](68

90648

_'_

___EPORT NO.9182 ._ 31OCTOBER 1962

I FLI LL
(,_AS A-CI155617) STUD ¥. VCLUME APPL]C_TICNS

T HT

2:

(McDcnnell

/ MCDONNELL

L.d

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

vo_.oM_ ,,

ERRATA
W

St___"T

Page 1-15
p

2nd line from bottom, _th line, "VEF-DSIF" Figure 2-1, replace

"VHF transmitter/" should be "L_-DSIF"

should be "UEF transmitter/"

Page 1-16 Page 2-2
p

with new figure

transmitted

herein

Page 2-5

Figure 2-4, lower right hand corner of page, "52-79702 - Battery (3 req'd.)" should be "52-79702-5 Battery (3 req'd.)" Figure 2-5, "MA_" and "SQUIB" battery same as Page 2-8, Figure 2-6 Section Figure 2.1.4, delete item C • hand sketch, ".84 min." should be ".80 mln." callouts should be the

Page 2-7

Page R-15

Page 3-33

3-26, lower right

w

m

m

MCDONNELL

W iv

U.

_
" i

J

+
1

J

L
I

J

.
• i

-

LOUIS AIRCRAFT MUNICIPAL AIRPORT. MCDONNELL LAMBERT -. 9182_ 31 0C10BER 1962 DIRECT APOLLO FLIGHT STU _G Volume Applications emini Spacecraft 11: CONTROL NO. C-72079 COPY NO._REPORT NO. ST. CORPORATION BOX 516.ST. WHICH IN ANY MANNER DO_ LS: THE TRANSMISSION TO AN UNA_I'D PERS_ LAW. . 'Y_ THIS DOCU_S DEFENSE INF'ORMATION OF THE UIq_I_TATES LAW_ TI_ECTIONS OR_F AFF_ THE NATIONAL MEANING OF THE _Tj_P_E ESPIONAGE 793 AND 794. MO. LOUIS 66.

Design Criteria .5 3......T.A m.. .. ... . .......... ......4 2.. Weight Derivation .. Lunar Landing Configuration Retrograde Module . Structure .......10 3... .. • 3-3o 3-37 3-41 3-45 3-45 3-46 3-46 • . ...8 3..... .7 3. .................. Aerodynamics .. 4o6 4-9 4-10 4-10 _--l_ ) .. Lunar Touchdown .2 4..5 4.. Telecommunications .. SPACECRAPT 2. ..... .. • .4 4......12 3..... .... Earth Landing .2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.2 1..i 1.. TraJectory Analysis .6 3..3 3.. Meteoroid Protection .2 3.. Electrical Power ....... . Radiation ......4 3.....8 AND INFORMATION Command Module Size and Arrangement ...... .....3 2.2 2.3 4.. ....... . Summary Statements . m2 310CmE.. REFERENCES ....6 2.... .. ... ............. ......... Study Ground Rules .... .1 4.. . • • 2-1 2-18 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-22 2-26 3 i 3-i 3 -ii 3-16 SUMMARY i..... • • • • 3-el 3-26 • • • • • • • • • • • • ..... Spacecraft Staging ... . ...... Propulsion .... Weight Margins ..5 2.... ....... .. Service Module . ... CONFIGURATION ...3 1...... Configuration Selection . .... Stabilization and Control Environmental Control ... Reaction Control ...1 2..... Propellant Margins .13 Guidance and Navigation .......... STUDIES ........ Terminal Landing Module . Weight Summary ............. 5-1 MCDONNELL i .. • 3-49 4-I 4-i 4-i 4-i e SUPPORTING 4.. ... ....... .. .. . 1-1 i 2 .....11 3.... SYSTEM o SPACECRAF9 3. . ... TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER ITEM INTRODUCTION lo .. ..... i-2 im4 i'i0 I--ii 2-i .1 3......4 ..7 Command Module .. Launch Escape .9 3.oM_..7 _......6 4. ...... Heat Protection Mechanical ..

ii 1-1 Page through through through through 1-20 2-29 3-50 4-23 2-1 3-1 4-i 5-i LJ _--- U w : = H ii W MCDONNELL i .91|2 310CTO|E| 1B62 w DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LIST OF PAGES This report consists of the following pages: Title i.CONFIDENTIAL-REPORT N0.

o.g.C. DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-oME.TWO-MAN SPACECRAFT incorporating three-man .j MCDONNELL I-I . which m_y be needed to provide this capability not presently w .OIT. to provide it with capability Volume cations of performing the lunar landing III o RESCUE VERSIONS to provide . the report APOLLO is divided volumes.) to perform conceived a conceptual Space- design study to "evaluate the capability lunar of the presently Gemini craft to perform w the two-man landing mission and to determine the modifiif it does cations and their weight.. The study was conducted of the statement under NASA Contract of work.Presents the results of a study of the modifi- required the spacecraft of Volumes I and II with the capability for use in rescue operations.A. exist".GEMINI SPACECRAFT required APPLICATION of the modifications i to the Gemini spacecraft mission. This volume which designated w (II) is in response the McDonnell to the Part II guidelines Corporation of Reference (1) Aircraft (M.Presents the results of a study the Volume II .R[. of a design similar study in Volume I . Reference w NASw-522. Corresponding to the three parts into three (l-l).Presents a two-man the results command of a lunar landing external w spacecraft module shape to the present Apollo command module. INTRODUCTION This report Corporation the direct presents the results of a study conducted by McDonnell landing Aircraft by of the feasibility flight mode of performing two-man the manned lunar mission employing spacecraft.a oc.O. .

Itp,T,o.sls2 31 oc,,, ,,2
1. SUMMARY

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

VOLUME

II

Results modest in

of

studies be

performed

during with launch

Part the

II

indicate landing the

that

Gemini

can,

with

revisions,

made the

compatible C-5

lunar

mission spacecraft It

when

used

conjunction defined that

with in

Saturn Part of

vehicle I of

and this

propulsion is further

stages shown glider

the

I study

(Volume

report).

utilization

a conventional results growth - The (l-l). (1-5) and in an margin. basic

parachute improved

system

in lleu

of

the

parawhile

earth-landing increased

system weight Rules

equipment

capability

realizing 1.1 were

Stud 7 Ground by

ground

rules ground by the

for

the

Part

II

study in Office study

established (1-3), Space below.

Reference and Major

Detailed verbally rules

rules Office for

were of the

supplied Systems, Part II

References of Manned are listed A.

(1-4), Flight.

ground

established

Launch transfer

vehicle orbit. profile main during duration one days day

is the

Saturn

C-5,

injecting

903000

pounds

to

a lunar

B. C.

Flight

and

velocity

increments systems I study. days (two plus day and one and

are

as

given

in

Reference is

(1-3). as

Spacecraft selected

propulsion the Part

staging

arrangement

same

D.

Mission moon, half

is eight lunar time

one-half day

days

flight two

time and

to one-

on

surface plus one

contingency, plus days

return day

contingency) plus six

seven

days

post

landing

(one

habitable

environment

survivable

environment). E. No weight attention protection. to be to be added given for to radiation design or micrometeoroid to provide protection maximum but

details

inherent

MCDONNELL

1-2

r

DIRECT
|

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

VOLUME

II

i.i F. G. H. I.

(Continued) Lunar L/D in surface re-entry landings operational be assumed. characteristics configuration may normally flight be are as given minimum in water. first half of calendar year 196y in of Reference 0.25. (1-6).

to be made the

Earth First shall

during

L

The are given

detail

design

criteria 2.6.

established

by

the

contractor

for

use

in

the

study

in Section

T

MCDONNELL

A

REmT.gla2 3,ocT.. ,tl2

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

vo-u...

1.2 Gemini

Confi6uratlon

Selection

-

In assessing

the feasibility

of using

the

spacecraft

for performing

the two-man

lunar landing

mission,

the propulsion

characteristics study (Volume landing

selected

for the Two-Man without

Apollo

configuration

during the Part I module and terminal with

I) are applied defined

change. I study

The retrograde are compatible, module

modules

in the Part

as configured,

the requirements extent required the Gemini differences Part Gemini

for Lunar Gemini. to effect module

The service between

is revised

only to that module by in the and

the transition

the terminal changes

landing

co_nand

and to incorporate characteristics.

internal

necessitated concern

in equipment

Therefore,

the primary module

II study is the application subsystems to the lunar

of the Gemini mission.

command

and the associated

landing

Three versions of modification discrete

of the Gemini

spacecraft,

representing

variations

in extent offers

and capability, as described

have been below.

studied.

Each of the

versions

advantages

Lunar Gemini I uses the presently command module to effect and service equipment

configured,

14 day, earth changes landing

orbital

Gemini ne6essary

with only those flight lunar

considered mission.

compatibility weights

with the direct

The changes

and associated A number surface during

are shown in Figure 1-1. for providing maneuver the crew with a field of view of the lunar from the The most

of methods

the landing

appear feasible Gemini

and attractive configuration.

standpoint
J

of minimizing of these are:

changes

to the basic

promising external

l) use of the existing a downward

Gemini windo_

with an erectable lying in

mirror

to provide

field of view with transparent

the crewman canopy

the normal position

and 2) use of an auxiliary with cabin

(or use of

the Gemini hatch in open position method, surface the crewman directly.

depressurized). position

In the latter the lunar Gemini I

Is in a rotated A combination

(semi-prone)

and views

of (1) and (2) are selected

for Lunar

MCDONNELL

bJ / 1 J 684 LB. SCIENTIFIC 0 EQUIPMENT LB. TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM 295 LB. GEMINI LB. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM 710 LB. SERVICE EQUIP. ICONTROLS 174 & DISPLAYS -INCREASE PROPULSION & RCS CONTROLS & DISPLAYS LB. / ___ ADD DSIF SYSTEM BEACON& DIGITAL COMMAND REMOVES eAND J / INCREASE -ADD ADD DRINKING EC$ WATER. CREW SYSTEMS 929 LB. 6802 L_ | I SERVICE I I I I EQUIP.TRACKING SENSOR SUN 250 LB. EARTH LANDING SYSTEM 794 LB. 794 LB. ECCENTRICITY 0 BALLAST LB. 1[ WT. LUNAR WT. 75 LB. ADD _ p AUTOSEXTANT. __ DECREASE INCREASE H20 IN SECONDARY SERVICE 02. L-- ADD PROVISIONS FOR 65 LB.91D2 31OCTO|[R 1062 DIRECT FLIGHT CHANGES FROM APOLLO BASIC GEMINI STUDY VOLUME II EARTH 14 DAY ORBITAL 5775 GEMINI LB. LANDING RADAR. GUIDANCE & NAVIGATION SYSTEM 207 LB. _ INCREASE ADD IMU RCS FUEL STRAPDOWN . FIGURE 1-I . THICKEN ABLATION ABLATIVE COOLED MATERIAL AFTERBODY ON HEATSHIELD. STABILIZATION & CONTROL SYSTEM 242 LB.25 L/D 85 LB. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM 824 LB. -- INCREASE DECREASE SEQUENTIAL FUEL CELL PROVISIONS REACTANTS / RADAR. I L J STRUCTURE & HEAT PROTECTION 1600 LB. BACKPACKS CLOTHING REDUCE & FOOD RECHARGE it.. IN COMMAND MODULE / -ADD BALLAST TO OBTAIN . ____J 764 LB. INCREASE CONTROL & SUN-CANOPUS ELECTRONICS SENSORS 413 LB. MODULE DECREASELIOH A PRIMARY 02 _--. VIEWING CONVERT DOME TO TO HATCH . ADD LANDING REMOVELUNAR NON-APPLICABLE CONTROLS CONTROLS & DISPLAYS & DISPLAYS 281 LB._J A ir IffPOliT HO. r PORTABLE EXTRAVEHICULAR 1049 LB. INFLIGHT SUPPLY PROVISIONS REPAIR TOOLS 494 LB. ADD 1913 LB.

. Lunar Gemini I. accept a tower-mounted an improved by over through rocket launch 71 launch abort foot Means escape capa- is modified seats. ejection seats separate Crew The lunar capsule vision from terminate are 14 descent same earth personal for parachutes.2 1. by the over use bail-out couches positionable capability to make shock of through a a personal impacts parachutes in the shock attenuating use of command in lieu module of tolerable. landing provisions the basic in Figure to the day described Gemini subsystem changes are III orbital and their associated Lunar system bility. improved for event Gemini utilizes in lieu space alternate the Gemini 84 foot and diameter associated single para- recovery The system and paraglider thus effected system permit landing of the in margin the to weight savings the installation increasing navigation weight and telecommunications Earth over and landings the the capability are crew while potential of growth. diameter are pro- with earth recovery being land of emergency earth recovery or.2 with canopy sent the DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. the conjunction landing the seat are position.ONNELL I-6 .uM .H. an instruments panel control service vided lunar within to the II provided field extendable in the are pro- module adjacent crewman's sides.. crewman which In provided he may a mirror the with and the L. landing ejection and thus providing are paraglider normal gear replaced effected either three water. Necessary controls Lunar chute gear.12 31 o.. parachutes / vided for with land in weights Gemini lieu The of shown 1-2.. . (Continued) R..H. recovery effected utilizes with as in water the and..R[. the of of view.. seats The permits attenuated crew couches lunar ejection the by incorporation view "sit-up" landing capability facilitated a direct ' MCD. emergency from the land. crewman while provided rotated a transparent in the necessary located prefor through Gemini of observe lunar this in surface seat.

