .as
e||asie:eve:veemmaa. (vaac(aea|| as. ea(e(ae aeaa. s(e:.e.(v
(Geschichtlosigkeit) eiee:(a.aa:eaa.e see.e(.es : 1a. saeaa.s(e:.e.(v
seemsae((e aaveaav oa:eaaca|se|a(e s.ea.aea(.eaie:uasse:|. i (
ea|cea|vmodiy (aeao:.e:.s(:ae(a:eeimaa|.ac|a. s(e:.e
.(vemo. :.ea||ve:ma(e:.a| | v. i(ea|cb (aeie:meia.s(e:.e.(v(aa(. s
ea|v o:eoe:( eaa. (e see.e(.eseae|esec. a(ae.: | ee|ecae:.zeas-
see. e(.esasve(:emeveci:em(ae.::ao(.eaei(ae a:eoeaai ceaei
I ?6
Letter already cited.
1 15
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
(ae . a| a.(e(as|aac (:ac.(.ea 1ae. : s(aeaa(.ea ea|c ae( |e (ae
me:e a|seaeeeia. s(e:.e.(v |a( a|.ac eiaa.(ace .a(aeo:e]ee(aac
:eee||ee(.eaeisease 1ae:eie:e .aacea| v.aeemoa:.sea.(a(ae.a|
.(eaacoa:ea. s(e:. e.(vei(aeEuropeaneidos, cea:eaa.esee.e(.esseem
.(aea(a.s(e:v. ia(aeCrisis, me:eeve:.uasse:|ea| v:eeeea.zesaa
empirical (voe .a(aesesee.e(.esa.eaceae(oa:(.e.oa(e.a(aea:e
oeaaicea. Neaa.s(e:.e.(v.(aea.ea|cea| v|e(ae|ee:|. m.(meceei
emo.:.ea|a.s(e:.e.(v 1aeam|.ea.(veiaaexample a.ea. sa(eaeeaa
aac.s(.aea.saecsample aaca(e|ee|ee.ea|model . ss(. ||ieaacae:e ia
(aea:s(sease.. aiae(. eeea|csav.(auasse:|(aa(eve:veemmaa.(v
. s.aa.s(e:v.(aa(a. s(e:.e.(v. s(aeessea(.a|ae:.zeaeiaamaa.(v..aseia:
as (ae:e .s ae aamaa.(v.(aea(see.a| .(v aac ea|(a:e. r:em(a.soe:
soee(.ve . aav see.e(v a( a| | . a:eoeaa. a:eaa.e . e: seme e(ae:. eaa
se:veasaaexamo|e. aaae.ce(.e:eeeea.(.ea na(ea(aee(ae:aaac.
a:eoeaas(aeo:. v.|eeeei| example, ie:.(.aea:aa(es. a
.(s oa:.(v (ae 1e|es eia| | a.s(e:.e.(v.|.(v. ema.(emoe:a| .(v.
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oa:eaac. aaa.(eoess.|.| .(veia. s(e:.e.(v .a:eoeaasaa|eaeca.s(e:v
(e.(seao:eoe:eac.1ae:eie:e..a(a. sseeeacsease.oa:ea.s(e:.e.(v
.s :ese:vec ie: (ae a:eoeaa eidos. 1ae emo. :.ea| (voes ei aea
a:eoeaasee.e(.es. (aea.a:eea|vmore or less a.s(e:.ea| . a((ae|ee:
|. m. (. (aevtend toward aeaa. s(e:.e.(v.
1aasuasse:| .s |ec (e c.s(. (ae e:. e.aa| .(v eiva:. eas |eve|s
within (aemes(|eidos eia. s(e:.e.(v. iaave:v|:.eii:aemea( .
aese .aso.:a(.ea .s ve:v s. m.|a:(e (aa( ei(aeOrigin, uasse:|ce(e:
m.aes (a:ee s(aees e: s(eos eia.s(e:.e.(v ia o:eoe:(.ea (e (ae ac
a.s(e:.e.(vassamese:ea(e:oessess.eaei. (seaesseaee . r.:s( .(ae:e
ea|c |e a.s(e:.e.(v .a (ae mes( eeae:a| sease. as(ae esseaee eia||
aamaaex.s(eaee . .aasmaeaasaamaaex.s(eaeeaeeessa:.| vmeves. a
(aeso.:.(aa| soaee eia ea|(a:e e:(:ac.(.ea. 1ae.mmec.a(e|v a. eae:
|eve|ea|c |e (aa( eia:eoeaaea|(a:e . (ae(aee:e(.ea|o:e]ee(.aac
oa.|eseoav 1ae (a.:c |eve| . aaa| | v. ea|c |e eaa:ae(e:.zec |v (ae
eeave:s.ea ei oa. |eseoav .a(e oaeaemeae|eev"1 27 1aas. a( eaea
' ` "Stufen der Geschichtl i chkeit . Erste Geschichtlichkeit . " 1 934. Bei lage XXVI . in K,
pp. 502-03. El sewhere Husserl writes i n t he same vei n: ' " Human l i fe i s necessari l y, i n the
main and as cul tural life, hi storical i n the strictest sense. But scientifc l i fe , life as the l ife
of a man of sci ence in a horizon of a communi ty of men of science, si gifi es a new kind of
hi storici ty" (Beilage XXVI I , 1 935 , in K, p. 507) . Al so see "Philosophy and the Cri si s of
European Humanity, " in C, p. 279. Husserl speaks there of a "revolutionization of
historici ty. " [ I n the versi on that Paul Ri coeur translates (see note 1 49 below) , the li ne i s
rendered: " ' revoluti on i n the heart of hi storicity, " the emphasis by Derrida. ]
Jacques Drrid
s(aee,(ae:eve|a(. eaa.eaeve:(a:es(aeo:ev. easo:e]ee(|
.(.za(.ea .s ea|v (ae sease.aves(.ea(.ea ei a a. ccea .a(ea(.ea.
.He:eeve:,(|eaeeeieve:vsease.aves(.ea(.ea(eaa. aaa.(.za
(.eaeaa|eoes.(ecasaoaeaemeae|ee.ea|:a|e. Oa(ae e(ae:aaac,
(aeva:eae(. aiae(mataa||vexe| ae(ea|vce(aeveeex.s(. a(ae
e:| c, |a(eaeaac(ae same see.e(veaama|e (aemeeaa|i(.(a.a
.(se|i,.a(aecm e:ea(.a(ecaa.(|(aae.(v.
i( .s (aea s(:a.ea((ea:c(ae e. ce(.e.ava:.aa(saac (ae (e|ee|ee.ea|
a|se| a(eseia.s(e:.e.(v(aa(uasse:| s:eree(
aacdynamic c. ae:ea(.a(.eaei(aese. ava:.aa(smas(ae(| ese s.ea(ei
(aa(iae( . (a.|v(aes.ea(aa((ae.ava:.aa(sof
a.s(e:.e.(v, (aeesseaeesof |eeem.aea:e :ea| | v.aeaes(.eaae:e. we
eea|c (aea |e (emo(ec |v aa .a(e:o:e(a(.eac. ame(:.ea| | veooesec (e
(aa(eiHe:|eaarea(vaacma.a(a. a(aa(uas:| ,
oaeaemeae|ee.ea| oa:ea(aeses (e a.s(e:.ea| iae(aa|.(v aace: a|| . (s
ie:ms, |eavesa. s(e:vme:e(aaaeve:outside (aem. weeea|ca|avs
sav (aa( , |v ceaa.(.ea aac | .|e a|| eeac.(.eas eioess. |. |.(v, (ae . a
va:.aa(seia.s(e:v(aas (:ae|eccea|vuasse:|a:eae(historical . a
(aemse| ves . we ea|c (aea eeae| ace, | . |e wa|(e: n.eme| . (aa(
uasse:| s essavs a.ea (:v (e e:aso a. s(e:.e.(v (aema(.ea||v eaa |e
eeas.ce:ecasia.|a:es .
na(aa(ea|ca.s(e:.e.(vaacc.seea:sea|ea(a.s(e:v|e,i aeaeei
(aese .ava:.aa(s e:e oess.||e: ia e:ce: (e soea| ei ia.|a:e . a (ae
(aema(.za(.ea eia.s(e:.e.(v , mas(e ae( a|:eacvaave aeeess(e aa
.ava:.aa(aacme:ee:|ess(aema(.eseaseeia. s(e:.e.(v:~ac.sae((aa(|vaa(.saaaeaaeec.auasse:| s |as(mec.(a(.eas,. aeem
ii(ae(aema(.za(.eaei(aeaoec.e(.e. ava:.aa(saacei(aea.s(e:.ea|a
o:.e:.asa(iaa|(, ea|cae((aa(|e.aeemoa:.sea.(ahistor :a(ae:
(aaa .(a historicity? 1ae ia.|a:e ea|c (aea |e rae:aa( .i, a( seme
memea(, uasse:|as(e|eeeme.a(e:es(ec.aseme(| .|ea. s(e:v.
I ?8
"Les Phases decisives dans Ie developpement de la philosphie de Husserl" (al
ready cited [see note 5] , in Husserl, Cahiers de Royaumont, p. 58) . [Thi s comment is only
found i n the French version of this essay. J Walter Biemel very accurately sees the Crisis
as a work of old age too easily interpreted as a turning point in Husserl' s thought, despite
the profound continuity which unites it to his previous i nvestigations. At the end of this
valuable lecture-while underscoring Husserl ' s fi delity-the author recalls the discom
fort of Husserl who, in "an entire series of manuscripts from group K III , " "asks himself
why philosophy should need history" ( in The Phenomenology ofHusserl, ed. Elveton, p.
1 67) . And in Beilagen XXV and XXVIII of the Krisis, Husserl asks himself in particular:
"Why does philosophy need the hi story of philosophy?" ( in K, p. 495), and: "How is
Hi story Required?" ( in K, p. 508; i n C, Appendix IX, p. 389).
Introduction t o the Origin of Geometr
ue aeve:seems(ea

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|e(e aave cese:.|ec, .aa o:eoe:|vtranscendental s(eo ..a aseaseei
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(aeva:eexoe:.eaeec[vecues] aace:(aeie:meihorizon.
1ae ae(.ea ei ae:.zea .s ae:e. ae:.zeaeease.easaess,
ae:.zeaee:(a.a(v, ae:.zea|ae|ecee, saeaa:e(ae|eveeaeeo(s
ei(aeOrigin. ue:.zea. se. vea(ealived ev. ceaee,(eaconcrete |ae|
eceea.ea, uasse:|savs, .saeve:|ea:aec[ 1 76] , a.eaaeemo.:.ea|
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.ae (ae (e(a| .(v ei oess.||e a. s(e:.ea| exoe:.eaees. ue:.zea . s (ae
a|avsa|:eacv(ae:eeiaia(a:ea.ea|eeos(ae.ace(e:m.aa(.eaei. (s
. aaa.(eeoeaaess. a(ae(.evea(aeaea(a.sia(a:easannounced (eeea
se.easaess . ~s(aes(:ae(a:a|ce(e:m.aa(.eaeieve:vma(e:.a|.ace(e:
m.aaev, aae:.zea. sa|avsv.:(aa| |vo:esea(.aeve:vesoe:.eaee .ie:. (
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~i(e:|:eacea.aea. s:eree(.ea(|ace(aeo:e||ems|
a. s(e:.e.(v,uasse:|aa::es(aeae|ceia. saaa|vs. saaceemes|ae|(e
(aee:.e. aeieeeme(:v.i aaieoaees, aeoa(sie:a:c(aemes(eea
e:e(ecese:.o(.easei(a.s(es(. Cemmea(a(e:saavemes(euea:e(a. aec
(aese cese:.o(.eas|eeaase, .asae:(, asuasse:|a.mse|iaace:see:es.
(aevee|eveacie:ma|eeae:a|. (.es [ 1 77] aac. s(a:(.aei:emaamaa eeas(.(a(.eaeieeeme(:.ea|o:e(e.cea|.(. es. a
1ae oes(a:e [situation] ei(a. saaa||vo:ese:.|ec
|v(ae|ea:.aeei(aemec.(a(.ea, ceso.(e. (s:a(ae:i:ees(v|e .~sea:e (e see, .(s eea(ea( .s |essaeve| .a uasse:| s e:| (aaa a(a:s(
aooa:ea( . ~i(e:aav.aece(e:m. aec(aeeeac.(.easie: (:ac. (.eaa|.(vin
generl, e aave (ae :.ea( (e :e(a:a (e one ei (aese (:ac.(.easa.ea]as(amemea(aee asaaesemo|a:vea.ce. saes( a
.(se|i.~i(e:aav.aeaxec(aeseaseaac(aeme(aecie:all eaes(.ea.aeei, eas|a eaes(.eaa|ea(a|e e:.e.a. Oa(aee(ae:aaac,
eeeme(:v aas|eea :eeeea.zecas a(:ac.(.eaa| svs(emei.cea|e|]ee
(.v.(. es. Ne.a.cea|e|]ee(.v.(v,|e(aO|]ee(.v.(vaac. cea|.(vmas(|e
Jacques Derrid
aeeeaa(ecie:. ceso.(e(ae.:ceeo:ee(ec.a(e::e|a(ecaessaac(ae.::e
e.o:eea|eeac.( (aeveaa|eseoa:a(ec ~aa| vzecin general aac
ae(aseeee(:.ea| .as.a(aei:s(oa:(ei(ae(es( . .cea|.(veaee(.ve| v
ea(e:s.a(e(:ac.(.ea|v. (se|]ee(.| ea(.eaaac(aaseaa|ei:eec.eaa|e
aaaceceve:weeaea( .(aea.(e|ee.a.asuasse:|cees|vaeeeaa(.ae
ie:O|]ee(.v.(v. . e . (aea. s(e:.e.(vei.cea|e|]ee(.v.(v.aeeae:a| 1ae
|aaeaaee .:.(.ae. (aeeaoae.(vei:eae(.va(.ea. aaciaa| |v(ee(aec
1aaa|s(e(a. se(aec. a.ea a|eae eaa||eseeo:eaeas.eaei(ae.a
va:.aa(seia.s(e:.e.(vin generl .(aaaaoec.e(.eee:(a.a(v.eeaaae
:e(a:a.(a. ss.ceeise.eaee(e(ae.ava:.aa(sof (aeo:ese.ea(.iee:|c
ea (ae|as.seia.eaeeee(:.ea|o:e(e.cea|. (. esaave|eeao:ecaeec
aaces(a||.saec 1aas. ai(e:aav.aeceiaec(aeeeac. (. easie:(ae O|
]ee(. v.(v ei .cea| e|]ee(s. e eaa (:v (e cese:.|e (ae eeac.(.easie:
eeee(:.ea|.cea|.(v.(se|i. |v aae:ecae(.eaeieeas(.(a(ecse. ea(.ie
O|]e:(. v.(v aac a||.(s a. s(e:.e.(v a:|.e:. .( .|||e:eea||ec.
uasse:| as|ec|i. aeeea|c. cea| sease. already constituted . a
sa|]ee(.ve.aaeaee .|ee|]ee(.veaaceaeaeec.aa.s(e:vaac. a(ae
eveea(ei.a(e:sa|]ee(.v.(v:ueaeas|sa. mse|
easeea( .eea|c.cea|.(v.(se|i|eeeas(.(a(ec:
1aeaeeess.(vei(|ae|[recursion] (a:eaeaase:.esei
z. ezaes sees (e ea.ce uasse:| aea ae :.(es . 1a:eaea (a. s
e(|eveac(aeie:a|eeae:a|.(.eseesa.|.(ecea:|.e: .e
(aa((ae e:.e.aa| ieaace:eieeee(:v aaca(a. sc.soesa| . (aa(a.ea
as(aavese:vecas(aea(e:. a|ie:a. s.cea| . za(.eas ( 1 77) .
r.:s( . e as( ce|..((aese s(:ae(a:es ei (ae o:ese.ea(.|e e:|c
a.eaeea| 1a.scese:.o(|avsoess.||e.
s.aee (ae s(:a(a ei(ae o:ese.ea(.ie e:|c .s aeve: ces(:evec. ae:
ce| a.(.ve|veeaeea| a(ae(aace:(ae
ce(e:.aec |v (ae .cea| esae(.(aceeise.eaee ~ac.
eve:(ae|.iee:||(seise. eaeeaas.(sieaaca(.ea
eisease.a(a.s. mmec.a(eesoe:.eaeeaac.(see::esoeac. aee:|caac
:eie:s|ae|(e.( i(. s(a:eaea(aeea:|ei.ceas(aa(e(a|eie:(:ae
se.aeaa(. sae(aa||vae(aec
' \ 29
pp. 44-45 , in a paragraph which concers precisely geometry' s ideal exactitude.
The same image is used in C (9h : " The life-world as the forgotten meani ng-fundament of
natural science, " p. 5 1 ) . Husserl ' s ambiguous attitude before science-which he val ued
utmost as project and l east i n i ts superstructural precariousness and ability to conceal
refects the very movement of the "historical" constitution of sense: creation which
discloses and sedimentation whi ch covers over i mpl y each other.
1 19
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
1ae:eie:e ..(. so:eoe:(e:ecaee(ae.cea|sec.ea(a(.easeise.eaee
.ae:ce:(ec. seeve:(ae aa|ecaessei(ae o:eeeee(:.ea|e:|c 1a.
ae "epoche" ei (ae e|]ee(.ve se.eaees. (ae o:e||e ei a.ea .s
ceve|eoec.a (aeCrisis, .s c.mea|(ie:seve:a| :easeas.
I \
1 . 1ae|:s(c.iiea|(v.s(aa(eieve:v:ecae(.ea. .(as(|e|eo(i:em
|e.aeaie:ee(ia|aessaac aaeea(.ea. a sa|(:ae(.eae:ceva|aa(.eaei
aa(.(e(aec.ea||vcesec.ea(se:aea(:a| .zes
2. ~s(ae:ecae(.eaeie|]ee(.ve esae(se.eaee.(a.saeepoche as(
ae(eaase as(e :eaeaaee a||se.ea(.ieaess 1ae(aea(.za(.ea ei(ae
Lebenswelt mas(|ese.ea(.ieaaca((a.a(e(aeao:.e:.a.eaa:eae
|eaee:(aeaa|.(aa|eaesei|ee.eaace|]ee(.vese. eaee 1 31 uasse:|er(ea
o:esea(s(a. sas aoa:aces . (aeLebenswelt, (aeo:ee|]ee(.vesoae:e
ei sa|]ee(.ve:e|a(.ve s.ea.iea(.eas.| . aaeeac.(.eaec
s(:ae(a:e .as(:ae(a:eo:ese:.|ecie:.(sve:v:e|a(. v.(v
\ `\2
|ee.eaace|]ee(.vese.eaeea:ea|se:ee(ecaace:eaacec .a(aea
o:.e:.ei(aeLebenswelt (C, 34 e , o 1 30) . wea:eeeaiaec|vaa. ve(-(e
(aeie:e:aac|eo(.eae:aa(ei(ae.: sease:e|a(.ea(Sinnbeziehung)
(e(ae|.iee:|cw.(aea((|a(.ea.(aeva:e . a. ca.:
(ibid. , 36, o 1 4 1 ) .
3 . r.aa||v. .(. s ae( saiie.ea((e c.sse|ve aa(uasse:|ea|| s. .a(ae
|aaeaaeeeise| zaae.(ae(:a(aseise.eaee. (:a(as.a(aese|ves
(ibid. , o 1 30) ; eas(eea(.aaa||vma|eo:e||ea(.e(ae:e| a(.eaei(ae
Lebenswelt ' s sa|]ee(.ve:e|a(. ve (:a(as aac se.eaee s e|]ee(.veesae(
(:a(as 1ae oa:aces ei(ae.: a(aa| . a(e::e|a(.ea a|es |e(a (:a(as
ea.ea(.ea(eaee(ibid. , o 1 3 1 ) . ia(ae. aseea:.(vei(a.sea.ema. . a
(|. |.(vei(aesoaee|e(eea(aese(e(:a(as. (aeepoche as(
|es(:e(eaec|e(eea(aearche aac(aetelos eiaoassaee 1etruths,
(aa(eidoxa aac(aa(eiepisteme, aeseseaseaacao:.e:.a:eae(e:eee
aeeas .a (aemse| ves . :ea.a .a(e::e|a(ec (Aufeinanderbezogenheit)
(ibid. ) . se.eaee s (:a(a .a . (se|i .s ae( aav |ess (:a(a-) (ae
sa|]ee(.ve:e|a(.ve e:|c. .a a.ea .( aas .(s |ases Ne cea|( (ae:e
es. s(s a|v saoe:ie.a| |ase|essaess(Bodenlosigkeit) : (aa( ei(ae
:a(.eaa|.s(saac(ae(:ac. (.eaa|se.ea(.ie. aves(.ea(e:saemeveaaeea
s(:a.aec.a(aea(esoae:eei(ae|ee.ea| aace|]ee(.veao:.e:.aacce
Cf. notably 33 to 39, pp. 1 2 1 -48, and the related texts appended there.
` Ibid. On the difculty and necessity for a sci entifi c thematization of the Lebenswelt.
cf. (33] , p. 1 22. On the di stinction between the two U priori, cf. above all ( 36] , pp.
1 37-4 1 . I n the Origin, "logic" always has the sense of the "sedimented. "

Ibid. [37], pp. 1 42-43 . On the structural permanence of the presci entifc l ife-world,
also cf. [9h] , p. 5 1 .
Jacques Derrid
ae(:e|a(e(aem(e(ae. :a.s(e:.ea|e:eaac.a(ae|.iee:|c.1aevae.(ae:
e::va|ea((ae. :earesponsibility ae:as|(aemse|ves . what

m I in the
process of doing? Nor: from where does that come? na((ae

eIS, aae(ae:]as(asse:.eas. |a(.(aame:e mece:as(v|e.
iaac.(ve: ceo(a aac ae( eisaoe:ie.a|.(v. .(eeas. s( s.a :eceseeacme
(ea:c (ae o:ese.ea(.ie oe:eeo(.ea .(aea( ma|.ae o:e||ema(.e (ae
(:aase:ess. ea ( Uberschreitung) (ibid. , 36, o 1 39 1. sa:oass
. ae ei(ae|.iee:|c s (:a(a(ea:c(ae e:|cei(:a(as. a (aem
se|ves 1ae:e(a:o(e(aes(:ae(a:eseio:ese.ea(.ieesoe:.eaee mas(
eea(.aaa||v|eeo a|.ve(aequestin: How can the a priori of scientic
Objectivity be constituted staring from those of the lie-world? w.(aea(
(a. seaes(.ea.aav:e(a:a.aeeve:oeae(:a(.ae.:.s|sa|c.ea(.aea||se.
ea(. ie eaa|.(vin general aaca||oa.|eseoa.ea|c. ea.(v.evea.i.(m. ea(
aave(|ee.(. ma(e:eae(.ea(eaa(uasse:|ea|| s .a(e|
|ee(aa| . s(.e avoe:(:eoav (ibid. , 34f, o. 1 33) . ii e eeas.ce: (a. s
eaes(.ea(e|eat once a.s(e:.ea|aac(:aaseeacea(a|.esee(eaa(.::e
soeas.||eemo.:. e. sma||(ae oaeaemeae| ee. es eio:ese.ea(.ieoe:eeo
(.eaa:eeeacemaec. oaeaemeae|ee.esa.eaea|cae(|e((aemse|ves
we mas( a|se |ea:e ei ie:ee((.ae (aa( (ae o:ese.ea(.ie e:|c-
a.ea (ae o:e(eeeeme(e: aas a( a. s c. soesa| aac a.ea e (aas
:eeeve:-cees ae( aave (ae :ac.ea|.(v ei (ae o:eo:ec.ea(.ve e:|c
(e a.ea uasse:| ( (e :e(a:a. a|evea|| . . aExperience and Judg
ment. 1 33 1ae o:ese.ea(.iee:|c . s aea|(a:a|e:|c a|:eacv .aie:mec
|v o:ec.ea(.ea. va|aes. emo.:.ea| (eeaa. eaes. aac (ae o:ae(.ee ei
measa:emea( aac .acae(.veaess a. ea (aemse|ves aave (ae. : ea
1ae a|eve eaa||es as (e oe.a( ea( aea.a (ae ceoeacea( s(a(as ei
uasse:| s(es(. (aes(a(aseieve:vs(a:(.aeoe.a(aaceve:ve|aeea. c. ae
:eree(|a. s(e:.e.(v.Ce:(a. a|v. (aeessea(.a|s(:ae(a:esei
(aeo:ese.ea(.iee:|ca:ec.seeve:ec|vacea||e:ecae(.ea. (aa(eia| |
ce(e:m.aec iae(aa| ea|(a:e aac (aa( ei(ae se. ea(.ie saoe:s(:ae(a:es
a.eaes(eac|eveacoa:(.ea|a:ea|(a:a| a:eas. ae:ce:(e |ei:ee ei
(aem na((a.s saea|cae(ma|easie:ee((aa((aeo:ese.ea(.ieea|(a:a|
e:|ceaa|e:ecaeec..a. (s(an. . aa:ac.ea|"epoche" a.eaaa(s(e
ea(aoa(a(ea:caa( . sa|:eacv saooesec. (ae(:aaseeacea(a|eea
s(.(a(.eaei(aee|]ee(. aeeae:a|.|eie:e(ae. cea|e|]ee(a.ease:ves.
aeeve:. as esamo|eaacmece|ie: O|]ee(.v.(v . (ae o:eo:ec.ea(.ve
s(:a(ameiesoe:.eaee.(aes(a(.eaaceeae(.eeeas(.(a(.eaei(aeego aac
This work does not attain the prepredicative world i n its frst radicality. It supposes,
like Ideas I, an already constituted temporality. Cf. on this Ideas [, notably 81 , p.
2 16-1 7, and EJ, 14, p. 68.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
alter ego, o:. me:c.a| (emoe:a| .(v. aac se ie:(a 1aese :ecae(.eas.
me:eeve:. a:e ceae .a (es(s ea:| .e: (aaa (aeCrisis . i aIdeas I, (ae
|:eacea.aeei(ae(:aaseeacea(a|:ecae(.eaa|:eacves(eacsby anticipa
tion asia:as(aee.ce(.eeia.s(e:v.a.eauasse:|(aeaea(s(.||:ema.aec
(e|eceae . ~r(]as(.ieca.ssasoeas.eaeia||(:aaseeacea(
e.ce( ae(aa|oavs.ea|Na(a:e. aac(aeemo.:.ea|e:e.ce
(.e se.eaees eiNa(a:e .eeeme(:v. |.aema(.es. oa:e aac se
ie:(a . uasse:|:e(e .
nilarly, just as we ave suspended all experiential sciences dealing
With the nature ofammate beings and all empirical human sciences

ing pers

nal beings in personal reltionships, concering men

as subjects ofhistor, as bearers ofculture, and treating also the
cultural formations themselves, and so forth, we also suspend now the
eietic sciences which corespond to these objectivities. We do so in
ovance and
in idea; for, as everyone knows, these ontological-:idetic
ces (ratonal psychology, sociology, for instance) have nt as yet

d proper grounding, at any rate none that i pure and free from
all obJectIOn. (Ideas I, 60, p. 162 [modied]; our emphasis)
weeea|c(aeasav(aa(uasse:|.aacvaaeesa|]ee(eca.s(e:v s e. ce(.e

(aeaa(ae(.e(aaseeacea(a|:ecae(.ea-aae.ce(.eae. ||(:v(eeea
s(.(a(e s(a:(ae a (ae Crisis. 1aa( .s av. ae cea|(. (ae e:c
(:aaseeacea(a| . a.eauasse:|aea:|va|avs:ese:vesie:(aeego ' s
oa:e eeas(.(a(.ae ae(.v.(v. . s aeve:a(.|.zec .a(aeOrigin. iii mvse|i
aavesoe|eaei(:aaseeacea(a|a. s(e:.e.(v
a(eaeeemo.:.ea|a. s(|ee.ce(.eeia.s(e:voa:a||e|(e(ae
e(ae:e. ce(.es eiNa(a:e aac so.:. (. 1aeeidos eia. s(e:.e.(v. as eso|.
ea(ec aue: (aeCrisis, seems (e eseeec (ae | . m. (sass.eaec (e .( |e
ie:eaaac|vIdeas I. i(sse.eaee.sae |eaee:merely eaeaamaase.eaee
ameaee(ae:s i(. s(aa(eiaaae(. v.(veeas(.(a(.ae(aeae|esoae:eei
a|se|a(e .cea| O|]ee(. v.(vaaca||(aee.ce(.e se.eaees 1aa((a. seea
s(.(a(.aea. s(e:vmav|eme:eoieaac| veeas(.(a(ec.(se|
cea|( .eaeei(aemes(oe:maaea(me(.iseiuasse:| s (aeaea( . a| se.eae
ei(aemes(c.mea|( .ie:. (aeee:cs|ac| v. (a(aa(eiaa.s(e:.e.(va.ea
(a:eaea .aaci:s(eia||(aeego .(se|i
~|these difculties seem concentrated to us in the sense that Husserl gives to the
expresslo "transcendental histor, " which he utilizes (to our knowledge) only once, in
an unpublIshed manuscript of Group C (C 8 II, October 29, p. 3) : thus, the question
concers the intermonadic relation (always considered in itself, of course , as an inten
tional modifcation of the monad in general in its primordial temporality) , a relation
thanks to which the constitution of a common world becomes possible. This relation
sructurally implies the horizon of the history of the spirit, past and future; the latter
discovers for us what perception cannot give us.
Jacques De"ida
waa( .(aea.a:e(aeessea(.a|aaceeae:a|eeoeaea(sei(aeo:ese.ea
(.ieea|(a:a| e:|c: O::a(ae:.aa( a:e. . a(aa(e:|c. (ae. ava:. aa(
o:e|eaac ea: . eae:aaeeeeaee:a. aea. s(e:.ea|iae(s . e sae .(a aa
. ec.a(eaacaoec.e(.esae|ecee-(aeseaseeia.eaeaaa|avs|e
i 1aa((a. so:eeeee(:.ea|e:|c as ae:|ceithings c. soesecei soaee aac(.e
I . I:
2. 1aa((aese(a.aesas(aave|eeaee:oe:ea| Ce:oe:ea| .(v. sa
oa:(.ea|a:ce(e:.aa(.eaei( aeec(Dinglichkeit) .aeeae:a|.|a(s.aee
ea| |a:ea|:eacvaac(eaave| eu. (sa:sea(aee:|c.|eeaase|aaeaaee
aac .a(e:sa|]ee(. v.(v as( aave o:eeecec eeee(:v . ee:oe:ea|.(v
cees ae( esaaas(. ve|v eve:|ao (a.aeaeec. s. aee (ae aeeessa:.| v
eees.s(.ae aaaa |e.aes a:e ae( (a. asa||e as e:e |ec. es aac. | .se
evea(aeea|(a:a|O|]ee(sa. ea|e|eae.(a(aes(:ae(a:a||v.a:eae(
esaaas(ec. aee:oe:ea|| ( 1 77) .
3. 1aa( (aese oa:e | aac (e aave soa(.a| saaoes. saaoes ei
e(.ea. aac a|(e:a(.easeiceie:a(.ea [ 1 77] .
4. 1aa( a(e:.a| eaa|.(.es .ee|e:. e.ea(. aa:caess. aac se ie:(a
as(aeeessa:. | v|e:e|a(ec(e(aeseo:eeeee(:.ea| .soa(.e(eoe:a|
i aIdeas I, a.|eeso|.ea(.ae( o|esei:ee.eaa|a:(.ea|a(. eaaac
.a(e:aa| s(:ae(a:e. uasse:|(:ea(ec (aesee. ce(.e eaa:ae(e:. s(.es as aa
.aces. ae:eas(aeva:eac.:ee((aee. a(aeOrigin: 1aeeeas(:ae(.ea
c. s]aae(.ve .oa:(|vieaacec.aeaeaae(ae:.aac.a(a. s a(aa||v. ae| . ee::esoeacs(e(aeeeas(:ae(.eaei(aeeeae:e(a(aa(|e|eae(e

. (
eaeaae( obtains with temporl, spatial, and material determina
tions, for instance, in the case ofthe thing " .72.o i s-mec.iec .ea:
eoaas.s . '
ra:eeeee(:v aac s.aea(.es.aaca| | (ae assee. a(ec se. eaeesie:
` This idea, already developed in 9a of the Crisis, is more directly i nscribed within
an anal ysi s of the Lebenswelt . in 36 , p. 1 39, an analysi s identical to that in the Origin.
Thi s j ustifes (at least on a specifc point) the anteriority of the Origin ' s anal yses
concerning language and being-in-community.
! l

Al so cf. 149, pp. 382-83 et passim.

