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E.A,E,G, Continuing Educciion
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Noto onlap of these sediments onto the anticline
"' '" o " ~
srPM/EAEG Concentric ant ac Hne synsedimeotary ... s gro~ing a the u.lltil crest. fold as shown by euk ap of as indicated is sedfment.s . The of recenrfv by the t.hinning
sedfment s ecvaxcs s hnr t.eru.ng at
to acccemcde re the
a ee seebct.r oe IIII)1til:;les.
",U,~ ...... f ....
d.po.""n ~r u•• ...,1".. <11''',,".,1
d,_i.lom ,I ""'~ .h'~i
. " e- Ji ~. 0- e -c "" m 0 00 = = 0- < ~ .' · 0 rl ..r .. Ii tr ~. · ·] . c. == ~' ~. 0 il. rt 0 '< _. ~ ~ ~~ ~ . ~~ ··s .' ·" · ~ "' ~ rn rt 0 0 0 0 ~s e ~" e. . H. 0 c _. rt 0 .: ~." · · £ · ·~ i · · ·~ ·~ " ~I · i •~ · ~~ ~ .' ~ e ~· · ··. ~. tr rl e 0 rl rl tr 0 " _.' 1 . " 0 rl 0 "' = c "g r.
e to locate Note how the cusp on the all se ct. r r ans formed . to migrate first seismic dat.SIPII/EAEG These sect.Lens demnl1strate the thrust into fault.Lon is. the concave flank the necessity the second.
plane.Typical boxf au.Lt.i a I aliasing deco Llement.Ie.L compression. on the flank. due to Layex-par al. possible . Note the effects pos i tdon (If of the spa t. Mark the deepe s t.
VEAT.e the banded appearance for the -Lnaest.one deposits of tbe data typical in the ttiddle . over a distance wllicb is of Not..R.ruc ture with less than 100 ma closure (team rails) East.(Z:-WAYTIM£)#Bc.lCALf 1nc. riD I liP Large antic-lioal 70 kms . s t.SCALf HO. I ~ 2GOOO' lJ~.
from the reflector ...rv throw .5 a typ Ica l example of a growth fault.. on either side of the fault obvious.This 1. On this urunigcated section As the marker-s are cIear. itb curves depth the position of the fault emanating correlatable is quite Can be traced the increasing by marking the tops of the diffractions terminations.
This is a typical obvious. of the fault On this unmiguted section As the markers are c Leer Ly coneiatable is quite on e i the r side the increasing the position throw. example of a g ccwth fault.ng the tops of the diffractions from the re flecto L t.e rmma tdons .with depth of the fault emanating curves can be traced by mar ki. .
e- ~ ~ " ~ 0 rt Ii '" ~ ~ H < " · ~ ~ · · · ·'". ~' 0 H.. e- .. . " " ~ ~~ 0 ·· · [ · I: ".... • · . 0.. 0- . '" ·~ " " ~~~ ":: 0 H < e. " J~ · · a . rt rt ~ [ . · -· · · ·· -. .. rt 0 Ii I . •· ·· .·· ..~" " ~ 1 ~ Ii ~ ~~ ""~ . " .· . · . e- 5 c. " to t~ ~ . ~"~ " " c.. · ·· r ~.. ~~ -.' c. ..·! e ~. ~ ":: r+ 0 D ~" "~ . " ... ~ ~~ ~ rt 0 0 0 D :. -. · . " " . ... ..
20m This section The p r esence and the next one demonst ea r. cen only be inferred f r om the diffraction curves at 1.7 seconds on the right.a again of a fault plane the effect of migration. .
"hor i zoct. dealing here with a growth fault a s scc Leted with plane is rollover structure deepest broken part by cr e st. We are This is the true dip as the section The fault .a L co Haps.e from more than (see also next concave upwards its than 3° at its using dip varying near the su r f ace to less is processed section) deeper As the section. and subho r tzont.a I part of the .This migrated angle faults.a l." s t. low angle is a genuine 11 fault plane. dip section.a ckdug ve Loci. 60 0 version shows a.es only the fault plane is visible as a re t Ieccdoc .t i.
l Iover rotati.r~ly fault s t.:eo:t:ly of faults.rong The more steeply from tbe reflection the pLane can only terminations. however re p rcbeb l y the dipPing ext. There faults. The dee:per The large oveebe pa r ts the s tecked".ralo'n rhe Il. .Growth faults «3") delta caused slopes.ILticiine the bedding side. is: clear by gravity Thoe ro.on of sliding of cvecpressed is developed with drag sediments oc the against on low dO~th. Note also horizontal iillIlplitude pressures inferred the synthetic of I and ant t ther rc c res t a I collapse fault planes are result parts of "col'. .