SUN SENSOR . F _ _ REMOVE ADD 84' PARAGLIDER DIA. J '°°"u""'°°'''°"c'"°_u'"_'°'soo. ADD VIEWING DOME TO HATCH ____J q 1883 LB.O. DECREASE FUEL CELL REACTANTS NAVIGATION GUIDANCE& SYSTEM 207 LB.Z.J /_ LB..C.. I & HEAT 1600 r THICKEN ABLATIVE ATERIAL HEATSHIELD' CONVERTTO M ON ABLATION COOLED AFTERBODY. J ECCENTRICITYBALLAST_ --ADDBALLASTTOOBTAIN'2sL/DO LB.. _j INCREASE ADD LUNAR PROPULSION LANDING & RCS • CONTROLS CONTROLS & DISPLAYS DISPLAYS 296 LB. INCREASE R.q... H LB." A DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME..J EARTH SYSTEM LANDING 794 LB. TRACKING RADAR. CONTROL 710 SYSTEM LB..s. INCREASE CONTROL ELECTRONICS TELECOMMUNICATIONS/ ftJ_ ADD -m DSIF APOLLO SYSTEM TYPE :.t. / / SYSTEM 295 LB. _ 75LB" I FIGURE 1-2 MCDONNELL I --7 .L--O_'"o"--'_""_°""°"'°"" _ J 174 LB. NAVIGATION ADD MANUAL SEXTANT/TELESCOPE ROLL MOMENTUM WHEEL BASE.. _°w" J SYSTEM 824 LB..o.oo.S. I LB. PROV.*ST.REDUCEFOODSUPPLYADD ADD EXTRAVEHICULAR CLOTHING & INFLIGHT REPAIR .-. ADDPROVISIONsFORB5#INCOMMANDMOOULEO -- _[ 8SLB.. J J-- ADD INSTRUMENTATION 673 LB. _ 1049 LB. INCREASE DECREASE SECONDARY H20 IN 02 SERVICE DECREASE MODULE LiOH 681 E"°'"'_" F --.o_. REMOVE S-BAND DIGITAL COMMAND J CREW 929 LB.s'o. SYSTEMS PORTABLE ECS BACKPACKS & RECHARGE PROVISIONS INCREASEDRINKINGwATER..._ "A'"'z'"°N" F _4o6.'.. FUEL."ov.. II CHANGES FROM BASIC GEMINI 14 DAY EARTH ORBITAL 5775 GEMINI LUNAR GEMINI LB. SCIENTIFICEQUIPMENTJ LB. 1 242 LB. J co... USE DATA BEACON APOLLO PROCESSING & TYPE NEAR & EARTH SYSTEM SYST. PARACHUTE & LANDING SYSTEM GEAR _ & PRIMARY 02 149LB. I L J STRUCTURE PROTECTION I SERVICE L_'____. 6376 I SERVICE I I EQUIP. _ LANDING RADAR._. 276 _ LB.o.

along with their corresponding weights 1-3. The subsystem changes between the basic 14 large window day earth orbital w Gemini and Lunar in Figure Gemini III are shown. gll2 v. = = E_ L | :J U m U 1-8 .2 (Continued) in the left-hand hatch._Mo._.uME. 1. DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.w R[Po.

. ADD IMU 5TRAPDOWN. USE APOLLO PROCESSING & DIGITAL REDUCE TYPE NEAR EARTH SYSTEM TELECOMMUNICATIONS 295 LB. NAVIGATION WHEEL MOMENTUM 276 lB. ! I & CONTROL SYSTEM STABILIZATION 242 LB. w 5775 LB. SYSTEM.. ADD MANUAL SEXTANT / TELESCOPE.E.. & NAVIGATION SYSTEM GUIDANCE 207 LB..A IEPORTUO.I. & BASE... ELECTRONICS INCREASE INCREASE 406 SYSTEM SYST.m ADD BALLAST TO OBTAIN .B. _191.C. ADD D. SENSOR. ] INCREASE DECREASE SECONDARY H20 IN O 2 .B. CREW SYSTEMS 929 LB. WATER. FUEL_ & SUN-CANOPUS CONTROL SENSORS. / ADD EXTRAVEHICULAR CLOTHING ADD PORTABLE ECS BACKPACKS & & INFLIGHT RECHARGE REPLACE EJECTION SEATS WITH ATTENUATED INCREASE --ADD LUNAR PROPULSION LANDING & RC$ CONTROLS REPAIR PROV. CONTROLS & DISPLAYS 174 LB. POWER 824 INCREASE DECREASE SEQUENTIAL FUEL PROVISIONS CELL REACTANTS I TRACKING SUN RADAR.I REMOVE ADD PARAGLIDER 71' DIA.25 L/D *LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER WEIGHT IS NOT INCLUDED FIGURE 1-3 MCDONNELL 1-9 . SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT "-- ADD PROVISIONS FOR B5# IN COMMAND MODULE 85 LB. ADD APOLLO TYPE DATA REMOVE S-BAND BEACON INCREASE DRINKING & INSTRUMENTATION COMMAND FOOD SUPPLY / LB. SERVICE SYSTEM ELECTRICAL _. R. EARTH LANDING SYSTEM 794 LB. CHANGES FROM BASIC GEMINI LUNAR WT. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM 710 LB.* 14 DAY EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI WT. .S. _ 911 LB. --'-_J673 LB.. LANDING ROLL RADAR... 22 1 SERVICE I I SERVICE I Ljg_uIp_' STRUCTURE &HEAT PROTECTION 1600 LB.. A DISPLAYS CONTROLS & DISPLAYS & DISPLAYS REMOVE NON-APPLICABLE CONTROLS _ 271 LB. & LANDING GEAR SYSTEM THREE PARACHUTE 273 LB. REINFORCE THICKEN CONVERT STRUCTURE ABLATIVE TO FOR MATERIAL COOLED LAUNCH ON TOWER HEATSHIELD AFTERBOOY & LAND IMPACT ABLATION .F. PROVISIONS COUCHES.. DECREASE MODULE LiOH & PRIMARY 02 . GEMINI [] 6453 LB.4 . ECCENTRICITY BALLAST .S.lls2 31 OCTOBER IB62 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu.

..Since the propulsion of the specified weights stages defined launch vehicle. configuration).6% -W- MCDONNELL 1-10 . 5540 + 1177 Lunar Gemini x lO0 = 15.2 31 ocT..2% = 1452 ibs. ) III (weight margin % Margin = 51 7743 78 + i190 -i] x lO0 = 21.. ) Gemini I (wei_t margin % Margin . in Volume I are sized to the full capability command payload module and service the Lunar Gemini directly with this equipment may be compared capability after adjusting payload for a slight difference capability. when with the Lunar is The Gemini structure.A I(p.. after making Apollo in service module this adjustment. 1.77-4_3 -I] 5072 + 1219 Lunar Gemini x i00 = 23.3 Weight Mar_ins ..t2. ) II (weight margin % Margin = . 7743 pounds weight co_nd payload The resulting (compared to 7655 pounds for the Two-Man growth margin may then be expressed module weight and service as follows: equipment as a percentage are compared weights the allowable % Margin = _ [Allowable module weight + service pa load weight Command versions Lunar the margins based equipment -i x i00 weigh t] For the three Lunar Gemini on the above are: = 1026 ibs.. DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLOME.0% = 1375 ibs.

Configuration (2. is increased. Additional Additional Slight added to service module). capabilities module These spacecraft differ primarily in the configuration to the service presented of the command module. and cooling Additional navigation and guidance read-outs and displays are included. are included.i. Gemini I is identical landing canopy.Z DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. II differs paraglider module from Lunar Gemini and landing I only in the following: single parachute. Only slight modifications landing and retrograde and no change to the terminal I are required. B. I._ the report essentially Summary Statements . i. G. thus not repeated I is included in this volume.) . for lunar egress and ingress. Module Gemini (2. communication propulsion provisions controls are provided.Summaries indicated of the major sections follow. a summary of the contents exceptions in Volume and. Replace Service unit.O. C. (Autosextant E.31OCTOI(I 1962 [PORT. H. sextaat/telescope gear system with autosextant is replaced by the Apollo MCDONNELL 1--1 1 . Lunar Gemini A. hatch. heat shield thickness and addition of ablative afterbody B.Lunar modules in Vol_e Command the present include : A.11 . F. whereapplicable.t. modification of the crew hatches canopy Lunar landing External visibility is incorporated in the pilot mirror for copilot lunar landing visibility is added. . Re-entry Oxygen attitude control water propellant is increased. of the remainder Where sections of (section numbers in parentheses) are the same as in Volume of that section I. D. in exteraal Detail appearance to except for the lunar changes to Gemini Increased panels.Three modified Gemini lunar landing spaceand Spacecraft craft are presented. noted.

(2. din_ Configuration ceding paragraphs form the lunar to provide landing Lunar Gemini I and II use and and a visibility landing site. differing Ill has the same general only in the forward cylindrical section include: and the crew hatch. C.The terminal to provide landing module with the i_teThe gral lunar landing module contains gear.2. is replaced by flat windows.This module the command and terminal and transearth storable hypergolic control. Lunar Gemini III provides hatch with the pilot is positioned versions provide to allow direct horizontal system for the co-pilot. Gemini communication equipment is replaced external by Apollo appearance equipment. It contains electrical systems. canopy the pilot of the lunar horizon flat windows vision. portions of the environmental control system.2) . the single parachute attenuating system.) is a truncated landing cone with a 39-1/2 ° half modules.gla2 31 OCTOl|! lg$2 1. replaces seats are replaced with impact vision couches.The three modules spacecraft.u. and spacecraft and a reaction control ullage attitude stabilization (2. and downward All a mirror MCDONneLL 1--12 .3) and navigation and a reaction Terminal Lan. Module between (. the Service angle located lunar launch power. of the orbital Lunar Gemini Gemini Changes A..m0R1. for translunar translation control and lunar landing. . DIRECT (Continued) FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME.4 C.4) and control. direct vision a pilot's described in the pre- Lunar La. from the Lunar Gemini A tower mounted A three parachute Ejection II configuration escape system system is added. ding Module . the storable hypergolic propulsion system system for hover. B. is designed a low landing silhouette. propulsion communication system. D. Direct horizontal (Canopy and downward is provided for lunar landing.

retrograde module houses the cryointo 6000 midcourse connections.. system and computer. and III consists system for the Gemini Gemini components Gemini I sensors for the lunar mission. descent accomplished Summary At this altitude. Gemini II and III include MCDONNELL 1 --1 3 . Volume I.T.878 transferred 53787 1400 91237 -1359 89878 53787 2600 1400 93837 -3837 90000 module Items payload to the command to lunar launch. II and III space- Weisht craft are: of the Lunar Gemini Lunar Gemini I Command Module Service Module Equipment Spacecraft Weight Margin Service Module Terminal Landing Module Retrograde Module Launch Escape System Landing Gear Fairing Gross Weight at Launch Less (1-_ effective) Jettisonable Effective Launch Weight *Includes prior 85 pounds of scientific * 5625 1177 1026 22192 6o3o * II 5157 1219 1452 22192 6o3o * III 5263 1190 1375 22192 6030 53787 1400 91237 -1359 89. I.The weights spacecraft.7) .6) . II.341pounds).s. Retrograde genic propulsion Module system (2. The major Additions are the inertial an auto sextant for Lunar radars and the Apollo tracking Additions for Lunar and landing (total system the Apollo .Each of the guidance of the basic and navigation for Lunar Gemini optical utilized include weight and radar I. and final with the lunar landing (2. injection lunar orbit.5) .i[r.The cylindrical used for translunar from lunar orbit.The Lunar in Section Gemini spacecraft designs are in accordance Design Criteria with the criteria Guidance presented 2.. where practicable. rejection and final retrograde the module to approximately is jettisoned feet above the lunar surface. (2.7. systems plus and Navigation (3.s2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME.1) .

throttle control. actuators.. 4 (Continued) the Apollo tracking navigation (3. weight and and a roll momentum sextant/telescope.RE. all times.m2 L. command mode backup servos. Long-term sensors strapdown ilization achieve phases attitude reference signals Short-term Rate gyros provide Derived hold of are provided by redundant is derived tight-loop optical from rate is used a (Sun-Horizon-Canopus). i. SCS weight single-pulse 89 pounds additional direct heavier strapdown mode than IMU is provided Gemini pounds) SCS the (17 electronics and Canopus (60 pounds). manual fully thrust automatic. attitude direct is sensing stabilization fuel-consumption requiring during the in long low low-disturbance rates. periods control and by yaw the is provided control RCS is the chambers during obtained other main engine gimbaling thrusting at all times. fixed by thrust signal RCS torque at application.The system . Control in the (3._. system into trans- Stabilization L_ and the Control pilot system from fully stabilization and control system and lates to the commands reaction Modes are from navigation and the to and guidance signals actu- control ranging (RCS) main engine gimbal throttle on crew in by w ators.. control Roll Pitch and depending with provided path._) .i DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-o. sensors and additional (12 pounds).2) or the and landing radars.366 pounds). inertial and low rate unit. thrust for both and attitude redundancy equipment. manual increased sun by coast without Manual very attitude controller command A is control accomplished or RCS in a rate proporpro- tional riding hand direct displacements control of the a high-reliability gimbal for due fine to mode and rate solenoids.The environmental with the control exception system of some is identical Environmental to the equipment Gemini spacecraft small MCDONNELL 1-1 A . command attitude signals rate memory for stab_o follow-up. desires.. ! ! wheel for use during manual (total .

operates MCDONNELL 1 --1 5 . by communication and the is between a VEF/AM ground commun- transceiver. (3. requirements II days and of detailed 660 trical for has analysis I and 880 for watts:average fuel Gemini been average full Gemini two Sufficient are provided 8 day . a i or 20 watt which Primary VHF phases transmitter/ in with & foot diameter parabolic antennas. an voice antenna. earth.. contingency. being the main- Electronic tained plates at and equipment levels on cold fluid plates that temperatures through required the circulates cold space Power the of radiator.O. ication receiver omnidirectional is provided and lunar Mercury/Gemini transmission the transit a VHF/FM is by transmitter. during stage launch all are in the The super-critical are the state by for the fuel cells tanks of protected mission. center. to thesuper hydrogen insulatanks of air eliminate lunar the phases The retrograde and insulated while outer solely the Prevent tanks of liquefaction require and no inner during Low pre-launch coatings phase on oxygen insulation. network.The mission. with llnk existbetween and Telecommunications ing the ground stations crew maybe (_-5) to provide and the telecommunication continuous. television spacecraft For transmitted near-earth using Data during system. system two-way In operates voice a virtually control to primary the spacecraft data mission addition. and in the oxygen service boiloff is stored module. which cell the same Electrical as and that the used in off-loading reactants elec- addition load increased indicates watts the sequential that the for control mission Tunar provisions. operations.4 L_ differences Hydrogen and tion for the to the ECS DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME rr (Continued) in expendables.The Gemini po_er with system some provided is of essentially fuel A are III. la2 ocT. walls of emissivity are provided surfaces tanks the module to prevent boiloff is by during mounted a coolant the launch and translunar with phases.4) l&-day .1 62 1.IErORX.

shell loads. 1 transponder network. to of the The spacecraft VHF-DSIF two-way is aided transmitter doppler and by a C-Band receiver transponder operate range as located a phase by command and w coherent the DSIF Full .Conventional prcven spacecraft and of structures following designs. re-entry greater S-3 protection requirements.6) .9182 31 OCTOItEIt 962 1 DIRECT (Continued) with the DSIF on FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II i. crew allow "turn-around" tracking intercommunication during and is included and a relay transceiver aids provides include both crew HF communication V_IF beacons Gemini extravehicular operation. ablative material Shield in the The elastomeric and Nominal thermophysical proper- calculations total ablative a 1. long in the (3. Lunar mitter. This system provides for both voice and data -% transmission. the materials structure concepts module fittings demonstrated consists to in Primary each and a semimonocoque localized except the shell. Recovery and transceivers. loss m w I retains C-Band transponder is II system and in capability Lunar Gemini realized and III near-earth use the same compared systems Lunar as Two-Man are Structure modules. and Gemini with (3. Ground in the tracking module.15 factor design is applied weight is to predicted 511 pounds for Lunar heating w material ItIICDOI_INELL 1-16 . Gemini Apollo. 4 conjunction earth.ItEPORT NO.Re-entry or protection g structural is conservatively limit The re-entry. composite. employed in of in the all Mercury II and transSome III. designed whichis ]feat Protection for ever MAC ties a shallow results Thermorad are used rates. service The reinforcements is used where around as the cut-outs basic sheet are distribute modules Titanium module Gemini shell is used material for the of all beryllium modules structural the Gemini radiator Lunar command modifications heat a 20 spacecraft. the and Gemini PCM data VHF voice transceiver3 adds to DSIF telemetry provisions.7) range .