Introductin to the Origin ofGeometr
a. ea(|ea:e|aeesao| e|e:e .(aea.. | | |ematerial e.ce(.es .s.aee
(ae. :oa:oese.s(ae(| v. aac(aas(aeee:oe:ea|. ce(e:m. aa(. eaei
e|]ee(s.aeeae:a| .sa((aeva:eabstract a(e:.a|se.eaees. |eeaase(aev
ea|v(:ea( ee:(a.a e. ce(.e eeoeaea(s eiee:oe:ea| (a.aes .aeeae:a| . :. aceoeacea(aac eeae:e(e(e(a|.(v.a.eaa|seee a(e:.a| (stojich), seas.|| eeaa|.(.es aac(ae(e(a|. (v ei
(ae. :o:ec.ea(es . soa(.a|saaoes . (eoe:a|saaoes. aacsaaoeseie(.ea
a:ea|avssingled out from (ae(e(a|.(vei(aeoe:ee.vec|ecv
sv .(se|ia|eae. (aea. a s(a(.eaaa| vs. seea|ca priori|v
:eea||ie:as(aa((aeo:e(eeeee(e:a|avsa|:eacvaaca(a. sc.soesa|
(voes . a.eaeaaa| (eao:eeeee(:.ea|descriptive se.
eaee 1a.seea|c|eea||ecgeogrphy. re:saeaasa|]ee(.(ae
aace:.aec|v(aeaeeessa:vaaexae(.(aceei(aeoe:ee.vece|]ee( we
as( .aceec |ea:e ei se.ea(.ie a.eaeaases (a.s aaexae
(.(aceei(aee|]ee(e:eeaeeo((e|eeeas.ce:ecasa ceiee( . asaa
. aexae(.(ace . uasse:|:.(es.e a:e s(. ||eae(.aei:eIdeas I) : 1ae
es( oe:iee(eeeme(:v aac .(s es( oe:iee( o:ae(.ea|eea(:e| eaaae(
ae|o (ae cese:.o(.ve se.ea(.ie . aves(.ea(e:eiNa(a:e (e exo:ess o:e|v..aexae(eeee(:.ea|eeaeeo(s(aa(a.ea. aseo|a.a.seaace:
s(aaca||e . aac se ea(.:e| v sa.(a||e aav ae exo:esses .a(ae e:cs
ae(eaec..acea(ec.|eas saaoec.a|.||.ie:.aac(ae|.se-s.o|eeea
eeo(sa.eaa:eessentially and not accidentally inexact, aaca:etherefore
a|seaaa(aea(.ea| .:1. o. 1 90 mec.ieci '
5. 1aa( . |v a o:ae(.ea| aeeess.(v eica.|v | . ie. ee:(a.a saaoes aac
ee:(|c|eoe:ee. vec. :es(e:ec.aac|voe:iee(|e.:.e. c|.aes. eveasa:iaees. aacse
ie:(a ve:ve:oae|ee.ea| . . . e. .o:eeeee(:.ea|.ce(e:.aa(.eae:ss|.(a(.vee:aca(.easeiseas.||e.a(a. (.eamore or less
smooth sa:iaees. s.ces. | . aes. e:more or less rough aae| es. aac seea
1a.sceesae(o:ea.|.( veea|e.ce(.eix.aeeivaeae
e:oae|ee.ea|(voes. ia(aeOrigin, uasse:|:.(es.oa:ea(ae(.ea||vaac
seeaa( ea.ea(.ea|| v(aa(|eie:eexae(.(aceee:ees.
i:e(aeiae(aa| . aa essea(.a| ie: |eeees||e (a:eaea a
e(aeceiva:.a(.ea . i :s .1aeseaseei(a. s:ea:s|eeeese|ea:e:
ea (ae |as. s eiIdeas I aac (aeCrisis. sv . mae.aa:vva:.a(.eae eaa
e|(a.a.aexae(|a(oa:ee:oae|ee.ea|(voes . :eaacaess . ie:exam
I 38
This whole section, devoted to "Descriptive and Exact Sciences, " i s very impor
tant for understanding the Origin .
Jacques Derrid
o|e . under a.ea .s constructed iae eeeei:.ea| .cea|.iv ei iae e.:
e|e 1aeaei.eaeiia.seoe:ai.eaei sa|si:aei.ea .sa|se:eoeaiec
.aiaeCrisis . naiiaeivoe:eaacaess.sae| essa|:eacvia:a.saec.ia
aee:ia.a.cea| . iv ..i.saeiie|eeeaiasec. iaiaea|i.o|.e.iveiaaia:a|
saaoes a.ea e:e e: | ess ee::esoeac ie .i .a oe:eeoi.ea. Oa|v aa
. ae.aai. ve.aieac.aeeaaaiia.aiaai.cea| .iv.a.iso:eeeeei:.ea|oa:
.iv. nai ia. s oa:e .cea| .iv .s eia seas.||e e:ce:aac asi|e
ea.saecea:eia|| vi:eoa:eeeeei:.ea|. cea|.iv.a.ea. a.ise|i. s:e
|easeci:ea||seas.||ee:. 1ae. ae.aai.ea. s
aai e.ves e iaeoa:e e:oae|ee.ea| ivoe. aac.i eaa i:aasie:
seas.||e saaoesea| v .aie eiae:seas.||esaaoes (C, 9a, o. 25) . ~e
ee:c.aeieuasse:| .iaea.oa:eseas.||e.cea|
emai.ea| |eve| . Once constituted,||iaas |eaeeess.
||e ea|vie .aeseaei.eaaasae ieeaa.ea|
sease. auasse:| ..aaavease .ieaaaei.v.iveeaee. va||e.aiaeseaseei
Ca:ies.aa.aie||eeiaa| .s. s.aeeia.saei.v.iv.saieaeei:eeci:eie
aeeeeaeeasiaea|i. es.|. |.iv.iaseeve:v
ea|| .aeseeaee:a.aeia. s. aiaeCrisis, iae o:ee.seeeaieaiei
a.eaceesaeiseeie|eieaac.aaaveiae:eiuasse:| siexis .aeaas
In the intuitively given surrounding world, by abstractively directing
our regard to the mere spatiotemporal shapes, we experience
"bodies " -not geometrical-ideal bodies but precisely those bodies that
we actually experience, with the content which is the actual content of
experience. No matter how arbitrarily we may transform these bodies
in phantasy, the/ree and in a certain sense "ideal" possibilities we thus
obtain are anything but geometcal-ideal possibilities: they are not the
geometrically ' 'pure" shapes whih can be inscribed in ideal
space"pure" bodies, "pure" straight lines, "pure" planes, other
"pure" fgures, and the movements and deformations which occur
in "pure" fgures. Thus geometrical space does not signiy anything like
imaginar space . . . . (Ibid. , [modied]; our emphasis)
I 4U
Cf. on this Ideas I, 75; and Notes 3 and 4 of Ricoeur in Idees, p. 238. We would fnd
anticipated in the Philosophy of Arithmetic the principle for an analogous distinction
between perceptive plurality and arithmetical plurality. On the other hand, a distinction
of the sae type between a certain " style" of causality or of premathematical i nductivity
and those of pure physics i s invoked i n the Crisis and appended texts, notably i n passages
devoted to Galileo.
I 40
An essential diference remains, even if here he outwardly echoes Kant ("the propo
sitions of geometry are not the results of a mere creation of our poetic imagination, "
Prologomena t o Any Future Metaphysics, 1 3 [ET: ed. Lewis White Beck (New York:
The Liberal Arts Press, 1 950) , p. 34] ) . According to Kant, geometry is not imaginary
ffantastique] because it is grounded on the universal forms of pure sensibility, on the
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
~|iaeaeaeeeei:.ea|.cea|.ivav|e o:ecaeecstarting i:eseas.
||eeroae|ee.ea|. cea|.iv. ia.siaeiea.sie:.ea| saa|
|. iec as a e:eaac .ia.a eeasi.iaiec eeeei:v. uacea|iec| v. .a . is
ia:a. .ae.aai. veseas.||e.cea|.zai.ea..iaeaia.eaeeeei:veea|c
aeiaavea:.seaoesesseece|.eaieo:e||eseie:. e.a.eia.eauas
se:|. sverveease.eas . ~|iaeaeaia. se:.e.a. siae e:.e.aeiaai o:e
eieeeei:v.ise|iaaca|||aiecoess.|.| . .iea|vaaiae:.zes
aaieea:|.e:ea||eca"geogrphy. " iaeve:voaeaeeae|ee.ea|:e
e:ess.eaie|ee.aa.aes. iaeaei.eaeia internal e:intrinsic a.sie:vaac
sease |eisas ce|.aeaie see saieiveaieaes [crans d' arret], as e||as
a:i.ea|aie.i aeiave.c.a||"regressus ad infnitum. " 1ae.aie:aa|sease
eieeeei:v. a.eao:ev.cesas.iaasiai.eaaa|vs.s. o:ese:.|esiaai
iaeeaesi.eaeieeeei:v se:.e.asieoaiiaeconstituted seaseeiaai
aasimmediately eeac.i.eaec eeeei:v 1ae sea:eeeio:e eeeei:.ea|
.cea|.i. eseaa|e|euo:ev.s.eaa| |v.aiaeca:|. 1aas . uasse:|:.ies.
si. | | . eaesi.eas|.|eiaaieiiaee|a:.ieai.eaeiiaee:.e.aeieeeei:v
aaveae|eseceaa:aeie:. saeaiaaieaeaeecaei.aea.:e|eveaciaese
o:ese. eai.iemaie:.a| s( 1 72) .
iaeseaseeio:eexaeie:o:ee|eei.vesoai.eieoe:a|.ivea|ciaciae. :
ideality of sensible space. But according to Husser!, on the contrary, geometrical ideality
is not imaginary [imaginaire] because i t i s uprooted from all sensible ground in general .
In accordance with Kant, it was sufcient for Husserl to be purifed of empirical and
material sensibility to escape empirical imagination. As for what concers at least the
structure of mathematical truth and cognition, i not their origin . Husserl remains then
nearer to Descares than to Kant. It is true for the latter, as has been sufciently em
phasized, that the concept of sensibility is no longer derived from a "sensualist" defni
tion. We could not say this i s always the case for Descartes or Husser! '
Access to the origin of sensible ideality, a product of the imagination, would also
require, then, a direct thematization of imagination as such. Now the latter, whose
operative role is nevertheless so deci sive, never seems to have been sufciently inquired
into by Husser! ' It retains [ garde] an ambiguous status: a derived and founded reproduc
tive ability on the one hand, it is, on the other, the manifestation of a radial theoretical
freedom. It especially makes the exemplariness of the fact emerge and hands over the
sense of the fact outside of the factuality of the fact . Presented in the Crisis as a faculty
that is homogeneous with sensibility, it simultaneously uproots morphological ideality
from pure sensible reali ty.
It i s by beginning with the direct thematization of imagination i n i ts si tuation as an
original lived experience (utilizing imagination as the operative instrument of all eideticsL
by freely describing the phenomenological conditions for fction, therefore for the
phenomenological method, that Sartre' s breakthrough [trouee) has so profoundly
unbalanced-and then overthrown-the landscape of Husserl ' s phenomenology and
abandoned its horizon.

Jacques Derid
o|aee. as. ce (aeaetranscendental aesthetics a.eauasse:|oa:(.ea
|a:|v eea(eo|a(ec . a(ae Ceae| as. ea eiFormal and Transcendental
Logic .oo. :i

ra:acex.ea||v.|eeaase. cea|eeeei:.ea|
iae:eie:eae(seas.||e ..(s. cea| .iveaa|e:e|aiec(e(aeie(a|aiveiae
seas.||ee:|c ~ac. ie:iaesae :easea. aoo|.eceeeme(:v:eams
oess.||e. ee. ae se ia: as ie |e eeaiasec . aea: eves .iaiae (:ae
aaia:e(aaiaoo|.eceeeei:va((aesaei.eeeaeea| s ' i aeaee( .a
seas.||e . cea|.iv. a.eaa|avs so:.aesi:e . ae.aai.ea. eea|c ea|v ae.aa:vrantastique] soaeeaacaa. ae.aa:vrant

tique] se.eaeeeisoaee.ieaaaaie:eseea||eaac .ae:eaa.eo:e|.ie:ai.

eie:oae|ee.ea|(voes ia(aaiease.eeea|caeiau:.ase|ee.i.
aie| vaac. (aeeo|e(eseea:. (vc.c.(aai eaavenot two but

one universalform of the world: aeiie|aiea| vone geometr . . . (C,
9 c ,
o 1.
. .
1a.s seas.||e aac. (e a ee:(a.a cee:ee. eo.:.ea| aai.e.oai.ea a|
iaeaea .a eeoa:.sea .(a iaeis sa|.i(ec ie va:.a(.ea. .

(:ae ae(ea|vie:eeeei:.ea|forms |a(a| seie:eeee(:.ea|easa:e
ea( 1ae|a(ie:eeesie(aeie:e. aaacia:eaeao:ax. s ie:exao|e .
ae:e] as(c. s(:.|a(.ea.s .a(eacec. | :s ~aemo.:. ea| (eeaa. eaeei
sa:. |v|e|eaeieeve:vo:ese.eai.ieea|ia:e uasse:|

ceesae |a|e:aie
ea(aai.a(aeOrigin. iaiaeCrsis aeseesieeeas. ce:eo.:.ea|ea
sa:e asa siaee ia:iae:(aaa seas.||ee:oae|eevea(ae oa(a(ea:cs
oa:eeeee(:.ea|. cea|.(v.Heasa:e. a.i.a(esaa


aaee. a(a seseei

(aeaa. veea| ..aie:sa|]ee(.ve .(ae:eie:e. cea|e|eei.veceie:ma(.eaei
(aeeeeei:.ea|, 9 c , o1 He:eeve:.eae| ea:|va.eae:e:
sa|seeaeai|eve| .(aea:.(!||eevosec

ae :eve|a(.ea.(a.aeeee(:v. ueeve:. iae enemeiia.s s..eaee
.|| ea|v|ee:eceeo|v| sease eo(.ec
I 42
These few pages are very i mportant, here in parti cular, for determi ni ng
tonic situation of the Origin . On the sense of thi s "transcendental aesthetICS , al so cf.
CM, 6 1 . p. 1 46.
! 1'I
"So fami l iar to us i s the shift between a priori theory ad empi rical i nqui ry i n
everyday life that we usual l y tend not to separate the space ad te spatia
l shape
geometry talks about from the space and spatial shapes of expenentIal actualIty, as If
they were one and the same" (C, 9a, p. 24).
`` On surveying, see notably 9a, pp. 27-28. On surveying as "pregeometrical
achi evement, " which i s also "a meaning-fundament for geometry, " see 9h, p. 49.
Cf. C. 9f. pp. 44-45. Husserl speaks there of an "arithmetizaton of eometry: :
which "leads al most automatical l y, i n a certain way, t o the emptymg of Its sense
Introductin to the Orgin ofGeometry
wesae. iaea. a priori (aa(iaeoavs.ea|( (ae|ecv. (aevaeae
e:oae|ee.ea|aacoae:eae.e(voes. iaea:ieieasa:e.iaeoess.|. |.(v ea.aaco:eexae(soa(.eieoe:a|.(va|:eacvaac(e
|e| eea(ec.a(aeea|ia:a|ae|c(aa(aseae:ecieiaeoa. |eseoae:ae
c.caeive(saeeeee(:v|aiaesaea|c|eeeae-. va||eas.(s. avea
(e: . | :s
1aas(ae . asi.(ai.eaeieeee(:veea|cea|v|eaphilosophical aei
uasse:| . ae eriea soeasseir| aiea.z.aeeeeei:v (FTL, Ceae|a
s. ea. o :: .a|avsass.eaec(eia. s . as(.(a(.aeaeiaeea(eoe:aae.(
eisense .(a(aeseaee|eir|a(e(Ideas I, . o. s. r|a(ea. s(C,
9, o : . iaeC:eessea.cec|viaer|aiea.ecee(:.aeeii ceas (ibid. ,
s. o. : i . ' r|aiea.e. cea|.s. aacseie:ia.1aeoa.|
aa ae .aaaea:aies iae iaee:ei.ea| aii.iace . iae |a((e: .s ea|v (ae
so.:.( s :ac.ea|i:eece.a.eaaa(ae:.zesaeve|eveacia.(aceaac
eoeas (ae ae:.zea ei sae|ecee as (aa( ei a . . e . eiaa o:e]eei e: (ass( Vorhaben) . 1ae:e|v. iae iaee:e(.ea| a((.iace
ases.cea| .za(.ea s cee. s. veoassaee(e(ae| . .(oess.||e.ase||as
(ae eeas(.(a(.ea ei(ae a(aea(.ea| ae|c .a eeae:a| Na(a:a| | v. ia.s
oassaeeie(ae|..(. sea|v(|eveaceve:vseas. || eaaciaeiaa|
| .. i. i( eeaee:as iae .cea| | . .i eiaa (:aase:ess. ea. ae((ae
iae(aa||..ieiiae(:aase:essecia. (ace
s(a:i.aei:e(a. s. aaaea:a|.aaa.(.za(.ea.a(aea(.eseeea.zesae
.aaa.i. za(.eas a.ea a:e se aav .aie:.e: :eve|ai.eas . re:. .i (ae
o:.e:c.a|.aaa.(.zai.eaeoeasiaea(aea(.ea|ae| ie: iaeC:eess. .(ae| essfrst | ..(siaeao:.e:. svs(eei(aa(
.( . | | a|avs|eclosed.
[modifi ed] . Formal algebrization was already presented as a threat for primordial sense
and the "clari ty" of geometry i n Ideas I. where the " ' pure' geometer" was defned as
the one "who dispenses with the methods of algebra" (70, p. 1 82) .
1 41; As Husserl often remarked, the al lusion to Greece , to the Greek origin of phi loso
phy and mathemati cs, has no external hi storico-empirical sense. It i s the factual
[ h' cncmentief] i ndex of an i nteral sense of origi n . Cf. on thi s parti cul arl y "Phi losophy
and the Cri si s of European Humanity" ( in C, pp. 279-80) . Of course, the whole problem
of a phenomenology of hi story supposes that the " indicati ve" character of such language
is resol ved.
"Idealization and the Science of Reali ty-The Mathematization of Nature" ( Before
1 928) , Abhandlung in Krisis, p. 29 1 ; Appendi x I I in Crisis. p. 3 1 3. In addition to thi s text.
one of the most specifc sketches from the h istorical perspective concerning the relation
between Plato' s philosophy and the advent of pure mathematics by ideal ization and
passage to the limit has been publ i shed by R. Boehm in Bei l age VI I of Erste Philosophie
( 1 923124) . Vol . 1 (in Husserliana. Vol . 7 [The Hague: Nijhof, 1 956] , pp. 327-28) .
Jacques Derid
1|e ea.ce|e:e .s ae|.ceaaeeemei:v. e: :aiae: i|e " ideal Euclid, " ie uasse:| s exo:ess.ea. |.e| .s :esi:.eiec ie sease. aei
a.sie:.ea|iaei. iaie:.aii|ecaaeimece:ai.mes. i|eao:.e:.svsiem
. | | . ise|i|eeve:i|:ea|vaae. aaa.i.zai.ea. saii|e|aiie:. | | ea|v
iaseo|aeewithin .aaa.ivasi|eoess.|.|.iveiaaai|emai.ea|ao:.e:.. a
eeae:a| . re:|aos . i|ea. eaeeci s| |eieea. eai|e eae
aaac. . aaa.i.zai.ea asi|e. asi.iai.aeaeieimai| . e. . asi|e|esa:e ei mai|emai.ea| ao:.e:.aess .ise|i-i|e oess.|.|.iv ei
mai|emai.zai.ea.aeeae:a|-aac. eaiae ei|e:|aac. . aaa.i.zai.easas
i|eea|a:eemeaiseiao:.e:.svsiems . 1|ese|aiie:ea|cea|vaave|ac
ieaccc. meas.easei. aaa.ivieiaeao:.e:. .|aiiaevea|caeieeaee:a
ao:.e:.aess. ise|i.iai|eOrigin, uasse:|.
i|ea:sisease.1|ai.savaereduced a||iaeao:.e:.svsiemseioasie:|aesaace:asoaea.aiaee:.e.aei
ao:.e:.aess.ise|iai.issea:ee. . . e. .i|e.
|vraa|x.eeea: . |eieea iaev.eaaaieeia:e. ra.|eseoavaaciae
C:.s.seia:eoeaa uamaa.iv aac i|eCrisi .ise|i.|.e|. x.eeea:
aeies. eees |aes ie C:eesiaeaeaiaac .a oa:i.ea|a:ie ae| .ceaa
eeeei:v.ieass.eai|ee|e:veiaav. aeeeaee. . .

He:eeve:. iae e o:eoeseie e|se:ve|eieea iae ie|caeiaia||eemo|eie|veaaeeaai. .ai|e|.ie:a|
aesseiiae iexis. :ema.asaaae:aaieooes.i.ea iei as o|aees.ce|v
s.ceiaeiemesiaooa:eai|v.::eeeae. |a||eoassaees.
Only Greek philosophy leads, by a specic development, to a science
in the form ofinfnite theory, ofwhich Greek geometry supplied us,
for some millennia, the example and soverei{n model.
Mathematics-the idea ofthe infnite, of infnte tasks-is like a
Babylonian tower: although unfnished, it remains a task full ofsense,
opened onto the infnite. This infnity has for its correlate the new man
ofinfnite ends.
Infnity is discovered, frst in the form ofthe idealization of
magnitudes, ofmeasures, ofnumbers, fgures, straight lines, poles,
surfaces, etc . . . . Now without its being advanced explicitly as a
"" Paul Ricoeur, "Husserl and the Sense of History, " i n Husserl: An AnaLysis, p. 1 61 ,
n. 1 5.
Introductin to the Orgin ofGeometry
hypothesi, intutitively given nature and world are transformed into a
mathematical world, the world ofthe mathematical natural sciences.
ntiquity led the way: in its mathematics was accomplished the frst
er ofboth
inite ideals and infnite tasks. Thi becomes for all
later times the gUldmg star ofthe sciences.
Ofcourse the ancients, guided by the Platonic doctrine ofIdeas, had
already idealized empirical numbers, units ofmeasurement, empirical
fgures in space, points, lines, surfaces, bodies; and they had
trnsformed the propositions and proofs ofgeometr into
ideal-geometrical propositions and proofs. What is more, with

an geometr had grwn up the highly impressive idea ofa



ent deductive theor, aimed at a most broadly and
highly conceived Ideal goal, resting on "axiomatic" fundamental
concepts and prnciples, proceeding according to apodictic
s- totality formed ofpure rationality, a totality whose
uncondltloned truth i available to insight and which consists
exclusively ofunconditioned truths recognized through immediate and
mediate insight. But Euclidean geometr, and ancient mathematics in
general, knows only fnite tasks, a fnitely closed prior. Aristotelian
syl/ogistics belongs here also, as an a prior which takes precedence
over all others. Antiquity goes this far, but never far enough to grsp
the possi

ility ofthe infnite task which, for us, is linked as a matter of

Course wlth the concept ofgeometrical space and with the concept of
geometr as the science belonging to it. (C, 8, pp. 21 -22; Husserl' s
i.ea. aiaea:siseaseie C:eesoa. |eseoavaac eeeei:v. . . e . iae .cea|. zai.ea .aeeae:a|-aiaei iaev .|| aei
|e .a iae Crisis. 1ae:e ex. sis aa .aaa.iv a.ea eeaa| . zes
' "
[The fi rst part of thi s passage i s taken from " La Crise de J ' humanite europeenne et
l a philosophie, " translated by Paul Ricoeur. Thi s version (translated from Ms M I I I 5 I I
b) di fers i n places from the version ( Ms M I I I 5 I I a) publ i shed i n the Krisis and translated
i nto Engl i sh ( Lauer' s translation of this text i n the same volume that contains his transla
tion of " PRS, " Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy, also follows the latter
vrsion). I have always cited the version in C, since here occurs the only signi fi cant
divergence between the two texts i n Derrida's use of them. The second part of the above
quoted passage is found on p. 293 of C. Note adapted by tr. ]
In this respect, it can be said that, by thei r intention, the Vienna Lecture and the
Origin are nearer each other than they both are to the Crisis . Both are interested in a
proto-origin prior to the "Gal ilean" origin of modern times. Cf. what we said above
about the reduction of the Galilean atti tude.
Jacques Derrida
(ae c. seeve:v ei (ae ao:.e:.aess ei ma(aema(.es .a eeae:a| aac (ae
(:aase:ess.eaeiseas.||eia.(aces. evea.i(aei:s(ao:.e:.svs(em.s.a
.(se|iclosed, as(aeseeeacoassaees(a(es Oa(ae|as. seiaia.(eao:.e:.
svs(em. aa . aia.(e aam|e: ei m+(aema(.ea| eoe:a(.eas aac
(:aasie:ma(.eas. sa|:eacvoess.||e. a(aa(s,s(em. evea.i(aeva:eae(
. aia.(e|ve:ea(. ve ~|evea|| .ceso.(e(aee|esecaessei(aesvs(em.e
a:ewithin ma(aema(.ea|.aia.(v|eeaaseeaaveceia.(. ve|v.cea|.zec
aaceeae|eveac(aeiae(aa|aacseas.||eia. (aces 1ae.aia.(e. a| a.(v
ei(aemece:a:eve|a(.eaeaa(aea|eaaaeaaeec.a(aeia.(e. aia.(vei
~a(.ea.(v s e:ea(. ea wa.|e . aves(.ea(.ae (ae sease ei aa( (aev
. aves(.ea(ec(|eseaseeia||(aeoee:sei.a| a.(va.eae:eeae|esec
.a(aa(ao:.e:.aessaac. (ae:eie:e. (e |e sa:e . ei(ae oa:eaac.a| a.(e
a.s(e:.e.(v eima(aema(.es 1aa(. || |e ceaeea||vaac
| a(e:ea.|v. a(e:eeaaee(.ae:eve|a(.eaa:vceve|eomea(
(aeoeieaaca. s(e:.e.(v eima(aema(.es aac (eae:ea(. v.(va.ea a|
avso:eeeecs||esa:e '
i i(aa( e:e se. (ae eea(:as(|e(eea(ae(e (ex(sea|c|e|ess
a|:ao( eaeea|c(aema(.zema(aema(.ea|aprioriness aac(aee(ae:(ae
ao:.e:.svs(eme:svs(ems. e::a(ae:ma(|ema(.ea|systematicity. w.(a.a
(ae.a| a.(veoeaec|v(aeC:ee|s .aae.a| a. (.za(.ea. so:ecaeec.eae
a.ea .|| ma|e (ae o:ev.eas e|esa:e aooea:. ae( as (ae e|esa:e
oa:a||son the threshold eima(aema(.ea|.aia.(v . (se|i.
|a(as (ae e|esa:e seeeaca:.|v| .m.(.ae (aemwithin (ae ma(aema(.ea|
| e|c.aeeae:a| vea. a(aeso.:.(ei(aeCrsis, (aemeceo.aia.(. za(.ea
. | | ma:| | ess aa aa(aea(.e (aaa a |.ac ei:esa::ee(.ea ei
eeeme(:v He:eeve:. (a.sse|i:e|.:(a[renaissance a sol] .|||ea((ae
sae(.eea| vaaeobliteration ei(aea:s(|. :( aea(e: Aac..(
as(|e+ccec.(aee:eeessei.a(:ama(aea(.ea|.aaa.(. za(.eaeaa(aea
|eaeae:a| . zecad infnitum aacaeee:c.aa(eaaaeee|e:



sa(.ieaea. aia.(.za(.ea.saae|.:(a eieeeme(:v .a. (saa(aea(.e
o:. me:c.a|. a(ea(.ea.a.eaeae(.ees(.||:ema.aeca.ccea(eaee:(a.a
On thi s cf. the Crisis. notably 8, p. 22, and 9h, pp. 5 1 -52, and 71 , pp. 245-46.
I 2
The text taken from the Crisis, which does not seem to put into question ever again
the "Greek" origin of mathematics as an i nfnite t ask, poses thus the difcult intra
mathematical problem of closure, a notion which can have mul ti pl e senses according to
the contexts i n which it i s employed. On all these questions, we refer particularly to S.
Bachelard. A Study of Husserf ' s Logic. Part 1 . Ch. 3 . pp. 43-63 . Moreover, there i s al so a
closure of the mathematical domain in general in i ts ideal unity as mathematical sense, a
closure wi thi n which al l i nfnitization will have to be maintained, simpl y because thi s
infnitization sti l l concerns ideal-mathematical objecti vities. About the mathematical sys
tem in genera\
Husserl speaks of "an i nfnite and yet self-enclosed world of ideal objec
ti vities as a feld for study" (C, 9a. p. 26 [modifed] ) .
!ntroductin to the Origin of Geometr
ex(ea(|v(aee|esa:eei(aeo:ev. eassvs(em . emav eace: .i.(.s
s(. | | |ee.(.ma(e (e soea| eian e:.e.a eieeeme(:v Deesae(eeeme(:v
aaveaa. aia.(eaam|e:ei|.:(as.e:|.:(aee:(. | ea(es.a a.ea.eaea
(.me.aae(ae:|.:(a. saaaeaaeec. a.|es(. | ||e.aeeeaeeai ec:Has(e
ae(sav(aa(eeeme(:v.sea(aeav(ea:c.(se:.e.a.. as(eaceio:e
eeec.aei:em. (:
e:.e.a e:e a| avsma(aa| || .ea(ecie:a. m se.aeaaaeaaeec .a
eaeae(ae:.(aev .|||e:evea| ecia||vea|v(a:eaeaeaeae(ae:a((ae
. a| a.(eoe|eeia.s(e:vsa(. (aea.avaaveeeeme(:v|ee. a.(aoa:e
.cea| .za(.eaaacexae(.(ace:wavae(aave. (|ee.a.(a . mae.aa(.ve
seas.||e .cea|.za(.ea aacme:oae|ee.ea| (voe|eev. s.aee exae(.(ace . s
already aa(.e. oa(ec(ae:e: O:. eeave:se|v. avstill ea| | (ae svs(ems
a.eae:e(e(a|| v:.c eieeae:e(eeeeme(:veeeme(:.ea| :1a. s(voeei
eaes(.ea.aeaacea|(ec|vrelativizes (|sease
as saea |a(ceesae(eaes(.ea.(. a.(se|i 1aeeeeme(:.ea|telos . sae
cea|( ea| v (ae i:aemea( e: oa:(.ea|a: seemea( eia| 1e|es
a.ea(:ave:ses. o:eeeces. aaceees|eveac(aeeeeme(:.ea|eae. |a(
eeeme(:v s acvea(a:e.|va:(.ea|a(ece:ceo|evec. a[s' articule
en] (aa(1e|es (aeacvea(a:ec. cae(|ee.aas such |eie:e(aeeme:eeaee
eeeme(:vas|eaeasoa:e.cea|e|]ee(.v.(. esa:eeea| aec.(a.a(aeie|c
eiao:.e:.aesseoeaec|v(aeC:ee|s 1aeauasse:|eaaat one and the
same time soea|eiaoa:eseaseaacaa.a(e:aa|a. s(e:.e.(veieeeme(:v
aaceaasav.asaeei(eacees. (aa(|(e|ee|eeveixeaseaas
a( e:|.aaamaaa. s(e:v|eie:e(aeC:eeea:eoeaaeem. ae(eeea
se.easaess [prise de conscience ] , (aa( oa:e . cea|.(v .s aaaeaaeec .a
|eaac.cea| .(v. aacseea 1aas. a((aesame(.meae saves(aeabso
lutely e:.e.aa|seasee:internal a.s(e:.e.(veieaea(:ac.(.eaa|| .aeaac.(s
:e|a(. v.(v.(|a.s(e:.e.(vi a(a.smaaae:ae.sassa:ecei
oeae(:a(.ae aa. ve:sa| a.s(e:.e.(v ea|v i:em .(a. a. esoee.a| | v .i. |v
o:eie:eaee .ae(a:asa.s:eea:c(ea(:ac.(.eaasexemo|a:vas(aa(ei
ra:i:em| semeoess.|.| . (v(aa(. s .(se|iaa. s(e:.e
ve(c. seeve:ec. ( s(e:v.|.e|ea|c.a(a:a|e(:aasiea:ec|v
.( .(aeeoeaaessei(ae. a| a.(e.sea|v.ea(aeeea(:a:v.(aeeoeaaessei
a.s(e:vitself, .a(ae a(mes(ceo(as aacoa:.(vei.(s esseaee w.(|ea(
l .\
Thi s i s true, of course, onl y i nsofar as these objectivities are related, immediatel y or
not . to spatiality in genera\ , if geometry is considered in i tsel f and in the strict sense ; to
movement i n general . if kinematics i s considered in itself and in the strict sense. (But
Husser! ofen says that "geometry" i s an "abbreviation" for al l the objective and exact
sciences of pure spatiotemporal i ty. ) But i f geometry i s considered in i ts exemplariness.
thi s i s generally true for every absolutel y pure and "free" i deal objecti vity.
Jacques Deric
ia.s:.u.a iae a.sie:.ea|aamaa.iv. e::aiae:a.sie:.ea|e.v.|.za
i.eas. ea|cea| ve|a.maaemo.:.ea|ivoeeisee.eia:eoe|ee.ea|aa
.ivsai,aseaavee|ea:|vseea.eme.:.ea|a.sie:v. sesseai.a||
i.aea. saa||ei:emaeaa.sie:v
~|se. uasse:|acees.iaeme:eaeeessa:v.aiaeOrigin iaaa. aiae
v.eaaa ieeia:e e:iaeCrisi ie aeeeaai.historcaly, ie:iae |.:iaei
eioa:ea.sie:v.1aee:.e.aeia.sie:.e.iv(Geschichtlichkeit) .||aeve:|e
ceoeaceaieaaa.sie:v(Historie) . ~|iaeaeaiaeiaee:ei.ea|aii.iacemav
|eseeeaca:vaac.aie:m.iieaieaiaee:ce:eiiaeiaa|.iv. .iea|c |e
i:a.i|essiecese:.|eiaeoaeaemeae|ee.ea|aac. ai:. as.eeeaes.seiaai
o:ee. se|vesia|| .saes iaeoess.|.| .ivie:saea acese:.oi.ea. 1a. scees moess.||ee:ase|
aacoa:a||e|a.sie:.ea|aoo:eaeaieia. ssa||.z. aea||iaeoes
s.||e iaeiaa| e.veas .eeee:aoa.ea|. eeeaem.e. ea|ia:a| . see.e|ee.ea| .
osveae|ee.ea| . aac se ie:ia .ia iae aaesi eemoeieaee. iae aimesi
meiaece|ee.ea|seea:.iv. aac.iaeaiv.e|c.aeieeaasa|
aacseea. i.| .aiaeieeeaei.ecese:.oi.eaeiiaemesiam|.i.eas
i:aaseeaceaia| :ecaei.ea eaa| .ia iaeae| oeia|| ava.|a||e
emo.:.ea|iee| s . saeaaiiemoisea|caaveiae.:ia| | va|aeea|v.aseia:
eiiaeaexcept iae:ecaei.eaitsel, except iaee:.e.aeioa.|eseoavaac
a.sie:vthemselves aacassaea.iaiae|esieieases. esoea|eiaai.s
r:em iae memeai uasse:| .s e.vea |eia iae ea|ia:a|
e:|cand iaeoa.|eseoae:aseeac.i.easie:eeemei:v s e:.e. a. iaea|
seaeeeia||eeae:eiecese:.oi.eaeiiae.asi.iaie: saeis saea|c aei|e Ne: c. 1aese eeac.i.eas e:e .ac.soeasa|| e.
|aia| sesame.eai .~|se.. asemeve:va| ||.aesa.
. sesaaasiec. 1aeaa.iaces. a.eaiaeo:eieeeemeie:oa.|eseoae:aas
aia. sc.soesa|.ameaeiaea.eaesia:e|eaac.cea|.i. esaaca.eaae asie:mai.easceve|eoeceaieio:as.s
aese:ieio:as. seaieia.eas.m.|a:|vaamecaeieai.ease:e.
ii. sev.ceai.aacvaaeeiaaiia. saese:ieiie:mai.ea. | | |eao:ecaei
a:.s.aeeaieiaa.cea| :.iaa|aei. eaeei oa:eia.a|.ae.a.ea
aas .is maie:.a|s .a iae|o:ee.veas eiia.siaeiaa|
aamaa.ivaacaamaasa::eaac.ree:|caace:eaies . cea|e|eei. v.i. es
eaieiiaem . i :mec.aeci .
` On this cf. notably EJ, 1 4, p. 65.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
ue:ee a:e a|asi:eeea:se. |eie:eaa .cea|.z.aeeoe:ai.ea
aeseaei.v.ivaasaeve:|eeasiac.ecie:.ise| iaacaeseeeac.i.eas
a:eaeve:ie|| .ae.iaa:ac.ea||v.asi.ia
i.veeoe:ai.ea1a. s.cea|.zai.ea. siaaia.ea .eaiae|as. seiaseas.||e
.cea|.iv.iaeme:oae|ee.ea|ivoeei:eancaess. ie:esamo|e .ma|esa
a.eae:.a|se|aie|ve| .aacaeaseas.||e.cea|.iveeea:-iae
e. :e|e . a s.m.|a:| vaamec|aiiaeie:mai.eai ae:ce:ie:eaea
|ae|aace:asoaea.aiaespecies . . e. . iae e:.e.aa| asoeei eiseas.||e
me:oae|ee.ea|.cea| .iv .emasieeasiaai|veeii:eei:emeeemei:.ea|
habits a.eaieaciee|iaseaie.i. iaThe Poetics of Space,
iae eaaoie: eai.i|ec 1|e raeaemeae|eev ei xeaacaess. Casiea
naeae|a:ceve|||eseme|aiaeeessa:vdeception: 1aec.m
ea|iviaaiaacie |eeve:eeme .a:.i.aeia.| |
ua| .|e me:oae|ee.ea| .cea| .iv. esaei .cea|.iv aas |eea o:ecaeec
a|eaoi:emeve:vcese:.oi. uacea|iec| via.s|
saooe:i e: aooea| i:em seas.||e .cea|.iv. uas:| a|avs soea|s ei
eeemei:v s seas.||e saooe:i. sa|si:aie. e:|as.s(Ideas I, :.
o i s . naiiaese ieaacai.eas a:e aei iae iaacameaia| s eaes. a|
' ` The same principle and notion of substructive idealization, but without substantial
supplementary explication, is found again and again from one end to the other of Hus
sert ' s work. In particular: a) in the LI, I , 1 , 1 8 , p. 302. There we read among others those
lines devoted to idealization and to which the Origin will add nothing: "The image . . .
provides only a foothold for intellectio. It ofers no genuine instance of our intended
pattern, only an instance of the sort of sensuous form which is the natural starting-point
for geometrical ' idealization' . In these intellectual thought-processes of geometry, the
ideal of a geometrical figure i s constituted, which is then expressed in the fixed meaning
of the defnitory expression. Actually to perform this intellectual process may be presup
posed by our frst formation of primitive geometrical expressions and by our application
of them in knowledge, but not for their revived understanding and their continued
sigifcant use" ; b) in Ideas I, 74, pp. 1 90-91 ; c) in "Idealization and the Science of
Reality-The Mathematization of Nature" (Before 1 928), Appendix I I , in C, pp. 301 -1 4;
d) i nEl, to, pp. 41 -46; e) inFTLy 96c, and Conclusion, pp. 243 and 291 -93; f) in C, 9a
naturally, but also in 36, where in summary is said: "These categorical features of the
life-world have the same names but are not concered, M to speak, with the theoretical
idealizations and the hypothetical substructions of the geometrician and the physicist"
(p. 1 40; our emphasis); and g) in Appendix V: "Objectivity and the World of Experi
ence, " in C, pp. 343-5 1 .