Note the exp re.s s Ion of t.. SIPn/EAEG Toe thrusts thrusts at the distal is end of the delta. generally very The distance of the toe thrust from the normal faults large. . .he IJ at the seabottom.
. These exf s t. here by twa (conjugate) of deposition curved normal Eaul t...ure generated .o c " ~2 A back-to back: struct. in a situation equal to the rate the rate is more or less of subsidence as illustrated in the next diagram.s ..
, DELTAIC SEDIMENTATION AND TECTONICS
(Olagr'omrnotic::: Dip - IIIIIctlonl paril, derived and modified from Clement H. Brucel
Sond .. /Shorli'.
Two reve rs e- faults The stacking a ref Iectdoc . The dipping right. horizons
high enough t.c show the fault unconformity
below the angular as interval
converge towards the with .i.ncreas Lng with dep t.hs due to tectonic
a tiendancy fo r intervals
to become thinner increase
depth en a time section, inversion.
to compaction. However, in this
Case the convergence points
. From the pattern Infer-red." 1. How? in the shallow part above Sec. sixties Note the cha racr..Unmigrated section This section showing a low angle reverse.0 sees. ith dynamite in the nineteen a sixfold sub sur face coverage ..0 fault below 2.er-i e t f c fo rese t pattern wi th 24 hydrophone grcups . using a cable can be was shot .
a normal taece Iy of the anticlinal against nicely feature However..de would plead the exact position tiJlle and dept...he sediments a no rmaI fault... half curves.gur at foc of t. illustrate sections a low angle please note the reverse plane cannot be established..b sect.Lons although of the thrust Comparing the migrated . .~AQlPEAEG the unmigrated fault assuming that the consists of diffraction section r i. (top) one is tempted to dra . ith considerable Not. on the right The migrated fault hand s i. the ccnf i.e abo horizontal tbe unmigrated dt sp Lacement.gbt.s caused by migration. the be ck-uh rus t mechanism.
showing: a rever-sefault (left) and normal faul t.SIP~!/El\EG Unmigrated section (right). major normal faults.s of the Try to trace both tbe migrated and unmigrated positions .
. Note the expression been active after of channe Ll.Higb angLe reve rs e 1. the erosion as can be has still Erom che onfaps . i.dng at app rox .nfe r red The fault fault.7 sees.
sur face this delta.5 sees marks the top of a karstic: . the top Leps .Lonal sequences stratigraphy.rong terminology to describe type of depc sa t. On this section. recognize: which to the direction truncation at near of depcs Lt i. limestone. we can clearly (b) sedimentary of this unit.on .A reflection is parallel (a) (e) the erosional pattern typical for a prograding fades (c) lower unit. laps The complete The s t. (d) Sigmoid shape of this (f) bypass laps and minor and the top the the off the do'II!D. can be found on the AAPGmemoir 26 on seismic reflector at 2.
This section deposition.t Lcnal sequence as the previous of are riot en pat t e m . I'Lck ruarks indicate one but the profile is new running per-pendt cu Lar to the direction Unfoctuaa t.eLy the sections Note the Ient Lcul a r reflection ter-sec r Lcn of both profiles. tile s arne s caIe . the m rep cesent.s the same despos i. .
ually Hmeet. e re : The data is rather .Drape of overlying due to d t f f er ent.Pull-up (case 'i) if porous and event."m ThLs Section shows a carbonate but Id-up in th€ fonn of a sheet.ones carbonate is encased in tighter sequence or Pull-down (case .Platfom . diffraction stack. ii) if covered by lower 'Velocity (ii): Negative reflection gasfilled .i a I compaction .op : Positive clastics Using an ordinary build-ups Seismic criteria for recognizing case (i) reflection coefficient cceff Icfent.Bright 01£1and migrated underneath t.
This section the carbonat. the same build-up s body.gr-aci on is necessary "t rue amplitude" pr.Lon.a she . Not~ the di.Jtop of ra to restore (Late r aI the interpretation mi..g t. for quantitative ..:ediction) . which means that required before nn..
i.i aont aj error (tOQ The reduced amplitude swipe is p["obablyaproc~ssing scoe t .rma Lfaa t.e previous reflection swipe II.Lon wi.on below t. coming horn the side producing of the hcr.int.age as one _ In this energy is the budLd-up and the a ec-ca l l ed "s t de cef'Lect.2km Unmigrated seismic et.ndow). section from the same acee and of the case the profile skirts seme v.he side uo.
the terminations "ov~['-mig:rated".nat. the fault.The same sect Len as the p revt ous one after The fault has. due to a wrong migration The re Hect.Lon within veIoca ey .esha Et . a phas.7 sec are velocity clearly. stack tendency to re info rce the as the The (unwei ghced) diffr-action aga i. migration. Was this and at the base of the "mound" as well too hfgh or toe low? . apart amplitudes reflection can noW'be traced from causing of the reflection at 1.