8) .The characteristics service.T. I earth system is identical to that designed system and Lunar Lunar Gemini II uses a single parachute Gemini III three parachutes. and 488 pounds for Lunar Gemini structure III.o. (Volume terminal I). Erection is accomplished springs. system similar to Project Gemini III incorporates bail-out Mercury and provides parachutes Crew hatches II except are similar to the current Gemini design in Lunar Gemini I and of for the addition provisions of a canopy in the left-hand surface..Crew escape provisions Lunar in Lunar Gemini I and II a Mechanical are identical tower escape for the crew. for The Lunar Gemini Project Gemini._) . hatch and the addition hatch lunar of crew ingress Lunar Gemini for use on the lunar two flat windows lauding The left-hand vision during III includes for downward landing. to those designed rfor Gemini. for appliThe launch material gear t_ i ] Beryllium cation escape is used for the external and to withstand IT as a radiator aerodynamic system tower legs of Lunar areas. i i . b.mOC. landing and retrograde modules are the same as Two-Man 1-17 . Systems (3. i DIRECT (Continued) FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY Gemini I and II.OIEI . Fiberglass Gemini III are covered gear fairings with an ablative the lunar E in critical during landing protect landing launch. of the service heating during module launch. of the propulsion systems for the Apollo l_'opulsion (3. H Lunar Gemini methods module II and III are designed crew recovery for landing over land. against the lunar retrograde 'structure by sim_le and is dual The lunar landing protected torsion during gear stows launch by fairings. normally on water with alternate Command-to-service to those designed = = of emergency structural and services disconnects are similar for Project Gemini.sls2 lm 1.

thrust with a tower separating from the command through after escape rocket burnout. Lateral separ- ation is obtained thrust alignment to a predetermined gear consists is dissipated Dynamic crushing eccentricity. Man Apollo terminal I).The lunar members. are the same as the Two- (Volume Module Command systems (3. landings When land impact Gemini II.300 pound-seconds the system weight Launch to provide system Escape is 27& pounds. landing three telescoping cartridges Impact energy honeycomb landing within each telescoping leg. II sad III are normally is unavoidable. 4 DIRECT (Continued) Control FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY Reaction (3. jettison _j pellant.0 . to 131 pounds and the pressurization impulse The system total is 39. •_ #aW Earth Landin6 identical designed ejection (3. stability strength during is achieved by selection of the relative of the honey- comb in each strut element.Uoc.12) .1) .10) . In Lunar Gemini III.Lunar Gemini Gemini I uses a paraglider-landing Lunar Gemini gear system to the current for parachute spacecraft. on water.The present I and II. MCDONNELL 1-18 ..m i. of four legs each by crushing aluminum Lunar Touchdo_ having (_.The characteristics landing and retrograde of the reaction modules control systems for the service. consists together Gemini ejection seats are used crew escape on Lunar Gemini The launch of a tower escape propulsion solid prorocket for of the Gemini stepped III configuration rocket motor module mounted.13) .11) .T. Propulsion (3.10.[m 31P0. seats are used for crew escape of using in Lunar the crew has the option craft with impact attenuating personnel held within parachutes emergency or landing allowables in the spaceby the load accelerations couches.The Lunar Gemini Gemini command module except reaction control are identical to the Project spacecraft that the propellant gas is changed and is increased from nitrogen from 74 pounds to helium.

The of command module size is the same re-entry constraint.. Three for are landing system.. These launch A spectrum are interior arrangements of four impact is possible systems or within versions primarily earth functions and features.. crew navigation are versions. of velocities.E. 1.. Margin (4.. final they are cryogenics less of large considered phase Trajectory command means I and during of II module desirable the (4. Sta61ng number presented .11 . While operation. translunar for the _V's. B.m[. spacecraft important is a compromise more these A minimum It is not number of stages to land during favored desirable launch landing the a mechanization the same module standpoint. is based are: from with stage-apportioned between incremental a number A._) and . earth spacecraft. arrangement.. because of desirable stage damage are and the for possible C. fulfilling presented representing the lunar incremental mission.Incremental velocity various margins stages were and assigned phases of for the Propellant each major contingency apportioned to the MCDONNELL 1-19 .4_ made separation a malfunctioning a portion AerodTnamlcs launch. -Current Gemini aerodynamic coefficients characteristics are for presented Lunar and estimates III are of the abort configuration Gemini _ith LEPS. I of trade-off modification.e.2) of The The in Volume and on involving stages..Effect L/D of the Lunar Gemini as a Gemini vehicle controlling The skip of earth seats re-entry in the achieving precludes range control. crew ejection from Lunar launch immediate of earth (4. system. propellant selected of combinations.2 31OCTOI(II Ig$2 L DIRECT (Continued) Module Size and FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu. factors. degrees of i.Results Spacecraft studies :2 (4.4 Command as the Gemini this Arrangement (4. and escape system.3) by than earth system of the use the storables requirement. reduced during laadihg because Analysis is offset ignition .

extreme is not based strength analyzed of Whenever and structure Gemini detail missile utilized made where data extrapolation applicable.. . is assure associated which in the are with increaslng in the meteoroid tankage analysis. i-3 is DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME !1 (Continued) The results but (4. for of the separated pressur- Meteoroid by low density and by Protection insulation. dosage. realistic. of various and the protection shells. tanks to How- multiple-wall of the tankage expose weight open propulsion It is shown modules that the meteoroid impact. on airplane and/or or the calculations experience utilized.6) square as indicate that .7) provide In the inherent lower effect meteoroid protection degrees structural propellant ized are ever.55 to to is 18_. Weight derived Gemini protection weights to well within the contingencies of confidence included a high degree stage performance Derivation possible Detail system Mercury (4. the the ends crew.In the command module. individual _1odule from Radiation 1. Shielding the shielding for for the the for the in Two-Man Lunar a first be the approximation for the computing Gemini.The that the ten percent margins shielding The margin should specified range is the in Reference 8.a2 310CT00E0 1062 1. .4 about grams the For Apollo Gemini per same minimui_l inherent of aluminum. multiple walls. direct volume provided the modules.O[rOOTNO. be can for used Lunar values shown eyes eye entire mission of Two-Man will similar to that in the navigation position Apollo. non-optimum factors MCDONNELL 1-2O .4 mission. included..8)by The weights of of the Lunar design Gemini chauges spacecraft to current are where data. provided in equivalent Lunar centimeter for the shielding Gemini that Two-_%an in Apollo. (4. and evaluation specific on design calculations schematics data are are must based are be layouts.

l.1 a modified Con_mand Module Gemini .T. cooling water. and panel increased.. Additional for oxygen.. corresponding Figure 2-2. I. SPACECRAFT Three DIRECT CONFIGURATIONS general FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLoMe. and Lunar III.[. Gemini to Figure 2-1.CONFIDENTIAL IE. are the same as those presented utilize different versions These configurations command modules. tankage control fUel and tankage C. increased without change B.o.12 3. of modi- fied Gemini 2.oc.. similar command to the configuration replacing velocity spacecraft 2. . changing and additional basic system. spacecraft arrangements are shown shown in Figures in Volume conical 2-i and 2-2. procedures of these requirements. Earth entry attitude to basic system. corresponding kmar spacecraft A.2 2. Gemini I. See Figures 2-3 and 3-27. These modifications afterbody shingles Heat shield thickness face corrugated lation density panels increased. do. Section They are geometrically modified of Volume operational Volume I. of these are selected of extent as representative and capability. MCDONNELL CONFIDENTIAL 2-1 . of trade-offs may be made as Lunar in terms Gemini to of modification They are identified Gemini I and If. Aut0-sextant vice module without and other navigation with displays added and guidance in service components added to ser- module and co_nand module. replaced with single insu- covered with ablative material. with modules the 33 degree increment con_nand module and major in Stage sequencing. radiator area added in service module D. I involves the minimum modification to the present are: Gemini of the three versions selected..Conceptual design studies to evaluate lunar landing the ability mission of spacecraft to perform arrangements the two-man provide show Three that a number of alternative the required which capability. however.

....___J " T_ i . __ ' . _ 1 : t '_ • .

I 0 \ \ °_.... --uamO "0 <_" _>- ILl --.- "Z :_ "¢[ ._.J /i" _.u n. = I I.J :: .I _3 z .U o "_ -_ o _f _/1/_" i \ ' !J \ D > U.Z Z U m _ o= • _" _3 0 = I.I _o m w m .. /._ ¢kZ O"K __ n..

... Off Add Add side I. 2-4. '""_:i"_ ._.A R[r0iT.. shown in Figure Gemini improved than navlgation Lunar Gemini communications The additional systems earth landing system modifications Replace 84 foot paragllder diameter landing to and landing gear earth for landing Gemini.. . !_:'._ (.:... THICK) with FIGURE associated 2-3 dis- THICK) provisions added to added command for to service module module. :.... 2. restricts parachute water developed normal sites. canopy NSULATION (._... on right hand supplies insulation on left visual for of IMU Lunar shorter and and portable bubble garments side radiation system lunar and hand mirror to provide strap-down crew gyros reference backup Gemini during and sun landing._w_l._!_-._i_ /.25 IN.0. .. .e interior Lunar lighter are • Ae arrangement II has I is and I. mission duration._:. _. trackers...38 TO IN. _.._:.00 E._ :L_... .-..00 8 TITANIUM CORRUGATION //STITCH WELDED __. system This with change single.:._!....-. llZ g 31OCTOl[t I!i2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME. DEEP) FLEX RFIO0 (1.'::_:._.008 ....... and a star 'It_. H...1 (Continued) LUNAR GEMINI I AND Tr TYPICAL MAC AFTERBODY HEAT PROTECTION TITANIUM PANEL S-3 ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITE [. DSIF plays F. G... detectors. _CDONNELL 2-4 ._. Add communication and load controls expendable ECS._.....

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT !"_'>CONTRO" ELECTRONICS UNIT CACE) : i/ BUBBLE CANOPY __ \ i"I_/--_ ..AN... • T r CENTER / BAY ML..._._.'ATES// .' (ACE) • ... DROGUE UTE_.i-.o11_ 9 31 oc_om _. FAI._I SUN SENSOR (2 REQ'D..._ DIRECT FLIGHT LUNAR APOLLO GEMINI 1" STUDY vO-UME. L.F o_NIANTENNA \ "-_ STOWED RCS PRESSURANTr' RCS PRESSURANT _ _ / 2 FUEL\ TANKS I PARAGLIDER 15° UNOBSTRU.POWER INVE.H._..... V.L .OL.. ) z16o.. CO._ SUPPL'._/_"fl l ' i ..EAD \ COLD.O.tE_o.Y..MORTAR__ C..D C'_./_....TER CNEST SUPPORT. WITH EQUIPMENT P.L ._'._ \ INSTRUMENT _.2o LANDING OXIDIZER TANKS N204 __ REACTION EXISTING GEMINI TANKS CONTROL TAPE SYSTE RECORDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM / SKID (FWD.. .M LANDING GEAR CLEARANCE LINE OXIDIZER TANKS (N.CT.._ JECTED _ E ArrER _....5 _/ FIGURE 2-4 MCDONNELL 2-5 .) 4 ""t Z132.XTEND. AT _.

ANOING LAND.2o Z132.44 RADIATION GARMENTS & ( FOR LUN TE & MORTAR qTENNA\.H..) INVERTER (ACE) CHEST& PAIRING HEAD SUPPORT. R. AFTER LA! SERVICE / MODULE / UNAR ANDING / 13 ° \ LUNAR" 2 REQ'D.5( Z104.00 Z 10.) CONTROL TAPE SY / r. O2 RECHARG/_J__ .APOLLO EMINI 1" STUDY VOLUME II :RANGEMENT \ THRUST CONTROLLER FOR LUNAR LANDING rROL ELECTRONICS UNIT (ACE) BUBBLE WERSUPPLY RO (M.ARANCE LINE OXIDIZER TANKS (N204) RCS PRESSURANT-_ (MMH ' 129./ / RECORDER-_ / LANDING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM 2-4 SKID (AFT) 0 20 40 60 FIGURE L_.H.H. l I I I I sc. CREWMAN " _DING GEAR -'. / .)-- LANDING REACTION SKID (FWD."_ j. CREWMAN AT _. ) _. / L" j /L_ z16o.Le ININCH_ VELL 2-5 . EJECTED LUNAR.. \ .50 SECONDARY OXYGEN (2 REQ'D.3.NT PANEL _ LUNAR LANDING INSTRUMENT PANEL _! \j (5 X SCALE) LUNAR EGRESS PACKAGE Z104.-_ _ \ \ _ FUEL TANKS " t 2/• STOWED PARAGLIDER-_ CHEST SUPPORT_ \ LUNAR 02 H20 TANK 15 ° UNOBSTRUCTED sunSENSO. (2 REQ'D. L.50 AT _.