The Poetics of Space, tf. Maria Iolas (Boston: Beacon, 1 964) , p. xxxv.
` All these formulas are also encountered in the texts we just cited. The sensible type
serves as the foundation for geometry in the process of being constituted. Next, it will
only serve as an illustrative "auxiliary" or "adjunct" to a geometrical activity which
goes through it toward pure ideality.
Jacques Derrida
(aeaea(ae|a((e:eaea(ae((ease(aeie:e:|eie:ee((ea| ( .s oa:e
( s:esoeas.||eie:(ae|eao.aeacvaaeeei. cea|.za(.eaaac
ie:eeee(:.ea|(:a(aassaea1ae. aaaea:a|eaa:ae(e:ei(ae.cea| .
ae(.(ae:ac.ea|aac. ::ao(.vei:eecea.ea(aa(ae(aa.ies(s. aac(ae
cee.s.vec. seea(.aa.(va..aao:ee(s(aeae(i:e. (soas(eeac.(. eas. a||
(|.z.aeae(i:eaeeaea|ee.ea|cese:. o(.ea

|i(ae ea:|.e:(es(sce ae((eaea as aav e:e a|ea( (aeprocess ei

.cea| .za(.ea. a:e (aev e:e as (e (aeorgin of the abilit (e
.cea| .ze: |(ceesae(seese |a. (ses(eeae:e(ece(e:.aa(.eas. (ae
eoe:a(.ea. sa|avso:esea(ecasaoassaee(e(ae| ..( s(a:(.aei:e
aaanticipatory s(:ae(a:e ei .a(ea(.eaa|.(v. e ee |eveac e:oae
| ee.ea| .cea|.(v (ea:c (ae . cea| aac .ava:.aa( oe|e ei aa . aia.(e
sa(ie: (ae .a(ea(.eaa| aa(.e.oa(.ea (e |eao (e (ae .aia.(e . .( as(
already |e . cea| waa( (a.s .cea| . za(.ea eiaa(.e.oa(.ea a(eaee aa
l 8
I n the same sense Gonseth notes: "The passage from the i ntuitive notion: the
intended line, to the ideal notion: the straight line, i s something completely indescriba
ble" (Les Mathematiques et la realite: Essai sur la methode axiomatique [Pari s: Lib
rairie Fel i x Alcan, 1 936] , p. 76).
t !i
To us the most specifc passages concering thi s seem to be the fol lowing:
A) "Geometrical concepts are 'ideal' concepts, they express something which one
cannot ' see' ; their 'origin, ' and therefore their content also, is essentially other than that
of the descriptive concepts as concepts which express the essential nature of t hings as
drawn di rectly from si mpl e i ntui ti on, and not anything ' ideal . ' Exact concepts have their
correlates i n essences, which have the character of 'Ideas ' in the Kantian sense . Over
against these I deas or ideal essences stand the morphological essences, as correlates of
descri pti ve concepts .
" That ideation . . . gi ves ideal essences as ideal 'limits, ' which cannot on principle be
found in any sensory intuit ion, to which on occasion morphological essences ' approxi
mate more or l ess, without ever reaching them . . " (Ideas I, 74, pp. 1 90-9 1 ; Husserl ' s
emphasi s) .
B) The text which follows, taken from the Crisis (9a, p. 26) , i s of a more genetic style.
Here Husserl also shows himself more sensitive to the difculty of a description which, he
thi nks, sti l l remains to be done: "Without going more deeply into the essential intercon
nections i nvol ved here (which has never been done systematically and is by no means
easy) , we can understand that, out of the praxis of perfecting, of freel y pressi ng toward
the horizons of conceivable (erdenklicher) perfecting ' again and again' (Immer-wieder),
limit-shapes emerge toward which the particular series of perfectings tend, as toward
i nvariant and never attainable poles. If we are interested in these ideal shapes and are
consistently engaged in determining them and in constructing new ones out of those
already determined, we are ' geometers. ' The same i s true of the broader sphere whi ch
includes the dimension of time: we are mathematicians of the ' pure' shapes whose uni
versal form is the coideal i zed form of space-time. In place of real praxi s . . . we now
have an ideal praxis of ' pure thinking' which remains excl usi vel y within the realm of
pure limit-shapes . " Husserl ' s emphasi s.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometry
(ae:.zesaaco:ese:.|es. s(aeo:eseaeeie:eease. easaesseiaaIdea in
the Kantian sense. 1ae|a((e:.s(aee|]ee(eiaaideation, aaaeuasse:|
eueae.ves(e.cea| .za(.eaaaca.eaas(|ec.s(.aea. saeci:e.cea
(.eaas(ae.a(a.(.eaeiaaesseaee( Wesensschau) .
l h0|e
(eea(aese(e.cea(.eas. s eaeeaaeeas(.(a(eaae|]ee(asae:ea(.ea.
(aee(ae:eaace( a(a.(.ea r:. e:c.a|eeee(:.ea|.cea
(.ea. ie:esao|e. |:.aesa|ea(aaesseaeea.eac.c ae(es. s(|eie:e
(ae .cea(.ea 1a.s .cea(.ea . s (ae:eie:e e:ehistorical. sa(eaee (ae
.cea| e|]ee( . s eeas(.(a(ec .(a.a :eacvace eeee(:v. (ae
Wesensschau :eea. as.(s:.ea(s |(. sae(|veaaaee(aa((aesaee:c
ces.eaa(es( .a|e(aeases. (aee|]ee(.saa.::ea|
esseaee. a|(aeaea ae( a( a|| . ae.aa:v [antastique] . | a eeas(.(a(ec
eeee(:v.(aeWesensschau ea|v:eoea(s(aeo:ecae(.ve.cea| .za(.ea |i
(?eeeee(:.ea|Wesensschau . soess.||eea|v|eeaase.cea|
a aa
already o:ecaeec (ae eeee(:.ea| e|]ee( . eeave:se| v. (|e
one:c.a| oassaee(e(ae| ..(.soess.||eea| v.iea.cec|vaaesseaee
a.eaeaa a| avs |e aa(.e.oa(ec aac(aea :eeeea. zec. |eeaase a
truth eioa:esoaee.s.aeaes(.ea1aa(.savoassaees(e(ae| . .(a:e
ae( (e |e ceae a:|.(:a:. | ve:a.| ess| v 1aa( .s av eeee(:v .s (a. s
es(:ae:c. aa:v eoe:a(.ea (ae e:ea(.ea eiaa e.ce(.e | ( ie| |es (aa(
eee(:v s .aia.(e a.s(e:v .||a|avs see .(s aa.(vo:ese:. |ec|v(ae
e.ce(.. s(:ae(a:e eia :ee. ea. e: e:e o:ee. se| v. |v (ae aa.(v eiaa

ea( soa(.a|.(veia:ee.ea 1a.saa.(vee:(a.a|v.sae(




eo.nea|| vaaeaaaeea||e sa(.(.sea| v(aeaa. (vof (ae

mi(ea. s(enea|ceve|eoea(ei(aee.ce(.eea||eceeee(:v |(is no
thing ea(s.ce (aea.s(e:veieeee(:v.(se|i
sseaee| ..(s saooese (aeaaa eoea|e:.zeaaac(ae|:eas(a:eaea
(ea:c(ae.aia.(eeiaa" immer wieder" e:aa" und so weiter, " a.ea. s
(aeve:veveea(eia(aea(.ea|. cea|.za(.ea.aeeae:a| | i(aes(:ae

i(ae "again and again" . siaacaea(a| ae:e. (ae o:. v. | eeec
ia(a:e .a(aeeeas(.(a(.ea eisoaee .aeeae:a| as(|e aesae|eceec
I 60
Cf. Idees, 74, pp. 235-36, n. 1 of translator.
I 6!
On t he "again and agai n, " t he iterative "over and over again, " or t he "and so
forth" as fundamental forms of idealization, "since de facto no one can always again"
[take all the ideal i zations into consideration] (FTL, p. 1 88) , cf. FTL, 74, pp. 1 88-89; and
A Study ofHusserl's Logic [Part I I , Ch . 3] , pp. 1 1 9f. The "and so forth, "
masmucas I t belons t o the evident structure of the noema of the thing i n general, had
been copIOusl y descnbed i n Ideas I (cf. particularly 1 49, pp. 379-83 , which sketches on
thi s a comparison between ideation, i ntuition of the I dea and of the "and so forth, " and
pure intuition i n the Kantian sense, whose ideation would only be phenomenological
clarifcation) .
Jacques Derrid
sai.a eooes.i.eaieiae | .vecsoaee.a a.eaiae.aceia.ieaesseiiae
acam|:ai.eas .s a i:aaseeaceaee iaai esseai.a||v eaa aeve: |e mas
ie:ec.iae.cea| .zecsoaeeeimaiaemai.esa||esasieee.mmec.aie| v
ieiae.| .m.ieiaai. s. aiaeiaaaaia.saecmevemeai.1aas. iae
i:aaseeaceaeeeieve:v| .veciaia:eeaa|ea|se|aie|vaoo:eo:.aiecaac
ve|eomeai. Haiaemai.ea| soaee ae |eaee: saes aai sa:i:e ea| | s
i:aasoaeaemeaa|.iv. 1aeceve|eomeaiseimaiaemai.ea|soaee. ||
aeve:de jure eseaoe as. iaai . eaiseemme:e
me:eour own. sai.siaaiaeia|se|eeaase.iaas|eeememe:eie:e.ea
we:eei e:esoeeiaaci e:eoeaiiaese aame:eas
a|.iv1ae aea.aaacaea.a a.eaaaacseve:exaei.iace.ase:.|esiae|ee|ee.ea|o:ese:.oi.eaeiiae iass. ~ac iae |aiie: . s e:eaacec. iaea. .a iae mevemeai ei|oaeaemeae|ee.ea|iemoe:a|.zai.ea.i a.eaiaei.v.aer:e
seaieieease.easaessae|cs. ise||~|se|aieea|
.aceia.ieo:eieai.ea. aa.maiecaacaa.iec|viaeicea(in the Kantian
sense) eiiae ieia| aax ei|.vecexoe:.eaee. ~s e aave seea. iae
ee|eeaase.i. siaai.aa.ea. iea:ca.ea. aacsia:i.aei:ema.ea
eve:v eai. s eaeeiec. 1ae r:eseai aasiae .::ecae.||e
e:.e.aa|.iveiaNe. iaee:eaaceiaue:e.ea|v.i.i:eia.
|||ei:em.iiaeoasiNeas such, . . e . . asiaeoasio:e
` `' Cf. the important 83 of Ideas I : "Apprehension of the Uni tary Stream of Experi
ence as ' Idea, ' ' ' pp. 220-22. Thi s Idea i s the common root of the theoretical and
the ethical. Finite and objective ethical values are undoubtedly constituted and
grounded, according to Husserl, by a theoretical subject. Thi s point has been very accu
rately brought to light by Emmanuel Levinas (The Theor of Intuition in Husserl' s
Phenomenology, tr. Andre Orianne [Evanston: Northwester University Press, 1 973] ,
pp. 1 33-34) and by Gaston Berger (The Cogito in Husserl's Philosophy, pp. 8082). But
on a deeper level , theoretical consciousness i s nothing other, in itself and thoroughly
understood, than a practical consciousness, the consciousness of an infnite task and the
site of absolute value for itself and for humanity as rational subjectivity. Cf. , for example:
"Philosophy as Mankind' s Self-Refection, " Appendix IV in C, pp. 335-4 1 . There we
read: mankind "is rational in seeking to be rational . . . reason allows for no diferentia
tion into ' theoretical , ' ' practical , ' '
esthetic' . . . being human is teleological being and
an ought-to-be . . . " (p. 341 ) . Also cf. CM, 41 , p. 88. The uni ty of Reason in all its
usages would manifest itself fully for Husserl in the theoretical project (rather than in the
practical function, as would be the case for Kant). On this point , a systematic confronta
tion between Husserl and Kant on the one hand and Husserl and Fichte on the other
would be necessary.
Introductin to the Origin ofGeometry
seaieiaa a|se|aiee:.e.a..asieaceioa:e|| .a
aa e|] sai ia. s :eieai.ea .|| aei |e oess.||e .iaeai a ve:vie:mi:si. |eeaase.i:eia.asaNea.ea
as. ise|iaae:.e.aa|o:e]eei. .ise|i:eia.a.aeaaeiae:o:e]eei . aacseea.
aexi. |eeaase iae :eieai.ea .s a|avsiae esseai.a| mec.ieai.ea eia
Ne a|avs .a sasoease . a| iea:c a aexiNe. 1ae
~|se|aieeiiaei.v.aer:eseai .iaea. .sea|viae. aceia.ieHa.aieaaaee
iaeNeaess eiia.s cea||eeave| saiia. sHa.aieaaaee. ise|i
aooea:sas such, .i.siaeLiving r:eseai .aac.iaasiaephenomenological
seaseeiaconsciousness ea|
indefnite aac .i. isseaseei. aceia.ieaess .sannounced .aiae r:eseai
. . . e . . .iiae eoeaaess eiiae iaia:e . s. as saea. a oess.|.|.iv
experienced [vecue ] as sease aac :.eai . Deaia .|| aei |e eem
o:eaeacec as sease|aiasa iaei ieiaemevemeaieiiem
oe:a|.zai. ea. 1aeaa.ivei.aia.iv. iaeeeac.i.eaie:iaaiiemoe:a|.za
i.ea.masiiaea|ethought, s.aee.i.saaaeaaeec.iaeaiaooea:.aeaac
.iaeai|e.aeeeaia.aec.aar:eseai. 1a. siaeaeaiaa.iv.a.eamases
icea.aiae kaai.aaseasea.eaaeve:oaeaemeaa|.zes. ise|i
1ae aaia. saecaess ei uasse:| s :eaeei.eas ea|
iemoe:a|.iv-iae.::.eaaess. |aia| ssa. c. iaec.ssai.siaei.eaiaev
|eii iae. :aaiae:-aas |eae |eea aace:see:ec ti iae maaase:.ois ei
Group C iaas]asi|viase.aaieHasse:|

seemmeaiaie:s . . siaai aei|e

eaase iaese maaase:.ois ieaea ea iae mesi o:eieaac :ee.ea ei
oaeaemeae|ee.ea| sss|e.aeae|eaee:iae
o:ev. s.eaeiaooea:.aee:iae| e|ca.eaeae:s.ise|iieoaeaemeaa||.eai.
|aiiaeie:eve:aeeia:aa|sea:eeeiiae| .eai.ise|i:~:eaeiiaeiceaaac
iae. cea|.z.aea|.|.iv.a.eaexemo|a:. | veeeaovasae:easiaee:.e.aei seoi|aes.aia.sesseai.a|ca:saess:
e:a|oe.aisa|eaeuasse:| s raa| x.eeea:ve:v|v:ee
eea.zes .a iae icea iae :e|e |eieea eease.easaess aac
a.sie:v.' Ne. a.|e eemo|eie| .i .ia iae a.eaesiaac
mesieeasiaaiie|ee|ee.ea|c.ea. iv. a.|eeemo|eie|ve:aai.aea|e|
aiieai.eaieaai.ieeac.i.eas. uasse:|aeve:maceiae iceaitsel iae
theme eiaoaeaemeae|ee.ea|cese:.oi.ea.ueaeve:c.:eei|
ivoeeiev.ceaee.ia.aoaeaemeae| 'prnciple ofal prnci
pies" aaca:eaeivoa|ie:m eiev.ceaeea:eiae .mmec.aieo:eseaeeei
! 6
"Husserl and the Sense of History, " in Husserl: An Analysis, p. 1 45.
Jacques Derrida
(ae(a.aa. (se|i .aee:sea ime|. e.(|v(aa(eaa.ei(aeeaeae

aeaaeae:aeaaa||e(a.aa.(ae:eie:e(aefnzte (ama .1aee(. ioiaa
|a((e . e| .ea(.ea(?a .(a
sees (e aave .(a oaeaeeae|eev s onae. o|e ei onae. o| es
raeaeeae|eev ea|a (aas |estretched |e(eea (aejnitizing eea
se.easaessei.(sprinciple aaa(aeinjnitizing eease.easaessei.(saaa|
institution, (aeEndstiftung .aaeaa.(e|vaeie::ea[differee] .a .(seea(ea(
i ( . sae(|veaaaee(aa((ae:e.saeoaeaeeae|eevei(aei aea. e
|a((e:eaaae(| aeaee. ie:.(I S

seeae.(se|i..(. s
ea|vdeterminability as (ae ae:.zea ie:eve:v m(a.(.ea. aeeae:| . (ae
. av.s.||e.|.eaeisee. aeaaa|eeeas(e(aea. aoaaae.(vei(ae~ns(e(e
|. aaD. aoaaaeas. aae|eea(a|(a.:a.|a((aeeaesea:eeei(aesaaa
(aev.s.||e |va.aoaaaeasieaaaa(.sv. s.||e.aaave(ae(v. s. ||em
.(se|i.|a(:a(|.| .(v(e(aeee|ea:eisee(a.aee| se. i (
. s(aaass( e(a. sa|eae (aa((aeee|ea:eia( sseea(De Anima,
1i s|. ii(ae:e. s ae(|ea((aeiaea /se|. .(.s|eeaase(ae
l 64
An essential fni tude can appear i n phenomenology i n another sense: to recognie
that the transcendental reduction must remain an eidetic reduction in order to avo d
empirical ideali sm is to recognize that transcend
ental ideali sdoes nO
t proc
eed, e,en 1 0
the Kantian tradition itself, without the afrmatIon of the phI losopher s radIcal fmtude.
This necessi ty for the transcendental reduction to remai n so i s thnecess
ity to make he
absolute and primordial ground of the sense of being appear 10 regIon (the rglOn
" consciousness" unifed by an ego and an Idea) , i . e. , i n a region whIch, even were It
Ur-Region, i s no l ess a domain of determined existents . The uni tary ground of all egl Ons
can onl y appear i n one region; it can onl y then be concealed undr a typof bemgess
[itance] determined the very moment it appars
the round. Wlthout thIs
philosophical di scourse woul d renounce all
eldetIc r
I . e. , all sense. Te eIdetIc l
l m1ta
tion i s then indispensable, and the reductIOn receIves 1ts true sene ,h1Ch, cntrary to
appearances, is that of prudence and critical huml i t. it
hout hl d1sappenng f the
ground necessary for appearing itself, wi thout th1S hmltatlon w1thm a
certm reglonal
ness, without this reduction that Heidegger impl i citly reproaches h1m w1th, us
thinks that philosophy even more surel y fal l s back i nto regionalness; better st1l1, mto
empirical regionalness-here, for exampl e, under the form of anthropological factul ity,
Husserl thi nks, that of Dasein . On thi s poi nt, the dialogue between Husserl and Heldeg
ger could go on indefnitel y, except considering that the reduction i s alwys already
supposed as the essential possibility of Dasein, and that, conversIY, consc10u
sness as
transcendental source i s not a "region" in the strict sense, even If the neceSSI ty of n
eidetic language has to consider it as such. For both Husserl and Heidegger, the cohc
ity of appearing and of concealing seems i n any case primordial, essential , and defmtlve.
I 6^
[ET: On the Soul, t r. J. A. Smith, i n The Basic Works of Aristotle, ed. Richard
McKeon (New York: Random House, 1 941 ) , p. 568 (modifed) . ]
Introductin to the Origin ofGeometry
i aea. s(aa(s(a:(.aei:ea.easee(|eaa |e sa.a. i (s
ea oa:(.ea|a:o:eseaee . (aea. eaaae(aeoeaaeaaoaeaeeae|ee.ea|
(v,eeiev.aeaee . Deso.(e(aea|(.o|.e.(vei:eie:eaees(e(ae i aea.a
uasse:| s |as(:.(.aes. (ae es( o:ee. se (ex( .(s(voe ei
ev.aeaee .s ieaaa. .(sees. .a(ae eaao(e:eiIdeas I aeve(ea(e(ae
oaeaemeae|eeveixeasea. | 1 .oo---:
(e(aa(ei(ae(e(a|aa.(vei(ae. aaea(aax.aa.ea. (a. s(.e .eaea
|. veaexoe:.eaee.s aaeeaa(e|ve. vea. ~|(aeaea(ae(:aaseeaaea((
.(a s..|a:|v eeo|e(e . a(a.(a|.|.(v .a aav |..(ea | a.(e eease. eas
aess. "as Idea .. a(aekaa(.aasease. [its] complete givenness is . . .
prescribed . . . " (ibid. , o. -- .
1a. siaeaei(ae. aaa.(eae(e:. aa|.|.(vei(aesaex-e:eeve:. as
e| | . (aa(ei(ae e:|a .a eeae:a|-aes. eaa(es(a:eaea. (sessea(.a|
aa(a:eatpe ofevidence that is its own" (ibid. , o-:ea.aea . '
(a. sev.aeaeeei(ae iaeaas :eea|a(.veoess.|. |.(v.s a|se|a(e|vexeeo
(.eaa| . aoaeaeeae|eev. .(aasaeo:eoe:eea(ea(. e::a(ae:. (. sae(
ev.aeaeeei(aei aea seea(ea( i(.sev.aeaeeea|v. aseiaras.(i sjnite,
. . e . . ae:e.formal, s.aee(aeeea(ea(ei(ae. aaa.(ei aea. s a|sea(aaa. s
aea.ea( eeve:v. a(a.(.ea.1ae.aeaeiaa. aaa.(vessea(.a||ve(.va(ea
.s ae( .(se|i aa . aaa.(v. (ae ev.aeaee (aa((a. s .aaa.(v . s . a(:. as.ea||v
.aeaoa||e ei| e.vea aees ae( exe|aae |a( :a(ae: aeaaas (ae
(:aasoa:ea(e.veaaessei(aeIdea ei(a. s. aaa.(v (ibid. ea.aea .
i a(aei .sae(e:. aeaev. aeaeeea|vei(aei aea.
|a(ae(ei(aa(eia.ea.(. s(aeiaea. 1aeiaea. s(aeoe|eeiaoa:e
.a(ea(.ea.eo(veieve:vae(e:m.aeae|]ee( i(a|eae:evea|s.(aea.(ae
|e.aeei(ae.a(ea(.eaintentionality .(se|i.
1aas . ie:eaee. ae( aooea:s .aa ev. aeaee. waa(aees
aooea: . s ea|v(ae :eea|a(.ve oess. |.|.(v ei aaa (ae aa.(e
ee:(a.a(vei. aaa.(eoaeaeeae|ee.ea|ae(e:.aa|.|.(v. . . e. .aee:(a.a(v
.(aea(aee::esoeaa.aeev.aeaee. svaeaa.(|eaaaea
(e(a.sie:a|ae(e:.aa(.eaei(aeiaea 1ae|a((e:. as(ae. aaa.(eae(e:
.aa|.|.(veix. . s ea|vrelation with an object. i( .s. . a(ae |:eaaes(
sease.Objectivit . (se|i.
ia a.s a:(.e|e ea kaa( aaa uasse:| . raa| x.eeea: :.(es (ae
In FTL, Husserl also evokes "thi s phenomenologically cl arifable i nfi nite anticipa
tion (which, as an i nfnite anticipation, has an evidence of its own) " ( 1 6c, n. I , p . 62).
But, at that poi nt , Husserl no longer goes beyond the promise or suggestion made i n the
passage. Moreover, at the end of thi s note he refers to Ideas I.
Jacques Derrid|.a kaai. . . |eiweeaintention cintuition "
.s ieia||vaa|aewa.aHasse:| .
i aiaei.s saeve:
iaemai.e. auasse:| . Necea|i.aa. se.vea
eaaaeiaave. assaea. aoaeaemeae|oe.ea|eaa:aeie:.aacuasse:|eaa
aeieeae:eie|vcese:.|e. i. ai|easiaei.a. iseeaieai. ie:iae. aieai.ea s
ie:m. saeeae:eieaac| .vecev.ceaee. wa.ea. saeiiaeease. akaai.|v.phenomenology eaaaei|ee:eaacecassaea. a. ise|
eaa .iitsel .ac.eaie .is ewa o:eoe: | . sai . s aei iae ee:ia.aiv
.w.iaeaiamaie:.a||vceie:m.aecev.ceaeeeiiae. aaa.ieceie:m.aa|.|
.iveixe:eiiaee|eei.aeeae:a|aa .aieai.eaw.iaeai.aia. i.ea. aa
emoiv.aieai.eawa.ea|eiae:eaacs aac.s saeci:emeve:v
ceie:m.aecoaeaemeae|ee.ea|.aia.i.ea: is aeiiae samei:aeie:aav
.isie:ms :~ssa:ec|v. iaea.ia.s.aieai.eaa|oa:esease[sens pur d'inten
tion], ia.sintentionality, .a. ise|i.siae|asiia.aeiaaiaoaeaemeae|eev
eaac. :eei|vcese:.|eeiae:w.seiaaa.a.isaa. ieaeis ..aia.i.eas.:esa|is .
e:e|eeis . |ai . w.iaeaiwaai.aee:|e.aea||eie cese:.|e.i. Hasse:|
aeve:iae|ess:eeeea.zes. aacposits ia. s.aieai.eaa|.ivas
iaea.eaesisea:eeeiva|ae .He|eeaiesiaespace wae:eeease.easaess
aei.aes .ise|i ei iae i cea s o:ese:. oi.ea aac iaas .s :eeeea.zec as
i:aaseeaceaia| ssoaee
.siaeinteral |eiweeaiaei ceaei. aaa.iv.a.isie:ma|
eeae:eieev. ise|ieiwa.eaiae:e. siaeicea.ii.s
eaiae|as.seiia. sae:.zeaee:ia.aiviaaiiaea.sie:.e.iveiseaseaaciae
I 67
"Kant and Husserl , " in Husserl: An Analysis, pp. 1 75-201 . In this very dense
article, Ricoeur defi nes Husserlianism as the completion of a latent phenomenology and
the reduction of an ontological disquietude, both of which aimate Kantianism; of these
he has said that "Husserl did phenomenology, but Kant limited andfounded it" (p. 201 ) .
I n thi s way the formidable and decisive problems of the Fifth Cartesian Medi tation are
taken up again in a Kantian reading: the practical detenination of the person by respect
must precede and condition a theoretical constitution which, by itself alone, cannot have
access to the alter ego as such. Also cf. on this Fallible Man, tr. Charles Kelbley
(Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1 965), pp. 1 05-2 1 . As for the relation with an object which
preoccupies us here, Ricoeur writes more particularly: "The key to the problem is the
distinction, fundamental in Kant but totally unknown in Husserl, between intention and
intuition . Kant radically separates from one another the relation to something and the
intuition of something. An object " X is an intention without intition. This distinction
subtends that of thinking and knowing and maintains the ageement as well as the tension
between them" (p. 1 89).
Here we naturally leave aside those various possibilities, so often invoked by Husserl ,
of empty intentions, like the symbolic intentions that are deceived or not fulflled, and so
on. They could not b said to be deprived of intuition in general . Their emptiness is
circumscribed, in that they always bear reference to a determined but absent intuition.
Introductin to the Origin ofGeomet
re:aaos ia. s ae|os as ieeemo:eaeacwaviae icea.a i~ kaai.aa
seaseaac. ae:e.iaemaiaemai.ea|. cea| .zai.eawa.easaooeses. ieea|c
ea|v|eoperative aacnot thematic eeaeeois.
1a. soaeaemeae|ee.ea|
aeaiaemai.zai.eae|evsao:eieaacaac.::ecae. ||eaeeess.iv.1aeicea
iae icea . ise|i mav |e :ac.ea||v . moess.||e i:em iaea ea s.ea.aes
oaeaemeae|eev.aaciaai. isLogos eaaaeve:aooea:assaea.eaaaeve:
|e e.vea.a aoa.| |ai .|.|e a|| soeeea eaa ea|v |e
aea:c e: aace:sieec ia:eaea iae v.s.||e. 1ae Endstitung ei
oaeaemeae|eev .oaeaemeae|eev s a|i.maie e:.i.ea| |ee.i. mai.ea. . . e . .
waai . issease . va|ae . aac:.eaiie||as a|eai.i . iaea. aeve:c.:eei|v
measa:es aoie aoaeaemeae|eev. ~i|easi ia.sEndstitung
aeeessie.ise|i.aaoa.|eseoav..aseia:as.i.sannounced .aaeeae:eie
oaeaemeae| ee.ea|ev.ceaee..aaeeae:eieconsciousness wa.ea. smace
responsible ie:.iceso.ieiaeaa.iaceeiiaaieease.easaess.aac. aseia:
as .i e:eaacs i:aaseeaceaia| a. sie:. e.iv aac i:aaseeaceaia| .aie:sa|
]eei.v.iv. Hasse:| s oaeaemeae|eevsia:isi:em ia. slived anticipation
asa:ac.ea|:esoeas.|.|.iv.semeia.aewa. ea. waeaeeas.ce:ec|.ie:a| |v.

1ao:eseaeeeiiaeiceaa|eae. iae:eie:e.aaiae:.zesiae|eaoieoa:e
.cea| |iv|viaeaea:e| . aiaeiiaai
eea||isa|eaiiaaie:.e.a s soee.aea.sie:.e.iv. ~:ewe
.aiaeeveaie:a.sie:.ea|iaeieaiaeeiae:: ia wa.ea ease. wewea|c
si:.|eiae saaesiaai Hasse:||vwaaisieave.caacwea|
i.eaieiaeseaseeiiaeicea so:eieaaca.sie:.e. iv.
uacea|iec| viaeiceaaaciaexeaseaa. ccea.aa.sie:vaac.amaaas
: 'animal rationale" a:eeie:aa| .uasse:|eueasavsia. s saiia.seie:a.iv
IS only a a.sie:.e.iv. ii . s iae possibilt of a.sie:v .ise|i. iis
sao:aiemoe:a|.iv-eemoa:ec w. ia emo. :.ea| iemoe:a|.iv-.s ea|v aa
ema.iemoe:a|.iv.1aeicea. |.|exeasea. .snothing eais.ceiae a.sie:v
We refer here to the very enlightening distinction proposed by Fink in his lecture,
already cited, on " Les Concepts operatoires dans la phenomenologie de Husser\ . " [See
note 66 above. ]
1 '

