Extractions and Galenical Preparations

Introduction and Definition:
Medicines prepared according to the formulae of Galen are referred to as Galenical prepararations. Galen was a Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance(between 4th and 17th ) Pharmaceutical preparations are divided into: 1. Galenical preparations 2. Non-Galenical preparations
Extraction involves the separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissues from the inactive components through the use of selective solvents The extracted preparation are known as Galenicals. It is basically a

medicinal preparation composed mainly of herbal or vegetable matter. It is prepared by extraction of crude vegetable drugs (active principles) with suitable solvent(s). The term is now used to denote standard preparations containing one or more active constituents of a plant and made by a process that leaves the inert and other undesirable constituents of the plant un-dissolved.

Nomenclature: Galenicals: Owing to Galen who discovered it. Menstrum: Solvent used for extraction (ex. water, alcohol, ether) Marc: The inert fibrous and other insoluble materials remaining after extraction

Types: Infusions- Decoctions- Fluid extracts- Semisolid extracts Dry extracts- TincturesMedical oils .. 

General method of Preparation: 1- Comminution (reducing substances to small size). 2- Penetration of the crude drug by the menstrum.

Not react with the extracted compound or with other compounds in the plant material. Be completely volatile. Menstrum  Always water (cold or boiling). thinly sliced.Dissolution of the active principles by the menstrum. Have a high capacity for extraction.  The drug may be freshly broken.Separation of the dissolved active principles from the marc by straining. Choice of menstrum : The ideal solvent for a certain pharmacologically active constituent should: Be highly selective for the compound to be extracted. Be harmless to man and to the environment.3. Time . The generally used solvents includes: Water Aliphatic alcohols with up to three carbon atoms Ether Chloroform Glycerine 1. filtration or expression.Infusion Drug  Crude drugs of light structure without dense tissues and containing water-soluble constituents. 5. cut small. Have a low price. 4Diffusion of the dissolved active principles through the cell wall to the surrounding menstrum. or coarsely powdered in order to facilitate the solvent penetration.

.Fresh (Dilute) Infusion  The simplest of all methods of extraction  A definite weight of the crude drug in a certain state of subdivision (cut small.Senna infusion. are diluted with at least seven times their volume of water Many medicines which were prescribed required infusions of ingredients such as bitter orange. cloves or senna.  These preparations are not made by the concentration of the dilute infusion by evaporation.  Concentrated infusions prepared with alcoholic menstrum or contain alcohol as a preservative. powdered ) is prepared  The calculated amount of hot or boiling menstrum (usually water) is added to the crude drug  Soak for a definite time  During the period of infusion. but upon use. the heat should be retained in the container and the content should be stirred  After the time of infusion. Determined according to the amount of drug constituents to be extracted and the ease or difficulty with which the water penetrate the drug. Examples  Teas. the liquid is poured off or strained  Do not press or squeeze the marc otherwise colloidal cell contents may be forced out giving a cloudy infusion  Such fresh infusion should be used within 12 hours 1.1. since thermal treatment will result in loss of the volatile principles.Infusion of senega Preparation 1.Concentrated (stock) infusion  To avoid rapid decomposition to which the fresh (dilute) infusions are subjected.  Concentrated infusion are not intended to be dispensed in the concentrated state.2.

this discovery led to the development of the infusion pot. ceramic. Later. stainless-steel. it was discovered that it was more effective if the ingredients were suspended near the surface of the water.Originally the ingredients were left soaking in hot water and then drained.Placing the drug near the top of the liquid rather than at its bottom gives complete extraction because when the menstrum surrounding the drug becomes saturated. . it will sinks to the bottom due to its increased density and another amount of fresh menstrum displace it leading to circulatory diffusion. as that way more of the drugs were extracted.  The plant may be enclosed loosely in a small muslin bag and suspended in the jar at a height where it will be just covered by the liquid. Apparatus  Consist of covered jar ( made of earthenware. glass.  The perforated tray or muslin bag confers two advantages: A. porcelain ) to which is fitted at certain height a perforated tray upon which the crude drug may be allowed to rest in water being poured over it.

causing volatilization or destruction of certain principles. press the marc and mix the resulting liquid to the decoction. 2.volatile constituents. 2. Very fine powders should be avoided due to difficulty of separation from the infusion. General Notes  The drug is usually coarsely ground. decoction is strained through fine muslin or flannel according to the nature of marc. boiling is continued until the liquid reduced to a certain volume. At the end of decoction time.Decoction Definition: .B.Solutions of the water soluble constituents of plant drugs prepared by boiling the drug with water. Preparation: Previously sliced drug barks or wood (5 parts) is boiled with water (100 or 120 parts) in a vessel of enameled iron or earthenware for a definite length of time (15 min.  For extraction of drugs with water soluble and non.     . sufficient water is passed through the strainer to produce a definite volume.  Should be freshly prepared.  Where no specific directions are given. the drug can be lifted out. the following general formula and procedure should be used : 50 gm Drug in 1000 ml boiling distilled water (moisten 50 gm drug with 50 ml of cold water and allow to stand for 15 minutes. add boiling water to make 1000 ml infusion).) counting from when the liquid starts to boil with occasional stirring. Then.coagulation of albuminous matters within the drug cell and thereby inhibit the extraction.  Infusions of readily soluble active principles are prepared by maceration in water cold.extracting inert materials that may precipitate upon cooling.  Hot water extract the desired constituents more quickly than cold but has the disadvantages of: 1. leaving clear liquid which can be strained quickly. Allow to cool to about 40ºC. Then.At the end of infusion time. 3. and drugs of hard and woody nature. To obtain highly concentrated decoction.

indigestion. Example: Cinchona bark or wood ( ) (contains quinine) Uses: treatment of fever. gastrointestinal disorders. malaria and as an appetite Stimulant. Comparison between infusion and decoction . general fatigue. Also used in anemia.

Adjustment of final volume 6.Menstrum Boiling or cold water 3.Item Infusion Decoction 1.Plant Soft structure (ex. Senna leaves) Hard woody structure (e bark) Boiling water 2.Procedure Infusing the drug with cold or hot water Boiling the drug with wa 4.Storage Used fresh within 12 hours Used fresh and when sto refrigerator used within .Apparatus Adjustment is necessary Infusion earthenware pot Any covered apparatus 7.Time Calculated as soon as water is added to drug No adjustment Calculated as soon as the begins to boil 5.

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