50 Z104.. CABIN FAN IVER ..H.. ?:! I I _ I i I FOLDOUT FRAME 4 INCHES ._' _.50 Z160..Z160._C R.:_." !/ \_"PnL -_ / /--INERTIAL SU.. EQUIPMENT BAY -' 60 80 100 . EQUIPMENT POWER SUPPLY _-LUNAR EGRESS BAY PACKAGE ENTS & OVERSHOES "OR LUNAR EGRESS F-CHARTS / '._NTROLAND OLANDING POST-LANDING / :\/ ! \\__i_ .50 INERTIAL PLATFORM POWER SUPPLY-. REAR-VIEWMIRROR FLIGHT C.-_. POWER PAN_L--_\\7\ \ '. _-..50 OXYGEN t---I Z132.._..H.. " i \ INERTIAL " GUIDANCE PLATFORM POWER SUPPLY _./ECS I_i i ___ :O::EN ::: ::CE N • iIt 52-79702BATTERY (3 REQ'D. _ __ _ . O0 FOOD AND WASTE 16 AND 35MM LUNAR EGRESS RECHARGE CAMERA STOWAGE SPHERICAL TANK I 1._._.._. :AMERA TANK : -1_'-__ _(2 REQ'D.00 Z132._ LONGITUDINAL INERTIAL AC_"LEROMETER REFERENCE AND t'LATFORM ELECTRONICS AND ': _._.) "" I _- POWER SUPPLY. AND STAR CATALOG STOWAGE Z104.'1_ L._ _ / / _:'-"-_"-_-_J I.T COMPRESSOR _ "._'_j_ . .) j '_.

a description of the resulting 2. Replace single parachute parachutes. shield and 38 inch diameter ized volume. Replace Apollo Gemini systems.1 B.. crewman at water site. has an alternate escape system_ lunar landing changes are: crew arrangement.1 A.t. is presented in the following paragraphs. the appropriate systems sections in this report. auto sextant in service module with manual sextant in command C. landing system with three simultaneously Normal deployed landing B.s. Replace rocket. C. Gemini may be and The interior Specific Gemini details of necessary power changes and additions volumes to the basic and operation their corresponding found under weights. when compared to Lunar Gemini II. data processing and near-earth communication systems with The interior Lunar Gemini landing arrangement of Lunar Gemini II is shown in Figure 2-5.1. Add windows. lII is shown in Figure 2-6. requirements. have at ground controls and displays for left-hand to sit up and direct vision arrangement during lunar of Lunar landing. heat Modified ballistic. (Continued) Replace module. These further A._l [_rwucnl I IAL A mo. DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME. however. site. wo. General Configuration 20 degree. earth III. cylindrical Pressur- MCOONNELL 2-6 . 100 cubic feet. Add impact attenuation Emergency landing system to crew seats. circular cone with 90 inch diameter section at the apex. and earth launch system.s 31 OCTOIEfl 1962 2. crew ejection Retain seat escape system with tower-mounted launch escape personal parachutes.

._ _ OXIDIZER \ (N204_ _ _\. ONE FT. INSTRUMENT ( _ J) PANEL _ ATTITUDE CONTROL ATTITI SUN SENS_ I)'1) OXIDIZER TANKS(N204) DROGUE CHUTE / FUEL TANKS L[.UTE _ ___ _ OMNI ANTENNA ---13S../FI FIGURE 2-5 MCDONNELL 2-7 FOLDOUI_ F!_-_ / .S. 8../_ (MMH) ANTENNA / RECORDER ECS CANISTER PRESSURANT & MORTAR /'_'|TAPE --.A. OF LH CREWMAN AT LUNAR LANDING STATION "" OPTICAL MANUAL MEASUREMENT SEXTANT \ UNIT & TELESCOPE MEASUREMENT UNIT \ • EARTH VHF LANDING SYSTEM . D _ARAC.._ONPiOENYtAI_- DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME Ir LUNAR GEMINI "iT INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT 55 ° LUNAR LANDING VISION BUBBLE CANOPY FAIRING EJECTED AFTER LAUNCH SERVICE INSTRUMENT PAN (LUNAR LANDING' INSTRUMENT PANEL THRUST CONTROL COP & HEAl ./ LUNAR EGRESS PACKAGE ) (_ (_ INERTIAL --- AT _. _.

Yd/ 'tZ._ jH FIGURE 2-5 OF ELECTRONIC UNITS "CONTROL ELECTRONICS 2-? EOLDOUq_./(R VIEW MIRROR ABL E) ETRACT & HEAD SUPPORT INSTRUMENT PANI AA _._-_ "_." - _ VHF/FM TRANSCEIVER BAYS FORWARD ECS CANISTER LANDING GEAR I(-\J L_. OF LH CREWMAN AR LANDING STATION I(-I( AT ft.._ -A ' i(__/ i:J/i _ CHESTSUPPORT-. / _ 16 &35MM CAMERASTOWAGE LUNAR EGRESS KIT OXYGEN RECHARGE .'N.' _ "_ J" ?' // RADIATION OVERSHOES GARMENTS FOR LUNAR & MULTIPLEXER--_'_L _-'13/' POWER SUPPLY ELECTRONICS y -"I-"_ J_I"M. \ _ .Y-_C "_ -_..VOLUME II 55 a LUNAR LANDING VISION IMU BAC_ UNAR LANDING INSTRUMENT PANEL LONGITUr SERVICE MODULE MOLD LINE HORI ELEC SERVICE MODULE 13° LUNAR LANDING/_ INSTRUMENT PANEL (LUNAR LANDING) "THRUST CONTROL rUDE CONTROL LL (S X SCALE) VISION REAR ./. OF RH CREWMAN _LUNAR EGRESS PACKAGI _E THRUST CONTROL FOR LUNAR LANDING FOOD & WASTE STOWAGE ATTITUDE CONTROL ./. TANK __I ' ../"_\_.'_. FRAME .._ _r-'_"_ WATER TANK _ \\\..__ /_i L_L._ "_-_ ATTITUDE CONTROL----________.\ (:. /- TELEVISION . CHARTS CATALOG CAMERA & STAR _\ "/__/2_ )} [_/_ t".

J" _LUNAR REWMAN SQUIB _OL _NDING WASTE STOWAGE • 35MM CAMERA STOWAGE LUNAR EGRESS KIT OXYGEN RECHARGE TANK / . PANEL BACK UP. .-_---POWER ._L.. _ /A. HF VOICE BATTERI_. TELEVISION CHARTS . . i.i ./ TRANSCEIVER EQUIPMENT STOWED IN SCALE EQUIPMENT BAY IN iNCHES & "t RADIATION / / _ OVERSHOES EGRESS VHF/FM SCIENTIFIC III4 CENTER LANDING GEAR BAYS FORWARD OF ELECTRONIC UNITS ONTROL ELECTRONICS .t ELECTRONICSUNITDELETED MULTIPLEXER 1313 LEFT HAND EQUIPMENT BAYS UHF/FM _.I'" .[_..____.-. . / CATALOG CAMERA & STAR " RIGHT HI LEVEL COMMUTATOR ¢ -_ _ _ (_(.._3...IMUBACKUP INERTIAL _ISTRUMENT PANEL LONGIT ULE HORIZON REFERENCE U DINAL & i> ._ MAIN BATTERIES EGRESS PACKAGE _UHF RECOVERY BEACON TRANSCEIVER t J : LOW LEVEL COMMUTATOR HAND EQUIPMENT BAYS • ___----- c:) H AN TELESCOPE 0 20 40 60 80 100 GARMENTS FOR LUNAR _.y.-' SCANNE /__ R _f-_ 4._..---=. ' _"-. '" "" iNSTRUMENT PANEL TRAHSCEIVERS__// _._.

!112 31ICTiI[I t!|2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LUNAR INTERIOR GEMINI ZE ARRANGEMENT SCIENTIFIC IN DROGUE CHUTE -. DIA.EA_ I .L_ F: RA DI AT ION GARMENT & OVERSHOES STORAGE / SEAT ATTENUATORS CONTROL PORTABLE RECHARGE ECSOXYGEN TANK ELE [_ G CONTROL ELECTRONICS / // COUCH OXYGEN ADJUSTABLE I TANKS SHOCK PORTABLE SURVIVAL ATTENUATED ECS PACKAGE PACK. LANDING PA EARTH OGUE CHUTE & M A'A INERTIAL RCSFUEL MEASI. (ONE COMPRISING CHUTE & PERSONAL MAN) (:(: FIGURE 2-6 MCDONNELL 2-8 FOLDOUT. (MANUA RCS OXIDIZER (N204) ( RCSPRESSURANT(He) HF WATER TAPE RECORDER ANTENNA (.I|POil NO. f. INSTRUMENT PANELS F CONTAINERS 52 ° HAl' 13I} Ft EXISTING ECS / F.L ANDI & MORTAR / LUNAR LANDING 5X INSTRUMENT SCALE PANEL NG PARACHUTES -VHF OMNI ANTENNA EQU LAt WAT / SUN SENSOR 3- 71 FT.

_ PARACHUTES SYSTEM -----_) OMNI ANTENNA WATE R CONTAINE RS LANDING CHUTE & MORTAR INERTIAL RCS FUEL MEASUREMENT UNIT I11) OPTICAL (MANUAL 3XIDIZER (N204) MEASUREMENT UNIT SEXTANT & TELESCOPE) C / ESSURANT (He) INSTRUMENT . GEAR BAYS_ t__ _\ / _ (_ "_' / __ . L PACKAGE (ONE % VHF/FM TRANSCEIVER (REPLACE LANDING GEAR DAMPER) / 16 & 3SMM CAMERA STO WAG E I" I" FIGURE 2-6 ""--Jr: /ELL 2-8 .71 FT.RELAY TRANSCEIVER MULTIPLEXERITHESE / UNITS REPLACE THE IMU PANELSI_ PATCH PANEL 1 TRANSCEIVER UHF/AM HF ANTENNA _'R CONTAINERS 52 ° INSTRUMENT PANEL LUNAR LANDING) HAND TELESCOPE (STOWED) TELEVISION F COMP UTER TIMER < TING ECS }t FL_ !" RADIAT ION GARMENT & OVERSHOES STORAGE SEAT PORTABLE CAMERA POWER SUPPLY ELECTRONICS TRANSEARTH SCIENTIFIC IN LANDINI GEAR BAYS OXYGEN TANKS COUCH / PERSONAL MAN) ATTENUATORS CONTROL PORTABLE RECHARGE ECSOXYGEN TANK 3K ATTENUATED ABLE ECS PACK.r APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II _INI ZE RANGEMENT IMU BACK-UI REt LONGITUDINA (HORIZO SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT STORAG E ELECTR _RACHUTES -VHF / LUNAR LANDING INSTRUMENT PANEL SX SCALE SUN SENSOR IN LANDING 3 . EARTH )ROGUE DIA.

.. _ cTrC_ '!. r::_P"_ _L-.. -R LANDING :3 AXiS SQUIB HF VOICE "" _':'_"L /" . . _ q._\ -_._.... _ \ .....:_'"_ /# ..F. . 20 l 40 60 80 100 PYROTECHNIC OPEN _ ! SCALE .._ \ 132.' ! . _ DOOR GARMENT & OVERSHOES ACTUATOR 0 I ..'::VE L COIM4 UTATOR STOWAGE RIGHT I'-i '-'ij/_-'_[ L.<. I _ _ _1l_ ..UP I_" ./DELETED) BACK. LUNAR CONTROLLER /j \ _ I r / t".J' S .'_. "'_'_'_.. • // _.ERENCE._ " _-_32"_ % "0 3.' r"- " .1.50 UHF EQUIPMENT IDENTICAL TO ORBITAL GEMINI SPACECRAFT HAS BEEN OMITTED FOR CLARITY. I _ ._'..%. / ' _"/_---_ _._X _ . 104. EXER I" I" LEFT HAND EQUIPMENT BAYS '--i--' ||IJ CENTER EQUIPMENT BAY U H F/FM REPLACE THE IMU .60oo . CONTR BATTERIES RECOVERY BEACON TRANSCEIVER-.I _ J IN INCHES £_c_a__ FP.. \\ OWER PANEL RE./_:-_".J..... ] -_ FOOD (LUNAR TV CAMERA CORD PAN EL C-BAN D B EACON EXTENSION / Hi LEVEL COMMUTATOR _. "-_..TCONTi / /_ ELECTRONICS POWER SUPPLy ACE INVERTER ACE _ ._l_ ._ '_-/.o CONTROL . j/ "_. ""'7"_ "_.....-..50 7-_4._'_ _--./L LANDING) STOWAGE & WASTE __ \ 16 & 35MM STOWAGE _ CAMERA -RADIATION ROTARY -'---.._ r INSTRUMENT "_-_ %%%. _+.. LONGITUDINAL mORIZON SCANNER ELECTRONIC UNITS _ . uT AM( 3 ._. /f 7- MULT. _--._..-._:.... -- . V/""-..@ _" IT_ .: "_. HAND EQUIPMENT BAYS % I:.

II are mounted are on shown displays for all Lunar launch. displays: re-entry and are flight shown for in controls Figure and 2-7.9102 31OCTOi[i 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voluME. system: I . G. MCDONNELL 2-9 . with within the pressurized E.left-hand of landing of landing 2. L/Dma x = 0. landing 2-4 and displays cabin the at Lunar are Gemini shown in Ill are mounted 2-6. Separation cutting F. module tower andclustered parachute C.. Controls i. I and launch.1 (Continued) Earth i. Lunar with with crewman area ares. launch Lunar Lunar escape systems: II . landin_ landing crew stations: II . sits and on back of launch couch supine right-hand crewman D.crew in side-by-side canopy# with left-hand crewman supine Lunar prone with Gemini on seat I and with head bubble area. from Figure service module accomplished around the dual shaped charge action three positions interface.Gemini and paraglider and landing for gear system with landing Lunar Gemini seat ejection personnel parachutes back-up. Hypersonic Earth i. Gemini versions landing 2.command system.|(PO|TflO.25. 2. right-hand crewman mirror Gemini direct mirror and view III vision view of landing . Be Gemini Gemini I and III .crew ejection with seats abort and personal parachutes. Lunar the displays module and 2-5 for and Lunar Gemini during service retracted respectively.1. Lunar I. 2. These in Figure 3.

_ O _ 121 Z O U .! | | u.. _ tn 0 _ .1 Z • _ Z n_ i tt) Ul a __.

025 thick on Gemini I and II.008 corrugation. /// composite.. 1. 2. . . emergency Hydraulic snubbing of crew couches in Figure 2-8.C. Figures show weight Structure and volume comparisons. 71 foot diameter under for use under IIINormal three eminent impact Lunar Gemini parachutes. 2. .040 thick on Gemini C. Heat shield .010 skin and . DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-uME.010 skin and De Outer shingles . System with ejection ground seat and personnel conditions.single 84 foot diameter to water impacts Gemini parachute. . Pressure . . .2 A. Thermorad S-3 elastomeric titanium composite.008 skin and Ee .S1 inches thick on fiberglass 2..o. .A.M.1.12 OCT. Temperature MCDONNELL 2-ii . Thermorad S-3 elastomeric support.13 contains a detailed description of these systems. Pressure walls .C.010 corrugation.5 psi normal.M. Pressure bulkheads •OlO corrugation.70o +_8_ F 3 1/2 psi emergency.single-faced titanium corrugations. . 3 A.10 to 1.A.20 to •31 inches thick on single-faced corrugations.020 and III. (Continued) Lunar Gemini is restricted parachutes e II . Environmental Control honeycomb Atmosphere i. 2-9 alternate land landing as shown Section and 2-10 3.. .A mo. eminent permits simultaneously deployed landings are in water with crew bail-out ground impact conditions. i. BI Titanium •032 and sheet metal stringers . m .single-faced titanium corrugation.

nT..I|.lIIt 31ICTII[I !|12 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. PORTABLE ECS ONE MAN SURVIVAL PACKAGE PERSONAL PARACHUTE P i | l! i FIGURE 2-8 ! MCDONNELL 2-12 .o.0 STROKE L L L mJ.EII L L LUNAR L GEMINI III COUCH ATTENUATION COUCH POSITION FOR LAUNCH OR RE-ENTRY AND TERMINAL LANDING HYDRAULIC IMPACT COUCH STOWED ATTENUATION CYLINDER 6.