Jacques Derrid
.aa.ea.(dispLays .(se|i.. e. . .aa.ea..aeaeaac(aesaemeveea(
.(|esesaac|e(s. (se|i|e(a:ea(eaec
s. aee(aetcea. sae(a.aaea(s.cea. s(e:v|a((aesense ofa||a.s(e:v.
ea|vaa. s(|sa|] ee(.v.(veaa|emace:eseeas.||eie:
.( 1aas. .a(aeCartesian Meditations . i .1 . uasse:||es
.ae(aeiaa|sease(Zwecksinn) eise.eaeeasa"noematic phenomenon. "
i a(:aaseeacea(a|sa|]ee(. v.(v s|esa:eei (aei cea. progressiveness
.sae(aaex(|a((ae. oe:a(.ve
o:ese:.o(.ea ei .(s esseaee. 1ae icea .s ae( aa ~|se|a(e (aa(frst
ex. s(s.a(aeo|ea.(aceei.(sesseaeeaac(aeaceseeacs.a(ea.s(e:ve:
|eeeesc. se|esec.aa sa|]ee(.v. (v aese ae(s ea|c ae(|e.a(:. as.
ea||||e(e.( ii(aa(e:e(:ae. a||(:aaseeacea(a|a.s(e:.e
.(veea|c|esa.c(e|eea|vaaeo.:.ea|a. s(e:v. . . a(.|. zecasaa(
:evea|sessea(.a|.a(e:eeaaee(.eas na((aeseesa(. a|.a(e:eeaaee
(.eas ea|c |e . oess.||e . (aev ea|c |e ae( .(aea( a
(:aaseeacea(a|sa|]ee(. v.(vaac.(s(:aaseeacea(a|a.s(e:.e.(v. 1ae ~|
se|a(e ei (ae icea as (ae 1e|es ei aa .aia.(e ce(e:.aa|.|.(v . s (ae
~|se|a(eof .a(ea(.eaa|a.s(e:.e.(v 1aeof ces.eaa(es ae.(ae:ae:e| v
e|]ee(.veae:ae:e|vsa|]ee(.veeea. (.ve (ae eieeaee:asae.(ae:
aa .aceoeacea( . e|]ee(.ve ~|se|a(e (aa(|esec .a aa .a(ea(.ea
a.ea.s:e|a(. ve(e(aa(~|se|a(e. a.(sie:.(.aaceeaie:s(e. (. ae:
cees(aeeieeaee:aasa|]ee(. ve~|se|a(ea.eae:ea(esaacass. .
|a(es sease . a(e .(s ea .a(e:.e:.(v. xa(ae:. (a. s ei eeaee:as (ae
.a(ea(.eaa|~|se|a(eeiObjectivity, (aeoa:e:e|a(.ea. (aaae|]ee(a
:e|a(.ea .a a.easa|]ee( aace|]ee( a:e :ee.o:eea||veaeeace:ec aac
eeve:aec ii(ae of aaaeaaees ae. (ae: aa e|,ee(.ve ae:a sa|]ee(.ve
eea.(.ve.(aa(.s|eeaase.(eeaee:as(ae~|se|a(eofgenitivity .(se|ias
That the Idea may not be i mmediately graspable in its evidence i s, i n any case, the
sign of its profound hi storicity. The expanded title of "Philosophy as Mankind' s Self
Refl ection" i s: "Phil osophy as Manki nd' s Self-Refl ection: the Self-Realization of Reason
through Stages of Development Requires as its Own Function the Stages of Development
of this Self- Refection" ( see ' ' La Philosophie comme prise de conscience de I ' humanite, "
tr. Paul Ri coeur, i nDeucafion, 3 : Verite e t Liberte [Cahiers de Phi l osophi e] , ed. Jean Wahl
[Neuchatel : Edition de la Baconniere, October 1 950] , p. 1 1 6) .
Husserl rigorously distingui shes Idea from eidos (cf. Ideas I, Introd. , p. 42) . The
I dea, then, is not essence. From which the difculty, already indicated, of an intuitive
grasp or evidence of what is neither an existent nor an essence. But it is als necessary to
say of the Idea that it has no essence, for it is only the openness of the horizon for the
emergence and determination of every essence. As the i nvi sible condition of nidence, by
preserving the seen, it loses any reference to seeing indicated i n eidos, a notion from
which it nevertheless results in its mysterious Platonic fous. The I dea can only be
understood [or heard: entendre J .
t !
Jean Cavail l es, Sur fa Logique, p. 77.
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
(aeoa:eoess.|.| .(veiaeeae(.e:e|a(.ea (aeof eaaa:s(aesa|]ee( s.
as well as (aee|]ee( s. eeaea|ee.ea||vseeeaca:vaacceoeacea(s(a(as .
(aea.(a:eaea(aeve:veoeaaessei . (s.ace(e:.aa(.ea.. ( eaaa:s(ae.:
o:.e:c.a|.a(e:ceoeaceaee ii(aa(. se|ea:|v(aeease. avsaea|ce
eaeese. as Cava.||es (aeaea(. |e(eea aa a|se|a(e |ee.e aac a
(:aaseeacea(a| |ee.e (Sur La Logique, o :: . e: |e(eea aeea
se.easaesseio:ee:ess aaca o:ee:esseieease.easaess (ibid. , o
:s :~| |(aee:ese.s.aee(aedialectical eeaes. s(aa(Cava. |i-seooeses
(e (ae ae(.v.(v eiuasse:|.aa eease. easaess .s cese:.|ec o:ee.|v
aaceeo.eas|v|vuasse:|eava:.eas|eve| s. a|(aeaea(aee:c.saeve:
mea(.eaec weaave seeaaeaea(a.sae(.v.(veieease.easaess
as|e(a aa(e:.e:aacoes(e:.e:(e oass.v.(v. (aa((aeeveea( ei ai(emee:a| .za(.ea.(aea|(.ma(ea:eaaceia| | eeas(.(a(.eaas
c. a|ee(.ea|(a:eaaaaac(a:eaaa.aac(aa(.aseve:vaa(aea(.ec.a|ee(. e.(v
aa(s(a. smevemea(asea|v(aec. a|ee(.e|e(eea(aec. a|ee(.ea|.(ae
.aceaa.(ema(aa|aac.::ecae.|||.ea(. eaeie:e(ea(.easaac:e(ea
(.easaac(aeaeac. a|ee(.ea|.(aea|se|a(eaaceeae:e(e. cea(.(vei(ae
i. v.aar:esea(.(aeaa. ve:sa|ie:meia| |eease.easaess ti(aeA|se|a(e
ei(:aaseeacea(a|a.s(e:v .s .aceec. asuasse:| savs .a(aeOrigin, (ae
v. (a|mevemea(ei(aeeeex.s(eaeeaac(ae.a(e:eav.aa(des Mitein
ander und Ineinander) ei a| ie:ma(.eas aac sec. mea(a(.eas
eisease(Sinnbildung und Sinnsedimentierung) " .e.(ec.e 1 09 a|eve.
(aea(ae e:ea(. ve ae(. v.(v eisease . o|.es . a .(se|ia oass.v.(v :e eeas(.(a(ec aac sec.ea(ec seasea sease a. ea aooea:s
aacae(sassaeaea|v.(a.a(aeo:e]ee( eia aee:ea(. v. (v. aacse
ie:(a waa( Cava.||es ]acees . oess.||e e: c.mea|( (e ac.( ie:
]ee(.v.(.esa:e:.ea(|v(aeeeaaee(.ea(eae:ea(.vesa|]ee(.v.(v(Sur La
Logique, o. - . s o:ee. se|vaa( uasse:|cese:.|es .a (aeOrigin,
aea.a (ase ao Cava.||es (e:s. uasse:| saes exae(| v (aa( a sa|
]ee(.v.(v ae:ec .a .(s r:esea( |v a eeas(.(a(ec e|]ee(.ve sease
.a.ea .s (ae:eie:e .(s a|se|a(e|ee.e ias(eas . (s ae:s (e a
a.eae:sa|]ee(.v. (v. . e .(eitsel .a(aee:ea(.veeveea(|va.ea
.(eees|eveac.(se|iaac o:ecaeesaaesease. aac seea 1a.sae
sease.||a|se|e(aeeea(eiahigher sease. aves(.ea(.ea.aa.ea
(ae oas( sease. sec. ea(ec aac :e(a. aec i:s( . a a se:: eie|]ee(.v.s(
a((.(ace. .|| |e :eaaseaec .a .(s ceoeacea( :e|a(.ea (e | sa|
Cavai l l es, who then referred above al l to Ideas I and to FTL, moreover added: "Per
haps the later phenomenological investigations at least permit such a bluntly posed di lemma
to be contested" (p. 65) .
Jacques Derrid
eei. v.iv. uasse:|aeve:seemsieaaveiaeaeaiiaaiia.sasiea|ase
iae s.aea|a:.iv eiiae a|se|aie-ie :ese:ve ie: .i iae|e
ieeaiaeeeasi.iai.aeaaciaeeeasi.iaiecmemeais(ibid. ) . re:a.m
ia.s . s|v |ai iae a|se|aie aa.iv eisease s
movement, . . e. . iaeaa.ivei iae|.eai.eaeiiaeeeasi.iaiecaaceeasi.iai.aememeaisin the abso
lute identit eiai.v.aer:eseaiiaaic.a| eei.ea||
Oieea:se.a| |ia.s:ema.asoa:acex.ea|aaceeai:ac.eie:vas| eaeas
eeeai.aaeieeeas.ce:-. mo|.e.i|ve:aei-iaeiceaassome thing aac
xeaseaasaaabilit. wemasieeasiaai|v:eia:a. iaea.
1 . 1euas.e:| s eeae:eiecese:.oi.easeeaee:a.aeiaeaeema s|
aea:ea|||acec. aeease.easaess. eeaee:a.aeiae.cea|.iveiaeema|acecaessa.ea. sae.iae:asa|eeiae:aae|eei.aac
iae:eie:eis nothing but iaee|eei sO|eei.v. iv.iaeaooea:.aeei. is as
saeafor aeease.easaess: .aaceeaee:a.aeiaeaea.mae.aa:v[nonfan
tastique] .::ea|.iveiiaeeidos . aa.::ea|.iva.ea. snothing other than
iaeseaseaacoess.|.|.tvofiaeiaa|:ea|.iviea.ea.i. sa|avs:e|aiec.
.mmec.aie| ve:aei. oi.eaeiiaeeidos' esseai.a| . iieacm.iie:asieae. asiaai. eveae:e. iaa
.::ecae.||e o:esamoi.ea. iaaiiae:e .s .a uasse:|aai oe:aaosiae:e
as aei evea .a r|aie .exeeoi .a iae |.ie:a|aess ei a.s mvias aac
oecaeeev)-aame|v.a r|aiea. sm eiiaeeidos e:iaeicea-iaeaiae
ae|e oaeaemeae|ee.ea| esoee.a| | v aea .ieeaee:as a.s
ie:v.|eeemesanovel. 1aeicea. ssi.|||essaaex. sieaiiaaaiaeeidos, .i
iaai . s oess.||e . ie: iaeeidos . s aa e|eei iaai. sceie:m.aa||e aac
aeeess.||eiea .aia.i.ea 1ae | cea.saei . || avs|eveac
| (epekeina tes ousias) . ~s iae 1e|es eiiae ceie:m.aa
|.|.iv ei| .i.s |ai| seoeaaessieiae|. eaiei.iseaoae
aemeaa|.iv. .i . s iae | . eai ei |.eai. iae saa ei iae v.s.|| e saa. a
a.cceasaaa. easaes.iaeai|e.aesaea. ~ac.i.saecea|iaai
ar|aiemaiec|vr|aiea. sie| | sas a|eai.
:. 1e uasse:| s aei.ea ei xeasea. vea .i ee:ia.a exo:ess.eas ai
iae saaces eia a. sie:.ea| sa|eei.v.iv e: .aiae sa|e:|c [arrere
monde] ei| xeasea.saeisemeeie:a.ivaie:s.aa. sie:v.
` Li kewi se, the transcendental Ego in the phenomenological sense has no other con
tent but the empirical ego and, further, no real content of its own, although i t is not the
abstractform of a content either, as indeed might some falsel y psed problems about thi s
suggest. I n its most radical moment, every transcendental reduction gi ves access to a
Introuctin to the Origin ofGeometr
a:si|eeaaseiae:e.saea.sie:v.iaeaixeasea. . . e. .aeoa:ei:aasm.s
.saexeasea.iaeaia. sie:v. . . e.
aeis ei i:aaseeaceaia| sa|eei.v.iv. .iaeai .is e| eei.aeai.eas aac
sec.meaiai.eas . Neaeae soea||iieeei:. ceiiaeosveae|ee.ea|oaaaiemeiiaea|ive:a|.|.iv.
aeaesoea|eixeaseaa.ccea.aa.sie:v.iae. mae|aai.veseaemaei
aeameaa|sa|siaaee.s aa:cieeaaee. iieeeaaaeea:se|vesieiaese
soeca|ai.veo:eac.ees . e. iae:a. sie:vea|cea|vaaveaaemo.:.ea|aac| sexeaseaea|cea|v|eamvia.Oaeeme:e
e ea|c aave ie eaeese |eieea xeasea aac u. sie:v. Yei ve:v
ea:| v. smeiosveae|ee.smaac.aiae :eia:aieiaeia.aes
iaemse|vesasiaeacveaieii:aeoes.i.v. sm. uasse:|a:eeceeii. ae
:.ceiiaesoeei:ameiiaesea| siaea|i. esaaca| |iaevesi.eeseie|ass..
sa|siaai.a|.sms .
i i xeasea. s|aiiaeesseai.a|si:aeia:eei iaei:aaseeacea(a|ego aac
iaei:aaseeaceaia|we, .i is .|.seiaem. a. sie:.ea|ia:eaeaaacia:eaea
Ceave:se| v. a.sie:.e.iv. as :ai.eaa|ia:eaea aacia:eaea. nai
being, a.eaa:i.ea|aiesxeaseaaacu. siecv.a:e|ai.eaieeaeaeiae:..s
a"sense, " aie|ee|ee.ea|eaeai ie|ea.eaeeasi.iaies|e.aeasmeve
meai .1ae|asioaeeseiiaeOrigin||em Dee
sea.iaesamexeaseaiaaiiaaei.eas.aeve:vmaa.iaeanimal rationale,
aemaiie:aeo:.m.i.veae. s:. i sec.ieci .
aeaivoeeiiaeiaa|aamaa.iv aasia.sesseaeeeianimal rationale.
aeaivoe. uasse:|eeai.aaes. aas a :eei.aiaeesseai.a|si:ae(a:eei
aai .s||vaamaa. ia:eaeaa.eaaie|ee|ee.ea|xeasea :aa
a.aeia:eaeaeaia||a.sie:.e.ivaaaeaaees.ise|i.w.iaia. s.s:evea|eca
seieio:e|| ea:.eai:e|aiecieiaeieia|.iveia. sie:vaacie
iae ieia| sease a.ea a|i. maie|v e.ves .i .is aa.iv . | s mec.ieci
thoroughly historical SUbjecti vi ty. In a letter of November 1 6, 1 930, Husserl writes:
" For, with the transcendental reduction, I attained, I am convinced, concrete and real
subjectivity in the ultimate sense in al l the fullness of i ts being and life, and in thi s
subjecti vity, uni versal constituting life (and not si mpl y theoretical constituting life) :
absolute subjecti vi ty i n its hi storicity" (letter published by A. Diemer, French tf.
Al exandre Lowit and Henri Colombie, i n "La Phenomenologie de Husserl comme
metaphysique, " Les Etudes Philosophiques, NS 9 [ 1 954] , p. 3hereafter cited as
Diemer) .
` "Reason is not an accidental de facto ability, not a title for possible accidental
matters of fact, but rather a title for an all-embracing essentially necessar structural
form belonging to all transcendental subjectivity" (eM, 23, p. 57) .
Jacques Derrid
i. |eiaei:sieeeei:.ea|aeia.easaooeses.i.iaei:siphilosophical
aei.s ea|viae sease. aesi.eai.eaeiia. sa.sie:.ea|:ai.eaa|.iv 'in the
constant movement of selelucidation. " 1e|ee|ee.ea| xeaseaa|:eacv e. v.| . zai.eas [l'humanite dans ses tpes empirques] |eie:e
iae oa. |eseoa.ea| sease.avesi.eai.ea .a sease.avesi.eai.ea a.ea
awa|eaecxeaseaie.ise|iaacaaaeaaeeciaeoa:easeeia. sie:.e.iv.
. e . iae ve:v seaseof xeasea. ie a.sie:v 1ae sease. avesi.eai.eaei
aaiasa|:eacv iae:e a:|sa:aoia:eaac. eeaseeaeai|v. a:ac.ea|
aac e:.a. a

ve:v se/taa|ea.aa [naissance a se. } ei a

||.|i.ea. | eseea. ea|kea
seaeaaiaasese:e. se ea|viae a:eaeai.e iaaei.eaei|ea.aa.aaaac
e:ese:.ei.ea. ra. |eseeavaaciaeC:. s. seia:eeeaauaaa.iv. .aC,
o :s i aseia:asiae:ac.ea|oa.|eseoae:eeo| .es.iaiaedemand ei
iaeieees. |emustprescribe [commander] ; . aseia:asae:esoeacsieaac
.s:esoeas.||eie:. i. aeassaesiae:esoeas.|. |.ivie:amandate. Oa|v
.aia. sseaseceesuasse:|ceiaea. asa"functionar of mankind" [C,
:. o | :
saiaai. s iaeself (selbst) eiia. sse|ie|ae. cai.ea(Selbsterhellung) ?
i s aaaai:aaseeaceaia|eease.easaessea|viaeo|aeeei:eres. vea:i.e
a|ai.ea. . e . iaemediation ei a ieees :eia|.ae oessess. ea eiitself
ia:eaea ia.s eease.easaess: Ce:ia.a aaase:.ois ei iae | asi oe:. ec
.eai saeeesi ia.s. eaes ie a.ea iae a|se|aie ieees
ea|c |e |eveac i:aaseeaceaia| sa|]eei. v.iv nai . iia.s "b-
1 7: "Thus philosophy is nothing other than rational i sm, through and through, but it i s
rati onali sm diferentiated wi thi n i tself according t o the diferent stages of t he movement
of intention and fulfllment: i t is ratio in the constant movement of self-elucidation
[Scl bsterhel lung] , begun with the first breakthrough of phi losophy into mankind. whose i n
nate reason wa previously in a state of concealment, of noctural obscurity" ( " Phi losophy
as Mankind's Self-Reflection, " i n C, p. 338) .
1 7
"Just as man and even t he Papuan represent a new stage of animal nature, i . e . , as
opposed to the beast, so philosophical reason represents a new stage of human nature and
its reason" ( "Phi losophy and the Cri si s of European Humanity, " in C, p. 290; also cf.
pp. 298-99) .
1 7 7 Cf. E I I I , 4, p. 60: "The absolute polar ideal I dea. that of an absolute in a new
sense, of an absolute whi ch is situated beyond the worl d, beyond man, beyond
transcendental subjecti vi ty: i t i s the absolute Logos, the absolute truth . . . as unum,
verum, bonum . o . " (Diemer, p. 39) .
If the I dea is thought here to have a transcendental sense and. as we wi l l see in a
moment, is "beyond" only compared wi th the constituted moment of transcendental
subjecti vi ty, we can observe that Husserl profoundly recuperates the original scholastic
sense of the transcendental (unum, verum, bonum, etc . , as the transcategorial of Aristote
lian logic) over and above its Kantian meani ng. but also in a development of the Kantian
enterprise .
Introductin to the Origin of Geometr
veac ces.eaaies ea|v a ie| ee|ee.ea| i:aaseeaceaee. .i ve:v e|ea:|v
eaaaeiceo:.vehistorical i:aaseeaceaia|sa|]eei.v.iveiiaea|se|aieei
iaeSel; |eeaase. s.aeeiaeieeesa|avsaasiaeie:eia1e|es . .is
i:aaseeaceaeeea|caei|e:ea|i:aaseeaceaee|aiiae. cea| re|eie:
| a|eai |:aaseeaceaia| sa|]eei.v.iv itsel. Oiae: oassaees
saeeesiia.s.oassaeesa.ea. .iaeaiaavcea|i. e:e| .ie:a|| veeaie:
iea||eiuasse:| s esi| aieai. eas
eaia|.ea.ivCec.sae|eaee:.ave|ec. asie:esao|e.aIdeas I .11.
o. i : . aac:. o : i . ea|vas iaeeseo|a:vece|aac | . .ieia||
eease.easaessei. oess. |. |.iv.aiaeo:eeieiaae. cei.ei:aia. iae|aiie:
|e.aei:si aai Cec a. se|ieea|caeiea| | .aie eaesi.ea Cec .s ae
:ecaeec .aIdeas I .s. oo | :-s-eieve:v|factual
ie|ee|eev. e. iae:eiNaia:ee:iae so.:. i. . e . eia. sie:v eea
se.easaess. a.ea:evea|siae.aiaae.|. |.iveieeasi.iaiecesaees .sa
iei.eaa|eeaieaiaaciaec.:eei.ae1e|esie:iae :ea| ~s sea
.i. sa iaeiaa|.iv 1ae :ecaei.ea eiCec asiaeiaa| | aac iaeiaal
eease.easaessseisi:eeiaes.ea.ieai.eaeii:aaseeaceaia|c.v. a.iv.saea
as.iaooea:s.aiae|asi:.i.aes 1aea|.ea.iveaaaeaaeecae|viae:e|ai.eaeiiaei:aaseeaceaia|~|se|aie
sc. v.a.ivaaciaei:aaseeaceaia|~|se|aieasa. sie:.ea|sa|]eei. v. iv ia
.isi:aaseeaceaia| sease. Cec . sseei.esces.eaaiecasiaeeaeie
a:ca.ea iaeaiaeavaacaesoea|s.aas .
as aai .s eiae:iaaaiaere|e' ~ii.esiaeieeeses
o:essesitself through ai:aaseeaceaia|a.|v
iaea|se|aieoe|a:aaiaeai.e.ivof i:aaseeaceaia|a.sie:.e.ivitself iaiae
i:siease .i:aaseeaceaia|oaeaeeae|eevea|c|eea|
easlanguage eiasoeea| ai.veeiaoavs.ese:aaa|se| aie.cea|. s i a
ea| vametaphorical sease. a.eaea|caeiesseai.a| |v
aaeeiiaee:.e.aa|oa:.iveioaeaeeae|eevasi:aaseeaceaia|. cea|.s
i 8
I n the same fragment (Diemer, p. 40) . the transcendence of the Logos i s defned as a
transcendental norm, "the i nfnitely di stant Pole. the I dea of an absol utely perfect
transcendental omni-communi ty.
1 7 K I I I , p. 1 06 (Diemer. p. 47) . [Derrida translates hi s frst cited phrase from the
German found i n Diemer on p. 48 rather than quoting the French given on p. 47. 1 In thi s
sense. the Pole as "beyond" i s always beyond for the Self of transcendental conscious
ness. It i s its own beyond. It will never be a real transcendence: "the path which starts
from the Ego . . . is its own path [our emphasi s] , but all these paths lead to the same
pole, situated beyond the world and man: God" (ibid. ) .
Jacques Derri
|eunfolded ea||c. sea:s.veaessi:ema.ea. iea|c|ei
. ise|i|ederived.|c|eea|
openness iei:aiaaacieoaeaemeaa|.ivie:asa||avs||
ae:e . 1ecese ea|c sa:e|v|e ie si:aacea:se|ves . aa soeea|
aii.iace. .aiaeoee:ai.veseaseiaaiuasse:|a|avsass.eaecieia.s .
1aeoaeaemeae|ee.ea|aii.iace. sa:siaaava.|a|.|.iveiaiieai.eaie:iae
iaia:eeiai:aiaa.ea. sa|avsa|:eacvaaaeaaeec. i asieaceii:aai.
ea||v.avesi.eai.aeiaeeoi.eas. emasisi:.veiea:ciaeaeeessa:.|v
single :eeieieve:vc. |emma.Deesiaeseaseeii:aaseeaceaia|a.sie:.e
.ivma|eitsel aaae:sieec e:aea:cthrugh iaaia.sie:.e.iv. | .|eiae
ieeesa.ea.saiiae| s Cec.eaiaeeeai:a:v.ea|viaeaa|
aaaiaeEntelechy eii:aaseeaceaia| a.sie:.e.iv . ise|i: 1aeieai
eaee. ea iae|as.s eia si. | | ceeoe: aa.iv. saea oe:aaos . siae ea|v
through constituted sbeyond . a:e|ai.eaieeeasi.iaieca.s
ie:vaaca||iaeeeasi.iaiecmemeaiseii:aaseeaceaia|| .ie. saiae.s
only iaere|efor itself eiconstituting a.sie:.e.ivaacconstituting a.sie:.
ea| i:aaseeaceaia| sa|eei.v.iv. 1ae c.aa.sie:.e.iv e: iae meia
a.sie:.e.iveiiaec. v. aeieeesea|vi:ave:sesaaceees|eveac raei
asiae:eacvmace eia.sie:v. veiiaeieees .sbut iaeoa:emeve
1a.s s.iaai.ea ei iae ieees .s o:eieaac|v aaa|eeeas-aac aei |v
eaaaee-ieiaaieieve:v.cea| .iv.saeaasea:aaa|vs.seilanguage aas
eaa||eaasiesoee.iv ia. seeaeeoi icea|.iv. sat once sao:aiemoe:a|
aaaema.iemoe:a| . aacuasse:|eaa|. aes.isemei.esi eaeiasa.ea.
semei.mes .a iae eiae:. aeee:c.aeie aeiae:e:aei ae :e|aies .iie
iaeiaa|iemoe:a|.iv.Oa|viaea eaaesavtaaioa:esease. iae.aea| .iv
ei. cea|.iv.a.ea.snothing other than iaeaooea:.aeei| once
sao:aiemoe:a|.uasse:|a|seeriea| ess[in-temporel] ) aacem
a.iemoe:a| . e:aea.aiaai"supratemporality implies omnitemporlit, "
iae|aiie:.ise|i|e.aeea|v" a mode of temporality" (E, -1c , o :-|
mec.aec . ~:e aei sao:aiemoe:a|.iv aaa ema.iemoe:a|.iv a|se iae eiTime itsel? ~:eiaev aei iae eaa:aeie:. eiiae
i.v|aer:eseai.a.ea.siaea|se|aieeeae:eiere:mei oaeaemeae|ee.
ea|iemoe:a||~|se|aieeia||i:aaseeaceaia| |.ie:
t 80
F I , 24, p . 6 8 (Diemer, p . 47: "God i s the Entelechy . . . )

t 8 |
"Die urzeitliche, iiberzeitliche ' Zeitlichkei t, ' " Husserl says, speaking of "my Liv
ing Present" (C 2 I I I , 1 932, pp. 8-9) .
Introductn to the Origin of Geometry
1aea.cceaiemoe:a|aa.iveic.a . sao:a . e:.a iemoe:a|.ivea
eia||iaes.ea.aeai.easUnstances] c. ssee.aiec|viaeva:.eas:ecaei.eas.

a|.ivaacesseai.a|.iv.e:|a|.aessaacaeae:|a|. aess. :ea|.ivaac

.aeaaiv. empeiria aaci:aaseeaceaia|.iv. 1a. s aa.iv. asiemoe:a|.iv s
iemoe:a|aa.ivie:eve:vGeschehen, ie:eve:va. sie:vas iaeassem||aee
I there is any histor, iaea a.sie:.e. iv eaa b ea|v iae oassaee ei
soeeea [Parole] , iae oa:e i:ac.i.ea eia| ieees iea:c a
oe|a:1e|es sais.aeeiae:eeaab aeia.aeeais. ceiaeoa:ea.sie:.e.iv
eiiaaioassaee.s.aeeiae:e.saese.aea.eaaasseaseeais.ceeiia.s s.aeeiaeieeesaaciae1e|es
aeia. eat

.ceiaeinterplay ( Wechselspiel) eiiae.::ee. o:eea|.aso. is Passage. 1:ac.i.eaa|.iv. s
aaie. :ea|aiesi:emeaeieiaeeiae:.. ||am.aai.aeeae|viaeeiae:.aa
mevemeai ae:e.aeease. easaessa.seeve:s .is oaia .a aa . aae
:ecaei.ea. a|avs a|:eacv|eeaa. aac ae:e.a eve:v acveaia:e .s a
eaaneeeic. :eei.ea [conversion] aaceve:v:eia:aieiaee:.e.aaaaa
aae. easmeveiea:ciaeae:.|seDanger(ous)
as the Absolute [I'Absolu d' un Danger] . re:.iiae|. eaieisease. sea| v

:eaearassae.iaai.s|eeaaseiae| .eaieaaa| se|e| esieaiaeav

aaa|viaea|c.eai.eaeia soea|. ae|e. ae. iaiaai :esoeei . oaeaeme-
ae|eev as Heiaea ei D. seea:se .s | :si ei a|| Selbstbesinnung aaa
Verantwortung, iae i:ee :ese|ai.eaie ia|e ao eae s ea sease .e:
:eea.aeease. easaess [reprendre son sens ]) . .a e:ae: ie ma|e eaese|i
aeeeaaia||e.ia:eaeasoeeea.|ecoaiaav 1a.ssoeeea
. s a. sie:.ea| . |eeaase .i . s a|avs a|:eaav aresponse. xesoeas.|.|.iv
ae:emeaas saea| ae:ceae aea:s soe|ea[une parole enten
due] , ase||asia|.aeeaeaese||ee|
ar(e:.isaavaaee. ia.ismesi:aa.ea|.mo|.eai.eas. iaea. Heiaea.saei
iaeaeai:a|o:eiaeee:preambulator exe:e. seeiiaeaeai. xaiae:..i. s
` Since The Idea of Phenomenology [tr. William P. Alston and George Nakhnikain
(The Hague: Nijhof, 1 973)] (cf. [Lecture 1] , pp. 1 8-1 9) , Husserl' s entire itinerary con
firms the essence of phenomenology in its fundamental discovery, that of the
transcendental; reduction as the essence of Method, in the richest and perhaps most
enigatic sense of this word. Husserl says the transcendental reduction i s "the Prto
Method of all philosophical methods" (C 2 I I ; S, 7; Diemer, p. 36) . On the sense of
phenomenology as Method, see particularly Beilage XI I I : "Foreword to the Continuation
of the Cri si s, " in K, pp. 435-5. [A French translation is presented by H. Dussort in
Revue Philosophique de France et de l' Etranger, 1 49 ( 1 959) , pp. 447-2. Some passages
are translated in C, p. 1 02 , and pp. xxviii ff. ]
Jacques Derid
~||(|vceve|eos(aec.seeve:vei.a(ea(.eaa| .(v.1ae| a((e:
.s a|se ae(|a((ae~|se|a(eeia|.v.aeMeveea(.(aea(a.ea
ae.(ae: .(s eac ae: .(s e:.e.a ea|c aave aav eaaaee
i a(ea(.eaa|.(v .s (:ac.(.eaa| .(v. ~(.(s e:ea(es(ceo(a~. . e . . .a(aeoa:e
se|i(e se|iei(ae~|se|a(eei(aei.v.aer:esea(-.a(ea(.eaa|.(v .s(ae
:ee(eia. s(e:. e.(vii(aa(.sse. eceae(aave(eassea:se| veswhat .s
(aeseaseeia.s(e:.e.(v.i aa||(aes.ea.iea(.easei(a. s(e:.a.s(e:.e.(v.s
r:ev.cece :esoee(.(sphenomenological va|ae. saea aa asse:(.ea
ceesae((:aase:esssease.(se|i.. . e. .a. s(e:v sappearing aac(aepossi
bility ei.(s saeaaaasse:(.eaceesae( .s (:aaseeacea(a|
.cea| . saac soeea|a(. vee( i as(eac. .( a:ss (ae eea(
oaeaeeae|eeveaa|ea:(.ea|a(ec..(aea(eeaias.ea.. (aaoa. |ese sea(e|ee.ea| eaes
(. ea . ea(e|ee.ea| .a (ae aeauasse:|.aa sease ei(ae (e:. a.ea
a|eaeeaa|e .aac(ecaver(ea.s.eooesec(euasse:| s oaeaeeae|ee.
ea|ea(e|eeveaaae(s(ei:eaoaeaeeae|eevassaea. sa(ece
ae(|e|.evee.(ae:(aa((a.seaes( philosophical discourse,
simply o:eeece(:aaseeacea(a|oaeaeeae|eevas .(s o:esaooes.(.eae:
|a(ea(e:eaac. Oa (aeeea(:a:v.(a.seaes(.eaea|c a:s .(a.aoa.
(aeoa.|eseoa.ea|o:eoaecea(.eie:eve:voa.|eseoa.ea|decision-a e
ea(eeaee.vece:eeve:|vuasse:| .s. aee(| avs
aaaeaaeecas.aia.(e.(aa(moment . sae(aiae(aa|. (v|a(aa.cea|sease.
a:.ea(a.ea.| |a|avs:ea.aaace:oaeaeeae|ee.ea|]a:. sc.e(.ea.a
:.ea( (aa(oaeaeeae|eeva|eae eaa ese:e. se|veso| .e.(|vaa(.e.oa(.ae
eac. se (aa( e av oass i:e (ae eaes(.ea "how" (e (ae eaes(.ea
"why" -(esaeeiaa(esoeas. i(.s. a(a.s:esoee((aa(a||oa.|e
seoa.ea|c.seea:seas(|eev we
as(esaaas(ce]a:e(aeeaes(.eaeia.s(e:.e.(v s seaseaaceia.s(e:.e
.(vassease. . e. .ei(aepossibility of a.s(e:.ea|iae(aa| .(
(aa(e eaaaseia|| sease ei(aeie||e.aeeaes(.eas .Is there, and
why is there, any historical factuality? 1aese (e eaes(.eas a:e .::e
cae.||v.a(e::e|a(ec.1ae aveaaee:eeea|vi:e(aepossible .. a
(aee(aoavs.ea|e:ea(e| ee.ea|sease .aacae(.a(aeoaeaeeae|ee.ea|
sease aea| eia. s(e:.ea| iae(aa| .(v. aac aea|e.aeas aeaa. s(e:v
ea|v|eses.(seventuality ea(ae |as. seiaeease.easaesseioa:e
seaseaacoa:ea. s(e:. e.(v.. . e .ea(ae|as. seiaeease.easaesseipos
sibility .a(ae oaeaeeae|ee.ea| sease. ~s e aave saue.ea(|v seea.
I ntroduction to the Origin ofGeometry
(a.seease.easaess a.eaoaeaeeae|eeva|eaeeaa||.ea(eaa
ea| v|ea(e|ee|ee.ea|eease.easaess 1a.s.s|eeaase(aesease(ea.ea
eaaveaeeess. sae(aaevea( s||eeaase(a.sseaseeaaa|avs
ae(|e. aea:aa(ec..(eaac.eea(e:ae(|e|e:a.|eeaase(ae av ees
.(sse:.easaess(eaoaeaeeae|ee.ea|ee:(a.a(vaac(a:eaea(a. sse:. eas
aess:eeeve:s (ae v.:a|eaee eiaa "in view of what?" 1ae ea(e|ee.ea|
eaes(.ea.(aea.seesa||e(ea:.seea| vea(eia(e|ee|ee.ea|am:a(.ea.
. . e. . ea( eii:eece 1e|ee|eev .s (ae (a:ea(eaec aa.(v eisease aac
||eevaacea(e| eevueeve:.(a.s(e|ee|eev.a.ea
aeve:eeasec(ee:eaac aacaa.a(e uasse:| s (aeaea(. eaaae(|ede
termined .aaoa.| eseoa.ea|| aaeaaee.(aea(o:ev. s.eaa||v|
1aas. sae.aeaa((ae seaseeiaaevea(.sea(ae|as. seiaiae(aa|
[evenementielle] esao|e.aacaa((aeseaseeisease .aeeae:a|.sea
(ae |as.s eieseo|a:.aess .a eeae:a| . e eaa (aea ass ea:se|ves a
eaes(.eaa.eaae|eaee:o:eeeecsi:eoaeaeeae|eevassaea Ne( .
" What is a Fact? " , aeaes(.ea(ea.ea aoaeaeeae|ee.ea|ea(e|eev
:esoeacsasa:a|e . sa( . "Why are a factual starting point in factualit
and a reduction possible in general? " O:. " What is the factuality offact
which supposes the exemplariness offact? " O:ve(." What is the primor
dial unity ofsense andfact, a unit for which, by themselves alone, neither
can account?" i ae(ae:e:cs. sae.aeaa(sease.sasa.s(e:.e.(v. i
eaa e|ea:|v ass vse|iav (ae:e ea|c |e aav a.s(e:v :a(ae: (aaa
l i
Oa(aeeeac.(.ea(aa((ae(as.aese:.eas|veioa:eiae(aa| .(v
ie||esar(e:(aeoess.|.| .(veioaeaeeae|eevaacassaes.(s] a:.c.ea|
o:.e:.(v. (e(aseiae(aa|.(v se:.eas|vas saea .sae|eaee:(e:e(a:a(e
eo.|eseoav. Oa(aeeea(:a:v. .(eeo|e(es oa.|ese
oav. sa(|eeaaseei(aa( ..(as(s(aac. a(aeo:eea:.easeoeaaesseia
(esaeaaeaes(.eaeaa:esa:iaee ea|v .aaoaeaeeae|ee.ea|o:eeess
Oa(e|eevea|vaasa:.ea((e (ae eaes(.ea. | a(aea|avseoea|:eaea
[breche] ei(a.seaes(|i.ssilently saeaaace:(aeaeea(.v
l i
4 uacea|(ec| v. .(se|ias(a|avsa|:eacv|e
| 8!
Such a question can be repeated about every si ngle factuality and about al l the
particular forms of i nfnite historicity as the horizon of every phenomenon, about all the
determined forms of the world in general as the horizon of every possible experience,
singularly of this hi storical world right here.
! S4
We have already cited the passage in which Husserl, gathering together the entire
signifcance of his enterpri se, afrms that , for phenomenology, pure exi stential [existen
tielle] factuality as wild si ngularity (always outside the reach of every ei detic subsump
tion) i s "eternally the apeiron" ( "PRS, " p. 1 1 6). We pass from phenomenology to ontol
ogy ( in the non-Husserlian sense) when we si lently question the upsurge of stark fact and
Jacques Derrida
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a|wavsa|:eacv|econtracted e:drawn together, waeaoaeaeeae|eev
|ee. as|ve|a. .ae(ae:.ea((esoea|[droit a parole] . ~ac.ise.aec. c
ae(have (e|e u.s(e:v(a:eaeaaac(a:eaea.(aedelay e:lateness ei
D. seea:seafter (aesaew.aeeise.aewea|c|e|a(as. o|e. sie:(aae
[fautive misere] ei(aeaea(asoaeaeeae|eev. 1aa((a. seaaae(|ese.
|eeaasea.s(e:.e.(v. so:ese:.||av. s(aeces(. avei
1aeaea(.(se|iasD.seea:se-ea|v aoaeaeeae|eeveaasay (a saac
a|eoa.|eseoaveeaa|(e. (. re:oaeaeeae|eeva|eaeeaaa|
. (ea.s(e:.e.(vaooea:. . e aaa. (ec.a|ee(.ea|aess
as(aeoa:eoess.|. | .(vaac(
es( :ac.ea| :ecae(.ea as oa:e oass.veae(.ve (eoe:a|. (v. as oa:e
aa(e(eoe:a|.za(.eaei(aei.v.aer:esea(-. . e. .aswealready saw. as
. a(e:sa|ee(.v.(v 1ae aac c.a|ee(.ea| .a(e:sa|ee(.v.(v ei
1.ew.(a.(se|i.a(ae. aaa.(ea|(.o|.e.(vaac. aaa.(e. o|.ea(.eaei.(s
a|se|a(ee:.e.asea(.(|eseve:ve(ae:. a(e:sa|ee(.v.(v. aeeae:a|(eex.s(
||eue:ece|av.s(aeoa. |eseoa.ea|a|se|a(e.|eeaase(ae|ee.aa.aeei
(.eaeianother o:ev. eas. oess.||e.aaca|se|a(ee:.e.a.aeeae:a| . s.aee
cease to consider the Fact in its phenomenological "function. " Then the l atter can no
longer be exhausted and reduced to its sense by a phenomenological operation, even were
it pursued ad infnitum. The Fact is always more or always less, always other, in any
case, than what Husserl defines it as when he writes, for example, in a formula which
marks the highest ambition of his project: fact' , with its ' irrationality' , is itself a
structural concept within the system ofthe concrete Apiori" (eM, 39, p. 8 1 ; HusserJ ' s
emphasis) . But phenomenology alone, by going t o the end of eidetic determination, by
exhausting itself, can strip pure materiality from the Fact. It alone can avoid the confu
sion of pure factuality with such and such of its determinations. Naturally, having
reached this point, in order not to fall back into the philosophical nonsense of ir
rationalism or empiricism, the Fact then must not function: its sense must not b deter
mined outside or independently of all phenomenology. Also, once we have become
conscious of phenomenology' s juridical priority in all philosophical discourse, perhaps it
is permissible to regret again that Husserl had not also asked this ontological question
about which there is nothing to say concerning the question itself. But how can we lament
that phenomenology is not an ontology?
[Derrida says of the neologism presumption: "} wanted to escape the current mean
ing of the word presomption (conjecture or hypothesis), in order to be nearer the
metaphorical schema of anticipation and in order to set it more visibly over against the
very rare French word resumption ( I' m not even sure it exists}-which can only be
written with a u . " Therefore, this word is translated as "pre-sumption" to emphasize its
diference from ' ' presumption. ' ' ]
Introductin to the Origin ofGeometry
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Present aacs.aee.(eaaaooea:aac|e:eeeea. zecea| v.a(aeo:. e:
c.a|.(veisee(|.|emy Living Present, (a. sve:viae(s.ea.aes(ae
aa(aea(.e.(veioaeaeeae|ee.ea|ce|avaac|.. (a(.eaia(ae| ae|| as(e:
ea.seeia(eeaa.eae.(aexecae(.ea. sea|voa:e(aeaea(as(aa(ce|av.
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oavCea|c(ae:e|eaaaa(aea(.e(aeaea(eise.aeas u.s (e:v.ase| |as
aaaa(aea(.ea. s(e:.e.(vei(aeaea( . .i(aeeease.easaesseice|aveea|c
|e:ecaeec:sa(eea|c(ae:e|eaavoa.|eseoav..i(a. seease. easaessei
ce|aveaaea|vaave(aeoa:eie:eiaa(.e.oa(.ea. ~((aesae(.e.
oa:e eease. easaess eice|av eaa ea|v |e a oa:e aac |ee.(.a(e. aac
(ae:eie:e ao:.e:. . o:esao(.ea. w.(aea(wa.ea .eaee aea.a c.seea:se
aaca. s(e:vwea|cae(|eoess.||e.
1ae. oess.|.| .(vei:es(.ae.a(aes.o|ea.a(eaaaeeaewaessi eia
i. v.aer:esea( .(ae se|e aaca|se|a(e|va|se|a(ee:.e.aei(aeDerae(e
and (ae De a:e. ei se. aeand sease. |a( a|wavs e(ae: .a .(s se|i
.cea(.(v. (ae . aa|.|.(v (e |.veeae|esec .a (ae .aaeeea( aac.v.cecaess
[indiviSion] ei(aeo:.e:c.a|~|se|a(e.|eeaase(ae~|se|a(e. spresent
ea|v.a|e.aedefered-delayed [dierant] w.(aea(:eso.(e .(a.s. oe(eaee
aac(a. s. oess.|.| .(va:ee.vea.aao:.e:c. a|aacoa:eeease.easaess .saeaaconsciousness, w. (a. (ss(:aaees(v|eeiaa.(
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w.(aea(. (sewao:eoe:cea. seeaee. ae(a.aewea|caooea:.
1aeo:. e:c.a||se|a(eO:. e. a. wa.eaeaaaac. a
ceaa.(e|vas( |e(a :e(a.aaacaaaeaaee. (s oa:e eeae:e(eie:w. (a
ao:.e:.seea:. (v . . e. .(ae|eveace:(ae(a. s s.cewa.eae.vessease(ea| |
eo.:.ea| eea. as aac a| iae(aa| o:eias.ea. (aa( .s oe:aaos waa( aas
a|wavs|eeasa.caace:(aeeeaeee(ei"transcendental, " (a:eaea(ae
ea.ema(.e a.s(e:v ei .(s c. se|aeemea(s D. ne:eaee wea|c |e (:aa
seeacea(a| . 1ae ea:e aac .a(e:m. aa||e c. sea. e(ace ei (aeaea( s(:.v
. ae(e:ecaeeD. ne:eaee||eveaciae(aa|. aaa.(v(ewa:c(ae
.aaa.(vei.(sseaseaacva|ae.. . e. .wa.|ea.a(
c. sea. e(ace wea|c |e (:aaseeacea(a| ~ac 1aeaea( s oa:e ee:(a.a(v
wea|c |e(:aaseeacea(a| . s. aee.(eaa|ee|ie:wa:c(e(aea|:eacvaa
aeaaeec1e|esea| v|vacvaae.aeea.e:|[en avan
cant sur] ) (aeO:.e.a(aa(. aceaa.(e|v:ese:ves .(se| i. saeaaee:(a.a(v
1a. ss(:aaeeo:eeess. eaeia"Rickrage" . s(aeeveea(s|e(eaec
.aThe Origin ofGeometr, wae:e|v(| seae| cs. as
uasse:| savs. aaexeo|a:vs.ea.aeaaee[ 1 57] .
July 1961
The Origin of Geometr
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we masiieeas ea: eaze aei me:e|v aoea iae :eacvmace. aaacec
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i.aaecie|eva| .c.iaia.s
samei. measceve||v eeemei:v .aa||
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iei. i|eaeiec. aacvaaeeiaai..aiaem.csieiea:a. sie:.ea|mec.ia
i.eas eamecemoa. |eseoav.i|e:eaooea:s ae:eie:iae
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.cea ei see|.ae ie ea::v eai. .a iae ie:m eia.sie:.ea| mec.iai.eas.
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aeoe iaai.a ia. sav e eaaaaa||via|e
meiaec.aac|ee.aa.aeeioa. | eseoav. iaeone oa.|eseoaviea.eaea:
| .iesee|sie|eaaceaeaiie|eceveiec.|||eeemeev.ceai
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a. sie:.ea|.aaaaaasaa|sease.aame|v..av.
a.ea eoeas ao ceoiao:e||ems aa|aeaiee:c.aa:va. sie:v.
o:e||emsa.ea.aeeve:,] .aiae.:eaav. eaacea|iec|va.sie:.
` This manuscript was written in 1 936 and was edited and published (beginning with the
third paragraph) by Eugen Fink i n the Revue internationale de philosophie , Vol . I , No. 2
( 1 939) under the title "Der Ursprung der Geometrie als i ntentional- historisches Prob
l em. " It appears in Biemel ' s edi tion of the Crisis as "Beilage I I I , " pp. 365-6. The first
paragaphs suggest i t was meant for i nclusi on i n the Crisis.
Edmund Husserl
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So also for Gal i l eo and al l the periods followi ng the Renaissance, continual l y being
worked on in a l i vely forward development, and yet at the same time a traiti on.
The Origin of Geometry
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Edmund Husserl
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.ia.aiaeoe:seaa|soae:eeieease.easaess. .i.siaeex. sieaeeeiaai
.se|eei. ve||aac~ss.||eeeemeie:s.
e: iaese ae aace:siaac eeemei:v . iaceec. .i aas. i:em .is|
esia||.sameai . aa ex.sieaee a.ea . s oeea|.a:|v saoe:iemoe:a| aac
aeiaa|aacoess. ||emaiaemai.e.aaseia||oeeo| es. a||aees. aacia. s.s
i:aeeia||.isoa:i.ea|a:ie:ms . ~aca||ie:msae|vo:ecaeec|vseme
i.v.iv.1a.s. s. eaeie.aa.cea|e|eei.v.iv.|e
e|asseiso.:.iaa|o:ecaeiseiiaeea|ia:a|e:|c. iea.eaaeiea|va||
se.eai.aeeeasi:aei. eas aaciaese.eaeesiaemse|ves|e|eae|aia| se. ie:
examo|e. iaeeeasi:aei.eas eiaae |.ie:aia:e. we:||assce
aei. |.|e iee|s .aamme:s. o|.e:se:|.|e a:ea.ieeia:a|aaceiae:saea
o:ecaeis. aavea:eoeaia|. |.iv.amaav|.|eexemo|a:s. 1aerviaaee
:eaaiaee:em. .aceeca||eieeemei:v.ex.sisea|veaee .aemaiie:ae
same.aiaee:.e.aa||aaeaaeeeiae|.caac.aa| |i:aas|ai.eas .aac
.ia.aeaea|aaeaaee.i. saea.aiaesame .aemaiie:aemaavi.mes.i
aas |eea seas.||vaiie:ec. i:emiaee:.e.aa|exo:ess.ea aac
iai.eas. 1ae seas.||e aiie:aaees aave soai.eiemoe:a| .ac.v.caai.ea
.aiaee:|c|.|ea||ee:oe:ea|eeea::eaees. |.|eeve:via.aeem|
.a | as saea. |ai ia.s .s aei i:ae eiiae so.:.iaa| ie:m .ise|i.
But the broadest concept of l iterature encompasses them all : that is, it belongs to
thei r objective bei ng that they be li ngui stical l y expressed and can be expressed again and
again; or, more preci sely, they have their objecti vi ty, their existence-for-everyone, only
as signifi cation, as the meaning of speech. This is true i n a peculi ar fashi on i n the case of
the objecti ve sci ences : for them the di ference between the original l anguage of the work
and its translation i nto other languages does not remove i ts identical accessibil i ty or
change it i nto an i nauthentic, indirect accessi bi l i ty.
The Origin of Geometr
a.ea.sea|| ecaa .cea|e|eei[ideale Gegenstindlichkit] . iaaee:
ia.aav.cea|e|eeisceex.sie||v.aiaee:|c.|ai.i. sea|v. a
v. :iaeeiiaeseie|eve|ec:eoei.i. easaaca|i.maie|v.av.:iaeeiseas.
||vem| . re:|aaeaaee. ise|i. .a|. isoa:i.ea|
i. eas.e:cs. seaieaees. soeeeaes . .s. aseaaeas.|v|eseeai:emiae
e:ammai.ea|oe. ai eiv.e. iae:eaea| vmace aoei.cea| e|eeis .ie:
examo| e.iaee:cLowe eeea:sea|veaee. aiaeCe:maa|aaeaaee..i. s
. ceai.ea| aaame:a||eaiie:aaees|vaave.veaoe:seas .
sai iae .cea| .i. es ei eeemei:.ea| e:cs. seaieaees.
eeas.ce:ec oa:e|v as | si:aeia:es-a:e aei iae . cea| iaai
ma|eaoaai. sexo:essecaac|:eaeaiieva|.c.ivasi:aia.aeeemei:v.
iae|aiie:a:e.cea|eeemei:.ea|e|eeis.siaiesei a.:s.eie.wae:eve: saaai. siaemai.e .iaaia|eai
a.ea.i. .i:emiaeasse:i.ea.a.ea.ise| .s aeve: aaceaaaeve: |e iaemai.e. ~ac aai .siaemai.e|v.cea|e|
.aeaace:iaeeeaeeoiei| aaeaaee.Oa:o:e||emaeeeaee:aso:ee. se|v
seaa| ia. aiaeeease.eassoaeeeiiae
:si.aveaie: ssea| .|e|eei.v.iv :iaacvaaeeeseeiaai.i
eeea:s|vmeaasei | aaeaaee.ia:eaeaa.ea.i:eee.ves.seiesoea|
| . aea. si.e||ecv[Sprachleib] . saiaecees||ec.meai
ma|eeaieiiaeme:e||eei.vesi:aeia:eiaeobjective si:aeia:e
a.ea.e. e. .aseeemei:.ea|eeaeeoie:siaieeiaaa.:s.. s. aiaeio:eseai
asaace:siaaca||e|va||aac. sva|.c.a|| .aea. si.eexo:ess.ea
Naia:a||v. esaa| | aeiee.aieiaeeeae:a|o:e||ema.eaa|
ae:eeiiaee:.e. aei|aaeaaee.|ex.sieaeeaac.isex. sieaee.a
eimaa .ia.a aamaa e. v. |.zai.ea. aac iae e:|c as iae ae:.zea ei
aamaaex.sieaee. a|eia|| v. aiaee:|c e a:e eeasiaai|v eease.eas eiiae
e:|c. aeiae:e oav aiieai.eaie .ie: aei. eease.eas ei.i asiae
ae:.zeaeiea:| .ie . asaae:.zeaeiia.aes.:ea|e|eeis .eiea:aeiaa|
aacoess.|| ~|avs siaac.aeeaiaea.asiiae
iaem o:eseai e:aei. seie:e evea ia|.ae ei.i ai a|| . e a:e
eease. easeiiaeeoeaae:.zeaeiea:ie||emea.|.m.iecaae|eas
eiea:ae.ea|e:s. iaese|aeaieas . wea:eiae:e|veeeease.easeiiae

