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y = x2 + 3x + 1 z = x3 + x2y3 – 2y2 2 f(x) = x + 3x + 1 f(x,y) = x3 + x2y3 – 2y2 A partial derivative is the derivative with respect to a variable. To find the derivative with respect to x, you make y constant. Rule for Finding Partial Derivatives of z = f(x,y) 1. To find fx, regard y as a constant and differentiate f(x,y) with respect to x. 2. To find fy, regard x as a constant and differentiate f(x,y) with respect to y. For example, fx(a,b) is the derivative with respect to x at the point (a,b). fy(a,b) is the derivative with respect to y at the point (a,b). fx(a,b) = g`(a) where g(x) = f(x,b)

**The definition of a derivative is:
**

g′( a) = lim g( a + h, b) - g( a) h f ( a + h, b ) − f ( a, b ) h

h®o

Therefore:

f x ( a, b ) = lim

h →o

Examples: For the function f(x,y) = x3 + x2y3 – 2y2, fx(x,y) = 3x2 + 2xy3 and fy(x,y) = 3x2y2 – 4y

fxx = ∂ (3x2 + 2xy3) = 6x + 2y3 ∂x Second partial derivatives fxy = ∂ (3x2 + 2xy3) = 6xy2 ∂y fyx = ∂ (3x2y2 – 4y) = 6xy2 ∂x fyy = ∂ (3x2y2 – 4y) = 6x2y - 4 ∂y Clairaut’s Theorem:

then so will production. b). For example: ∂2u + ∂2u = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 The Cobb-Douglas Production Function: If the production function is denoted by P = p(L. b) Partial Differential Equations: Equations that include partial derivatives and that express certain physical laws. then fxy(a. . K) then: . . or the marginal productivity of labor. If the functions fxy and fyx are both continuous on D. Assumptions by Cobb and Douglas: (i) If either labor or capital vanishes.The partial derivative ∂P/∂K = the rate at which production changes with respect to capital.Suppose f is defined on a disk D that contains the point (a. (ii) The marginal productivity of labor is proportional to the amount or production per unit or labor. (iii) The marginal productivity of capital is proportional to the amount of production per unit of capital. or the marginal productivity of capital. b) = fyx(a.The partial derivative ∂P/∂L = the rate at which production changes with respect to the amount of labor.

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