PROVISIONS FT3 VOLUME /_ 16.2 LB. LUNAR GEMINI TIT EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI GEMINI VS.2lti2 31OCTII[I DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.u.81 LB.3 /_ WEIGHT 137.01 LB. ONLY) +2.8 LB..1 VOLUME 5. LUNAR GEMINI TIT PARAGLIDER PARACHUTE DROGUE SYSTEM AND BACK-UP ADD PARACHUTE & DROGUE MISC. • • • VOLUME //_ 16. GEAR SYSTEM REMOVE DROGUE • ADD 84. 3 • • REMOVE MAIN NOSE LANDING REMOVE ADD ADD AND GEAR SYSTEM SYSTEM (3 MAIN) SYSTEM SYSTEM +6.4 -634. STRUCTURE OR //_SYSTEM SAME FOR LUNAR GEMINI ! FIGURE 2-10 MCDONNELL 2-13 .IE.60 LB.9 SYSTEM & --534.. • • WEIGHT 771. VOLUME & WEIGHT CIRCUITRY. • REMOVE MAIN & NOSE LANDING -230.3 +222. VOLUME 10.0 +25.ll EARTH LANDING 2 MAN 14 DAY EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI AND RECOVERY GEMINI SYSTEMS COMPARISON 11" LUNAR WT LB GEMINI]][ EARTH ORBITAL VS..2 FT DIA SINGLE PARACHUTE SYSTEM • ADD 18.62 FT.0 /_ WEIGHT 262. COMPONENTS ADD TOWER ABORT SYSTEM (6_o OF LANDING WT.4 TOTAL -509.4 FT DIA DROGUE ADD PARACHUTE PARACHUTE SYSTEM PARAGLIDER +105. LUNAR GEMINI • WEIGHT 771.0 3060 (REF.62 FT3 • & DROGUE MISC COMPONENTS • INCREASE RECOVERY /_WEIGHT /_ DOES NOT INCLUDE CIRCUITRY. AND WEIGHT STRUCTURE OR MOUNTING SYSTEM..9 +15.81 LB. LB.58 +7. VOLUME SAME FOR LUNAR GEMINIZ FIGURE 2-9 EARTH LANDING AND RECOVERY SYSTEMS COMPARISON EARTH ORBITAL 2 MAN 14 DAY WT. 3 -230.50 FT.I.) INCREASE RECOVERY AIDS //_ WEIGHT DOES NOT INCLUDE MOUNTING PROVISIONS.9 -534.6 AIDS TOTAL +2.

metabolic and solar heat : = 2. 8. 3. Stringers Pressure RF-300 insulated compartment by 0.3 3.lithium . 6.38 by 1.7.0 RF-700 on bulkhead. 8. equipment utilizes thermal from inhabited cooling by service module Re-entry capacity cooling . B.11. 10. Heat provided Metabolic heat by electrical equipment. .0 RF-1000 top and bottom MCDONNELL 2-1 & . 9. 11.activated E W I 13. 7. 7.55 + 20% Composition Crew 02 consumption Cabin leakage rate .crew by secondary 9.6 mm Hg maximum 2. i0.20 lbs. 4.15 lb/hr module in two containers .nominal Normal 02 supply .02 rate . 5.condensation Temperature i.stored Emergency and re-entry pressure rate- in service 02 supply . Humidity control Control .1.3 ib/man hydroxide charcoal and wlck-type water separation day CO 2 production CO 2 removal Odor removal .35 MIN-K-501 insulated strips on side walls. 6.LJ RrPORT NO.1. 9162 31 OCTOBFR 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II 2. gaseous CO 2 partial . W (Continued) Relative humidity . and 1. .300 btu/man/day and evaporation Crew cooled by ventilation Atmosphere Equipment Equipment 0S-139 cooled by 0S-139 heat exchanger cooled by 0S-139 isolated cold plates volume system 02. 4.8 lb/man day 0. 5.

module. 2. B.. orientation .5 A.91. DSIF receivers Near-earth HFvoice C-band VHF/AM and recovery beacon. E. F. Inverters requirements in co_m_nd 2.1.s62 . beacon. and FM transmitter. VHFrecovery.1.C. C. Intercom relay transceiver. separate batteries for pyrotechnic located in command B. 3. 2.Sun-Canopus memory. Attitude Spacecraft module toward Yaw axis in the sun-Canopus-spacecraft held to + 5 degrees.oM. Section 2.A I[p01 . detailed descriptions Of these systems.roll axis on sun line with co_nand plane. C. Five primary firing batteries and three module. system using su_ and star sensors and B.2 ocI.1./rec.. Attitude Re-entry orientation reaction controls r MCDONNELL 2--1 5 . 2. Fuel cells with cryogenically for A..6 A. C. Transit 1. Conem_r_Lcations and transmitters. DIRECT Electrical Power FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. power stored reactants located located in service module. Lunar Gemini I . B. trans.4 A.Autosextant Lunar Gemini dlgital II and III- (in service module) sextant and dlgital module) computer and manual (in command computer Control transit sun. identical to Gemini.0.5 contains Navigation Attitude inertial reference platform guidance: .7 A.1. D.

.1. • MCDONNELL 2-1 6 . _m DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II 2. Section .o.1.t.m_ 3_ oc..mo_. Weight for these items are shown in Figure 2-11 and 2-12.8 In Volume Crew Support I. except I and II include kit that is not included comparisons in Lunar Gemini III or Two-ManApollo.These items are essentially that Lunar Gemini the same as those mentioned a bail-out and volume 2.

0 +12.0 -6.20.270. WEIGHT 908.3 +12.4 + 1.S.j VS. FIGURE 2-12 2-17 DOES NOT INCLUDE CIRCUITRY. +158.09 LB.w |[PORT NO.3 _ | J TOTAL . PORTABLE RECHARGE PROVISIONS • ADD SOLAR RADIATION & OVERSHOES • ADD INFLIGHT • ADD PRIVACY = = • INCREASE DRINKING CONTAINER VOLUME 33. STRUCTURE OR MOUNTING PROVISIONS FIGURE 2-11 CREW SYSTEMS COMPARISON EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI 2 MAN 14 DAY EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI • ADD SHOCK ATTENUATED SEATS (2 REQ.4 +79.0 /_ WEIGHT 1046.6 /_WEIGHT ii= LB. CIRCUITRY.O +29.O -26.5 LB. STRUCTURE OR MOUNTI MCDONNELL . NG PROVISIONS.3 -12. BACKPACKS & +79.0 +1.0 & CONTAINER PARACHUTES LJ E J • REDUCE PERSONAL /_ WEIGHT DOES NOT INCLUDE TOTAL .) • INCREASE PRESSURE SUITS • ADD PORTABLE E.S.75 FT.117. LB.C.0 -6. 9182 310CTOlEt t962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO COMPARISON VS. LUNAR GEMINI 111r LUNAR GmlNI 1_r WT.8 +8.00 FT.0 REPAIR KIT CURTAIN WATER & +29.0 VOLUME 38.60 LB.C.4 36.1 o12.3 .49 LB.3 • INCREASE PERSONNEL COMMUNICATIONS • REDUCE FOOD UNITS +4.01 FT.3 INCREASE DRINKING r !: ++:_ k_ • INCREASE PERSONNEL COMMUNICATIONS UNITS • REMOVE EJECTION SEATS • REDUCE FOOD AND CONTAINER • REDUCE PERSONAL PARACHUTES • REMOVE EGRESS KITS VOLUME +4.0 +1.09 LB.0 u -'!!!!_ _ + WEIGHT /_ 929.8 GARMENTS +8.75 FT. INFLIGHT REPAIR KIT CURTAIN WATER & CONTAINER • ADD PRIVACY VOLUME 33. PRESSURE SUITS E. BACKPACKS & RECHARGE PROVISIONS • ADD SOLAR RADIATION GARMENTS & OVERSHOES • ADD E. LUNAR STUDY VOLUME II CREW SYSTEMS L_ 2 MAN 14 DAY EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI GEMINIZ& ]lZ LUNAR GEMINI TAND'n" • INCREASE • ADD WEIGHT /_ 929.

changes due to of the above and minor structural and equipment module the operational presented and structural features 2. Section MCDONNELL 2-18 . are the same as those in Volume I. action is smaller to accommodate the smaller shaped-charge The are interseparation from the command strap tie positions module about is by dual. and the addition lunar landing I and II.2). II and III. module I.2 modules degrees Service Module - Figure 2-13 shows the general This module arrangement of the service cone of 39 1/2 features as for Lunar Gemini half-angle. is a truncated It is the same length shown for the Two-Mhn interface Separation diameter and includes (Volume the same basic I. the service for the items noted differences.2.A DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II 2. umbllicals connected points. The com- mand-to-service-module Gemini cutting configuration. modules are identical for all versions. straps and the shaped charges simultaneously ignited at the three Other than sectant L In Lunar Gemini Except weight service slightly different equipment arrangement3the of extendable addition of an autoinstruments in Lunar Gemini I. Section the service Apollo 2. m are integral by continuous with the tension cord fusing. at three tension the interface.

TRANSEARTH MIDCOURSE AND REACTION CONTROLS (TWO SYSTEMS 180° OPP. AUTOMATIC SEXTANT ON CONFIG.A DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LUNAR GEMINI SERVICE MODULE FUEL CELLS AND REACTANT SUPPLY EQUIPMEN" \ t B ULLAGE. I ONLY) FIGURE 2-13 MCDONNELL hOLDOUT FRAME.) CANOPUS ECS WATER ECS SUPERCRITICAL BREATHING OXYGEN SUPPLY S A-A l (REQ'D. I 2-19 .

ON CONFIG. ._._ME II CE MODULE REACTION CONTROL ENGINES MIDCOURSE TPANSEARTH CORRECTION ENGINES_ PRESSURANT DSIF COMMUNICATIONS FUEL ANTENNA (2 REQ_D._ LUNAR LANDING INSTRUMENTS LUNAR GEMINI Z & "n'ONLY Q TANK(He) TANK (MMH) ROLL MOMENTUI_ _ _ WHEEL OXIDIZER (N204) TANK DSIF EQUIPMENT (REQ D.APOLLO _R GEMINI STUDY vo-.. I ) +18__ FIGURE 2-13 NNE'LL 2-i 9 _6_uT FJtAME ._.

RTH MIDCOURSE ENGIN PRESSURANT TANKS (FOUR REQ'D. I .) / CANOPUS AUTOMATIC OSiF COMMUNiCATiONS PARABOLIC ANTENNA (TWO REQ'D. ) NK(He) (He) H) OXIDIZER TANKS (THREE REQ'D.ENGINES .) 20 SENSORS ) I ONLY (TWO REQ'D. I _ I SCALE IN INCHES _OL OUT 3 .) (N204) } © REACTION CONTROL ENGINES FUEL (THREE TANK (MMH) REQ'D. CONFIGURATION SEXTANT 40 60 80 _100 l i I .

Landing are in the system with crewman wlth crew shown normal located a bubble rotated windows crewman visibility in Figure seated Just for Lunar Gemini I.3.This module is identical to that shown and described in Volume ! rVlCJ_ONI_IEI-L 2-20 . i J procedures the those described in Volume U 2. II and I and lunar III II and crew the stations right- Lunar during hand with man face landing crewman a mirror 2-14. 2. a direct Lunar of the left-hand of the III is provided the canopy into permits position.The lunar landing configuration with consists landing manclearI. 2. same as operation. Section Module 2.. command The before and module.5.SZ 31OCTOBER 1902 w z DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo_o. .. module lunar" surface described landing and with the the launch integral platform landing for gear lunar is detached launch of the from trans- service serves as configuration. crewman Gemini terminal module is provided I and II. 6 Module Section 2. Section propulsion touchdown landing located on the is used gear final lunar are surface. euver ances. service terminal terminal landing landing This module module extended for gear. position outside which a prone Lunar and the Gemini provide retain surface The view Gemini lunar visibility crewsura hori- hatch window.0 S. shown and geometry.5 Retrosrade I.RP0OT.4. as right-hand for Lunar The the earth | .3 | Terminal in Volume Lunar _in I..4 of Landin6 Configuration module in and the . vision an of lunar provides and The with redesigned zon with hatch the allowing direct in view surface left-hand positioned a mirror upright the seated position. - This module is identical to that shown and de- L_ scribed 2.

. \. LL .._-. i J / i I iiE ! _r- >0 k- 3 0 8 [ ... L "_- . _...:'-:--_--_._._'_-:: ._....._.___ .. "._" . _.'_ -.-_ •--<" " -_' [ :"-:"" " | [ .... _- 1 .._±.__'_" .. -"_.. . ' ".'_. '.. . .'.. / .". / .. . / "? _ ._. -.-'L ..._ "_ "'_-: ___....i / / %_ _ ?. '- [ "_ "' ..._.

6 presented are the Weight Summary 2-1. module and III. 2. Section are Two-Man craft command except that sidewalls revised accommodate modules. CONFIDENfflAL . design mission.__ .8. is lunar as in in Table the to case the are 2-2 of for Two- The the Man abort condition is the that lunar landing mission on the Apollo.. and Apollo the retrograde spacedifferent presented service in Volume module I. . are in Table same as service terminal 4..Weight The summaries module. I mission 2-3 GEMINI HISTORY MISSION normally transferred module 2-] while lunar Lunar Table reflects history for a normal mission...- i I i A DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME. SERVICE COMMAND NORMAL ON PAD LAUNCH PORTION -41 MISSION MODULE 65_ MODULE EQUIPMENT 1177 SERVICE MODULE 22192 TERMINAL LANDING MODUL 6115 -3380 -2650 E RETRO MODULE 53787 -53787 LES & TOTAL 91237 -58608 32629 -2650 -147 29832 -16957 -16 -376 -103 10380 -3712 -17 6651 -1026 5625 FAIRING 1400 -1400 TOTAL EXPENDED ITEMS FOR FIRST OF MISSION (SAME AS ABORT) LUNAR T OUCH DOWN LESS: INERT ECS EXPENDABLES SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT TRANSFER LUNAR LAUNCH LESS: LAUNCH PROPELLANT RCS AND ULLAGE BEGIN TRAHSEARTH LESS: MIDCOURSE RCS CORRECTION -147 +85 -18957 -16 -376 -103 -972 -17 6651 -1026 5625 -2740 -65 WEIGHT AT STAGING LESS: INERT ECS EXPENDABLES WEIGHT AT EARTH RE-ENTRY PROPULSION CAPABILITY LESS: SPACECRAFT WEIGHT MARGIN EARTH RE-ENTRY WEIGHT (DERIVED) _d .. II.. MCDONNELL 2-22 . of Lunar Gemini landing for the to I. mission history of summary a touch of and Lunar go Gemini I is presented which. The abort left similar surface normal carried to the mission during command except the expendables while the the normally scientific surface Gemini TABLE LUNAR MISSION NORMAL return phase on payload isomltted.