1 62
Edmund H usserl
eaeaea:exiena|ae:.zea.aeaeaeaseaseiae:s ..aeaeaeasei
aeease.easeiiaeas veiae:s. as iaese.iaaeieaaeaie:
.aieaeiaa|aacoeieai.a|.. ec.aieaacec.aie:e|ai.easeieoaiav.
ia. s .ave|ves a :ee.o:eea| a|eae .ia eiae:s . aaceaiae
eieeaa.iv. iaiae. aaciaea |ae. .a a aa|.iaa| av. eiv
|e.aese:e|aiec i. |ee. eve:vaaaa| saeae. s
aace:sieec|veaaceve:veaee|se-aasa.sie||eeaaac. a| avs|i.e.v. |.zai.ea.aeeae:a| ..aa.eaae|aesa. se|iie
ii.|vie ia.sae:.zeaeie.v.|.zai.eaiaaieeea|aaeaaee
|e|eaes Oae.seease.easeie.v.|
aac ec.aie| C|ea:| v.i.sea|via:eaea|aaeaaee
aac.isia::eaea.aeceeaeaiai.eas. asoess.||eeeaa.eai.eas.iaai
aeae:.zeaeie.v.| .zai.eaeaa|eaaeoeaaaceac|esseae .as.ia|avs
zai.ea aac as iae |.aea. si.e eeaa.iv .s aia:e ae:a| e.v.| .zai.ea
.ia|.aeaav iaea|ae:a| aac iae e:|c eiea.|c:ea . ia ia.s sease
e.v.| .zai.ea. s. ie:eve:vaaaeseeae:.zea.i.s. aeeaa.ivei
iaese ae eaa :ee.o:eea||v exo:ess iaese|ves. ae:a||v. .a a ia||v
sease. . e. . |||vexo:ess.||e.1aee|]eei.vee:|c. si:eiae
sia:i iae e:|c ie: a|| . iae e:|c a.ea eve:veae aas as e:|c
ae:.zeai ise|]|e.aeo:esaooesesea.aace:s(eecasea.ia
aeeea|aaeaaee .
eaoae.iv. .s:e|aiecee::e||vieiaee:|c.|]eeis
a.ea. s|.aea. si.ea||vexo:ess.|||| saea1aas||eea.e:|c-iaee:|ceia.eaea.eia.eae.
a| avs ia|| aac eaa ia||-aac. ea iae eiae: aaac. |aaeaaee. a:e .a
seoa:a||v.aie:i.aec. aac|avs ee:ia.a eiiae.: .aseoa:a||e
:e|ai.eaa| aa.iv. iaeaea asaa||v ea| v . o| .e.i| v. .a iae aaae: eia
1a.s|e.aeo:esaooesec. iaeo:.a||vesia||.sa.aeeeeeie:eaae|
v.eas| v a|se exo:ess a.s .aie:aa| si:aeia:e sai iae eaesi.ea
ea.a. uecees iae |aiie:. .a .is.cea|.iv. iae:e|v |eeeee|]ee|esa:e.seeia.aeosvea.ea.eaeaa|eaace:sieec|veiae:s
[nachverstehbar] aac.seeaa.ea||e.asseeia.aeosvea.e|e|
ieia. saa.. seo ipso e|]eei. ve. ]|i.aseeae:eieaa..s
The Origin of Geometry
ia. aes.a eeae:a| reeo|eeaaae:eea|eaisaeaia.aes. eaaa|eee
ea ve:.aa||easse:i.easeaiae|as.seieeeaexoe:.eaee.eie sa(
aecees(||veeasi.iaiecsi:aeia:ea::. vea(aa.aie:
sa|]|e.aeei.iseaasaa.cea|e|]eeia.ea.aseeeei:.ea| .
. s|aia:ea|osvea.e e|]eei. evea iaeaea. i aas a:.sea osv
ea.ea||v:ieias:eaeei 1aee:.e.aa|||iiae:e. .aiae. ec.
aev[Aktualitit ] ei.isi:sio:ecaei.ea.. e|se|iev.ceaee.
:esa|is . a ae oe:s. aeea. s.i.ea ai a|| iaai eea|c aave e|]eei. ve
ex. sieaee v. v. cse|i ev.ceaeeoasses-iaeaea. asaeaaaviaaiiae||viac.aeeea
se.easaesseiaaiaas]asiae|eea. r. aa||via. s:eieai.ea,
oea:s. |aiiae c.saooea:ec oass.aeaac|e.aeoas(aasaei|eeee
aeia.aeie:iaesa|]eei.aeaesi.ea..ieaa|e:eaa|eaec 1eiaeoass.v
.iveiaai .sai| :sie|sea:e| vaa|eaecaacaai oe:aaosee:ees
:eee||[Erleben] .s|.vecia:eaea.a
a aac eaas.aei.veav. Ne .iiae e:.e. aa||vse|iev. ceai
o:ecaei.ea. asiae oa:eia| i|| eaiei. is .aieai.ea. . saai.s:eaeec
.:eee||eeiec .iae:eaeeessa:. |veeea:s. ve:eee|
|eei.eaeiaai. soasi.aaaei.v.iveieeaea::eaiaeiaa|o:ecae(.ea.aac
iae:e iae:e|v. .a e:.e.aa| ceaee. iae se|iev.ceaee ei
.ceai.iv aaiaasae|eea:ea||iasa.ea.siaesaeas
aai as o:ev.eas|vse|iev.ceai ~|seeeesia||. saec.s iae eaoae.iv
ei.ceai.iv eiiae si:aeia:e ia:eaeaeaiiae eaa.a ei:eoei.i.eas Yei
evea.iaia.s.eaavesi.||aeieeae|eveaciaesa|]eeiaaca.s sa|
] iaai.s.esi.||aaveae e|]eei. v.ive.vea
i(|. .aa:vsiaee-.aaace:siaaca||eiasa
ie| |e aa|.acas a eeaa.(veieoaiav aacei| aaeaaee. ia iae
eeaiaei ei:ee.o:eea|| (ae e:.e.aa| o:ecaei.ea
aaciaeo:ecaeieieaesa|]eeieaa|eactively aace:sieec|viaeeiae:s
ia ia. sia||aace:siaac.aeeiaai .s o:ecaeec|viae eiae:. as .a iae
easeei:eee||eei. ea. ao:eseaieeaeeeo|.saeaieaeae seaoa:iei
iaeo:eseai.iecaei.v.ivaeeessa:.|via|eso|aee.|aiaiiae saei.e|seiaese|iev.ceaieease.easaesseiiae.ceai.(veiiaeeaia|
aaciaeeeaa.eaie:. aac ia.s eeea:s :ee.o:eea||v 1ae o:ecae(.eas
iaesae.aiaeeease.easaesseiiaeeiae: |a(aeaa.iveiiaeeea
Edmund Husserl
si:aeia:e|eeemesaae|eeieieease.easaess. aeiasa|.|eaess. |aias
iaeeaesi:aeia:eeemmeaiea|| .
Neemasiaeieiaaiiaee|eei.v.ivei iae.cea|si:aeia:eaas aei
vei|eeaia| | veeasi.iaiecia:eaeasaeaaeiaa|i:aasie::.aeeiaaiaas
waai .s | ae|.ae. siaepersisting existence eiiae .cea|e|eeis evea oe:.ecs .a a.ea iae .aveaie: aac a.s ie||esa:e ae |eaee:
eeai.aa.aeie|eeveaaeaaeeaeaaseease.eas| vi:ea|.zeciaem.a
. siaai.ima|eseemmaa.eai.easoess.||e.iaeai.mmec.aiee:mec.aie
oe:seaa| acc:ess . .i .s. se ie soea|. eemmaa.eai.ea|eeeme v.:iaa| .
1a:eaea ia.s . iae eemmaaa| .zai.ea ei maa .s |.uec ie a ae |eve| .
w:.iiea s.easa:e . aea eeas.ce:eci:em aoa:e|vee:oe:ea|oe.aiei
v. e. si:a.eaiie:a:c|v.seas.||vexoe:.eaeea||e.aac.i. sa|avsoes
s.||eiaaiiaev|e.aie:sa||vexoe:.eaeea||e. aeemmea. naias
| s.eas iaev aa|ea. as ce | .aea. si.e seaacs. iae.: iam.|.a
s.ea.aeai.eas . 1ae aa| .s iae aa|eaec
s.ea.aeai.ea. siaas|v.s.m. |a:|vieiaeav.aa.eaaav
eiae: aei.v.iv a.ea aas saa| .aie e|sea:. iv. eaee|v
aa|eaec.eme:eesaia:sipassively asame:ee:|esse|ea:meme:v.i a
iaeoass.v.iv. aiaeeaseeimeme:v. aai. soas|vaa|eaeceaa|ei:aasie:mec|ae|.seiesoea|..aieiaeee::e
soeac.aeaei.v.iv.ia. s.siaeeaoae.ivie::eaei.vai.eaiaai|e|eaese:.e
.aa||vieeve:vaamaa|e. aeasasoea|.ae| ae| v. iaea.iae
iae si:aeia:e. e. e. ,] .ia.a iae eeemei:.ea| soae:e ei se|i
ev.ceaee. eiiaeeeemei:.ea|si:aeia:ea.ea .s oai. aiee:cs . ii |e
eemessec.meaiec. seiesoea|.naiiae:eace:eaama|e.ise|iev.ceai
aea. a. eaa:eaei.vaieiaese|iev.ceaee.t
1ae:e .s a iaea. |eieea|v iae
This is a transformation of which one is consci ous a being i n i tself patterned afer
[what is passi vel y awakened].
t But this is by no means necessary or even factuall y normal . Even without this he can
understand; he can concur " as a matter of course" in the validity of what is understood
wi thout any acti vity of his own. In this case he comports hi msl f purel y passivel y and
recepti vel y.
The Orgin of Geometry
ia.aesiaaiaave |eeaia|ea aome:e|v|v.|v. a.ea
cea|s .ia s.ea.aeai.eas ea|v|v aace:sieec aac ia|ea eve:.
.siae:ea|meiia.aesiaaia:e|eaacieeeiae:aacme|i.aieeaeaaeiae:|v. ae:e a|| .s oaiieeeiae:oass. ve|v.
waaieiieaaaooeasae:e .siaaiameaa.aea:. sesa.ea.saooa:eai|v
oess.||easaaa. iv-. . e. .eaaaooa:eai|v|emacese|iev.ceaeeia:eaea
:eaei.vaieea||mem|e:seiiaeeem|.aai.ea. a.|eiae
.aieai.eaieaa.iviaem.aieaae| e. .asieacei|e.aea|a||ec. eemesie iaai . s. iae eai.e va|.c.iv .s cesi:evec ia:eaea iae e:.e.aa|
ii.seasviesee iaai evea .a e:c.aa:viaamaa|.ie. aac a:sieia||.a||.iei:emea.|caeecaoiemaia:.iv.iaee:.e.aa||v.aia.| .iea.eae:eaies.ise:.e.aa||vse|iev.ceaisi:aeia:esia:eaeaae
measa:eia||sv.ei.mieiaeseduction oflanguage. C:eaie:aace:eaie:
seemeais eiia.s|.ie |aose .aie a |.ac eiia||.aeaac iaai . s
cem.aaiecoa:e|v|v eaeaea. .a:esoeeiieiae
va|.c.i. es a::.vec ai .a ia.s av. .i .s c.saooe.aiec |v sa|seeaeai
exoe:.eaee .
Neeae .|| sav iaai .aiae soae:eiaai.aie:esis as ae:e-iaaiei
se.eaee. eiia.a|.aec.:eeieciea:ciae aiia.ameaieii:aias aac iae
ave.caaeeeiia|seaeec-eae .s e|v.eas|ve:eai|veeaee:aeci:emiae
sia:iieoaiasieoieiaei:eeo| . iav.e||e sec.meaiai.ea eimeaia|o:ecaeis .aiaeie:m ei||eia|eaaoaea.aaia:si
:ema.a a eeasiaaicaaee:. 1a.scaaee:. s ave.cec .ieae aeime:e|v
:eaei.vaiec |ai assa:eseaese|ii:emiae sia:i . arie: iae seaev.ceai|esia|| .sameai. ei.iseaoae.ivie||v
ma.aia.aec. 1a. seeea:saeaeaeaasav.eieiaeaa.vee.ivei| .a ||.ae
ie:mai.eaeiiae:e|evaaie:cs. o:eoes.i.eas. aaceemo|exeseio:eoe
s.i.eas . iae:esa|isa.eaa:eie|eaa.veea||vexo:essec1a. smasi|e
ceae|viae .ac.v.caa| . aacaeiea|v|viae .aveaie:|ai|v
eve:v se.eai.siasamem|e:eiiae se.eai.aeeemmaa.ivaue:aeaas
ia|eaeve:i:emiaeeiae:saai.sie|eia|eaeve:.1a. s|e|eaes. iaea.
ie iae oa:i.ea|a:s eiiae i:ac.i.ea .ia.a iae
eemmaa. iv eise.eai.sis as a eemmaa.iv ei|ae|ecee | . .a iae
Edmund Husserl
iaea. .is a.aia.a iae eeasiaaie|a. . iae oe:seaa| ee
ia.aiv.iaaieve:via.aeiaevoai.aie se.eai.ieasse:i.ensaas |eea sa.c
eaeeaacie:a| | . iaai.i siaacsiasi . ie:eve:.ceai.ea||v:eoeaia||e
.ia se|iev.ceaee aac asa||e ie: ia:iae: iaee:ei.ea| e: o:aei.ea|
eacs-as .aca|.ia||v :eaei.vaia||e .ia iae .ceai.iv ei .is aeiaa|
eaa. ae
ueeve:.iee:eia. aesa:e.oe:iaaiae:er.:si eaaveaeivei
iasea.aieaeeeaaiiaeiaeiiaaise.eai.ieia. as.aeaiia.asae:esa|isea
iae |as.s eiiaese a|:eacv aiia.aec. iaai iae ae eaes se:ve as iae
ieaacai.eaie:si. | | eiae:s. eie-.aiaeaa.iveiao:eoaeai.veo:eeesei
| aiaeiaa||v. easeo:e|.te:ai.eaeiase.eaee|.seeeeei:v.aai
:esea:eae:e:ss ea a.s oa:i eiiae |a.| aai eiiae veeai.eaa|
.aie::aoi.easaaci.eeaiie::esi .a.eaeaaaei|eeve:|eesecae:e:
waea ae:eia:asieiae aeiaa|eeai.aaai.eaeie:s. asiaei:si:aa
ia:eaea iae ae|e . ease eaa.a |aes ie ia e:.e.a|

|ise. as..eaeeis
ea:ece:aeeeei:vea|ce|v.eas|vaei|eoess.||eaia|| ~acvei.i
.s eiiae esseaeeeiiae :esa|iseieaea siaee aeiea|viaai iae.:.cea||aie:iaaaiaaieiea:|.e::esa|isi

|aii?ai .
s.aee .s e:eaacec aoea iae ea:|.e: eaame

seeia.aeei. isva| .c.ivieiae|aie:eae..aceec|eeeesoa:iei. iie

ee:ia.a esieai 1aasae |a. |||ees. ia. aiae eaia| si:aeia:e . s
se|i same.eai . aac aeae. iaea. eaa |e .ec.aie| v :eaei.vaiec |v

1a.s .s esoee.a||vi:ae eise.eaees a.ea . | .seeeeei:v. aaveiae.:

iaeai.esoae:e. a. cea|o:ecaeis. .a . cea|!:e


eae: aac
e:e. cea| .i.esaia. eae:|eve|sa:eo:ecaeec |
seea|| se.eaees. ae:eiaeiaee:ei.ea|.aie:esi. e|ass.iv
.aeaaccese:.|. .aia.i.ea.a.ea
ie: .i :eo:eseais se|iev.ceaee ue:e. ai |easi. aeeae:a| . eve:v ae
o:eoes.i.eaeaa|v. ise|i|eeasaec.a ie:se|iev. ceaee
ue. |v eeai:asi . .s a se.eaee| .seeeeei:voess||e: Je. as
svsieai.e. eac|ess| si:ai.iec si:aeia:eei.eaai.e


a.aia.a. ise:.e.aa|eaa.aeia| aessia:eaea|. v. ae:eaei.vaia|.|
At frst, of course, i t is a matter of a frm direction of the wi l l , which the scientist
establishes i n hi mself, aimed at the certain capacity for reactivation. If the goal of reac
tivatability can be onl y relatively fulflled, then the cla
i m whih
stems fro the n
sciousness of being able to acquire something also has Its relatvlt ; and thI S relatIVIty
also makes itself noticeable and is driven out. Ultimatel y, obJectIve, absolutely frm
knowledge of truth is an infnite idea.
The Origin of Geometr|
ae|e ie :eaei.vaieiaeo:ev.eas|eve|s eisae| ecee |aesie iaei:si:
vea . i ia. s eea|c aave saeeeecec ai a e:e o:. siaee ei
eeeei:v..iseae:evea|ca|i. aie| vaave|eeaieeaeasoeai.aiae
ue:e easiiase.aieeeas.ce:ai.eaiaeoeea|.a: |ee.ea| aei.v.iv
a.ea. si.ecsoee.iea||vie|aaeaaee. ase||asieiae.cea| soee.iea||v.ia.a. i 1e aavseaieaee si:aeia:es
iaaiee:ee. ia.aae:e| voass.veaace:siaac.aeiae:e|e|eaesessea
i.a||va oeea| .a:se:ieiaei.v.iv|esicese:. |ec |viaee:c eso| .ea|vee:e.aeseaieaee.e e ..aee:v .e:eaeaea:c
aac|v aace:sieec. . s ai i:si e:e|v :eee.vec .ia a
eeeoa:i.e.oai.ea.iaseaaoasva|.c.aac.aia.sie: .i. sa|:eacvea: saiaeoeea| . a:aac.oe:iaaiaei.v.iv
ei eso| ea: wae:eas .a .is i:si ie: .i as a
si:a.eaiie:a:c|v va|.c iasea ao as aa.ia:v aac aac.i
ie:eai.aiec-eeae:eie|v soeas. ae. a si:a.eaiie:a:c|v va| . c cee| a:a seaieaee~ae aai .a .ise|i .s vaeae aac . s
aei. ve| veso|| e. i|eav. aa.eaeaace:
siaac. aea saoe:ie.a||v:eac.aeiae aesoaoe:. aac s.o|v
(aeaes . ae:eiae:e .saoass.veias.aeeve:eieai.eva|.c.ivsaea
sai.i.sseeia.aesoee.a|.aseaave sa. c. ieaave iae. aieai.eaie
eso|.eaie .ieeaeaee.aiaeaei.v.iva.eaa:i.ea|aiesaaiaas|eea:eac
.e:aa.aie:esi.aeseaieaeei:e.i .esi:aei.aeeae|veae..aseoa:ai.ea
i:e aai aas |eea vaeae| v.|v :eee.vecas a aa.iv. iae e|e
eaiseieaa. ae. iaas||va|.c.ivieaei.veoe:ie:aaee
.a a ae av ea iae |as.s eiiae .ac.v.caa| va|. waai as a
i.veo:ecaei.ea 1a. saei.v.iv. iaea. .saoeea|.a:se:ieise|iev.ceaee .
iae si:aeia:ea:.s. aeeaiei.i.s.aiae|eea e:.e.aa||v
o:ecaeec ~ac .a eeaaeei.ea .ia ia. s se|iev.ceaee . iee. iae:e .s
eeaaa|.zai.ea 1ae eso|.eaiecaceeai |eeees aa . cea| e|eei
eaoa||eei|e.aeoassecea|i.sia. se|eeiese||viaai.seaai|v
|ee.eaea.isoeasseiseaieaeese:aceeais ~aciaasiaedomain of
logic .||vces.eaaiec.ia. s. saa. ve:sa||viaesoae:eei|e.aeie
a.ea |ee.e .aseia: as .i .s iae iaee:v ei iae seaieaees e:
1a:eaeaia. saei. v. iv. ae.ia:iae:aei.|eeeeoess. ||e-se|i
Verdeutlichung, i . e. , maki ng explicit.
Edmund H usserl
ev.ceaieeasi:aei.easeiaeacemeaisea iae |as.seiiaesea|:eacv
va|.cie:as . 1a.s . siaeoeea||a:ieaia:eei|ee.ea|ia.a|.
oa:e|v|ee.ea|se|i ev.ceaees . ~|| ia.s aiaeieveaaea ace
meaisa:e i:aasie:mec .aie assamoi.eas. ae:e. . asieac eiea:se|ves|ea:se|ves.aieiaeoes.i.eaeiasse:i.aee:
ue:eesaa||eeaeeai:aieeaiaeseaieaeesei| aaeaaeeasiaeveeme|vaaca:eme:e|v:eee.vec. iaia.seeaaeei.ea.imasia|se
|eaeieciaaiseaieaeese. veiaemse|ves.aeease. easaessas:eo:ecae
i.vei:aasie:mai.easeiaae:.e.aa|meaa. aeo:ecaeeceaieiaaaeiaa| .
e:.e.aa|aei.v.iv . iaai. s. .aiaemse|vesiaev:eie:iesaeaaeeaes.s . i a
iaesoae:eei|ee.ea|se|i ev.ceaee.cecaei.ea.e:.aie:eaee. aiemsei
eeaseeaeaee. o|avs aeeasiaaiaacesseai.a|:e|e. Oaiaeeiae:aaac.
eaemasia|seia|eaeieeiiaeeeasi:aei.veaei.v.i.esiaaieoe:aie. ia
eeemei:.ea| .cea| .i.esa.ea aave|eea exo|.eaiec|ai aei|:eaeaiie
e:.e.aa| se|iev.ceaee. .O:.e.aa| se|iev.ceaee masi aei b eeaiasec
.iaiaese|iev. ceaeeei ax.ems .ie:ax.emsa:e.|ea|:eacv
iae:esa|iseie:.e.aa|meaa.aeeeasi:aei.eaaaca|avsaaveia. s|e
Neaaia|eaiiaeoess.|.| .iveieemo|
.aia| | e:.e.aa|.iv.|ae|ieiae|se|iev.ceaees. .a
a|iaeaeaiaev|vaemeaasme:e| vcecaee :ue:eiaeiaacameaia||a.
.ia aaeeac.i.eaa||veeae:a|se|iev.aeaee. .s . .iiae o:em.seseaaae
se|iev.ceai eeaseeaeaees eaa |e a|se|v . iaooea:s iaai.
||se|iev. ceaees . iaee:.e.aa|eeaa.aeaessmasi
o:eoaeaie.ise|iia:eaeaiaeeaa.aei|ee.ea|.aie:eaee. aemaiie:ae
|eae.i. s ueeve:..ieeeas.ce:iaee||
aac evea iae see. a| eaoae.iv iei:aasie:m iae|ee.ea|eaa. aseieea i:a| v. aiaeaa.iveieaeaeeemo|.sameai..aiee:.e.aa||veeaa. ae
eaa. aseise|iev.ceaee.eaei.eeiaaiiiea|eve| aeeaia. as.ia.a
.ise|iaa. cea|.zai.ea. aame|v.iae:emeva|ei| .m.isi:emea:eaoae.iv.
.aaee:ia.a sease. 1aeoeea|.a: se:i eise|iev.ceaee
|e|eae.aei esaea.cea|.zai.eas.||eeaee:aas | aie:.
1aesea:e. iaea. iae eeae:a| esseai.a|.as.eais a.eae|ae.caieiae
ae|emeiaec.ea|ceve|eomeaieiiae se.eaeesaac. ia.i
iaemaaae:ei|e.aea.ea. sesai.a|ieiaem.
ameaiecseaieaees .iaev.ave|vea| .ve| v. o:ecaei. ve|vacvaae.aeie: a.eaa|avsaasiaeceeameaiec.asasec.meaiei
ea:|.e:o:ecaei.ea. ai.iscsoesa| .aiaai.icea|s.ia.i|ee.ea||v. sai
1 69
The Origin of Geometr
eai eiseaieaees.ia sec. meaiec s.ea.aeai.ea. |ee.ea| cea|.ae eaa
o:ecaee ea|veiae:seaieaeeseiiaesameeaa:aeie:. 1aaia||aeae
ea. s.i.easexo:essaaaeiaa|eeemei:.ea|i:aia.see:ia.aao:. e:. aace:
i:a|v|eeao:ecaeecaace|eei.aec. ae:.e.aa|seaev.ceaee .. . e .aave
|||vaeeess.||eaeea.s.i.eas. ~eeai.aa.ivi:emeaeoe:

ieaaeae:.i:emeae ieaaeiae:.masiaave |eeaeaoa||eei

oem eai. ii .s e|ea: iaai iae meiaec e:.e.aa|

.cea|||ve. vea.aiaeea|ia:a|e:|cmasi
aave|eea:.iieaceaaacaxec.aa:m seaieaeeso:.e:ieiae ex. s
ieaee ei eeemei:v. ia:iae:me:e. iae eaoae.iv ie: i:aas| iaese
seaieaee i:em va

ae| .aie iae e|a:.iv eiiae

:eaei.vai.eaeiiae.:se|iev.ceaimeaa.aemasiaave|eea. ea
av. aaacecceaaaceve:eaoa||eei|e.aeaaaceccea.