. by be mistaken p Iat.4 and 1.Laps.. een 1..7 sees has been 3S 'CaD erosion.Hm This "mound" could easily "burried grooved be seen bill".form for a build-up _ In fact in afterwards it is a The ca rbouate bet . . The cbeune Ls have been filled frolll the un.
which could btl missed easily. . of a patch reef on top of a limestone platform debris draped which nvs r a hocs block. Host likely this is a "mound" of reef fo rrae a potential He r eee rvod r .A typical example t.
The been discussed main characteristics seismic at tbe beginning of this cbapter .EI large sheetlike expression carbonate have already bui Ld-up .A more recent section showing of its .
a more recent. .g two pr-i.nac Ie reefs Tbis t.MIGRATION STACK '_"' Again.ime <1 ccmpe cab Le with the correct migration velocity has been used. one discussed bE"'fol"eT sE"'ction sbowin.
.ous chapt ec on build-ups This turbiditic: like sand is partly spot".STRUCTURAL ISTRATIGRAPHIC TRAP ssw $" NNE This sect.Len shews a fan deposit. Looks a bit the patch reef shown in the ... The gasj""ater contact The top pa r t of the s t ruc ture p. .revi.. ith gae . filled can recognized as a "flat.
A .e rd a for fall with many depos i t. lobes cause a chaor i. .cbidite. turbiditic cr i t.ern wbich is one of the 11 f The ed~es of these recognizing tu.c pa t.Iona'l lobes.t.
Another example of a tllrbidite ha rd to recognize It is generally on 11 shcwang that section. these types of deposits are seismic difficult to mark the base of 'the turbidite .
ed section.rtle back ( This section shows the rim synclines too short around a salt the section to..a Ik") also the base is fail to bring is underneath. o The diapir cross could be either a salt di~ensiQnal gene re. high salt 1 velocity.2. df.er i ng object- the sea bottom. "pulled Up'! because of tile. On a but t . Even migration Dnfortuaately out the exact shape of the di.nne r part time section ""ill clearly (uat.y have the shape of a mushr-oom. From the diffraction the overhang cannot be the edges of the top may be inferred nor the tha.Ll.7 sees is a "side in caused by it ~ sca t..ap i r .Hm Seismic section curves t.raced ~ On this expression they of a s a Lt+d i apL'r on a unm gra t. show the associated swipe" I 'Tile diffraction (Prove that velocity.t. i dome or a salt wall. tu.ures ..api r .t ruct. cor-responds approximately with the sea water the curvature . curve at apprcx. ) s.
. and thinning .ch have been growing until rather recent times as it in between the of from the younger sediments note t..ur t Leback structure two diapirs.TwQsalt appears Pleas€ diapirs vtu.is the c Idee t? (Check rim synclines depositional sequences}. Which di8pi-.s . o 2km '------'-----' and the t.he rim synclines being draped over the cr es t.
o be a gas chimney. well indicated against vnec i.rs in this causes Hence was as sumed eo be a salt cef Iecr.ure closed Alt.The. section might be too high.ae lack of of salt ddepi.hough t.acn ener'gy is an important characteristic amounts of free gas in the pore fluid already a considerable the s eacktug velocity used rc e this case the NRzone appears t.r uct. The presence of sma L l of the sand intercalations velocity.n this section was drilled diapir. on a st. reduct-iou of tbe over a H acoustic .
royec one but noW'stacked the strong but it enhanced confirms with the the a vi e ible cons Lderab 1y lOioler vela city. hand side reflections ref Lee lions of the previous Zone.rneath the gas chimney.Tbas section on the presence left is the same as the previous I.... section unc!..t des t. of a low velocity The pull-down .
Iv formed a pillow and has prob3bly been partly and removed along the fault . over structure caused by salt wi tbdrawa L. The salt dissolved has pa rt.2km A roll plane.
section The pull-up effec:ts the right half of a profile through a salt. diapirs. basin. the left half and the next. sedtment a are collapsed over the crest. being There are two distinct The overlying dissolved by perco Ie t mg gr-ound water (solution . are clearly visible. sinks). the saLt.This section typical forms.
ed by the flowing there hydrocarbons? .2km The anticlinal note divers the chaotic features are the result salt. Please of appear-ance of the salt caused by dolomite an indication Eragment. of lateral interval Is salt movements.