TRAPPED) REACTION CONTROL AND ULLAGE SYSTEM EQUIPMENT (INCL. CONTROL TRAPPED) SYSTEM STRUCTURE PROPULSION PROPELLANT EQUIPMENT REACTION TERMINAL LANDING MODULE STRUCTURE PROPULSION SYSTEM PROPELLANT (INCL.) 85 LB. SCIENTIFIC ON LUNAR MODULE WHILE SURFACE MCDONNELL 2-23 .S.REP0RT O. IT.E.9182 N 31OCTOBER 1902 DIRECT FLIGHT TABLE APOLLO 2-1 STUDY VOLUME II LUNAR GEMINI ][. & 11T SPACECRAFT WEIGHT SUMMARY WEIGHT GROUP I COMMAND MODULE (S625) 1187 672 1049 252 282 2O7 97 274 321 330 794 85 75 (1177) 54 29 212 85 443 354 1026 (2219_ 991 1294 19188 80 639 (6030) 724 456 2668 1005 437 740 (53787) 2364 3289 48020 114 LUNAR POUNDS GEMINI II (5157) 1157 672 1049 267 428 260 97 267 321 330 149 85 75 (1219) 54 29 245 58 482 351 1452 (22192) 991 1294 19188 80 639 (6030) 724 456 2668 1005 437 740 (53787) 2364 3289 48020 114 III (5263) 1264 666 911 271 428 260 97 267 321 330 273 85 90 (1190) 54 245 58 482 351 1375 (22192) 991 1294 19188 80 639 (6030) 724 456 2668 1005 437 740 (53787) 2364 3289 48020 114 2600 1400 LANDING GEAR AND RADIATOR AT LAUNCH EQUIPMENT IS TRANSFERRED TO COMMAND FAIRING 91237 91237 93837 GROSS WEIGHT * THE 1400 1400 STRUCTURE HEAT SHIELD CREW SYSTEMS DISPLAYS T EL ECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION STABILIZATION AND CONTROL REACTION CONTROL ELECTRICAL POWER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL EARTH LANDING SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT* ECCENTRICITY BALLAST SERVICE MODULE EQUIPMENT SUPPORTS STRUCTURAL DISPLAYS TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION-STABILIZATION ELECTRICAL POWER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SPACECRAFT SERVICE WEIGHT MARGIN AND CONTROL MODULE SYSTEM (INCL. 165 LB. SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT) LANDING GEAR (INCLUDING CARRY*THROUGH) RETROGRADE STRUCTURE PROPULSION PROPELLANT EQUIPMENT LAUNCH ESCAPE MODULE SYSTEM (INCL. TRAPPED) SYSTEM (L.

566 -17 -2701 INERT ECS -3820 -17 6566 WEIGHT AT PROPULSION LESS= EARTH CAPABILITY WEIGHT WEIGHT MARGIN -I026 -1026 5. LANDING$5 POUNDSOF SCIENTIFIC GEARIS TRANSFERRED COMMAND MCDONNELL 2--2.772 -35E -19.4.237 -1335 -24 -24 EFFECTIVE LES_ FAIRING (% EFF.I I DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II TABLE LUNAR 2-2 GEMINI MISSION HISTORY TOUCH AND GO LUNAR LANDING SERVICE CON FIGURATION COMMAND MODULE ON PAD LESS= LAUNCH FAIRING (I .4BO -172 -480 -172 -16 EXPENDABLES -55 PHASE -2642 -69 13 -5513 BEGIN LESS= TERMINAL PROPELLANT RCS -2642 -69 LUNAR LESS: TOUCHDOWN INERT ECS EXPENDABLES TRANSFER SCIENTIFIC LAUNCH LAUNEH RCS AND PROPELLANT ULLAGE EQUIPMENT -18.776 -80 -25.772 RETROGRADE LUNAR LESS= ORBIT ULLAGE TRANSFER WEIGHT LESS= AT STAGING WEIGHT AND PROPELLANT RCS PROPELLANT PROPELLANT -80 -25.996 -16 -376 -103 10.) ECS EXPENDABLES LAUNCH WEIGHT -65 -1 -53 DEVICE -82 -65 -1 -53 -82 6566 (1) MODULE EQUIP.540 SPACECRAFT RE-ENTRY (DERIVED) (1) ON NOT THE ABORT MISSION TO OF THE TOUCH AND GO LUNAR MODULE.787 H LES FAIRING 1400 -1335 & TOTAL 91.% EFF. .996 -16 -2650 -85 -2650 -85 LUNAR LESS: -18.403 BEGIN LESS= TRANSEARTH MIDCOURSE RCS CORRECTION -376 -103 WEIGHT LESSz AT STAGING -II19 EXPENDABLES EARTH RE-ENTRY6. 1177 SERVICE MODULE 22.776 AND RETRO TRAPPED PRESSURE ECS INERT PROPELLANT GASES -16 -.192 TERMINAL LANDING MODULE 6115 (1) RETRO MODULE 53.) ECS EXPENDABLES RCS FLUIDS SEPARATION BEGIN LESSI BEGIN LESS= TRANSLUNAR ULLAGE RETROGRADE ULLAGE AND AND MIDCOURSE MANEUVER RCS CORRECTION -178 -1992 -2170 PROPELLANT -358 -19.

... (Continued) mission in the histories service are typical for Lunar and Gemini command II and module III except for which module for the derived module equipment A weight spacecraft system weight command margin. | re-entry sad to the command includes module 85 pounds of prior to lunar Y_mJ MCDONNELL 2-25 . three only DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-uME. module is: comparison of derivedcommand and weight margin propulsion Gemini capability.6 These differences affect weights.2 2.0112 3_ oct. ..IE... Lunar configurations Command Command Module _ity)* 6651 6609 6638 Weight Margin 1026 1452 1375 Luna r Gemini I II III Module (Derived_* 5625 5157 5263 *Weights based on normal mission scientific payload transferred launch.

Lunar a. must Load Sink 30 feet with loads. c. Boost I and C. design criteria employed . requirements and the mission 2. Earth 1.Conditions not designed are for the same as Volume abort. exceptions noted 2. Lunar same D. b.The structural I. Gemini Gemini Use paraglider and landing gear system for land or water landings. Crew personal parachutes.2 A. .7. per second at sea level. Re-entry employed criteria for re-entry are the same as in Volume I E. time apportionments Structural Design for in Volume Criteria loads an and Design Volume on the factors I except command Gemini Phase II are sffects factor of and - These 1... Gemini from speed II single of main parachute.m2 31 OCTOBER 1962 2.36 are the same to as used limit in in that module ultimate shall apply escape loads in all versions the launch system Lunar B.1 Mission Criteria incremental used heat i velocity I.The Lunar Gemini spacecraft The are designed and in accordance additions are I wherever paragraphs. .mo. 55 degrees up to from per vertical second. land Landing to reduce on water impact for spacecraft Wind landing canted velocity impact 51 feet do No provision eject and use attenuation.The in Volume structural I. Landin_ Lunar a. "" • MCDONNELL 2-26 . Criteria of Volume following .7 with as the Design criteria in the DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.The are as possible. III.. .uM . 2. for lunar landing are the I except that Lunar Gemini a tumbling design Landing as .7.

.The same as outlined criteria navigation are the Design are in Volume criteria I.4 in the Guidance and and Wind velocity Hydraulic load factor used system to keep System design crew Design emergency Navi6atlon system and Criteria ' .The in lu Volume used Design same Criteria as criteria Volume is the outlined I except Lunar 1.6 electrical following..The system Power design design System outlined .7. Sink three feet parachutes. used I. load for 8 day mission. 3. 2.fill w ll A m[. DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME.7. Gemini III main parachutes as determined by optimum reefing with Loads any from rational speed main of order 30 of deployment..5 environmental 2.3 the guidance 2. . Provisions Nominal Emergency loads: loads: 1460 watts peak. with the spacecraft up to canted 51 feet c. is changed to seat limits. Gemini I for 660 620 watt watt average average. in the for the in 2.. Environmental control Electrical power system System are Design the same Criteria as . in upright. emergency reduce Wind velocity land landings up the to spacecraft 30 feet within per attitude second.. 1020 watts MCDONNELL 2-27 .The as stabilization control Control outlined criteria in Volume used I.2 2. per second at 5000 feet altitude with two of b. (Continued) Lunar a. peak.7. m2 o.2 3. the Stabilization and Control system S_stem design Criteria the same . In second. A. attenuation 2.7.7. Primary method to 55 degrees per d. of landing impact is on water loads.

DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLU.olo2 oc.The "criteria outlined in Volume .. in Module module Reaction reaction Control control System system Design design Criterla are the criteria outlined in Volume MCDONNELL 2-28 . Retrograde module Command command Module propulsion Propulsion design Design are the Criteria same as ...The I with in Volume criteria the Protection design Heating ARDC are System Design Criteria in Volume as outlined following exceptions: i.L mo.3 during re-entry. e. 3.E. .15 ° re-entry initial angle of flight attack ratio = -20 ° = 0.11 the retrograde 2.7.The in 4000 criteria Volume nauticai used I. propulsion outlined Volume 2.7 ° to -9.7.The terminal I.. Criteria as .10 in the Landing module Module Propulsion design Criteria the same as .7. load for 8 day mission. 2. (Continued) Gemini II and III Lunar i..7.7.9 service Service Module Propulsion design are Criteria as module propulsion Terminal landing outlined Design are 2. 5 Provisions Nominal Emergency for 880 835 watt watt average average.The criteria I. loads: loads: 1650 watts peak. 1160 System are watts peak.7. b. the lift-drag range traveled 2. atmosphere envelope path angles (@400_000 ft) = -6.12 used in the I..8 protection A. used in the heat used in the 2.The same as used I. Heat system Re-entry outlined . 2.i2 2.6 B. Design the same approximately .7 Telecommunications system design Design the same telecommunication 2. criteria in used in miles. d. 1959 Design a.7.

system design same as outlined 2. of Flying 195_. Launch escape Escape System system Design Criteria . are the same as outlined in Volume 2. 2.The criteria in the service I.7.The criteria used in the design in Volume for Lunar Gemini III are the same as outlined seats used in the present Lunar Gemini I and II retain the ejection Gemini spacecraft.14 criteria used Terminal Landing Module Reaction landing module Control reaction System control Design Criteria .15 of the launch I. 2.7.ll0 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. factors criteria utilized for the study are as outlined Crew accommodations in WADC shall be sized TR 52-321 for the 15th through "Anthrometry the 75th percentile Personnel.uM.The human in Volume I..7.It. 1950" man size as defined dated September...The are the in the terminal in Volume I. F ii_ MCDONNELL 2-29 .13 used Service Module module Reaction reaction Control control S/{stem Design system design Criteria .7..16 Lunar Gemini Human Factors Criteria .

requiring the Gemini in-flight are designed Therefore. favorably guidsace and navigation system. Guidance Summar_ sad Navigation . im Figure 3-1. ii L. III utilize T w the Gemini guidance sad navigation system as described shown Lunar Gemlml seats a mlmimum I guidance Thls sad navigation is accomplished for navigation radars.. and lunar orbit. A sun sensor Im the service during to assist in acqulrlmg the sun for vehicle orientation midcourse..2 3.5 FT. with the addition of optical mission and radar is compatible with the requirements Apollo for the lunar in aud compares I.1._ GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM COMPARISON EARTH-ORBITING GEMINI (14-DAY) • ADD AUTOSEXTANT [iiiiilJ LUNAR GEMINI 1' [i_:iiii! (+40) (+55) (+34) VOLUME 6. • ADD TRACKING • ADD LANDING RADAR RADAR _iiii] ii VOLUME 2. to provide high reliaI3 II sad without Lunar Gemini below. system described z Volume bility Im addition. sad Apollo module.---=:-z FIGURE 3-1 IVICDOHI_IELL 3-1 . type tracking sad Isadimg lunar im the terminal landing is located for navigation module during and leading. with the corresponding componsats maintenance.i 3.The Gemini sensors.lln_ _1 oc_om t. approach equipment.o.3 • ADD SUN SENSOR (+3) .1 w DIRECT SYSTemS FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.65 FT.n[. z z located im the service module.3 WEIGHT 341 LB. SPACECRAF_ 3. repre- chaage.o_=. by the addition during located midcourse of au autosextsat.nT.

tant and the command module autosextant a navigation wheel for change requires addition Joining inertial platform. • VOLUME 2. that shown in Figure sextant in the the during is service sex3-2 that provided Gemini of the of a manual installed base.1.0.• J m0RT.. NAVIGATION BASE/ELECTRICAL (+17) VOLUME 6.i Lunar is the same in This (Continued) Gemini as II and III guidance for Lunar in the and lieu and navigation I except equipment. 3.95 WHEEL (+i3) FT.9. GUIDANCE SYSTEM EARTH-ORBITING GEMINi (14-DAY) • • WEIGHT 209 LB. 3 PROVISIONS ADD SUN SENSOR (+3) ADD ROLL MOMENTUM i _!i!!i!i FIGURE 3-2 /I/CDO/_/_/EL L 3-2 . 3 • • ADD • ADD MANUAL ADD TRACKING ADD LANDING AND NAVIGATION COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI TIr & Jill SEXTANT/TELESCOPE RADAR RADAR (+55) (+34) (+35) WEIGHT 366 LB. installed module.5 FT. a roll momentum rate control sightings.O2 31OClOIJER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLo.E.

and display for normal in Figure 3-4. and TTT performs described in Section the same functions of Volume T.4. signals radar.2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY _o_u.1.2 3.2 Gemini Apollo. Volume I) reveals ments have equal performance if the accuracy of the gimbal plckoffs four platform the advan- in the Gemini gimbals IMU is improved.s. and acceleration and a computer for measurements. and abort trajectories..1. The system consists presented of the Gemini 3-6. Functions . . It is normally off during flight to conserve unit llfe and power.. TT. it offers tage of complete angular maneuvering freedom of the spacecraft. with three Since the Gemini gimbals IMU incorporates (as compared in the Apollo IMU). with characteristics A detailed comparison in Figure and the associated with I ! electronics. a strapdown is used. IMU (included as part of the stabis discussed In the event of a failure..1. computation Weights navigation of guidance and DSIF).System for Lunar Gemini I . The strapdown IMU operation Volume MCDONNELL 3-3 .The guidance memory and navigation of an inertial sensors system for attitude (optical. 3.2 31 OCT. system) I.Each of the guidance and navigatlon systems for Lunar T.No. and lunar launch. of IMU characteristics that the two equip- those for the Apollo essentially IMU (Figure 3-5.. with the l_-day presented (Reference 3-1) in Figure Power requirements in Figure System 3-5.1. as the systems for the _o-lV_ 3.1. transearth inertial and earth re-entry.It.=. Weights are compared are for major components Gemini are presented 3-3.3 equipment Description consists . ilization in Section and control 3. measurement (IMU).The inertial and provides system monitors attitude launch vehicle operation and Inertial measures w accelerations reference during the lunar translunar landing.