Oa|as| eaeasia.seeac.i.eaassai.saec. e:ea| vaeaiaeoess.|.|

.ivei.isa|a||meaiasoe:ieei|vseea:ecie:a|| eea|ceeemei:v
.ae.e:.eaa|meaa.aeasacecaei.vese. eaeeia:eaea
eaiiaeo:ee:ess.eaei|ee.ea|eeasi:aei.eas . iaeiae:e:cs.ea| v.aia.s

e eea|c eve:v eeemeie: |e eaoa||e ei| ie mec.aie sea

ev.eaee iae m |ene |v eve:v seaieaee. aei me:e| v as . is

sec.meaiec .|ee.ea| |aias. is aeiaa| .is
i:aia meaa. ae. ~acseie:a||eieeemei:v.

1aeo:ee:esseicecaei.eaie||esiema||ee.ea|se|iev.ceaee. |ai
w. i|a

i iae aeiaa||v ceve|eoeceaoae.iv ie: :eaei.vai.aeiaee:.e.aa|

aei. v.i.eseeaia.aec.ia.a. isaacameaia|eeaeeois. . . e. .iaeaiiae

ciae ae ei.iso:ese.eai.aemaie:.a|s . eeemei:vea|c

eaoae.iv.eeea|caeve:evea|aeaeiae:eeemei:vaace:eve:c.c|c:ea| | vb easaec.a.
uaie:iaaaie|v. aeeve:.ia.s. s ea:s.iaai.ea.aaciaaieiiaeae|e
1ae o:esaooes.i.ea meai.eaeca|eveaas .aiae(aeve:|eeaia|
a||ec. Heiae|. v. aei:a.i.eaeiiaemeaa.aeie:mai.eaeie|emeaia:v
asi:aei.eaaac .isiexi|ee|s, aaie aeiaa||v|ea:aiae:e .saeie
cea|.iaready-made eeaeeoisaacseaieaees.|vmeiaec.ea|
av. xeace:.aeiae eeaeeois seas. ||v. aia.ia||e |vmeaas eic:aa
aea:es. ssa|si.iaiecie:iaeaeiaa||.cea|
~ac ie :esi . s ceae |saeeess-aei iae saeeess eiaeiaa| .as.eai

xieacme|eveaciae|ee.ea|meiaec sease|iev.ceaee.|aiiaeo:ae
i.ea| saeeesseseiaoo|.ec eeemei:v. .is .mmease . iaeaea aei aace:
sieec. o:aei.ea|aseia|aess. 1e ia.s emasiacc iaai.||
Edmund Husser
|eeeme v. s.||e ia:iae:ea .a iae i:eaimeaieia. sie:.ea|
aame| v.| .ieiaai. seemo|eie|ve. veaeve:ie
|ee.ea| aei.v.i. es 1aese caaee:s | . e .a ee:ia.a o:ee:ess. ve i:aasie:
mai.easeimeaa.aeiea.eaia.sse:ieise. eai.iei:eaimeaic:. veseae
ie:.ea|oess.|. |.iveiaeeaa.aei:ac.i.ea.i:aeie.ise:.e. as. eise.eaees
| . se eeemei:v. e eaa aace:siaac ae saea se. eaees eaa v.ia||v
ceve|eo ia:eaeaeai iae eeaia:. es aac si.|| aei |e 1ae . a
ae:.iaaee eio:eoes.i.eas aac eiiae meiaecei|ee.ea||v
aeo:eoes.i.easaac.cea| .i.eseaaeeai.aae. iaeai.aie::aoi.eai:em
eaeoe:.ecieiae aexi. a.| iaeo:. ma|
|ee.aa.aes. . e . iaesea:eeseimeaa. aeie:eve:via.aeiaaieemes|aie:.
aas aei |eeaaaacec cea .ia .i waai.s| .s|v
aai aac e.vea aac aac ie ie a|| o:eoes.i.eas aac|sea:eesa.eaeaa|emace
Oieea:se. e:ammai.ea||veeae:eaio:eoes.i.easaac eeaeaieaai.eas
eio:eoes.i.eas. ae maiie: ae iaev aavea:.sea aac aave aea.evec
va|.c.iv-vea .i. i. s ia:eaea .a a|| e.:eam
siaaeesiae. :ea|ee.ea| e .iae.:meaa.aeiaaieaa|emace
se|iev.ceaiia:eaeaexo|.eai.ea. ia. seaaiaea|e. ceai.aecaea.aaac
aea.a as iae same o:eoes.i.ea. a.ea .s e.iae: |ee.ea||v eeae:eai e:|aiie:ease.ieaaaei|eexeeaiec.aiaeaa. ivei
aa aeiaa|acemeai i ao:eoes.i.easa.ea|e|eaeieeeiae:.a eaece
aavea:ea|mei. cea| . aacie:iaeseiae:eex.sieas.|vaace:
siaaca|| eoess.|. | ei| i:ac.i.eaa|.zai.ea nai o:eoes. i.eas.
| .seeiae:ea|ia:a|si:aeia:es . aooea:eaiaeseeae.aiaeie:meii:ac.
i.ea.iaeve|a. m. seiesoeas. ie|
iaaieaa |e mace e:.e.aa||v se|iev.ceai. ae:eas .i .s |v ae meaas
aeeessa:viaaiiaev aeiaa|| as.aiaeeaseei
assee.|vce:.vecia|s.aeai.eas 1aasiaeae|
.si:siea|vae| a. ma.eaeaa|easi.aecasaaexo:ess.eaeiiaea||eeec
i:aiameaa.aeea| via:eaeaiaeaeiaa|eaoae.ivie::eaei.vai.ea
iae cemaac.a.eaaasso:eacia:eaeaeaiiaemece:aoe:. ec aac aas
aaa||v |eea eeae:a||v aceeoiec. ie: a seea||ec eo.sieme|ee.ea|
These work to the beneft of logical method, but they remove one further and further
from the origins and make one i nsensitive to the problem of origi n and thus to the actual
ontic and truth-meaning of all these sciences.
The Orgin ofGeomety ei iae se.eaees. iaeaea e| a:.iv aas aeve: |eea aea. evec


ie:ia:iae:ceia.|seaiaeao:eei.aeeiaae:.e. aa| | veeaa.aei:ac.

i.ea. . e . eae a.ea .ave|vece:.e.aa| se|iev. ceaee ai .is aeiaa| i:si
|ee.||eaaceas. |vaace:siaaca||e:easeas
| aiaei:sie:a|eeeoe:ai.eaeiiae|ee.aa.aeeeemeie:s. iaeaeecas

ca||v|aes.aeie:aaexaeiix.aeeicese:.oi.easeiiaeo:ese. onma| maie:.a|aaceiiaeavs.a a.ea. .a :e|ai.ea ie ia.s
maie:.a| . eeemei:.ea|.cea|.i.esa:eseieeeiae:.iaiae| :siax.ema

o:eoes.i.eas ra:iae:. iae |ee.ea|saoe:si:aeia:esc.c aei

1 09: Oaiaeeiae:

aaac.iaeoess.|.|.iveiiaeo:aei.ea|aoo| .eai.eaeiiae
cenvec| as. a.eaasaeiaa||ve|v.eas.aeeaaeei.ea.iaiaee:.e.

aace:siaaca||v|| v. .aiae:ea|meio:ax. s. ie
aaa|.iaa|| . iaeec||
a|eaiaseia|ia.aes 1a. smeiaeceea|caaia:a||v|eaaacecceaevea
.iaeai iae a|.|.iv ie: e:.e.aa| se|iev.ceaee 1aa s
emoi.ecei|ceeae:a||vo:eoaeaie. ise|i.eeasiaai|v|e.a
accec ie|oe.ea| | v. as eea|ciae meiaec.eseiieeaa.ea|aoo|.eai.eaea
iaeeiae:s.ce1aeexi:ae:c.aa:. |via::eaea.aeo:aei.ea|aseia|aess|e

. ise|
iaese s..eaes 1aas

a|se .i .s aace:siaaca||e iaai iae |esi e:.e.aa|

i:aiameaaaemace .ise|iie|i s |. ii|e. .aceec. iaai iae aeecie: iae .aea.:v aac ie |e :eaaseaec He:e iaaa
ia.s . iaei:aeseaseeisaeaaa. aea.:vaacie|ec.seeve:ec
iae eea||
c se.eaees aac evea .ac.eaies s.m.|a: o:e||ems


ie:a||se.eaees re:a||eiiaemaaveiaeme|.|.ivei
sec:eaiec i:ac.i.asiaai a:e e:sec aoea. aea.a aac aea.a. |vaa
aei. v.iv e

e ae si:aeia:es aac iaem

ceax. si.| aee

||aeaeea.s.i.easa:e. aiansec.meaiecaac|eeemee:s.aemaie
:a| s ve:

e:e iae o:e||ems. iae e| .avesi.eai.eas. iae .a

s.eaiseionae.o|ea:ehistorical. wesiaac.ia.aiaeae:.zeaeiaamaa
ev. | .zai.ea.aeeae.aa.eaeea:se|vesae|.ve wea:eeeasiaai|v.
.ia| vease. easeiia. sae:.zea.aacsoee.aea||vasaiemoe:a|ae:.zea
. mo|.ec 1 0 ea:e.veao:eseai ae:.zea 1e iae eae aamaae.v.| .zai.ea

|.iee:|c .ia .is oeea| . a: maaae:ei| ia.s e:|c. ie: eve:v
What oes Hume
do but endeavor to i nquire back into the primal impressions of
developed Ideas and, I n genera, scientifc ideas?
1 72
Edmund Husserl
a. sie:.ea|oe:.ecaace.v. |.zai.ea. aas. isoa:i.ea|a:eai:esaac

.so:|v iae i:ac.i.ea. we siaac. iaea. .ia.a iae a.sienea| aenze m
a| .s a.sie:.ea| . eveaiaeaeae mav |ae ve:v |. ii|e
a|ea(.i. aaceaa.ieav. sai. i aas.isesseai.a|si:aeia:e

:evea|ec ia:eaea meiaec.ea|. aea.:v. 1a. s.aea.:v o:es

en|es a||ie
oess.||esoee.a|.zeceaesi.eas. iaas .ae|

s..aees. iae.|ae| .aie e:.e.aa.eaa:e oeea||a:ie iaem m .:iaeeiie.:
a. sie:.ea|maaae:ei| ue:eea:e|ec|ae|ieiaeonma|ma(ena|s
eiiae a:si ie:mai.ea eimeaa. ae. iae| se

(e soea|.
a.ea| . e .a iae ea|ia:a|e:|c. Oieea:se. ia.sea|ia:|
e:|c aas .a ea eaesi.eas eie:.e. a. a.ea ai a:si:ema
Naia:a||v. o:e||emseiia. soa:i.ea|a:se:i .mmec. ai| vaa|eaiae
ieia|o:e|||a.sie:.e.iveiiaeee::e|ai.v aaae:sei
| eiaamaa. iv aac iaeea|ta:a|?:|c aciaea onen s:aei:e
eeaia.aec.||. eaesi.eas|||eiaaieiiaee|anaeai.ea
eiiaee:.e.aeieeemei:vaaveae|eseceaaeie:. saeaiaaieaeaeec

ra:iae:e|a:.aeai.eas. |||emace.aeeaaeei.eaw.iaiee|eei.eas
a.eaa:eiam.|. a:ieea:eaoa.|eseoa.ea|a. sie:.ea|s.iaai.ea.

i aiaea:sio|aee. aai se:i eisi:aaeee|si.aaev .s ia.s . se|meie

ia|e iae eaesi. eaei(ae e:.e.aeieeeme(:v|ae|iesemeaac.seeve:
. sava.|a||eieas. a.iso:eoes.i.eas. .isiaee:. es. Oieea:semasiaac
e eaa aase: ie: ia.s |ee.ea| ec.aee ie iae | asiceia|| m ie:ms ei
se|iev.ceaee. ue:e. ie |e sa:e . e :. veai a:s( ax. ems. aaci:em
iaemeo:eeeecieiaee:.e.aa|se|iev. ceaeea.ea(aeiaacameai
eeaeenisma|eoess.||e.waai.sia.s..iaeiiaeiaee:vei|ae|ecee .
.aia. seasesoee.aea||viaeiaee:veieeemei:.ea||ae|ecee:Ne eae
ea|c ia.a| ei iae eo.sieme|ee.ea| o:e||em |ae| ie sea a
saooesec 1aa|es. 1a. s .s saoe:aaea. 1a o:eseai|v va.|a||e
eeaeeoisco:eoes.i.easiaemse| veseeaiamiae.:eamae.

meaai|aisi.||a.cceai:aiaa.eae eaae|v.eas|v|:.aeieaeai|v
Oa:aase:. sasie||es . Ce:ia.a|v(aea.sie:.ea||ae|c:eie:eaee|viaee:vei|ae|eceeaasaeve:
|eeaseeaasaaeea| . a:|va. sie:.ea|ias|. saiia. s. so:e

e|eeiie. aiaeoasi. 1ae:a|.aeeemaeiaeeoa:ai.eam ona.| e
|eieeaeo.sieme|ee.ea|e|ae.cai.eaaaca.sienea|. eveaamaaie
osveae|ee.ea|exo|aaa(.ea.|eieeaeo.iemee.ea|a eeet.eenem.
.siaacameaia||vm.sia|ea. aa|esseaemacm. ss.||v|||
av. iae eeaeeois ei a. sie:v. a. sie:.ea| exo|aaai.ea. aac
1 73
The Origin ofGeomet
eeaes.s . O::aiae:. aai.siaaceaia||vm.sia|ea.s(ae| . m. iai.ea
ia:eaea a.ea|v iae ceeoesiaac mesieeaa. aeo:e||emsei
a. sie:va:eeeaeea|ec.iieaeia.a|seve:ea:exoes.i.eas.a.eaa:eei
eea:sesi.||:eaea aac. |||aie:eiaeeess.iv| eac as .aie ae ceoia
c.meas.easi . aai iaev ma|e e|v. eas . s|v iaai aai e
|ae-aame|v.(aa(iaeo:eseai|vv. ia|ea|ia:a|eeaaea:ai.ea eeem
ei:v .s a i:ac.(.ea aac . s si. || aaacec cea-. s aei |ae|
ecee eeaee:a.aeaaexie:aa|eaasa| . iv a.eaeaeeisiaesaeeess.eaei
a. sie:.ea|eeaaea:ai.eas.|ae|ecee|asecea.acaei.ea.
iaeo:esaooes.i.eaeiwa.eaea|cameaaiieaaa|sa:c.ivae:e .:aiae:.
i eaace:siaaceeemei:ve:aave.veaea|ta:a|iaei. sieb eease.easei
.is a. sie:.e.iv. a||e.i .mo|.e.i|v. 1a. s. aeeve: . .s aei aa emoiv
.aeeiea|ia:e. aeiae:.i. samaiie:eiiae|e|.esiea|ia:eeiaeees
s.i.ese:iaea.eaes(ea|ia:e. se. eaee. siaie. eaa:ea .
zai.ea. eie. i . iaai eve:v si:a.ea(ie:a:c ei .( as aa
exoe:.eai. a|iaei.ave|vesiae eeeease. easaess (aai. (. sseme(a. ae
eeasi:aeiecia:eaeaaamaaaei. v.iv.Nemaiie:aea. ccea.aemaiie:
aeme:e|v .mo|.e.i|v|.ec(a. s s. (ae:e|e|eaesie.(
(aese|iev. cea(oess.|.|.(veiexo|.eai.ea. ei ma|.ae.(exo|.e.( aac
e| .i. ve:v exo| .eai.ea aac eve:v i:aas.i.ea i:em ma|.ae
exo|.e.iiema|.aese|iev. ceai.eveaoe:aaos.aeasesae:eeaesieos
maeaieeseeai . s aeia.aeeiae:iaaaa. sie:.ea||esa:e. . a.ise|i.
esseai.a|| v..i. ssemeia.aea.sie:.ea|. aacassaea.i|ea:s. .iaesseai.a|
aeeess.iv.(aeae:.zeaei. isa. sie:v.ia. a. ise|i1a.s. seieea:sea|se
.mo|. esiaeae|eeiiaeea|ia:a|oasi.aaaaace(e:m. aec|aisi:ae
ia:a||vceie:m.aec eeae:a|.iv. 1e oai .ime:e| v. .| .es a|veaeaaeiae:.eaea.a. ise|i|e.aeaoasi
ea|ia:a|o:eseai . ~acia.sae|eeeai.aa. iv .saunit eii:ac.i.eaa|.za
(.ea eo ie iae o:eseai. a.ea .s ea: o:eseai a o:eeess ei
i:ac.i.eaa|.|i. are.aesiai.ev.ia| .iv.1a. s . s. asaas|eeasa.c.
aaaaceie:m.aeceeae:a|.iv. ||eas(:aeia:ea.eaeaa
|emaeame:e.ce|vexo|.eaiec| .
a si:ae(a:ea.eaa|see:eaacs. .mo| .es. iaeoess.|.|.i.esie:eve:v

Ha|.aeeeemei:vse||ea:a|eaiia. s
e:aei|esa:eei. isa.sie:.ea|i:ac.( s|ae|ecee. . i
.(. saei(e:ema.aemoivia||| . (v. :eea.:es(ae
:esea:ea.aiaeo:eseai.|iev. ceaeesei(aeivoec. s
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iesaea|ae|eceesaoe:ae. a||v. .Ca::.eceaisvsiemai.ea||v.
1 74
Edmund Husserl
saea se|iev.ceaees :esa|i .a aeia.aeeiae: aac| ess iaaa iae| a o:.e:. eia.sie:v .ia a|| .is a.ea|v a|aacaaieemoeaeai
iaev.ia|mevemeaieiiaeeeex.sieaeeaaciae. aie:eav.aeeie:.e.aa|
~avia.aeiaai.ssaeaie|eaa.sie:.ea|iaei . e.iae:.aiaeo:eseai
ia:eaeaexoe:.eaeee:|vaa. sie:.aaasaiaei.aiaeoasi. aeeessa:.|v
aas.isinner structure ofmeaning; |aiesoee.a||viaemei.vai.eaa|.aie:
eeaaeei.eas esia||. saec a|eai.i.aie:ms eieve:vcav
aave ceeo. ia:iae: aac . mo|.eai.eas a.ea masi |e
.aie::eeaiec. c. se|esec ~|| me:e|v iaeiaa| a. sie:v :ema. as .aeem
o:eaeas.||e |eeaase. a|avs me:e|v .is eeae|as.eas aaive|v
aacsi:a.eaiieoa:c|vi:emiaeis. .iaeve:
a|esiaemai.eiae eeae:a|
e:eaac aoea a.ea a|| saea eeae|as.eas :esi. aas aeve:
.avesi.eaieciae. mmeasesi:aeia:a| i Oa| v|esa:eeiiaeesseai.a||veeae:a|si:aeia:e| v. ae.aea:o:eseai
aac iaea .a eve:v oasi e:iaia:e a.sie:.ea| o:eseai as saea . aac. .a
ieia| .iv.ea||esa:eeiiaeeeae:eie.a.sie:.ea|
| . ve ..aa.eaea:ieia|aamaa.iv|.ves.a:esoeeiie.isieia| .esseai.a||v
eeae:a|si:aeia:e-ea|via.|esa:eeaama|eoess.||ea. sie:.ea|.a
ea.:v [Historie] a.ea . s i:a|v .as.eaiia| . aac .a iae 1a.s.siaeeeae:eie. a.sie:.ea|ao:.e:.a.ea
eaeemoasseseve:via.aeiaaiex. sisasa.sie:.ea||eeem.aeaacaav. ae
waaiaas|eeasa.cas:e|aiecieiaeieia|ie:m a.sie:.ea|o:eseai.a
eeae:a| . a.sie:.ea|i.meeeae:a||v.saiiaeoa:i.ea|a:eeaaea:ai.easei
ea|ia:e. a.ea aac iae.:o|aee.ia.a .is eeae:eai a.sie:.ea||e.aeas
i:ac.i.ea aac as v.ia||v iaemse|ves cea. aave .ia.a ia.s
ieia|.iv ea|v :e|ai. ve|v se|i same. eai | .a i:ac.i.eaa|.iv. ea|v iae
| ei aease|i same.eai eemoeaeais Ce::e| ai. ve|v. ae. aeeeaai
ea|caaveie|eia|eaeiiaesae eeiseia.sie:.e.iv.iaeoe:seasae
e:eaie ea|ia:a| ie:mai.eas. .a ieia|.iv oe:seaa|
e. v.|.zai.ea
The superfcial structure of the exteral l y " " ready-made" men wi thi n the social
hi storical , essential structure of humanity, but also the deeper [structures] which disclose the
inner hi storicities of the persons taking part . [ "Structures" is Biemel 's interpolation. ]
t The hi storical world i s, t o be sure, frst pregiven as a social-hi storical world . But i t is
historical only through the i nner historici ty of the i ndi vidual s, who are i ndi vi dual s in thei r
i nner historicity, together wi th that of other communal i zed persons . Recall what was said
i n a few meager begi nni ng exposi ti ons about memories and the constant historicity to be
found i n them [pp. 1 62[ above] .
1 75
The Origin ofGeometry
i a:esoeeiieeeemei:veae:eeeea.zes. aeiaaieaaveoe.aieceai
iae a.cceaaessei. isiaacameaia|eeaeeois. a.eaaave|eeeme.aae
eess.||e. aac aave mace iaem aace:siaaca||e as saea .a a:si|as.e
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ie:.e.iv. aeeae:a|||
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eaees.aiaesiv|eeiiaeasaa|iaeiaa|a. sie:v.eaaaeiaa||v:eace:aeia
.aeeiiae.:sa|eeimaiie:eemo:eaeas.||e re:a eeaa.aea. sie:v ei
oa.|eseoav.aeeaa.aea. sie:veiiaeoa:i.ea|a:se.eaees. .saeia. aeeiae:
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a.eaaace:|.eiaem veaiaeve:vo:e||emae:eeaa|emaceaace:
siaaca||eea|via:eaea:eeea:seieiaea. sie:.ea|
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se.eaees . .iaeo. sieme|ee.ea|e:eaac.aee:e|a:.| eai.ea
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oeei| .ii|e:eeeoi.v.ivie:aceoia.aea.:va.eaeees|eveaciaeasaa|
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asiaeexo:ess.eaao:.e:. .ac.eaies. .i|avse|a.mieasi:.ei|vaaeea
c.i.eaecaaci:a|vaoec.ei.ese|iev.|eveaca||a. sie:.
ea| . Oae. | | e|eei aaiaaivei-.iesee||av. aacie
e|a. m ie aave c. so|avec. a a.sie:.ea| ao:.e:. . aa a|se|aie. saoe:iem
:e|ai.v.iveieve:via.aea.sie:.ea|.eia| |a. sie:.ea||vceve|eoece:|c
aooe:eeoi.eas. :.eai|ae| ie iaese eiiae o:. i:.|es ve:v
oeeo|e. |a:ee e:sma|| . e:|c.aa.ea .ie:iaai oeeo|e .eve:v ais e||ieeeiae:. aeiae:.amvia.ea|mae.ea|e:.a a:eoeaa
:ai.eaa| ie:ms . aac .a a.ea eaa |e exo| a.aec oe:ieei| v.
ve:voeeo|eaas. is|| v. .iia.s|ee.e. sexo|.eaiec
.ao:eoes.i.eas. .isao:.e:. .
ueeve:. |ei as eeas.ce:iaemeiaece|eeveiesia||. sa.aea. sie:.ea|
But what counts as primal self-evidence for the sciences is determined by an edu
cated person or a sphere of such persons who pose new questions, new historical ques
tions, questi ons concerni ng the i nner depth-dimension as well as those concering an
external hi storicity in the social-hi storical worl d.
1 76
Edmund Husserl
iaeis.aeeae:a|. iaas .ae|ac.aeiaai eiiae iaeis saooe:i.aeiaee|]ee
i.ea. aac|eiasceia. s.a:eea:cieaaisaeameiaece|eevo:esao
oeses Deesaeiiae aace:ia|.ae eia aamaa. si.e se.eaeeeiae . i
:ea||v as eeaia.a a o:esaooes. i.ea ia|ea ie: e:aaiec. a va|.c.iv
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iaeasaa|seasea.sie:.ea|o:esaooesesa. sie:v [Geschichte] asiaeaa.
ve:sa| ae(exo|.e.i|v. |aisi.||as a ae:.zeaei
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iesee|aacieesia|| . sace(e:m. aeciaeis.
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:eacv |aeeiea:o:eseaie:|c aac iaaie|. ve.a .i. a|avs sa:
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| s|ea:aec. aei|ae|ecee
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o:eseaiaaciaeae|eeia. sie:.ea| mo|.ec. a. i. siaaieiaa. sie:.
ea||veeae:eaiaacaa.ece.v.| .zai.ea. eeae:eaiia:eaea.
|eacaaceeasiaai eemmaaa| .zai.ea . aea| aai aasa|:eacv
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(aeae:.zeaiea:ca.eaa||eaesi.eas(eac.aac(aas (aeae:.zeaa.ea
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seme|.aceie:.i.ea|c. seass. eaeiiaeiaeis seieai| .(. s
eaeaea(aa(evea(aee|a. meiiae.:iae(aa|aesso:esaooeses(aea. s(e:.
ea|ao:.e:..iia. se|
1 77
The Origin of Geomety
saiacea|ia:.sesa||iaesame. 1aeae:.zeaexoes.i.eaiea.eae
:eea::ec masiaei|eecea . avaeae. saoe:e.a|ia| |. . imasi.(se|t
a::. veai.(|.ae.1aeseaieaees. aa.ea.i. s
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eemo|eiei:eecemiei:aasie:m. .aiaeaeaiaacoaaaiasv. ea:aamaa
a.sie:.ea| ex. sieaee aac aai .s iae:e exoesec as .is |.iee:|c. ~ac| aac.a:aaa.aeia:eaeaiae
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se|iev.ceaee. aaessea(.a||veeae:a|seieie|emeaisee.aeia:eaeaa||
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.||-asaai.s. ceai.ea| .aaieaa|emacese|iev.ceaiorgin aliter ai eaa| veea||aaeaaeeasiaeesseaeeeeas(aai|v
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o:ese.eai.e e:|c iaai iae e:.e.aa| ieaace: eieeeme(:v aac ai a. s
c. soesa| . iaai a. ea mas( aave se:vec as (ae maie:.a| ie: a.s
Oeemei:vaaciaese. eaeesmesie|ese|v:e|aiec(e. iaaveiece. ia
soaeei. meaaciaesaaoes. ea:es. a|sesaaoeseime(.ea. a|(e:ai.easei
ceie:mai.ea. eie . . iaaia:e oess.||e.ia.asoaee(.me. oa:i.ea|a:|vas
measa:a||emaea.iaces. ii. saee|ea:iaa(|aea| mes(
aeia.aea|ea(iaea.sie:.ea| sa::eaac.aee:|cei(ae:sieeeme(e:s.
(a.smaea. see:ia.aasaa.ava:.aa(. e sseai.a|si:aeia:e. (aa(. sasa
e:|ceiia.aes|ac. aeiaeaamaa|e.aes(aemse|vesassa|ee(s
ei ia.s e:|c . (aai a|| ia.aes aeeessa:.|v aac ie aave a |ec.|v
eaa:aeie:-a|(aeaea aei a|| ia.aes eea|c |e me:e | s.aee (ae
aeeessa:.|veeex. si.aeaamaa|e.aesa:eaeiia.a|a||easme:e|ec. es
aac. | .|eeveaiaeea|(a:a|e|ee(sa.ea|e|eae. (a(aemsi:ae(a:a||v.
a:eaeiexaaasiec . aee:oe:ea| | waa(. sa|see|ea:. aaceaa|e
seea:ecai|eas(.a. (sesseai.a|aae|easia:eaeaea:eia|ao:.e:.exo|.ea
(.ea. . s(aa((aeseoa:e |ec. esaacsoai.e(emoe:a| saaoesaac ma(e
1 78
Edmund H usserl
:.a| [stoiiche] eaa|.(|e:.a:m(a.e.ea(.aa:caess.e(e. :e|a(ec
(e(aem. ra:(ae:. . (.se|ea:(aa(.a (ae|.ieeio:ae(.ea|aeecsee:(a.a
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s(:a.ea(| .aesa:eesoee.a||vo:eie::ec.aacameae(aesa:iaees(aeevea
sa:iaees . ie:examo| e. ie: o:ae(.ea| oa:oeses |ea:cs| .m.(ec|v evea
sa:iaees. s(:a.ea( |.aes. aac oe. a(s a:e c:eie::ec. ae:eas(e(a||v e:
oa:(.a||vea:vec sa:iaeesa:e aaces.:a||eie:maav |.acseio:ae(.ea|
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c.s(:.|a(.ea .s .a(eacec. ue:e (ae :eaea es(.ma(e ei maea. (aces .s
(:aasiemec. a(e(aemeasa:emea(eimaea. (aces|veeaa(.ae(aeeeaa|
oa:(s . .ue:e. (ee. o:eeeec.aei:em (aeiae(aa| . aaessea(.a|ie:m|e||e(a:eaeaame(aeceiva:.a(.ea.|e|eaes
(e eve:v ea|(a:e. va:v.aeea|v (e s(aeesi:emo:.m.(.ve(e
a.eae:oe:iee(.eas. weeaa a|avso:esaooese
a.eae. ae(ae: ei a |ee: e: a.eae: (voe. .a (ae essea(.a| ie:a:c
ceve|eomea(eiea|(a:e. as e|| asi (aee:e(aeisaeaa(eeaa.eae.
(aasa|se .ae| a:(|a. |c.aes.eisa:vev.aeae|cs.
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a|aacaa(| vceve|eoecaaco:ee.vea(e(aeoa.|eseoae:aec.cae(ve(
|aeeeeme(:v|a(aesaea| c|e eeaee. va||e as .(s.avea(e:. ~sa
oa.|eseoae:o:eeeec.aei:em(aeo:ae(.ea| . a.(esa::eaac.aee:|c.ei
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aace:|c|ae|ecee . aeaas(ae a.(e|v|aeaaacaa|aeasoaees
aac(.mesasia. (ee|emea(s.(a.a( na(
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aacaa(eve:e|se.s (e |eeemeaaeve| so.:.(aa|o:ecae(ea(ei(aese
a.(e e|emea(s a.ea se:ve as ma(e:.a| . aac .(a a.s|c ia.(e
saaoes.a(ae.:soaee(.meaeceesae(ve(aaveeeeme(:.ea|saaoes . (ae
oae:eaem.esaaoes. a.ssaaoes. asiie:ma(.easceve|eoecea(eio:ax. s
aac(aeaea(ei.a (e:mseie:acaa|i,e:iee(.ea. e|ea:|v se:ve ea|v as
`' Bi emei ' s interpolation.
"I have reverted to the original version of this sentence as given in the critica ap
paratus; I can make no sense of the emended version given in the text . "-D. Carr.
1 79
The Origin ofGeomety

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sea:eceaoae.(|aesi:em(ae(emoe:a:. | vce,| e(ecse| i
e.ceaeeeias..eaee(e(ae ,:.a| se|iev.ceaees

-; Bi emel ' s interpolation.