. " Clay diapir with c res t...he cver Iydng sediments.a I coLl apse faults in t..
.o "0 "' " 8 e. The nc rea I fau l t.s can easily difficult to delineate. "' 2 3 SIP'l/EAEG l~m A dense pat. The clay dLapi r itself however.e ru of nc rmaI Eau.Lt.s due to extension be traced.t. of the sediments by a ae clay diapir.
1 sees is typical pattern.Lon shove a complex fault between profile.4 sees} hcvever .8 .This sect. . shows a normal fault. The reflection fault configuration The reflection for a reverse.1. .i.1. In such a case reactivation of strike-slip seismic expression andycr tile occurrence that this is the movements has to be aasused . of normal basement faults hand underneath.2 .ons above confirms this. on an unmigrated The shape of the ref'Lect. We believe of a wrench fault. (1.
A.bulge occurring seismic expression above all. appa rent.Lon) . '--_--L_----' 20m .Ly normal faults of wrench fault (on a migrated forms the typical sect.
i..c for a wrench fau Lt • .u'l i p s t ruc ture . also cha r a ct e r-i s t. A t...
low) is there pores separated have a sandy reservoir (see sketches part from the rest Possibilities sh (A) 2000 by permeability barr i.y be On this sect Lon the bright: spot mo t. The low amplitud@ halo surrounding too sho rt. . a polarity filled This is because note that change. m/s mts 2000 2200 2000 mjs m /"5 sst 2200 2000 (A) bright spat. likely s indicates a small amount of gea but enough to war r ant. notdcab Ie gas. It rnay onl. polarity change sb 2000 m is (n) sst 2600 m/s 2600 mls (D) slight probably amplitude decrease. are e. polarity change sh (B) m Is ill Is (B) dim spot. a normalisation is larger not only the amplitude Suppose that The central We it makes it even is look brighter. no polarity change sst sh 2600 mls 2000 2:600 2100 m/s 2000 Is 2600 mIs 2000 2600 2000 (e) sst ml. with brine.: 2000 1600 2000 window bas been but that its be. "t« fIJ 1900 m/s 2:000 mls 2500 mls mls rtJ/s m/s (C) dim spot. not. also being bright Please spot.A real used. m/s li'i/s ml.er s a-nd filled hlith hydrocarbons. cautious drilling.g.
A flat Sport almost ce r t. The surroundings gas filled rese r v oir than its which could explain ..atn.Ly rep eesent. C:OOCact.Lng has a lower acoustic the pull-do~(): effects a gas-water velocity undernear h .
A deltaic coll-ovec Eoult. structure With synthetic and antithetic vees te j fanlts~ an The He (mainly gas) ace ace_ulated antitnetic of gas. visible. in SeVeraj ce'e<Voir< again't nudemeatb Bcight Spots and aSSoCiated polarity changes are Cleacly confirm the pcesence The cumulative Pull-down effects .
gra ted section Showing a gas chimney wi th a pukLr-dovn at near the surface its base. 2 and brighter and polarity changes above the chimney. immediately are somewhat b rdgh te. .An uami.5 sees to the right of the chimney are occuz .!. The bocf zonta I reflection. The reflections also ).r in tile zone between 1.
aps ag3inst t.i. volcano Please not. unde rnea th the The magma has probably volcano.he flanks i aI of the and the drape over the top due to d.A bur-r.ed volcano. along the normal fault .e the cnl.if fe rent come klp compaction.
2.2km A fourfold seecsea eeet i cc • The strong reflection at app rox. .0 ae c• dipping to the right curved events. This zone represents disappears below a chaotic zone of cve r'Leppiug an olistostrome.
(Howdeep? ) Pl€ase note to the sea bottom reflection most pr obab...eper).5 reco rded in very deep vat.Seismic section the flat (0.l.y a geshydra te .er . . This ['epresents horizon ... hich rues parallel Sees de.
l t bloch partly eroded creating an ideal s t r a t Lgr apha c crap. The fault block to tbe right forms a bur-t-Led hill .Tilted fau. (scarp and scr-ee}.
of . a: It p ccbab.i.MARINE INTEGRATED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM II 1.on of unknown origin.l. perpendicular a profile through the part prograding to the di rect.on of GP51 ccnv. BIJD .y represents del ta .1111 III A section distal depo s Lt.i.
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