3 CM CM 32 87 0.10 0.5 1.LANDING RADAR RADAR AND ANTENNA i m m m m m B m m B i TLM TLM TLM TLM m 55 _ 17 17 18" _ 1.-LB VOL. 1.-LB.FT. m TLM TLM TLM TLM w 55 _ 17 17 14" ll" 1.00 RADARS RENDEZVOUS TRACKING ANTENNA LANDING ANTENNA RADAR RADAR .1 0.10 0.2 0.00 DIA. LUNAR GEMINI n &Tn 119 LUNAR INERTIAL SYSTEM GEMINI [ 119 OPTICAL MEASUREMENT UNIT 40 35 COMPUTER 62 89 62 RADARS .TRACKING RADAR .10 _ _ _ CM CM _ 27 i 0.A R[PORT NO. DISPLAYSAND CONTROLS CHARTS MAP AND AND STAR CATALOG DISPLAY CM 2 0.60 0.LB.9i82 310CTOI[! 912 1 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II GUIDANCE SUBSYSTEM AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM WEIGHTS WEIGHT .5 CM CM 32 87 0.60 0._ LOCATION WT.-% .50 CM CM 32 17 0.5 341 6. 1.00 14" DIA.95 3-4 FIGURE MCDONNELL .0S 0.10 0.10 CM 2 0.10 0.-FT.20 0.LB.50 1. 89 CHARTS AND STAR CATALOG 2 29 2 MISCELLANEOUS 59 TOTAL WEIGHTS 341 366 FIGURE 3-3 GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION DETAIL WEIGHT SUMMARY COMPONENT INERTIALSYSTEM IMU IMU ELECTRONICS EARTH-ORBITING GEMINI LUNAR GEMINI lr LUNAR GEMINI H & [] (14-DAY) LOCATION WT.10 VISUAL MISCELLANEOUS NAVIGATION STRUCTURAL ELECTRICAL BASE SUPPORTS PROVISIONS CONTROL _ CM CM CM _ WHEEL _ _ _ _ 9 I1 6 0.50 OPTICALMEASUREMENTUNIT AUTOSEXTANT MANUAL TELESCOPE SEXTANT n i u m i SM 40 _ _ 1.VOL.00 CM 62 1.10 ENVIRONMENTAL SUN ROLL SENSOR MOMENTUM TOTALS 209 2.10 0.20 COMPUTERSYSTEM COMPUTER COMPUTER SPARES CM 62 1.0 CM 62 1.: LOCATION WT..00 DIA.50 1.VOL.65 366 6._FT.1 CM CM CM SM _ _ 9 11 6 3 _ 0.1 CM 2 0.00 DIA.05 _ CM CM CM CM SM SM 10 9 18 6 3 13 0.

3) 130 (1.3) 78 -- 360 (4) 45 -- RADAR RADAR WHEEL 60 100 64 .3) 1481 141 1480 (4) 400 (41 100 (2) 360 (4) -.8102 310CT01[It1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II i WATT HOUR REQUIREMENTS LUNAR ..5) 50 (0.21 74 (0..5) --550 (11) -1480 (4) 1480 (4) 1480 (4). .5) 50 (0...5)1241 185 (0..3) 117 (1.5) (24) --- 74 (0.2) 20 (0.. .GUIDANCE GEMINI Z AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT == " ||03 :_ (0..3) 130 (1...3) (48) -- (4) 1480 (4) 400 14) 300 (2) (80) --1650 (111 -- (4) -1480 (4) 600 (4) 1480 (4) (0.....2) INERTIAL MEASUREMENT IMU 370 UNIT 100 ELECTRONICS 150 UNIT 90 COMPUTER TRACKING i[i.3) 481 (1.2) 180 (2) 117 (1..85 (0. ! i (801 141 (0.. REPORT NO.5) !. m m INERTIAL UNIT IMU ELECTRONICS _PTICAL UNIT MEASUREMENT COMPUTER TRACKING LANDING 11"& 111" EQU IPMENT (0.. (2) (1....3_) 130 (I...A --% .2) .. LUNAR GEMINI (21 740 (2) 200 (2) 100 (2) 180 (2) (561 ( 4) 121 740 (2) 200 (2) 100 (2) 180 (2) 120 (2) MEASUREMENT 370 100 50 --550 (11) -400 (4) 200 (4) 360 (4) 3 33 11...3) i30 (1. ili.. LANDING ROLL MOMENTUM ..) -- -- -- OF EQUIPMENT FIGURE 3m5 MCDONNELL 3-5 ..3) .5) -45 (0.31 481 (I. EITHER FOR PHASE OR FOR OPERATION 192 (3.2) OPTICAL MEASUREMENT 18 (0.2) 20 (0. NOTE: FIGURES IN PARENTHESES ARE HOURS..2) -18 90 RADAR RADAR 60 100 (0. (21 740 (2) 200 (2) 300 (2) (56) --1650 1111 -- (4) -400 (4) 600 (4) 360 (4) (2) 740 (2) 200 (2) 300 (2) 180 (2) 120 (1..3) 78 (1.3) 65 (1..

ANALOG PICKOFF 2) ACCURACY# INITIAL 4 ARC MINUTES ACCURACY: ALIGNMENT 1) OVER-ALL 2) OVER-ALL THREE GYROS: USING AUTOSEXTANT_ USING MANUAL 10 ARC MINUTES S ARC MINUTES SEXTANT# 1) TYPE# DGG 8001 B-17.R[PORT 0._ relatxve to stars.PITCH# 360 ° PRECISION RESOLVER AND SYNCHRO MINUTES R. The autosextant (a third the attitude of the spacecraft platform stabilized and has relative is a gimbal-mounted star tracker The planet N by two fixed star trackers the characteristics ilized platform F'"! spare 3-7. 9182 N 310CTOB(I1962 DIRECT INERTIAL FOUR GIMBALS: FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY UNIT (HONEYWELL) VOLUME II GEMINI MEASUREMENT = 1) OUTER GIMBAL 3) THIRD GIMBAL 4) INNER GIMBAL PICKOFFS: i) TYPE. Measurement Unit (OMU) . and determines to the stars.M./HOUR/G 2 (COMPENSATED)I 0./HOUR/G ACCELEROMETERS: PULSE REBALANCE 200 PPM 250 PPM FACTOR ERROR STABILITY# 1) TYPE_ DGG 116A-9. is a_o provided) shown in Figure tracker on the star-stabcenter and dia- utilizes an eplcyclic scan to determine pAanet meter when the planet The development supplement is partially of a portable illuminated.ROLLi 360 ° 2) SECOND GIMBAL . conducted by Kollsman Instrument Company (Reference MCDONNELL 3-6 .3 DEG.The autosextant measures the direction of the earth and moon _. TO 88 ° F.1 DEG. measures the subtended angle of the dia- |ii:} i meters of the earth and moon._.. 2) SCALE 3) REBALANCE TEMPERATURE 1) OPERATING: ACCURACY: CONTROL: 70° F./HOUR 0.S.02 DEG. .YAWs 360 ° .INNER ROLL# + 20 ° . space sextant (not presently available) as a of or alternative navigational being to the autosextant progress. 2) BIAS DRIFT 3) MASS UNBALANCE 4) ANISOELASTICITY# THREE MINIATURE INTEGRATING GYRO (MIG.) (COMPENSATED)I 0. FIGURE 3-6 Optical = . may become Funded attractive as studies 5 midcourse presently techniques studies of this type are 3-2)..

results Computer ectories. and sextant Outputs control the are radars. Characteristics of I) these Gemini computer with those summarized Apollo tially Figure Comparison Volume characteristics that the t_o computer equal (Figure 3-7. and manual techniques schemes summarized determine orbital parameters. included and these most of which has a literature search. crew. MCDONNELL 3-7 . accelerometers. + 45° (NORTRONICS) PLATFORM: SUPPORT GIMBAL PICKOFFS: 1) ACCURACY: 1 ARC MINUTE PLAHET TRACKER: 1) ACCURACY OF PLANET DIRECTION: 8 ARC SECONDS SMOOTHED 2) ACCURACY OF PLANET SUBTENSE ANGLE: 6. I r _w .5 ARC SECONDS SMOOTHED 3) MAXIMUM SUBTENSE ANGLE: 160° FIGURE 3-7 J r / Kollsman bean to devoted has to completed six months of a nine The manual The studies month have study.. reveals equipments have essen- capability._ --- OEPORT H0.PITCH: -+45° 3) INNER . angle transcom- determine computer and to trajectory are the the from corrections.9102 31OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME !1 LUNAR GEMINI T AUTOSEXTANT THREE GIMBALS SUPPORT 1) OUTER . crew from with the displayed to the in for trajectory attitude of the outputs are for the fed telemetry 3-9.. I1'" '"_-- rAL. via the manual platform keyboard. measurements from computing studies are applicable in Figure to midcourse 3-8. navigation.__ . puter also to to the .. system.ROLL. Inputs ducers..The computer is provided to monitor and boost-orbit-lnjection to determine and abort trajtrajectories.YAW: 360° 2) MIDDLE .

9182 31OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II L SUMMARY OF KOLLSMAN STUDIES I.M.001 o'.:lc= '2 3 MI. MIDCOURSE (TRIANGULATION) MEASUREMENTS: COMPUTATIONS: STAR ELEVATION HUGHES MANUAL ANGLES DIGITAL USING SEXTANT COMPUTER 5. ORBITAL PARAMETERS GEOMETRY: STARS ORBITAL TRACK MEASUREMENTS CALCULATIONS COMPUTATIONS: OUTPUT: (4): (2): STAR-LOCAL VERTICAL OF ORBIT MEASUREMENTS AND TIME AND 2 CALCULATIONS TO ADJUST 81 AND 82 BASED ON SAFETY USE ABOVE 4 MEASUREMENTS ARMILLARY SPHERE POSITION WITHIN 30 N. 2. MIDCOURSE MEASUREMENTS COMPUTATIONS: MEASUREMENT OUTPUT: (STADIAMETRIC) (6 OR MORE): STADIA/_ETRIC RANGE WITH HAND HELD DEVICE ELEMENTS FOR USE ON CRESCENTS LANNING-BATTIN USING ANALOG COMPUTER 1or= 20 ARC SECONDS TRAJECTORY PARAMETERS WITH ROTATING ACCURACY: 4. 3. MIDCOURSE (PHOTOGRAPHIC) SAME AS ABOVE FIGURE 3-8 . SAFETY OF ORBIT TIME: MEASUREMENTS (3): HORIZON REFERENCE: OUTPUTS: IMMEDIATELY AFTER INJECTION WITH HAND HELD DEVICE STADIAMETRIC RANGE 5577 ° A AIRGLOW LINE QUANTITY ORBIT ECCENTRICITY OF CLOSEST AXIS PERIOD APPROACH DISTANCE SEMI-MAJOR ORBITAL ACCURACY G( = 0.REPORT NO.

mission. (39 BITS): I) DATAI 25 BITS AND SIGN/WORD. DIVISION READ-OUT BETWEEN INSTRUCTION AND DATA 2) CAPACITY: STORAGE WORD MAKEUP 4096-39 BIT IS FLEXIBLE. computer computer are problem. TIMES: SUBTRACT. FIXED-POINT MODULES. (FULL 13 BITS/INSTRUCTION. BINARY. ARITHMETIC. Characteristics Apollo radars presented Section MCDONNELL 3-9 . during tracking orbit. 250 KC MEMORY CYCLE RATES.A radar to to to and and the doppler during lunar measurements altitude attitude prior landing. 2) MULTIPLICATION 3) DIVISION 4) MULTIPLY PRECISION) OR DIVIDE BE PROGRAMMED OR TRANSFER CLOCK RATES: OPERATIONS. during measures altitude of the three velocity in lunar 3. landing.420 MICROSECONDS. Volume I.000 the instructions._TA 2t) 3 3 2 ANALOGI CHANNELSI FIGURE Both computers can accommodate four times approximately faster and has 12. of the a computational the Gemini and viewpoint inter- is suited to a lunar the the rest Since Gemini computer navigation designed match over guidance it is preferred tracking Apollo computer. TRANSFER (FULL PRECISION) MAY - - 140 MICROSECONDS. REPLACEABLE ENCAPSULATED F1ON-DESTRUCTIVE WORDS. radar lunar surface are provided The lunar to make naviradar measures doppler Radars gational measures range radar and . and The relative relative and a transponder components are during of lunar descent.3. 2) INSTRUCTION: ARITHMETIC 1) ADD. The 3-9 Gemini of simul- computer taneously The Apollo is about performing computer to additional and capability (or time addition uses solve less the to (or subtraction) power same but must multiplication for a longer division). 9182 31 OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II GEMINI TYPE: I) ORGANIZATION: 2) CONSTRUCTION: MEMORY: 1) TYPE: RXHDOM ACCESS. . GENERAL FIELD COMPUTER (IBM) PURPOSE. 1) Soo KC ARITHMETIC INPUTS: 1) DISCRETESI 2) COUNTERSI 3) GIMBAL 4) DATA 41) 4 BIT RATE. SUBTRACT.REPORT NO. than the operate Thus from Gemini either faces system. ANGLE CHANNELSI CHANNELS: 3 3 OUTPUTS: 1) DISCRETES: 2) COUNTERS: 3) DIGITAL 4) D..1. SERIAL. 840 MICROSECONDS CONCURRENTLY WITH ADD.

1.. i.5 urations System Operation as . Volume MCDONNELL 3-I0 .0.IEP0mT.The equipment except is that Description that for . astronauts.System Lunar Gemini (described described in previous in Section paragraphs) 3.. the and computer cross-check data. III .A book catalog for I of navigational is provided Lunar Gemini for II charts.3. Apollo-type the optical sextant/telescope measurement unit functions. S. Volume I per- 3.12 3. _9S2 3.OCTO.4 the the forms same as DIRECT (Continued) and Star and Catalo 6 a star FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME. Lunar Gemini config- is the same described Section 3. abort 3. .1.Operation in of each of the three I.4.1. 3 Charts data.1.

to the system used in Project control.RT 0. the addition sensors 7 and Canopus units more sensors (]2 lbs.The SCS consists acceleration term attitude control and longitudinal unit electronics for mechanization of control and nongyroscopic MCDONNELL 3-11 . added They are similar for thrust in Figure vector 3-10.The operational I.82 FT.The stabilization I.2. STABILIZATION SYSTEM EARTH-ORBITING GEMINI (14-DAY) • ADD WEIGHT 50 LB • INCREASE VOLUME 0. AND IMU STRAPDOWN (+17) WEIGHT 139 LB ELECTRONICS (+60) VOLUME 2. logic.. suitable In addition.3 STstem Description memory . (b).40 SENSORS (+i2) FT.2 3.2.2. 3.2. TT. Volume 3. i Stabilization Summary and Control and control systems (SCS) for Lunar Gemini Gemini is in(a). and III are identical.2 scribed Operational Functions . ). electronics of sun by the addition capacity of a strapdown IMU (17 lbs. 3 • ADD SUN-CANOPUS CONTROL AND CONTROL COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI TIT T. The system weight increase in control As indicated this weight is due to. an increase (60 lbs. a functions of the SCS are de- in Section 3.RE. and the horizon and the addition of a spare unit (c). of an IMU strapdown measurement. II.9192 31 OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-uME. ). rate unit for short sensors. (14-day) with provisions creased 89 pounds.2. are replaced for a lunar mission. 3 FIGURE 3-10 3. . ).