Edmund Husserl
ei:easea. (ae same :easea (aa(iaae(. eas . aeve:v maa. (aeanimal
rationale, aema((e:aeo:.m.(.veae. s:
1a. s. sae((aeo|aee(eoeae(:a(e.a(e(aeseceo(as(aemse|ves .
i aaav ease. eeaaae:eeeea.ze i:ema||(a.s(aa(a. s(e:.e. sm.
a.ea .saes (e e|a:.iv (ae a.s(e:.ea| e: eo. s(eme|ee.ea| esseaee ei
ma(aema(.esi:em(aes(aacoe.a(ei(aemae.ea|e. :eams(aaeese:e(ae:
maaae:seiaooe:eeo(.eaeia(.me|eaace. v. |. za(.ea. .s m. s(a|ea.a|e. re: :emaa(.e so.:.(s (ae mv(a.ea|mae.ea| e|emea(s ei(ae
a((:ae(. ve. |a( (e e| .ae (e (a. s me:e| v a. s(e:.ea|| v iae(aa| asoee( ei
ma(aema(.es.|v(e|eseeaese|i(ease:(ei:emaa(.e. smaac(e
eve:|ee|(aeeeaa. aeo:e||em.(ae.a(e:aa|a.s(e:.ea|o:e||em.(aeeo.s
(eme|ee.ea|o:e||em. ~|se. eae s eazee|v.eas|veaaae((aea|eeeme
i:ee(e:eeeea.ze(aa(iae(.e.(. eseieve:v(voe.. ae||vec
.a (ae a.s(e:.e.s(e|ee(.ea. aavea :ee( .a(ae essea(.a| s(:ae(a:eei
aa(. seeae:a||vaamaa.(a:eaeaa.eaa(e|ee|ee.ea|
(a:eaeaea(a||a. s(e:.e.(vaaaeaaees.(se|i.w.(a(a. s.s:evea|ecase(ei
o:e||ems. a.(sea:.ea(:e|a(ec(e(ae(e(a|.(veia.s(e:vaac(e(aeia||
meaa.aea.eaa|(.ma(e|ve. ves.(. (saa.(v.
ii(ae asaa|iae(aa|s(acveia. s(e:v.aeeae:a|.aac.aoa:(.ea|a:(ae
a.s(e:va.ea. ames(:eeea((.mes aasaea.evec(|ex(ea
s.eaeve:a||aamaa.(v. .s(eaaveaavmeaa.aea(a|| .
assaeaaoea(aeieaaca(.easei(|a. s(e:.ea|ao:.e:. .saeaa
meaa. aeaeeessa:.|v|eacsia:(ae:(e(ae. ac.ea(eca.eaes(eaes(.eaeia|(e|ee|eevei:easea.
ii. ar(e:(aeseexoes.(.eas. a.eaaave.||am.aa(ecve:v eeae:a|aac
maavs.ceco:e||emae:.zeas . e| avcea(aeie||e.aeasseme(a. ae
eemo|e(e|vseea:ec.aame| v. (aa( (aeaamaasa::eaac.aee:|c.s(ae
same(ecavaaca|avs. aac(aas a| se. a:esoee((eaa(.s:e|evaa((e|es(a||. samea(aac| as(.ae(:ac.(.ea.(aeaeeaasae.aseve:a|
s(eos. ea|v. a aa exo|e:a(e:v av. .a eeaaee(.ea . (a ea:ea sa:
|em ei (ae .cea| o:. ma| es(a||samea( ei (ae meaa.aes(:ae(a:e
contrapunctus and translation
[ ]
In the Erste Untersuchung of The Trial Joseph K. "thought he re
marked that the si lent Exami ning Magi strate, wi th a look to someone in
the crowd, just gave a sign rein Zeichen] . " K. cal l s it .. 'a secret si gn' "
( "ein geheimes Zeichen" ) , but because he has interrupted the si gn be
fore any response , because he has intervened "prematurel y, " punctu
ated the scene vorzeitig, untimel y, wi th his suspicion and wi th his "be
trayal " before the si lent Examining Magistrate , the "meani ng of the
si gn, " its Bedeutung, cannot be known. Joseph K. "abandons quite de
liberately" learni ng the secret si gn' s signifcance with hi s betrayal and
punctuation. Yet the punctuation begi ns with accepting responsi bi l ity
for the sign. In the interrupti on, K. " 'empowers' " ( "ermachtige" ) the
Exami ni ng Magi strate to speak with words , not wi th secret signs (Franz
Kafka, Der Prozej [Frankfurt am Mai n: Fi scher, 1 979] : 42; The Trial,
trans . Wi l l a and Edwi n Muir [New York: Schocken, 1 974] : 44).
Accepting the responsibi l i ty of the secret sign , wi thout response , in
order to empower with words-the rhythm of the interruption.
How am I to punctuate my reading of thi s text I transl ated over el even
years ago? Wi l l any punctuation be timely or in rhythm? Or is punctua
tion always vorzeitig? Can the responsibi l i ty for such a punctuation be
intentional ly assumed and the meaning abandoned in favor of another
meani ng?
My responsibil ity i s the responsibi l ity of the transl ator.
| I
Thi s frst extended publication of Derrida ( 1 962) i ncl udes hi s transla
tion of Husserl ' s Origin of Geometr. In one sense, I would say Derrida
has del iberatel y abandoned any other transl ations . Yet in another sense,
I would say Derrida has never fni shed transl ating; he continues to trans
late, cl ai mi ng that "the question of deconstruction is also through and
through the question of transl ati on" (Derrida, "Letter to a Japanese
Friend, " trans . Davi d Wood and Andrew Benjami n, i n Derrida and
John P. Leavey
"Dijerance, " ed. David Wood and Robert Berasconi [Evanston:
Northwester University Press , 1 988] : 1 ) or frequently using transl ation
as the lever for intervening in a textual fel d, as he states, for exampl e,
concering his use of transl ation in reading Heidegger on the hand:
I am doing so for two reasons. On the one hand, in order not to eface the
constraints or the chances of the idiom in which I myselwork, teach, read,
or write . . . . On the other hand, I thought that Heidegger' s text could be
still more accessible, could gain some supplementar readability by reach
ing us through a third ear; the explication (Auseinandersetzung) with one
tongue extra can refne our translation C
bersetzung) of the text that is
called " original. " . . . one can write on the typewriter, as I have done,
with three hands among three tongues. ( "Geschlecht I: Heidegger's
Hand, " trans. John P. Leavey, Jr. , in Deconstruction and Philosophy: The
Texts of Jacques Derrida, ed. John Sallis [Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1 987J: 1 96n)
In Derrida's translation of Husserl ' s text, L' origine de la geometrie
(2nd ed. [Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1 974]), there is a note
concering the transl ator' s task. It reads: "We have strived to preserve in
our transl ation the very spontaneous rhythm of Husserl ' s phrasing, even
when it is greatly marked by the incompletion of the sketch. For reasons
of cl arity, however, we have had to modify on two or three occasions the
original text' s punctuation . . . " (p. 1 73n). This note, which occurs i n
that strange space between the title and the body of the text, that strange
space of the transl ator, states an almost traditional desire of the transla
tor, the desire for fdel ity, for matching the original and the transl ation
not simply in sense, but also in rhythm. The rhythm of the phrasing i s
connected with punctuation, which required some infdelity in favor of
clarity, in favor of, then, the fdelity of sense. This transl ator' s dilemma
i s also the reader' s.
How is one to punctuate a text? a corpus? here, now, Derrida's text?
his corpus? Have I intercepted too early, in an untimely way, a secret
sign? Am I l ike Joseph K. then to accept responsibility for this untimely
designation and empower another signifcance-for example, that this
"frst" piece is to be read as the germ of al l the rest of Derrida's work? or
that it is to be read as a youthful work without much interest for reading
the mature Derrida, for reading the true signifcance of the text? or that it
is to be read as more philosophical than the later, more l iterary texts? or
that this is a preambul atory text, preambulatory to deconstruction?
The punctuation of a corpus raises many difculties . First, the desig
nation "corpus" i s often understood as an attempt to unify a group of
texts signed by an author, movement, or time period. As of 1 988 the
corpus of Derrida is de facto incomplete, which would disrupt any move
to unity. Second, unl ike certain readers (for example, phenomenol ogi
cal , hermeneutic , dialogic, or new critical) that claim just the opposite
and close the corpus in any act of reading, a transl ator argues that a
corpus remains incomplete, marked by transl ation as in need of transla
tion, even upon the death of the author, the more common closure of a
corpus . In other words , transl ation marks the incompletion of any
corpus and concentrates the problems of reading. The transl ator wants to
punctuate for clarity, for reasons of cl arity, and wants to take respon
sibility, deliberately, for the punctuation that punctuates too early or too
late, because the del ay of cl arity to itself is precisely rhythm, punctua
tion, counterpoint.
Derrida himself has punctuated this text and his corpus at least three
times . The frst is the 1 967 punctuation of Positions ( see pp. 7-9 above).
A second is the 1 982 punctuation of Joyce, of "Joyce' s ghost . . . al
ways coming on board" in the corpus . In this punctuation, Derrida says,
"at the very centre" of the Introduction t o The Origin ojGeometr, there
is the comparison of Husserl and Joyce, "two great model s" or "para
digms" on the "rel ationship between l anguage and history" that "try to
recapture a pure historicity. "
To do this, Husserl proposes to render language [langageJ as transparent
as possible, univocal, limited to what, by being transmittable or able to be
placed in tradition, thereby constitutes the only condition of a possible his
toricity. From this point of view it is necessar that some minimal read
ability, an element of univocity, an analyzable equivocit resist the Joycean
overload and condensationfor a reading to begin to take place, and the
work's legacy . . . . The other great paradigm would be the Joyce of Fin
negans Wake. He repeats and mobilizes and babelizes the asymptotic total
ity of the equivocal. He makes this both his theme and his operation. He
tries to make outcrop, with the greatest possible synchrony, at great speed,
the greatest power of the meanings buried in each syllabic fragment, sub
jecting each atom of writing to fssion in order to overload the unconscious
with the whole memory of man . . . . This generalized equivocality of writ
ing does not translate one language into another on the basis of common
cores of sense . . . ; it talks several languages at once, parasitizing
them . . . . (Ulysse gramophone: deux mots pour Joyce [Paris: Galilee,
1 987J: 27-28; "Two Words for Joyce, " trans. Geof Bennington, in Post
structuralist Joyce: Essays from the French, ed. Derek Attridge and Daniel
Ferrer [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1 984J: 149 [modiedJ)
The third punctuation is Derrida's 1 980 thesis "defense" : "The Time
of a Thesi s: Punctuations" (in Philosophy in France Today, ed. Al an
John P. Leavey
Montefore [Cambridge: Cambridge Universi ty Press, 1 983] ) . In rela
tion to the thesi s sur travaux, Derrida punctuates into three periods: ( 1 )
from 1 968 to 1 974 the thesi s was neglected as other works were pub
l i shed; (2) from 1 974 to sometime in 1 979-80, he thought , "rightly or
wrongly, that it was neither consistent nor desirable to be a candidate for
any new academic title or responsibi l ity" (p. 48) ; (3) during 1 980 and af
ter, the thesis sur travaux i s accepted and the position of Directeur i s
taken at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Prior to the
punctuation of the thesi s , other punctuations abound. From 1 963 to
1 968 , after the Introduction to The Origin of Geometr, after the frst
thesis on "The ideal i ty of the l iterary object" (Jean Hyppol i te directed),
and after the Memoire on "the problem of genesi s in the phenomenol
ogy of Husserl " (Maurice de Gandi l l ac "watched over this work" as the
"entire examination committee" [p+ 39]) , there i s the working out of "a
sort of strategic device . . . an unclosed, unenclosable, not whol l y for
mal i zable ensemble of rules for readi ng, interpretation and writi ng" (p.
40) .
Derrida punctuates the Introduction to The Origin of Geometr du
al l y. He states in his thesi s defense:
Naturally, all of the problems worked on in the Introduction to The Origin
of Geometry have continued to organize the work I have subsequently at
tempted in connection with philosophical, literary and even non-discursive
corpora, most notably that of pictorial works: I am thinking, for example,
of the historicity of ideal objects, of tradition, of inheritance, offliation or
of wills and testaments, of archives, libraries, books, of writing and living
speech, of the relationships between semiotics and linguistics, of the ques
tion of truth and of undecidability, of the irreducible otherness that divides
the sel-identity of the living present, of the necessity for new analyses con
cerning non-mathematical idealities. (Pp. 39-0)
But this punctuation of the corpus (a punctuation sets up a rhythm of
work and organi zation to the corpus , to the movement of the body of
work) is punctuated again, contrapunctus . In di scussing later texts
(those after 1 974), Derrida says: "I should have liked i n thi s respect to
have been able to shape both my di scourse and my practice, as one says,
t o ft the premises of my earl ier undertakings. In fact , if not i n principle,
this was not al ways easy, not always possibl e, at times indeed very bur
densome in a number of ways" (p. 49). Whi le the Introduction to The
Origin oJGeometr provided the organization for the subsequent work,
this punctuation marks itself as di srupted in fact if not in principle, with
the burden of its rhythm not always possible: thi s thesis defense, which
as desire "delights in being without defence, " which i s desi gnated as a
captatio, that i s, a quest or the disrupted question, thi s thesi s defense
"has been also as i mpoveri shed as a punctuation mark, rather, I should
say, an apostrophe in an unfni shed text" (p. 50).
How to punctuate now? Should I, as a transl ator, alter just a few occa
sions for clarity, for the sake of the rhythm? As one way of punctuating
thi s text, of punctuating the transl ation of thi s piece, I want to read the
responsibi l ity of translation for Husserl by reading a note with two sig
ni fcant punctuati ons of Derrida, those of translation and l i terature, the
frst being, as we have seen, the "question" of thi s corpus and the sec
ond, as Derrida points out i n his punctuations , being his " most constant
interest" ( "my most constant interest , coming even before my philo
sophical interest I should say, if thi s i s possible, has been directed to
wards l iterature , towards that writing which i s called l iterary" [ "Time
of a Thesi s , " p. 37]) . . .
| !
In The Origin oJGeometry, in the passage distinguishing geometrical
existence from psychic exi stence, Husserl states that "from i ts primal
establ i shment" geometrical exi stence is "objectively there for 'every
one' [objektiv Dasezendem Jur 'jedermann' ] ' ' ' is "an existence [Da
sein] which i s pecul iarly supertemporal [eigenartig uberzeitliches] and
which-of thi s we are certain-is accessible [zugingliches] to all
men. " The objectivity of this exi stence i s "an ' ideal ' objecti vity, " which
i s "proper to a whole class of spiritual products of the cul tural worl d
[geistigen Erzeugnissen der Kulturwelt] , to which not only al l scienti fc
constructions and the sciences themselves belong but also, for example,
the constructions of fine l i terature [die Gebilde der schonen Litera
fur] . " Husserl goes on to diferentiate thi s objectivity from that of tool s
or architecture, which, whil e they "have repeatabil ity in many l i ke ex
empl ars [gleichen Exemplaren] , " do not have the identical sameness of
ideal objectivity, whi ch transl ation guarantees: "The Pythagorean theo
rem, all of geometry, exi sts only once, no matter how often or even in
what language it may be expressed. It is identical l y the same in the ' orig
inal l anguage' [ ' originalen Sprache' ] of Eucl i d and i n all ' transl ations'
[ ' Ubersetzungen' ] ; and withi n each l anguage i t i s again the same, no
matter how many times i t has been sensibly uttered, from the original
expression and writing-down to the innumerable oral utterances or writ
ten and other documentations" (p. 1 60 above; Husserl , Die Krisis der
europiischen WissenschaJten und die transzendenfale Phinomeno-
John P. Leavey
logie, ed. WaIter Bi emel , vol . 6 of Husserliana: Edmund Husserl: Ges
ammelte Werke [The Hague: Nijhof, 1 954] : 367-68). D'Amico, in
"Husser! on the Foundational Structures of Natural and Cultural Sci
ences , " states that the diference i s that between the signifer and the sig
nifed: "In this context HusserI makes the di stinction between the ' sensi
ble uterance' or means of expression (signifer) and the meaning of
what I S asserted or said (signifed). The ideal object i s at the level of the
signifed as a thematic assertion or meaning. The signifer would be the
historically contingent vehicle for the signifed (for example, a certain
written or spoken language or set of signs and symbol s). The signifer
can be replaced with no loss of ideal ity or meaning since that aspect of
the sign i s fundamentally arbitrar. Ideality means, on the contrary, that
the object sufers no l oss of original self-evidence" (Philosophy and
Phenomenological Research 42 [ 1 98 1 -82] : 1 0).
But insofar as geometry i s a problem of tradition, there arises the
question of the diference between the repeatabil ity of the same and the
l ike, in D'Amico's terms , "between ideality and the corruption of cul
tural transmission, " or in more general terms , of the "authenticity" of
the repetition (p. 1 0), which i s the cri si s of the European sciences . In a
note added by Husser! to Fink' s typescript of Husserl 's text, a note with a
number of mi sreadings and appended to the sentence that ends "con
structions of fne l iterature, " a response is begun by means of transla
tion, which is responsible for the diference or authenticity of the repeti
tion. The translation by David Carr reads (p. 1 60n above):
But the broadest concept of literature encompasses them all [the scientifc
constructions, the sciences themselves, and the constructions of literature J;
that is, i t belongs to their objective being that they be linguistically ex
pressed and can be expressed again and again; or, more precisely, they
have their objectivity, their existence-for-everone, only as signication, as
the meaning of speech. [D'Amico mistakenly modifes this to read: " 'or
more precisely, they only have meaning and signifcance from the speech of
objectivity (Reden die ObjektiviHit), as they have existencejor-everone' "
( '"Husserl, " p. J J ). Husserl writes (Krisis, p. 368n): "nur als Bedeutung,
SInn von Reden die Objektivitat , das Fir-jedermann-Dasein zu haben" :
only as meaning, as the sense of speech does it belong to their objective be
ing to have objectivity, existencejor-everone. J This is true in a peculiar
fashion in the case of the objective sciences:for them the diierence between
the original language of the work and its translation into other languages
does not remove its identical accessibility or change it into an inauthentic,
indirect accessibilit.
In this translation, the l ast l i ne seems i n l ine with Husserl ' s text. In the
objective sciences, the diference between the original and the transl a
tion does not remove access to the identical sense of the original expres
sion, the transl ation does not make the accessibility inauthentic (un
eigentlichen) or indirect (indirekten). D'Amico notes that the "use of
' inauthentic' in the above quote suggests the problem raised about the
di stortion or l oss that haunts the replication of cultural forms" ( "Hus
ser! , " p. 1 1 ).
Derrida, however, fol lows Husserl ' s text and transl ates the l ast line in
j ust the opposite sense: "ou plutot la rend seulement indirecte, non ex
presse" (L' origine, p. 1 79n). That i s, in the objective sciences (die ob
jektiven Wissenschaften, a narrower category than literature in general),
the transl ation diference does not remove access to the identical sense
of the original expression, rather it renders the access only indirect, in
di stinct, inauthentic, improper (bzw. nur zu einer uneigentlichen, indi
rekten macht [Krisis, 368n] ).
Husser! seems of two mi nds here: translatability guarantees the same
sense in geometry (the Pythagorean theorem is "identically the same" in
the original language and al l "translations") and yet the diference be
tween transl ation and original renders the accessibility to that identical
sameness (ideal object), indirect, inauthentic, improper, indi stinct. The
counterpoint of these two minds i s the double bind of history for Hus
ser! , as we shal l see.
Derrida highl ights this note in the Introduction:
In an important note, Husserl specifes that "the broadest concept of litera
ture" ( 1 60) comprises all idealformations, since, in order to be such, they
must always be capable of being expressible in discourse and translatable,
directly or not, from one language into another. In other words, idealfor
mations are rooted only in language in general, not in the factuality of lan
guages and their particular linguistic incarnations. (P. 66; my emphasis)
"Directly or not" establi shes the l imits of transl atabil ity of ideal forma
tions (or constructions, in Carr's transl ation) in "the broadest concept of
l iterature. " Derrida remarks the translatabi lity of ideal formations as
"rooted only in language in general . " What are the l i mits of ideality' s
rootedness in language in general? In distingui shing the ideal formations
of geometrical objectivity (the most ideal of ideal formations, that i s, a
free ideali ty), Derrida argues that geometrical ideal objecti vity is "abso
lute and without any kind of l imit. Its ideal ity . . . i s no l onger only that
of the expressi on or intentional content; it is that of the object itsel Al l
John P. Leavey
adherence to any real contingency is removed. The possibi lity of trans
lation, which is identical with that of tradition, is opened ad infnitum
. . " (p. 72 above). In other words , the ideal ity of ideal formations
opens upon infnite transl ation; its rootedness in language is in no de
facto language, but in language in general ; in language, but not lan
guages ; in langage, but not langues. Thi s is the double bind of the Babel
scene: "in one stroke" ideality "commands and forbids" transl ation "by
showing and hiding . . . the l i mi t" ( "Des tours de Babel , " trans . Joseph
Graham, in Diference in Translation, ed. Joseph F. Graham [Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1 985] : 204), the l imit between language and
languages . Derrida notes that the factual ity of free ideality is the "cru
cial difculty of all [Husserl ' s] phi losophy of hi story. " Free ideal ities ,
although free of al l contingency, occur in hi story, and this occurrence
means that " free idealities are also factual and worldl y. " Thus the cru
cial question i s, "what is the sense of this last factual ity?" (p. 72n
above). In other words , for the transl ator, what i s the sense of l anguages
in Babel ' s double bind?
The double bind of Babel is curiousl y echoed in the two occurrences
ofthe tower of Babel in Derri da' s Introducti on, the frst in the discussion
of the asymmetrical transcendental paral l el s of Joyce and Husserl on
equivocity and univocity, the second concerning the infnities of Hus
serl o Both occurrences, however, while arguing in opposite directions
on the tower (one for its destruction, the other for its building), do so for
the sake of univocity. In the frst instance, the tower of Babel is to be de
stroyed in order to fx meaning. Husserl ' s text reminds Derrida of Leib
niz's statement: " ' i t depends upon us to fx their meanings, at least in
any scholarly language, and to agree to destroy this tower of Babel ' " (p.
l O I n above). In the second, in a citation from Husserl ' s "Cri si s of Euro
pean Humanity and Phi losophy, " mathematics i s compared to the tower
of Babylon (Babel) as the infnite task to be completed: " ' Math
ematics-the idea of the infnite, of infnite tasks-is l ike a Babylonian
tower: although unfni shed, it remains a task ful l of sense, opened onto
the infi nite. Thi s infnity has for its correlate the new man of infnite
ends' " (p. 1 28 above). In these two occurrences, uni vocity i s possible
(and so impossible, contrapunctus) only this-side-of or beyond (before
or after the end of) Babel (see pp. 1 03-4 above for a discussi on of the
impossible " l imiting cases" of absol ute univocity); this-side-of or be
yond the double bind of Babel -transl ate, do not transl ate; thi s-side-of
or beyond languages; this-side-of or beyond, in HusserI 's terms , the
"seduction oj language [Verfiihrung der Sprache] " (p. 1 65 above;
Krisis, p. 372) ; this-side-of or beyond translation, which, in the Ver-
fuhrung of language, i s al so Uberjuhrung,
the evr transmitte and
transmissible (tradier and tradierbar) capaCIty to bnng to the cl antof
reactivation in assuming responsibil ity for sense (p. 1 69 above; Knsl
pp. 375-76); this-side-of or beyond hi story; this-s de-of or
beyond wnt
ing, counterpoint, punctuation, the rhythm of the mterruptIOn.
If absolute univocity (the ideal) is the impossible double bmd for
Husserl , how does he work with hi story? D' Amico ends his essay on
HusserI by recalling Marx' s argument against Hegel :
the manner by which we come to know and thus advance fro



and naive knowledge to that ofrefective self-understandmg lS not ldentlcal
to the way in which the object (as real object, rather than object ofkn

edge) came about historically and materially. History does not recap

the methodology ofknowledge. Philosophy is, however, pushed to thls ob
vious error because any contingency or materiality threatens the suprem
acy ofthe ideal. ( "Husserl, " p. 20)
He goes on to concl ude that Husserl 's "efort to save te theortica atti
tude involves [him] in the perennial oppositions of reahty
and Ideal Ity
necessity and contingency. In each case, while his anal YSI S shows an m
separable connection, Husserl onl y ' values' ideal ity; and thus the mate
rial , the diferent , and the contingent are denied or removed from te do
main of knowledge" (p. 22). D' Amico punctuates Husserl ' s valuaton m
quotation marks and highl ights the evaluaton. Yet in counterpo
mt to
thi s punctuation, there is a counterpunctuatIOn. Husserl I
nvokes Ideal
ity, but that ideality i s al ways caught in Babel ' s double bmd, such that
the material the diferent, and the contingent are removed from the do
main of kno
wledge (ideality) only insofar as they are the conditions of
possibil ity of that ideal ity and thus empower the domain of knowledg.
In other words , Babel , as the "primordial Diference of the absolut<n
gin, " as "the beyond or the this-side which gives sense to al l empincal
genius and al l factual profusion, " punctuates the transcendenta
l as the
double bind of thought , the double bind of "the strange processIOn of a
' Ruckrage' " (p. 1 53 above) . Or perhaps , untime
ly, te tanscendental
i s the punctuati on, the punctuation of the double bmd, m hI story .
| !
Coda: Have I abandoned prematurely meaning in favor of the signa
ture? As my responsibil ity i s the transl ator' s, i s the signature to be trans
lated? Can it be? From deja to da to j' accepte, signatures punctuate
1 92
John P. Leavey
Derrida's COrpUS . In the Introduction, one such signature is the signature
of horizon, a "decisive" notion: "Horizon is the always-already-there
[Ie toujours-deja-la] of a future which keeps the indetermination of its
infnite openness intact . . . . a horizon is always virtually present in ev
ery experience; for it is at once the unity and the incompletion for that
experience-the anticipated unity in every incompletion" (p. 1 1 7
above; L' origine, p. 1 23). Always already there, on the horizon, punctu
ated, the signature of a corpus incomplete .
John P. Leavey, Jr.
September 1 988
Index ofPassages
Cited from Husserl
[Page numbers refer to the present book. ]
Cartesian Meditations
3: 3 3 , 39
4: 79, 1 42
7: 95
23 : 1 45
29: 29
37: 29, 47, 96
38: 29, 96
39: 1 52
4 1 : 1 36
48-49: 86-87
52: 86
6 1 : 87, 1 26
The Crisis ofEuropean Sciences and
Transcendental Phenomenology
7: 95 , 1 46
8: 1 27, 1 29, 1 30
9: 1 27
9a : 35, 1 22 , 1 24, 1 26, 1 30, 1 33 , 1 34
9b : 34-35, 36-37
9c : 1 26
,: 98, 1 26
9h : 35, 36, 57, 1 1 8, 1 1 9, 1 26 , 1 30
91 : 3 5 , 5 1
1 5 : 95
2 1 : 3 3
33-39: 1 1 9
33 : 1 1 9
34b : 85
34e : 1 1 9
34f: 1 20
36: 1 1 9, 1 20, 1 22, 1 33
37: 1 1 9
7 1 : 1 30
Appendi x I : . ' Phi losophy and the Cri si sof
European Humanity" (Abhandlung
C in Krisis, the German edition) : 36,
80, 84-85, 1 1 0, 1 1 5 , 1 27, 1 28-29, 1 46
Appendix I I (Abhandlung A in Krisis) :
1 27, 1 33
Appendix IV (73-Schl usswort i n
Krisis) : 95, 1 36, 142 , 1 46
Appendix V (Bei lage I I in Krisis) : 1 33
Appendix I X (Bei lage XXVI I I i n Krisis) :
1 1 6
" Fi nk' s Appendi x on the Problem of the
' Unconscious' : 93
Die Krisis der europiischen
Wissenschaften und die
tranzendentale Phinomenologie
Bei lage XI I I : 1 49
Bei lage XXV: 1 1 6
Bei l age XXVI : 1 1 5
Beilage XXVI I : 42 , 1 1 5
Experience and Judgment
I : 47
I O: 1 1 8, 1 33
1 4: 1 20, 1 32
23 : 1 00
38: 83 , 87
63 : 7 1
64: 7 1
64c: 73 , 1 48
65: 72, 91 , 98
Erste Philosophie ( 1 923124) , Vol . I
Bei lage VI I : 1 27
Formal and Transcendental Logic
I ntroduction: 3 1 , 32, 33, 38-39, 52
1 -5: 79
I : 69
2: 68, 88
5: 68 , 75
6: 4 1
Index ofPassages Cited from Husser!
Formal and Transcendental Logic
( continued)
9: 53
1 6: 55, 99, 1 39
1 7: 55
3 1 : 53 , 54
59: 62
62 : 67
71 : 32
73 : 79
74: 1 35
96c: 1 33
1 00: 63
1 02: 39, 47
Conclusion: 87, 1 26, 1 27 , 1 33
Appendi x I I : 55, 99
2b : 96
2c : 93
The Idea ofPhenomenology
Lecture I [po 23 of German] : 1 49
Ideas I
I ntroduction: 1 42
I : 43 , 47
7: 44, 54
8: 32
9: 32, 1 27
1 0: 32
I I : 48
1 4: 48
1 5 : 48
1 7: 32
24: 62
25: 32, 43 , 95, 1 08
44: 1 47
49: 95 , 96
56: 43
58: 1 47
59: 68
60: 1 2 1
70: 45 , 1 27 , 1 33
72: 33, 53 , 56, 1 22
73 : 3 3 , 1 02
74: 33, 1 23 , 1 33 , 1 34 , 1 35
75 : 33, 1 24
76: 64
79: 1 47
8 1 : 96, 1 20
83 : 1 06, 1 36
88: 66, 96
90: 7 1
97f. : 6
1 43 : 1 39
1 49: 1 22 , 1 35
Logical Investigations
Foreword to 2nd Ed. : 7 1
6: 92
59: 73
60: 1 02
67: 47
70: 53
I ntroduction to Vol . II of German Ed.
2: 78-79
3: 79
5: 70
First I nvestigation
1 -5: 92
I I : 70, 73 , 74
1 2 : 7 1
1 8: 44, 1 33
20: 98
26: 82, 1 00
3 1 : 48
32: 59
Fourth I nvestigation: 80
I nvestigations 1 -5: 7 1
The Origin of Geometry: passim
The Phenomenology of Internal
Time-Consciousne ss
2: 47
36: 82
Concering the Concept ofNl mber ( 1 887)
p. 37: 28
"Die Frage nach dem Ursprung der
Geometrie al s intentional-hi stori sches
Probl em. " Ed. E. Fink
p. 207: 48
p. 208: 48
p. 2 1 0: 89
p. 2 1 5 : 55
"Grundlegende Untersuchungen zum
Phanomeno\ogischen Ursprung der
Index ofPassages Cited from Hussert
Raumli chkei t der Natur" ( May 1 934)
pp. 307, 308, 309, 3 1 5, 3 1 7, 3 1 8: 83-85
"Phi l osophy as Rigorous Science": 33 , 43 ,
47, 48, 58-59, 1 01 , 1 03 , I I I , 1 5 1
Letter of March I I , 1 935, to Levy- Bruhl :
I I I , 1 1 4
Letter of November 1 6, 1 930: 1 45
Unpubl i shed Transcripts
C 2 I I : S, 7: 1 49
C 2 I I I , 1 932, pp. 8-9: 1 48
C 6, August 1 930, p. 5: 87
C 8 I I , October 29, p. 3: 1 2 1
C 1 3/ 1 5 I I , 1 934, p. 9 : 80
E I I I 4, p. 60: . 1 46, 1 47
F 1 24, p. 68: 1 48
K I I I , p. 1 06: 1 47

Absolute 1 7, 58, 86, 1 09, 1 1 6, 1 36-37,
1 43-44, 1 46n, 1 47-50. 1 52-53
of intentional hi storicity 1 7, 1 42
primally i nstituting act ( Urstiftung) 45n,
48, 49, 1 27, 1 28, 1 45 , 1 60 (primal
establi shment) , 1 65 , 1 80
transcendental aestheti cs 87n, 1 26, 1 26n
"again and again" (toujours encore,
Immer-wieder) 1 34n, 1 35-36, 1 35n
Algebrization 1 27n
Al l i son, David B. I n, 3n-4n, 2 1
Alter ego 87n, 98, 1 06, 1 2 1 , 1 40n
Alterity 1 7 , 86, 1 53
"and so forth" (et ainsi de suite, und so
weiter) 1 35 , 1 35n
Anexactitude 1 22-23
Anni hi lation (of sense) 93 , 93n, 95 , 96
apeiron 1 7 , 48, 1 5 1 n
a priori, Apriori 62, 8 1 , 1 09- 1 3 , 1 1 6- 1 20,
1 1 9n, 1 28-3 1 , 1 52n, 1 74-77, 1 79, 1 80
of hi story 1 5, 1 09, 1 74
contingent 4 1 n
arche 6 , 1 1 9
Ari stotle 30, 1 29, 1 38, 1 46n
Arithmetization 1 26, 1 26n-27n
eidetic 1 1 4
natural 69n
phenomenological 1 48
theoretical 55n, 1 27, 1 32
Authentici ty 74, 1 47, 1 53
Axi oms: axiomati cs 33n, 52-55 , 56, 68n,
1 08, 1 29, 1 68, 1 7 1
Bachelard, Gaston 60, 9 1 , 1 33
Bachelard, Suzanne 3 1 n, 53n, 55n, 69n,
80n, 1 06n, 1 30n, 1 35 n
Bass, Al an 1 8n
Bei ng 1 7, 46, 48n, 93 , 96, 1 04, 1 07, 1 1 8,
1 22 , 1 36n, 1 38n, 1 45 , 1 45n, 1 47-53 ,
1 7 1
of the book 9 1
of the mathematical object 27
Objecti ve 84n, 1 60n
speaking 1 49, 1 64
Bergsoni sm 94
Biemel , Walter 27n, 1 1 6, 1 1 6n
Berger, Gaston 69n, 1 36n
Korper 84n, 85 , 88, 94, 97-98, 1 22-24,
1 27, 1 60, 1 77
Leib 84n, 88, 97-98
Bol zano 1 1 9
Book 1 -3 , 90-9 1 , 9 1 n
Brunschi vcg 30
Cairns, Dorion 1 3n, 20-2 1 , 33n
Calcul us 8 1
Carr, David I On
Cavai l l es, Jean 53n, 1 42n, 1 43 , 1 43n, 1 44
Clarifi cation; clarity 55n, 74 , 1 25 , 1 27n,
1 35n, 1 63 , 1 7 1 , 1 72, 1 73 , 1 75
cog ito 33n
Communi cation 82, 83n, 87, 90, 1 0 1 , 1 1 0,
1 64
Communi ty 93 , 1 1 0, 1 1 4-1 5 , 1 62 , 1 63-64
i nstitutive 87
transcendental 1 1 4, 1 47n
Consciousness 7, 1 0, 1 1 , 1 8-20, 27, 42 , 57,
63 , 68, 68n, 8 1 , 8 1 n, 93n, 95 , 96, 1 09,
1 35-3 8, 1 36n, 1 38n, 1 40, 1 43-44,
1 49-5 1 , 1 53 , 1 59, 1 6{, 1 62 , 1 63 , 1 64,
1 65 , 1 68
constituting 67
di vine 1 47
exemplary 27, 1 1 2
factual 4 1 , 1 47
i ndi vidual 1 5 , 57, 85 , 93
self-consciousness 9
transcendental 8, 1 9, 96, 1 46, 1 47n
as Or-Region 64, 96, 1 38n
of origin 38
of fel l ow humanity 79
of hi storicity 1 05
Consti tution 1 3 , 25 , 27n, 28, 32-33, 46, 62 ,
63 , 64, 7 1 n, 77-79, 77n, 79n, 86, 86n,
87n, 88, 89. 94, 98, 1 06, 1 1 7, 1 1 8,
1 1 8n. 1 20, 1 20n, 1 2 1 , 1 2 1 n. 1 24, 1 25 ,
1 35, 1 40n, 1 4 1 , 1 43-44, 1 4S, 1 45n,
1 46n, 1 47. 1 48
Copernicani sm 84n. 85 , 85n
Corporeality ( corporeite, Leihlichkeit) 84n ,
88. 89n. 94. 97-98. 1 22. 1 23 . 1 77
(bodi l y character)
Cri si s 33. 80n. 87. 92n
textual 5
Cul ture 57-59. 75 . 76, 8 1 . 82. 1 0 1 -03 . 1 05 .
I I I . 1 1 2 . 1 1 5 . 1 2 1 . 1 22 . 1 73 . 1 74
Eu ropean I 1 5
pre scientifc 1 07. 1 26
sci enti fc 84n
Dasein 1 38n
Death 1 37
of sense 93-94
transcendental sense of 88. 94
Deconstruction 1 -3 , 3n-4n. 6. 1 8
Deduct i vity 33n. 53-56
Defni teness (defnitude) 53-54
De lure 37n. 46. 1 05, 1 37, 1 53
Delay (retard) 1 7. 1 52-53
Descartes 33n. 44n. 45n, 1 24. 1 25 n
De-sedi mentation 50. 1 1 9
Dialect i c 4. 6, 1 2. 1 6. 86. 86n. 1 43-44, 1 52
of protention and retenti on 58
Diaphanei ty 50. 1 06, 1 38
Diferance 3 . 4n. 5 , 6. 9. 1 8-20
Diference 2. 4n. 5. 6. 1 7-1 8 . 1 9. 1 1 3-1 4.
1 22 . 1 53
Di lthey. Wi lhelm 57. 63n. 1 09
Di sappearance of truth 93-98
Discourse 97. 1 1 6. 1 49, I S2-53
phenomenological 50n. 69n
phi l osophical 1 38n. 1 50. 1 52n
transcendental 68. 77n
Di ssemi nation 3. 3n. 4. 5
Dokumentierung 72 . 78. 1 60. 1 6 1 . 1 62 . 1 64,
1 68
doxa 1 1 9
Earth 1 4-1 5 . 8 1 . 83 . 83n-85n. 85
Ego 6 1 , 7 1 n. 86, 86n-87n. 1 44n. 1 47. 1 67
phenomenologi zi ng 82
ego 29, 6 1 , 63 . 87n, 96-97. 98. 1 20-2 1 ,
1 38n. 1 45
Eidetic 67-68. 68n. 1 2 1 , 1 23 . 1 25n. 1 35
of hi story 1 1 2. 1 2 1
eidos 29. 4S . 47-49. 58, 80. 1 42n. 1 44
European 29, 57. 1 1 4-1 5
geometrical 44
ego 6 1 . 97
of hi storicity 1 1 5
Ei nstei n. Albert 84n-85n
Embodi ment (incorporation,
Verkorperung) 9 1 n. 92 , 1 60
l i ngui sti c 90n
sensible 89. 89n. 90n. 1 6 1
Embree. Lester E. 2 1
Empathy (Einjihlung) 1 1 I n. 1 1 4. 1 62 , 1 63
empeiria 1 49
Empi ri ci sm 42, 59. 62 . 93 . 95n. 1 08 . 1 20.
l S I . 1 52n
Entelechy 1 48. 1 48n
epekeina tes ousias 1 44
episteme 1 1 9
Epi stemologism 1 08
epoche 88. 1 1 9-20
Equi voci ty 1 00-04. l OOn
Erasure (rature) 1 -2 . I n. 5 . 1 8 . 20
Error 73-74
Essence 47, 48. 80. 1 07, 1 1 5-1 6. 1 23 . 1 3 1 ,
1 34n. 1 35 . 1 42 . 1 42n. 1 47, 1 65 . 1 66.
1 80
irreal 1 35
non-fi cti ve irreali ty of 48
Essence-of-the-frst-time (Erstmaligkeit)
1 1 , 48. 48n. 62
Essentiality 1 49
Ethi cs 1 36n
Eucl i d 54n. 72, 1 28-29. 1 58, 1 60
Evidence 1 3n. 47. 56. 62 , 63n. 64, 73 n, 87,
96, 99. 99n. 1 00. 1 04. 1 06. 1 1 3 , 1 1 7.
1 35n. 1 37-4 1 . 1 42n. 1 58, 1 59. 1 60.
1 64. 1 66. 1 67. 1 68 . 1 70, 1 73 . 1 75. 1 76
primordial (originaire) 54-55 , 62 , 1 08 ,
1 63 (origi nal sel f-evi dence) , 1 68 , 1 69.
1 7 1 , 1 72
Exacti tude 25, 1 0 1 -02 , 1 02n, 1 1 8 , 1 1 8n.
1 23 , 1 3 1 . 1 36
geometrical 33n. 1 06
Exi stence 48, 49. 66. 67n. 87, 95 . I I I . 1 1 3 .
1 1 5 , 1 58, 1 60, 1 62 , 1 64
Exi stent 66n. 67. 67n, 8 1 . 82 , 1 38n, 1 44.
1 60 (enti ty)
Exi stent ial thesi s ( these d' existence,
Daseinsthesis) 44, 96
Experience. l i ved ( \CI I , Erlehnis ) 29, 33n.
35 . 4 1 . 49, 63n. 65 , 66n. 68 . 72 . 1 1 0.
1 1 2 . 1 1 3 . 1 1 7, 1 25n, 1 36, 1 37. 1 39. 1 40
Expli cation ( elucidation, Verdelltlic/wng)
55n, 61 . 98. 1 67. 1 73 , 1 77
Expression 69n. 70-72 . 77. 79, 79n. 1 00.
l OOn. 1 02 . 1 33n, 1 64
Exteriority 92n
corporeal 94
Fact : Factual i ty (jait, jacticite) 26. 37n.
38. 40, 42-44, 43n. 46-49. 46n. 50n,
56. 59, 63 , 64. 66. 70, 70n. 72n. 74.
84n. 86. 88, 9 1 . 91 n. 92 , 94, 96. 1 05 .
1 06, 1 1 0-1 3 . 1 1 6. 1 22 , 1 23 . 1 25n,
1 27n, 1 28, 1 32 . 1 37. 1 38n, 1 47-5 1 .
1 5 I n-52n. 1 73 , 1 74. 1 75 , 1 76, 1 79 1 80
i nsti tuti ng 46
Feuerbach, Ludwig 69n
Fichte, Johann G. 45n, 1 36n
Fiction 3. 5. 45. 64. 95 . 96, 1 25n
Fictional i ze 3
Fi ni tude (fnite, fnitude) 37, 45n. 82.
1 05-06. 1 1 5 , 1 27. 1 30. 1 32, 1 38, 1 38n.
1 4 1 , 1 68
Fi nk. Eugen 25n. 27n. 42n . 55n. 69n-70n
75n. 77n. 89. 90. 1 4 1 n, 1 57n
First t i me. eidetic fund of 48-S0
Forgetfulness (oublij 33. 36n. 46n , 52. 87.
93 . 93n, 94. 98. l OS , 1 1 9
Form 5-6. 55n. 83n, 87n . 1 1 0. 1 23 . 1 26.
1 37, 1 43 . 1 44n. 1 45n. 1 48 . 1 53 . 1 58 .
1 74
corporeal 94
cul tural 1 08
ideal 89n
of hi storicity 97
Foucaul t . Michel 7n. 8. 8n
Freud I n
Gadamer. Hans-Georg l I n
Gali leo 35-37. 35n. 36n, 1 24n. 1 29n, 1 57.
1 58n
Gaze (regard) 64. 78. 83 , 1 57. 1 77. 1 80
Genesi s 28 . 47n. 57, 62 . 63 . 65 . 84n, 1 08 .
1 32 . 1 43 . 1 73
psychological 28. 29
transcendental 28
of geometry 46
Geneticism 26
Geni ti vity 1 42-43
Geography 1 23 , 1 25
Geology 1 4, 83
Geometry I I , 1 4, 1 5 . 25. 27, 32. 32n. 33n.
34-41 , 35n. 44, 47-53 , 56, 58, 60-62 ,
64-66, 72-73 , 8 1 . 83 , 95 , 97, 1 02n,
1 05-08, 1 1 7- 1 8 , 1 2 1 -23 , 1 24n-25n,
1 25-30. 1 26n, l 27n, 1 30n, 1 32 , 1 33n,
1 35 , 1 46, 1 57, 1 59, 1 60, 1 66 , 1 68, 1 72 ,
1 73 . 1 75 . 1 77, 1 78, 1 80
God 45n. 1 47-8, 1 47n, 1 48n
Godel 53 , 54
Ground, grounding (t"ondement , folld(/ tioll ,
sol) 26, 33n, 37n, 44-46. 45n, 52 ,
54-55 , 58. 61 , 64, 8 1 , 83 , 84n, 85 , 87,
87n , 97, 99, 1 04, 1 09. 1 1 0. 1 1 9, 1 20,
1 2 1 . 1 25n, 1 3 3 , 1 33n, 1 38n , 1 43 , 1 49.
1 50, 1 5 1 . 1 73 , 1 74. 1 75, 1 80
Hal l ucinat ion 44-46, 45n
Hegel , G. W. F. 45n, 57, 67n, 1 02
Heidegger, Mart i n I n, 4n, 5 . 8, I On- l i n,
69n, l O I n, 1 38n
Herbart. J . F. 72
Herder. J . G. 70n
Hi storici sm 26. 44, 46n, 1 03 , 1 03n. 1 09- 1 0.
1 75-76, 1 80
Hi stori ci ty (Geschichtlichkeit) 8, 1 0-1 8 ,
26-29, 28n. 34, 42 . 44, 46. 48, 49. 50n,
59. 6 1 , 63-64, 66, 89, 93 . 97, 1 0 L
1 03-04. 1 07 , 1 08, 1 1 0, 1 1 2-1 8. 1 1 5n,
1 20, 1 30, 1 32 . 1 40, 1 4 1 . 1 42n, 1 45 ,
1 45n, 1 49-53 . 1 72 , 1 73 . 1 74. 1 74n,
1 75n. 1 80
i ntent ional 1 42
i ntrinsic 94-95 , 95n. 97. 1 3 1
transcendental 75. 87, 1 2 1 , 1 4 1 . 1 42, 1 48
Hi story 1 0, 1 4. 27, 29. 29n, 30, 34. 35 , 36n.
38. 39. 42-47. 43n. 49-52 , 50n. 59,
6 1 -66, 63n. 69. 69n. 70. 76, 82 , 90. 93 .
95-97. 95n. 99. 1 01 . 1 02. 1 04. 1 05 ,
1 08-1 2 . 1 1 5- 1 8, 1 1 6n, 1 20, 1 3 1 . 1 32 ,
1 37 , 1 4 1 , 1 42 . 1 44-46. 1 48-53 .
1 72-73 . 1 74. 1 75 . 1 79. 1 80
external 95 . 95n. 1 08
i nfnite 1 06. 1 35
i ntent ional 34. 98. 1 09
i nternal 1 05 . 1 09. 1 25 . 1 80
natural 57
phenomenological 28, 1 4 1
real (reale) 87
Hi story (continued)
real (reel/e) 59, 95, 1 09
transcendental 41 n. 1 2 1 n, 1 47
Horizon 1 5 , 1 6, 26, 34, 53 , 55, 55n. 56, 60,
79. 80-83 , 84n, 85, 94, 1 02 , 1 04-1 0,
1 1 4-1 6, 1 25n, 1 27. 1 32, 1 34n, 1 35,
1 38, 1 40, 1 42n, 1 45, 1 48, 1 49, 1 59,
1 6 1 , 1 62 , 1 7 1 -72, 1 73. 1 76, 1 77, 1 78,
1 80
H ors-/ivre 2
Hume, David 1 7 1 n
Hyppolite, Jean 88, 88n, 1 03n
Idea ( i n t he Kantian sense) 1 0, 1 6-1 7 , 1 04,
l OS , 1 34n, 1 35-2, 1 36n, 1 38n, 1 42n,
1 44, 1 46n, 1 47n
European 1 1 4-1 5
I dealism 96, 1 38n, 1 47
transcendental 29, 70n, 78, 1 38n, 1 47,
Ideality 1 0, 1 3 , 1 4, 27n, 5 1 , 55, 59, 59n, 61 ,
66n-67n, 7 1 , 73 , 75 , 76, 86, 86n, 89,
89n, 90, 90n, 9 I n, 92 , 92n, 95 , 97, 98n,
l OOn, 1 04, 1 04n, 1 06, 1 1 7-1 8, 1 24-26,
1 25n, 1 3 1 , 1 33, 1 33n, 1 34, 1 4 1 ,
1 48-49, 1 6 1 , 1 62 , 1 66, 1 69, 1 70, 1 7 1
bound 7 1 -73 , 72n, 76, 89n, 94, 1 02, 1 3 1 ,
1 32
cultural 42n, 94
free 1 4, 7 1 -72, 72n, 89n, 94
l i ngui stic 70n-7 I n, 74-76, 78, 1 03
sensible 1 24, 1 25, 1 33
I dealization 25 , 36, 44n, 67n, 84n, 1 06, 1 1 8 ,
1 27n, 1 28, 1 3 1 , 1 32-35, 1 33n, 1 35n,
1 37, 1 68, 1 77, 1 79, 1 80
imaginat i ve-sensible 1 25
mathematical 1 6, 1 35, 1 41
substructi ve 1 33, 1 33n
Ideation 1 34n, 1 35, 1 35n
I dentity 47, 67, 67n, 7 1 , 73 , 81 , 85 , 86, 87n,
89n, 90, 90n-9 I n, 1 04, 1 43 , 1 44, 1 5 3 ,
1 63 , 1 66, 1 70
lmaginatio 44n
I magination; i maginary 3n, 1 6, 46, 7 1 n,
I I I , 1 1 3 , 1 24, 1 24n- 1 25n, 1 26, 1 33 ,
1 33n, 1 3 5, 1 45
Incarnation ( Verleiblichung) 6, 76, 89,
89n, 90, 1 1 5 , 1 5 1 , 1 6 1 (embodiment)
hi storical 77
I ndefni teness 1 37
I nducti vity 1 24n
I nexact itude 1 23
Infi nite 45n. 1 28, 1 3 1 , 1 34, 1 39n, 1 40, 1 42 ,
1 48, 1 50
I nfni tization 1 6, 1 1 6, 1 27-30, 1 30n, 1 68
creati ve 1 6, 1 28-30
formali zing 37, 1 28
I nfnity 1 28-30, 1 37, 1 39, 1 40, 1 47-48, 1 53,
1 78
Ingarden, Roman 27n
Intel/ectio 44n, 1 33n
I ntellectuali sm 1 24
I ntemporality see Timel essness
Intention: intentionality 1 3 , 1 5- 1 7, 64, 88,
89n, 97-98, 1 04, 1 06, 1 1 6, 1 24, 1 30,
1 34, 1 35 , 1 39, 1 40, 1 40n, 1 46, 1 46n,
1 50, 1 63
transcendental 94
intentional content 70, 7 1 n, 72
I nterconnection 26, 56, 59, 60, 63n, 65 , 66,
73 , 89n, 95, 96, 97, 1 04, 1 05, 1 30,
1 34n, 1 42, 1 63 (chain) , 1 74
I nteriority l O I n, 1 08, 1 42
I ntersubjective ; intersubjecti vity 1 5 , 25 ,
33, 64-65 , 76, 79, 79n, 8 1 n, 86, 86n,
87n, 93 , 1 1 8, 1 26, 1 4 1 , 1 52 , 1 63 , 1 79
I ntrasubjecti vi ty 1 5 , 76, 1 63
I ntuition 62, 67n, 1 06, 1 07, 1 1 4, 1 1 8 , 1 23 ,
1 34n, 1 35 , 1 35n, 1 38, 1 39, 1 40, 1 40n,
1 42 , 1 44
eidetic 30, 38, 1 1 2
geometrical 43
originally presentive 1 00
recepti ve 40, 7 1
of an essence ( Wesensschau) 1 35
I nvariant , historical I I I , 1 1 3 , 1 1 6, 1 1 8,
1 22 , 1 34, 1 34n, 1 77 , 1 79
I rrationalism 1 52n
I rreality 1 44
I rresponsbi l i ty 52
Joyce, James 1 02-04, 1 03n
Kant : Kanti ani sm 39-42, 45n, 70n, 72 ,
1 1 7 , 1 24n-25n, 1 36n, 1 38n, 1 40, 1 40n,
1 4 1 , 1 46n
Kinematics 1 30n
Kofman, Sarah 5
Language (/angage+ langlle) 1 0, 1 2 , 1 4-1 5 .
26. 59, 66-72 , 68n, 70n, 75 , 76, 77n,
78-82 , 85 , 87, 89, 89n, 9 1 , 92 ,
1 00n-0 I n, 1 01 -03 , 1 04, 1 04n, 1 1 0,
1 1 2 , 1 1 8, 1 22 , 1 22n, l 27n, 1 47, 1 48,
1 49, 1 5 1 , 1 60, 1 60n, 1 6 1 -62 , 1 65 .
1 67
transcendental 69n, 77, 77n
Leibni z, G. W. 1 00n-0 I n
Levi nas, Emmanuel 1 36n
Levy-Bruhl , Luci en I I I , 1 1 4
Life 3 1 n. 69n, 77, 86n, 1 1 5n, 1 23 , 1 45n,
1 57, 1 6 1 , 1 65 , 1 70
Life-world (monde de la ie. Lebenswelt)
1 6, 25, 3 1 , 60, 1 1 3 , 1 1 8-20, 1 1 8n,
1 1 9n, l 22n, 1 33n, 1 7 1 , 1 77
Li vi ng Present 1 0-1 2 , 1 5-1 7 , 57, 84n, 86,
87n, 1 09. 1 09n, 1 1 0, 1 36-37. 1 43 , 1 44,
1 48, 1 48n, 1 50, 1 52-53
Logic 32, 32n, 33 , 33n, 35n, 38n . 68n, 73 ,
78 , 79n, l OI n, 1 1 9, 1 1 9n, 1 43 , 1 46n,
1 67-68, 1 69, 1 70, 1 7 1 , 1 75
of diferance 5-7, 9, 1 8-20
pure logical grammar 80
Logi ci sm 78
Logocentri ci sm 2
Logos 69n, 1 41 , 1 46-8, 1 47n, 1 49
Mallarme , Stephane 67n
Material i sm, dialectical 46n
Mathemati cs 1 3n, 33n, 37, 39, 53 , 54. 56.
83n, 84n, 94, 98, 1 24, 1 27, l 27n, 1 30n,
1 3 1 , 1 36, 1 4 \ , 1 59. 1 70. 1 7 1 , 1 80
Greek 1 28-30, 1 30n
Meaning (vollioir-dire) 3n, 6. See Sense .
Memory 86n, 1 02 , 1 64. 1 67
rational 60
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 77 , 1 1 1 -1 3 , I I I n ,
1 1 3n, 1 1 6
Metaphysical ; metaphysi cs I , I n. 2 , 4n,
6-8, 20, 6 1 , 1 47, 1 50
of hi story 1 03n
Method 38, 84n, 1 07, 1 09. 1 1 3 , 1 1 4, 1 1 8.
1 25n, 1 49, 1 49n, 1 52 , 1 57 , 1 69, 1 70n,
1 7 1 , 1 75 , 1 77
Mi sunderstanding 8 1 -82
Morphological types 1 26
pure 1 24
vague 89n, 1 23 , 1 27
Mul ti pl i ci ty 53. 54. 54n. 56, 1 1 2 , 1 24. 1 52
de Mural t, Andre 67-68
Myth 59. 1 44. 1 45
Name 67n. 80, 82 . 1 33n. 1 62
Nature 33n. 46n. 72n. 8 1 , 84n . 86n, 1 2 1 .
1 26. 1 47
Neutral i zation 29. 5 1 , 65, 67. 67n. 9 1 n.
1 1 9. 1 29
Ni etzsche. Friedrich I n. 4n
Noema 47. 66n-67n. 7 1 n. 1 35n. 1 42 , 1 44
Nonbei ng I SO
Nonhi stori ci ty (Geschichtlosigkeit) 1 1 4-1 5
Nonhi story 1 32 . 1 50
Nonphi l osophy 93 . 1 5 I
Nonworl dl i ness 1 49
Norm: normat i vity 43n, 44. 49. SOn. 52 . 59.
59n. 63 . 73 . 80. 1 09, 1 43
Normality 80, 80n, 1 62 . 1 64n
Novel 1 44
Object 27n, 64. 66, 67, 7 1 n. 72. 77. 8 1 -83 .
87. 94 , 1 m. 1 04, 1 20. 1 22, 1 23 . 1 35 .
1 39. 1 40, 1 42-45 . 1 62 . 1 77
absolute 63 . 1 04
common 78
geometrical 48. 75 , 1 04 . 1 3 5 , 1 6 1
ideal 1 0-1 2 . 25-26. 29. 40. 44. 45 , 47 .
62-6, 66. 77. 78. 85. 9 1 n. 92 , 1 03 .
1 1 8 . 1 20, 1 35 . 1 64
mathematical 27, 27n
real (real) 66, 67. 7 1 n, 75 . 1 61
of recepti vi ty 7 1 . 7 1 n
Objecti fcation (objectil'ation) 87. 98. 1 1 8 .
1 45
Objecti vati on (representation) 84n
Objecti vi sm 26, 83 . 84n, 85n, 98. 143
Objecti vity (objectivite, Objektivitdt)
1 3-1 4. 1 5 , 2 1 . 32 , 32n-33n, 34, 41 . 63 ,
63n. 64. 66, 67. 70, 7 1 n, 72 , 75 , 76. 79.
86n. 87. 88, 89, 93 , 94, 97. l OOn , 1 04n .
1 1 7- 1 8, 1 20, 1 2 1 , 1 39, 1 44, 1 60, 1 61 ,
1 63 , 1 79
objecti vi ty (objectite. Gegenstiindlichkeit)
I I , 2 1 , 26. 32 . 32n-33n, 40. 6. 67,
7 1 n, 73 , 75 . 76, 87, 88. 90, 94, 99. 99n.
1 1 7-1 8 , 1 2 1 , 1 30n, 1 3 1 , 1 3 l n , 1 32 .
1 43 , 1 61 (i deal object) , 1 63 . 1 67, 1 79
of understanding 7 \ , 7 1 n , 73n
cultural 90n-9 1 n
Old names, science of (paleonymy) 1 8-20
Omnitemporality 39, 7 1 n, 73 , 73n, 74 , 77n,
1 4 1 , 1 48-49
Ontology 3 , 6, 1 7, 1 40n, 1 50-5 1 , 1 5 1 n,
1 52n
formal 32n, 68n
material 3 1
Onto-theo-Iogy 2, 4
Origin 3n, 5, 7, 9-1 2 , 1 6, 3 1 , 34, 35n, 37,
39, 46-47, 48, 49, 53 , 55 , 62 , 63 n, 68n,
69n, 75 , 76, 84n, 1 0 1 , 1 05 , 1 07, 1 1 7,
1 25 , 1 25n, 1 28 , 1 32 . 1 34. 1 34n. 1 41 ,
1 46, 1 49. 1 50, 1 5 1 , 1 6 1 , 1 70, 1 75
of geometry 36-37, 48. 79. 1 08, 1 1 7, 1 25 .
1 26, 1 3 1 , 1 58, 1 72 , 1 75
absolute 1 7-1 8, 86, 86n, 1 37. 1 52-53
phenomenological 38, 47n, 69n, 79
sense of 35, 35n, 38, 49, 1 07, 1 27n, 1 3 1 .
1 79 (original meaning)
Ought-to-be 1 36n. 1 45
Ownness 86n-87n
Passage 1 1 9, 1 49
Passage to the l i mit 25 . 1 06. 1 27, 1 27n,
1 34-35
Passi vi ty 87, 99, 99n, 1 00, l OOn, 1 02, 1 43 ,
1 63-65 , 1 67
Perception 9, 27, 44n, 46, 49, 67n, 7 1 n, 83 ,
84n, 87n, 9 1 , 1 2 1 n, 1 24
pre scienti fc 1 20
Phenomenality 27, 1 44, 1 48
Phenomenology 8, 9, 1 7, 20, 27, 29n, 30,
30n, 35, 43n, 4
. 45n, 47, 50, 5 1 , 52 ,
67n, 73n, 8 1 n, 83 , 86, 93 , 96n, 97,
l OOn, 1 06, 1 08 , I I I , I l l n, 1 1 2 , 1 1 4,
1 1 5 , 1 20, 1 25n, 1 38-4 1 , 1 38n, 1 40n,
1 43 , 1 49-52 , 1 49n, 1 5 1 n, 1 52n
of hi storicity 5 1 , 69
of hi story 49, 1 27n
of reading 99n
of the spi ri t 1 03
of the written thing 90
transcendental 6, 7, 42 , 48 , 68n, I I I n,
1 47
Phil osophy 9, I I , 1 7, 25 , 26, 29, 3 1 , 33n,
37, 38 , 49, 55n, 57, 86n, 93 , 97, 99,
l OOn. 1 0 1 , 1 02 , 1 09, 1 1 2 , 1 1 3n, 1 1 5 ,
1 1 6n, 1 27, 1 27n, 1 28 , 1 29, 1 32 , 1 38n,
1 4 1 , 1 42n, 1 46, 1 46n, 1 50, 1 52-53 ,
1 57, 1 75
of hi story 65 , 72n, 93 , 1 03
of language 77, 10 I n
cri tical 1 1 7
transcendental 80
physis 84n
Plato; Platonism 42, 45 , 45n, 48n, 59, 62 ,
94, 1 07, 1 27, 1 27n. 1 29, 1 42n, 1 44
Pl urivocity 1 00-0 I
Polysemy 4, 5
"Positi vi sm, true" 1 45
Preface 3 , 1 49
Prepredi cati ve experience 29
Presence 7, 9, 1 35 , 1 37, 1 39
Present 57-58, 60, 86, 86n, 1 09, 1 1 0, 1 37,
1 43 , 1 53 , 1 73, 1 74, 1 76, 1 79
hi storic 1 5 , 58, 1 09, 1 09n, 1 1 0, 1 74, 1 76
Pretemporality ( Vorzeit) 82
Primi ti veness, cul tural 8 1
Primordial in Itself 1 09. 1 76 (what i s
hi storically primary i n i tself)
Primordiality (originarite) 37, 58, 78, 86,
1 06
"Princi ple of all princi pl es" 1 0, 1 4, 1 6, 62 ,
99n, 1 37-38
Production 40, 40n, 46n, 56-57, 58, 6,
7 1 n, 78, 86n, 1 06, 1 63 , 1 78
Profundity 26, 1 0 1 , l O i n, 1 20, 1 58 (depths)
Project 58, 78, 1 04, 1 1 5 , 1 1 6, 1 27, 1 37, 1 43 ,
1 44, 1 59
theoretical 1 36n
Protention 1 2 , 58, 1 06, 1 35-37, 1 43
Protogeometer (primally instituting
geometer) 4 1 , 42 , 85 , 87, 1 00, 1 20,
1 32 , 1 62 , 1 77
Protohi story 42
Protoideality I 1 7 , 1 1 8
Protoprimordiality (archi-originaritej 85
Prototemporality (proto-temporalite) 82
Psychologism 69n, 78, 1 45
Psychology 30n, 73 , 1 2 1
Pythagorean theorem 72 , 1 60
Ranke, L. von 1 1 0, 1 76
Rational i sm 5 1 . 1 46n
Rationality 1 29, 1 45 , 1 46
Reactivation 1 2-1 3 , 26, 28 , 5 1 , 55n, 68n,
69n, 72n, 80n, 98, 99-1 00, 99n, 1 04,
1 05-06, 1 1 8, 1 64-67, 1 69, 1 70
Reali sm 78
Reality 46n , 7 1 n, 72n, 73 , 89n, 9 1 n, 94, 1 44,
1 49
natural 48n, 59, 62 , 7 1
Reason 1 6-1 7 , 29, 30, 45n, 1 36n, 1 39, 1 40,
1 4 1 , 1 42n, 1 44-46, 1 45n, 1 80
events of 60
teleol ogy of 29, 36n, 1 3 1 , 1 80
hi storic 29
Recollection 85, 86n, 1 02n, 1 1 5, 1 63
Reduction 1 7, 1 9-20, 26, 37n, 38 , 42, 45n,
46n, 48, 49, 50, 5 1 , 56, 59, 65 , 70n, 75 ,
76-77, 8 1 , 83 , 86, 9 1 n , 95 , 97, 1 02 ,
1 05 , 1 1 3-1 4. 1 1 8-20, 1 28 , 1 29, 1 32 ,
1 38n, 1 40n, 1 47, 1 49, 1 52-53 , 1 52n
eidetic 4 1 , 46, 47, 68, 1 38n
ei detic-transcendental 95 , 96
hi storical 1 2 . 47
iterati ve 47-48
phenomenological 1 6, 68, 69n
reactivati ng 47. 50
transcendental 1 5 , 46, 68, 69, 92, 1 2 1 ,
1 3 2 , 1 38n, 1 49n
Regression 69. 70. 96, 1 25
Relation wi th an object 1 39, 1 40n, 1 42
Relati vi sm 1 1 0, I l l , I l l n , 1 1 2 , 1 1 4
Relati vity 84n-85n, 1 04, 1 3 1 , 1 75
Representation 67n
Responsi bi l i ty ( Verantt'ortung) I I , 1 2 , 3 1 ,
36n, 52 , 60, 80n, 97- 1 00, 1 20, 1 4 1 ,
1 42 , 1 49, 1 65
co-responsi bi l ity 6 1 , 63n, 1 00
Retenti on 1 2 , 57-58, 78, 85, 86n, 93 , 1 06,
1 37. 1 43 , 1 63
Return I nqui ry (question en retollr,
Riickfrage) 1 2 , 20, 49, 50-52 , 55n,
1 07, 1 53 , 1 57-59 ( i nqu ire back) , 1 7 1
(regressi ve i nqui ry) , 1 72 , 1 79
" Return to the thi ngs themsel ves" 1 45
Ricoeur, Paul 2 . 9n, 1 28, 1 37, 1 39-40, 1 40n
Romanti ci sm 38, 1 03n, 1 80
Sameness 25, 67, 67n, 70, 73 , 8 1 , 85, 86,
1 01 , 1 63
Sartre, Jean-Paul 1 25n, 1 36
Science 7, I I , 25-27, 3 1 -34, 33n, 38-39,
38n-39n, 45n, 49, 52, 53 , 54, 56-58,
60, 66, 68n, 72n, 73 , 74-75 , 78n, 79,
79n, 82 , 83 , 84n, 85 , 92n, 97, 98, 1 01 ,
l O i n, 1 02 , 1 02n, 1 04-1 \ , 1 1 8 , 1 1 8n,
1 1 9, 1 2 1 -23, 1 23n, 1 28, 1 29, 1 3 1 , 1 42,
1 57 , 1 59, 1 60, 1 60n, 1 6 1 , 1 65 , 1 66, 1 70,
1 7 1 , 1 72, 1 75 , 1 77, 1 79
nomological 53 , 54n, 55 , 55n
Sedimentation 1 2 . 36, 36n, 48, 50, 55 , 56,
57, 59, 78, 84n, 96, 97, 98-99, 99n,
1 00, 1 05 , 1 09, 1 1 8n, 1 43 , 1 45 , 1 64,
1 65 , 1 68-69, 1 70, 1 7 I
sense-sedi mentation 59, 1 09, 1 43 , 1 74
( sedi mentations of meaning)
Self 1 46-47, 1 46n, 1 47n
Sense (sens, Sinn) 9, 1 0, I I , 1 3-1 5 , 1 3n,
1 7, 26, 27, 3 1 , 34, 37n, 39n, 43 , 46-47,
46n, 49. 50, 5 1 n, 52 , 53n, 55, 63 , 63n,
6, 69n, 73 , 74, 78 , 83 . 85-86, 87, 88 ,
89, 89n, 9 I n, 92 , 92n, 93 , 93n, 94, 95n,
96, 97-1 00, 99n, l OOn, 1 02, 1 04-07,
1 07-1 0, 1 1 2-1 6, 1 1 8, 1 1 8n, 1 1 9, 1 22 ,
1 25 . 1 25n, 1 26, 1 26n, 1 27n, 1 30-32,
1 30n, 1 37, 1 38n, 1 40, 1 42-53 , 1 46n,
1 52n, 1 57 (meani ng) , 1 58, 1 59, 1 60n,
1 66, 1 67, 1 69, 1 70, 1 7 1 , 1 74, 1 76,
1 80
sense-content 7 1 , 72, 73n, 90, 1 1 0
sense-formation (Sinnbildung) 1 5 , 55 ,
55n, 62 , 1 09, 1 43 , 1 59 (formation of
meani ng) . 1 68 (meani ng-construc
tion), 1 69, 1 72 , 1 74, 1 80 (meani ng
sense-uni ty 52, 54, 56
of being (seils d' etre, Seinssinn,
being-sense) 30, 72n, 89, 90, 94, 1 59
(ontic meani ng), 1 66, 1 70n, 1 79
of geometry 37, 52, 64, 66, 1 25
i nsti tuting 37, 44, 1 05
phenomenal 27
phenomenological 95 , 1 37, 1 44n, 1 50
teleological 1 3 1
Sense-i nvestigation (prise de conscience ,
Besinnung) I I , l i n, 1 2 , 3 1 -33 , 3 1 n,
52 , 99, 1 05 , 1 1 6, 1 4 1 , 1 43 , 1 46, 1 49,
1 57 (sel f-refl ections)
Sensibi l i ty 1 24, 1 25n, 1 33 , 1 33n
Sign 89n, 92 , 92n, 94, 98n, 99, 99n, 1 64
custodial 94
graphic 89, 94, 1 64 ( written signs)
Signi fcation 46, 48, 48n, 57, 59, 63n, 64,
67n, 68, 7 1 n, 74n, 78, 82 , 92 , 92n, 93 ,
94, 95 , 99, l OOn, 1 0 1 , 1 1 4, 1 45 , 1 47,
1 50, 1 60n, 1 64, 1 65 , 1 69
subjecti ve-relati ve 1 1 9
Signifcation (continued)
unity of 70, 7 1 n
Soci ality 2n, 1 1 4-1 5
Space; spatiality 6, 77n, 83 , 83n-85n, 85,
1 22-24, 1 26, 1 26n, 1 30n, 1 35-36
scriptural 89n
Space and ti me 1 34n
anexact 1 22
i deal 42
Spatiotemporality 70, 72n, 83n, 90, 92 ,
1 25 , 1 27 , 1 30n, 1 58, 1 77
scriptural 87
Speech (parole) 67, 77, 78n-79n, 87, 9 1 ,
92 , 97. 1 04n, 1 4 1 , 1 49, 1 52
Spirit , objecti ve 63n
State of af airs (Sachverhalt) 74, 74n, 75 ,
76, 1 6 1 , 1 73
Stei ner, George l i n
Structurali sm I , 5 , 8n
Subject 2n, 8, 42 , 88, 1 42 , 1 43, 1 44, 1 60,
1 63 . 1 74, 1 77
of writing 2n
egological 63n
l ogical 63n
monadic 93
psychological 63n
real (reel) 87
speaki ng 67, 76, 77, 78, 80, 87, 88
theoretical 1 36n
Subjecti vi ty 46n, 6 1 . 63 , 67, 7 1 , 78, 82, 87,
88, 92 , 1 36n, 1 43-44, 1 45n, 1 48
communal 60
ego logical 60
factual 70, 75
hi storico-transcendental 1 42 , 1 47 , 1 48
psychological 77
total 6 1
transcendental 1 4, 75 , 82, 83 , 87, 88 ,
1 42 , 1 45 , 1 45n, 1 46, 1 46n, 1 47 , 1 52
Substruct ion 1 24, 1 3 3 , 1 33n
Subsumpti on, phenomenological 48, 1 1 4,
1 59
Supplement ; supplementarity 3 n, 8 , 1 0,
1 8-20
Supratemporality 58, 7 1 n, 77n, 1 4 1 ,
1 48-49, 1 48n, 1 60, 1 75
Suspension (Ausschaltung) 43 , 43n, 96,
96n, 1 2 1
Symbol ; symbolic 74, 74n , 92n, 1 40n
Synthesi s 99, 99n, 1 02 , 1 07, 1 59
Task, i nfi nite 78; 1 1 5 , 1 27, 1 28, 1 29, 1 30n,
1 36 , 1 36n, 1 37, 1 40
Telecommuni cat ion 50
Telos ; teleology 20, 45n , 64, 72n, 74, 80,
94, 1 04, 1 1 7, 1 1 9 , 1 3 1 , 1 37 . 1 40, 1 42 ,
1 44, 1 45 , 1 47, 1 49, 1 5 1 , 1 53
Temporality 60. 7 1 n , 77n, 83 n, 84n, 86n .
87n, 1 20n, 1 41 , 1 48. 1 48n, 1 49
primordial (primordiale) 29, 58, 1 2 1 ,
1 2 1 n, 1 36, 1 37
Temporalization 1 6, 86, 89, 1 37 , 1 43 , 1 50
Text 1 -2 . 65 . 88, 1 03
real (reel) text of hi storic experience 76
Thales 39, 1 08, 1 72
Thing 9, 32n, 4 1 , 1 22-23 , 1 26 , 1 27, 1 35n,
1 38, 1 61 , 1 62 , 1 63 , 1 77
belonging to Nature 32 , 33n, 1 39
designated 67
transcendent 1 39
Thinghood (choseile, Dinglichkeit) 3 2n,
1 22
Thi nki ng, pure 1 6, 1 7, 1 9, 1 32 . 1 34, 1 34n,
1 53 , 1 79
Time 6, 87n, 1 23 , 1 37 , 1 48, 1 52
phenomenalization of 1 37
Time-consci ousness, i nternal 1 2 , 57
Ti melessness 7 1 n, 73 , 77n, 1 48-49
lode Ii 49
topos ouranios 1 2 , 1 4, 48 , 48n, 75
Trace 6, 95
Tradi ti on; tradi tionality 1 0, 1 2 , 1 7 , 36n, 49,
50, 52 , 53n, 55n, 56, 57, 59, 63n, 66,
78 , 82 . 87 , 90, 1 02-03 , 1 06-1 2 , 1 1 5 ,
1 1 7-1 8 , 1 3 1 , 1 49, 1 50, 1 58, 1 59 , 1 65 ,
1 69 , 1 70, 1 7 1 , 1 72 , 1 73 , 1 74 , 1 80
of truth 5 1 , 59, 1 45
Transcendence; transcendental 1 0, 1 4,
1 5- 1 8, 1 9-20 , 29, 37n, 50n, 68n, 76,
77, 77n, 80, 82, 83 , 84n, 88 , 96, 1 1 7 ,
1 20, 1 2 1 , 1 36, 1 46n, 1 47, 1 47n, 1 49,
1 53
Translation; translatabi lity 1 4 , 7 1 , 7 1 n, 72 ,
8 1 , 82 , 1 0 1 -03 , 1 60, 1 60n, 1 69
Transphenomenal i ty 1 36
Tri vial i ty 57
Truth 5 , 1 1 , 38 , 39, 4 1 , 44, 45n , 46, 46n, 5 1 ,
58-60, 6 1 , 63n , 72n, 73n, 78, 79, 85n,
87, 90, 92 , 93 , 94, 96, 97, 98., 1 03 , 1 04,
l OS , 1 07 , 1 09, 1 1 0, 1 1 2 , 1 35 , 1 46n,
1 47, 1 48 , 1 6 1 , 1 65 , 1 66n, 1 79
truth-i ntention 74, 78
truth- sense 56, 92 , 95, 97, 1 69
(truth-meani ng) , 1 70, 1 70n, 1 79
truths in themsel ves 1 1 9 , 1 20, 1 25n
geometrical 35, 66, 74, 74n, 75 , 76-77 ,
96, 1 05 , 1 34, 1 69
Unconscious 93 , 93n
Undecidabl es 5-6, 5n, 1 8 , 20, 53 , 53n , 56
Understandi ng 1 6, 5 1 n, 1 24, 1 75
Uni vocity 68n, 1 00, l OOn, 1 02-05 , 1 02n,
1 26, 1 65 , 1 77
Valery , Paul 67n
Val i di ty 59, 59n, 60, 63 , 68n, 72n, 73 , 73n,
75 . 1 59, 1 6 1 , l 64n, 1 65 , 1 66, 1 70,
1 75
Van Breda, H. L. 88n
Variation, imaginary 1 2 , 30, 47, 96,
1 1 1 -1 4, 1 23-24, 1 26, 1 27 , 1 77, 1 78,
1 79
Veritas aeterna 95 , 1 79
Voice (voix) 7
precultural 8 1
transcendental 6 1 , 1 45
WeltansclwlIlInR 57-59, 1 03n, 1 09
Wrd (mot) 67, 68n, 75 , 89, 89n, 98, 1 02 ,
1 04, 1 49, 1 6 1 , 1 65
World 26, 3 1 , 52 , 79, 8 1 n, 82 , 83 , 84n. 92 ,
94, 95 , 96, 1 06, I I I , 1 1 3 , 1 1 8, 1 2 1 n,
1 22 , 1 26 , 1 29, 1 39, 1 46n, 1 47n, 1 62
communal 57
cul tural 56, 60. 70, 1 1 7, 1 20. 1 58. 1 60.
1 69, 1 7 1 , I 72
prepredi cati ve 1 20, 1 20n
pre sci enti fc 1 1 8. 1 20. 1 22 , 1 3 2 , 1 77
real (real) 44 , 45 , 46, 68n, 72n, 91 n, 92 ,
1 6 1
all the world ( Weltall) 95
Worl dl i ness 69, 92, 94, 1 49
Wri ti ng I , 2 , 5 , 6, 9, 1 0, 1 2 , 1 5 . 1 9, 87-93 ,
92n, 97, 1 02 , 1 04n, 1 1 8