IMU STRAPDOWN 17 9 90 SENSORS 12 RATE SENSORS CONTROL ELECTRONICS SUN-HORIZON-CANOPUS DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS MISCELLANEOUS 11 TOTAL VOLUME = 2.litP. requirements are listed LUNAR GEMINI I.. 11.3 DIRECT (Continued) FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-uME.. Switches on the control subsystems Gemini panel provide modes.. attitude sensors (sun-horlzon-Canopus) selection for long-term of control attitude reference.4 FT 3 TOTAL WEIGHT = 139 LB..2. (Reference 3-i) in Figure 3-12. FIGURE 3-11 MCDONNELL 3-12 ._ 31 OC'fOl[I 1962 3... AND liT STABILIZATION SUBSYSTEM AND CONTROL SYSTEM WEIGHTS WEIGHT .LB. Weights for each of these are listed in Figure 3-ii and compared Power with weights for the l_-day in Figure 3-13.

-FT.30 0.03 CM CM 12 5 0.10 0. 11"& 1nit VOL.3) 31. (4) I.5)(24) a_ (9) RATE SENSORS 15 3 (0.-LBS.30 0.5) 15 (0.3) PHASE -_ m __ 60 (4) 12 (4) 24 (4) 120 (4) 96 (4) 20 (4) OR FOR 1200 (80) 240 (80) 480 (80) 330 (11) 1920 (80) 400 (80) OPERATION (9) 60 (4) 12 (4) 24 (4) 120 (4) 96 (4) 20 (4) 7.60 0.I[PIIT NO.2) OPTICAL SENSORS 5 1 (0.HORIZON CANOPUS SENSORS SUN SENSOR (2) SENSOR SENSOR (2) (2) (REF.40 SM (2) CM(2) 30 30 SUN .8 (1.60 0.10 CM 9 0.2) 30 (2) 6 (2) 12 (2) 60 (2) 48 (2) 10 (2) ARE 825 (56) 168 (56) 336 (56) 330 (11) 1340 (56) 280 (56) HOURS.02 TOTALS 50 0.2) IMU STRAPDOWN 9 D (2) (56) (4) 36 _J -.2) 4.5) 12 (O.-LBS.10 0.5 (1. 3 LOCATION LUNAR VOL.BIB2 l i 311CTOI[| 19|2 DIRECT STABILIZATION FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME Ii AND CONTROL GEMINI DETAIL WEIGHT SUMMARY LUNAR GEMINIT WT. $M UNDER 2 DISPLAYS) 10 0.40 CM(2) 30 0.3) 39 (1.10 ELECTRONICS SUPPLY CM(2) SM(2) CM{2) 30 30 30 0.2) 0.10 0. & 111" WATT HOUR REQUIREMENTS .02 CM SM 9 2 0.-FT.60 0. EARTH-ORBITING COMPONENT LOCATION IMU STRAPDOWN REFERENCE ACCELEROMETER m i i i (14-DAY) WT.40 0.05 HORIZON CANOPUS DISPLAYS AND MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURE ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS m PROVISIONS PROVISIONS CONTROL CM SM 9 2 0.2 (0.3) 6.-LBS. VOL. UNDER DISPLAYS) SM CM (REF.5) 1. 60 (4) 12 (4) 24 (4) 120 (4) 96 (4) 20 (4) 30 (2) 6 (2) 12 (2) 60 (2) 48 (2) 10 (2) FOR 19. UNDER 2 DISPLAYS) 10 0.-FT.40 FIGURE 3-12 LUNAR GEMINI T_.3) 7. 3 LOCATION GEMINI WT.2 (1.20 0.10 O.03 LONGITUDINAL RATE SENSORS RATE RATE CONTROL AI"IrlTUDE MANEUVER POWER GYRO GYRO PACKAGE SPARE ELECTRONICS CONTROL ELECTRONICS CM SM CM 16 7 7 0.IO CM 9 0.9 (1.IO (2) CM 9 O.05 CM (REF.5 (0.5 OF EQUIPMENT m CONTROL ELEC 3 POWER SUPPLIES 24 _ NOTE: FIGURES IN PARENTHESES EITHER FIGURE 3-13 MCDONNELL 3-13 .STABILIZATION AND CONTROL I-- Ig a EQUIPMENT E (0.2) DISPLAYS 30 6 (0.2) MANUAL CONT 6 1. (2) (1.82 139 2. IT.40 139 2.(co) (4) 36 _J (0. 3 LJ INERTIAL m i CM CM 12 5 0.5 (0.6 (0.5 (1.3)(48) -.5 0.3) 3.60 0.8 (0.S) 2.02 CM 5M 9 2 0.20 0.5) 3 (0.

3 unit described of attitude Reference A.2.91s2 ocTo.3. Modify input mixing in the Gemini and ACHE. using the RCS for ullage and midcourse corrections. derived rate control from either or sun sensor. rate command One set to allow delay use of the manual mode or automatic rate modes without Control for rate gyro warm-up.A I l. and direct in a manually E. scanner for (a)..Two sets of three rate gyros are provided. . rate control the horizon D. Add provisions sensor. and derived rate circuits varies to provide with mission 1-L for control phase. derived rate control of pitch of yaw from the sun the horizon of roll from of the spacecraft as configuration (b). paragraph of two sets control and maneuver electronics changes (ACS4E).o.3. derived scanner. an@ forward firing control accele- control with the same set of longitudinal This is necessary to retain attitude thrust when chambers. MCDONNELL 3-i_ aL .. Electronics in Section 3. C.uM. unit from ACME and provide control thrust Remove the thrust chamber operated selection switching chamber selection for both ACME matrix. B.This unit provides C of Volume the same capability I.oml. paragraph 3.2.3. or DSIF antennas. circuits which is available. canopus sensor.2.f IMU Strapdown .3. yaw. used in Project Gemini (3-3) with the follo_ing Add wiring to allow and additions: sensed rate control computer mode use of the automatic but not used.The IMU strapdown A of Volume unit is identical I.is2 3.1 scribed DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.2 is operated sensed Rate Sensors continuously . to that de- in Section 3.2.3. and (c). Add provisions ration to allow simultaneous pitch. but consists as the 3.2.

2.2.2. Volume provides I.3.. Add electronics sensed to provide signals manual rate co_nand signals englne(s) and automatic gimbal servos . Add electronics control.4 sensors Non-Gyroscopic Sensors .3... paragraph are identical Control I. of only half as is done in the earth-orbitlng w MCDONNELL 3-15 . Control to those described .2.. rolling The roll acceleration moments instead by using all the Jets that can produce Gemini. RCS thrust control chamber sizes are the same as in Section accelerations are the same vehicle.2.2.The non-gyroscopic 3.3°/sec. to alloy automatic Attitude 3.5. except for the re-entry roll acceleration may be doubled The RCS in the re-entry a 9.3 F.f2 3. • rate control to the propulsion for thrust vector G.The criteria of Volume for selecting I.2..The control in Section modes 3.A IE. 2 and 12.5 Modes are the same as in Section Torque Devices .4 of Volume 3. 3..2 31 OCT.2.3. DIRECT (Continued) FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuM.7°/sec. 2 pitch and yam accelerations. linear acceleration control..5 The estimated as those presented in Section module 3.4 I.. attitude D of Volume 3.

ment are mounted temperature flowing on the exterior surfaces of the Cabin pressurized value control of the cabin walls to the average of the coolant supplements through the cold plates. s2 31 ocT..s.The environment for the equipment and crew in the as described Crew and E_uipment I. thus of the volume and weight for Lunar Gemini for Project The same type pressure the torso suits are utilized to be conequippermitting fluid the ECS as intended tlnuously requiring provided of each crewman ventilated. i Lunar Gemini in Volume DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu. MCDONNELL 3-16 . in the same manner I of this report for the Two-M_n in a closed The crewmen manually control are paralleled ventilation loop sult ventilating temperature.l ! tEromTwo. except (ECS) hardware quantities is identical to that used in Project that different mission. II and III.3 3. in maintaining This nominal acceptable wall temperature cabin heat exchanger cabin gas temperatures.. changes of 02. Gemini. Environmental Control . circuit having selectable system rate and inlet The environmental Gemini. The cold plates for cooling the electronic walls.3. II and III Spacecraft is controlled Apollo. LiOH and H20 are provided the magnitude for the 8-day lunar Figures 3-14 and J-15 indicate I.E.ls 3.

3 CONTROL SYSTEMS COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI D & TIT SECONDARY OXYGEN SYSTEM +28.41 FT.3 *WEIGHT DOES NOT INCLUDE CIRCUITRY.2 --15.4 LB. VOLUME 12.6 --3._JL *lwil_rL ITI A I __ DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME I! ENVIRONMENTAL 14 DAY )RBITAL EARTH GEMINI CONTROL SYSTEMS COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI Z • INCREASE SECONDARY *WEIGHT 659.41 FT.86 FT. VOLUME 12.92 FT.__-- __.3 * WEIGHT DOES NOT INCLUDE CIRCUITRY.1 LB.4 LB.3 • REDUCE PRIMARY • REDUCE LITHIUM OXYGEN SYSTEM +28.3 OXYGEN HYDROXIDE SYSTEM SYSTEM TOTAL *WEIGHT 634.3 • REDUCE COOLING TOTAL --28. VOLUME 13. STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING PROVISIONS FIGURE 3-14 ENVIRONMENTAL 14 DAY ORBITAL EARTH GEMINI • INCREASE *WEIGHT 659.1 LB.0 • REDUCE PRIMARY • REDUCE LITHIUM OXYGEN HYDROXIDE WATER SYSTEM SYSTEM *WEIGHT 631. VOLUME 13.6 --25. STRUCTURE AND MOUNTING PROVISIONS FIGURE 3-15 MCDONNELL 3-17 .9 --37._i.2 -15.9 -37.

3. II and IIl Spacecraft 3.3. I. .) 3 0 22 0 0 0 m.5. MODULE MISSION P. with the Section water capacity. LUNAR GEMINI 1" WATER • LUNAR • • TWO 39'/2 LANDING DAY LUNAR STAY INVENTORY MAXIMUM H20 USAGE AT SITE REQUIRING DEG.2 described in ECS DIRECT Description 3. lunar based severe requirement of water.4.3. _ electrical the and Mmnagement and the cell of the water production module (which mounted shown in varies radiator Figures for 22 The site with at 3-16 pounds water that im- effectiveness result in the in service 39.gll 31 OCTO|[i lll2 3.A mo.) " WATER EART" LAUNCH 40 TRANS LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR REST LAUNCH 23 40 0 1 31"* TRANSEARTH POST LANDING *QUANTITIES SHOWN ARE AT START OF EACH INDICATED POUNDS OF WATER MISSION PHASE.. Gemini 3.3..The operational are identical I. Volume Water load) 3..-J FIGURE 3-16 MCDONNELL 3-18 .ASE COMMAND TANK (LB.3. 3. ** 11 ADDITIONAL ARE IN THE SURVIVAL t.The fuel techniques required for the Lunar 3.3. FLIGHT .The Volume APOLLO control exception STUDY system of is identical tank voLu.3.3.5 ° an61e 3-17..2. to that environmental I.3 Operation . KIT. water water the in for inventories service module Gemini day stay storage tankage 26 is II at sized and a of water quantities poses the in Lunar are most Gemini on I _nd the usage pounds Lunary a two III.3..6. The selected. CONICAL HALF ANGLE ON RADIATORS SERVICE MODULE WATER TANK (LB. to those described in Sections and 3.

mORT.3-5 |J the moon. covering feet of the radiator such as by-passing i --_-f_ii::_ Alternate techniques of the radiator may also be feasible.) MISSION EARTH PHASE* LAUNCH MODULE TANK 40 18 40 4 6 40"" (LB. of lunar Landings site on initial (earth launch) water is shown in Figure 125 square on the dark to prevent portions side of the moon _lll require freezing of the OS 139 coolant. (LB.Lunar landing sites on the lighted require side of ° from the subsolar by _ater evaporation. menting landing Lunar Landin_ at sites between Site Effects +53 ° and-27 capacity .) TRANSLUNAR LUNAR LUNAR REST LAUNCH TRANSEARTH POST LANDING *QUANTITIES SHOWN ARE AT START OF EACH INDICATED OF WATER *" 11 ADDITIONAL POUNDS ARE IN THE SURVIVAL 3. point. CONICAL RADIATORS SERVICE WATER MODULE TANK O 0 26 0 0 0 MISSION KIT. FIGURE 3-17 PHASE. MCDOnnELL 3-19 .S102 31 0CTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY LUNAR GEMINI lnr & TIT WATER • • • LUNAR TWO LANDING DAY LUNAR INVENTORY MAXIMUM H20 USAGE AT SITE REQUIRING STAY HALF ANGLE COMMAND WATER ON 39Y2 DEG. supple- the radiator cooling The effect 3-18.

9182 31 ocTom 1.e[Poel.2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME.2 • COLLECTED H20 15 UTILIZED • FUEL CELL OUTLET TEMP.o.39.163 FT. EFFECT OF SELECTION OF LUNAR LANDING ON INITIAL WATER REQUIREMENT 5O • 48 HOUR • RADIATOR 4( • RADIATOR SITE LUNAR STAY HALF ANGLE AREA .5 o . 175 ° F 3O LUNAR GEMINI T R GEMINI 2O tt&ttr I0 330 340 LUNAR 350 LANDING 0 360 SITE ANGLE FROM I 10 SUBSOLAR 20 POINT 30 -DEGREES I 4O FIGURE 3-18 MCDONNELL 3-20 .

L

--m,

....

--

m...

REPORT NO.9182 31OCTOBER 1962

DIRECT
Electrical Gemini, to that are Power the -

FLIGHT
The as design

APOLLO
objectives in of

STUDY
the electrical Volume I. power The

VOLUME

II

3.4 for is Lunar similar and

system system con-

same

presented (14-day) reactant for Lunar

Section for

3.4,

used in

in Gemini fuel is 763 as cell lbs

except weight. Gemini 4.8.

additional The total 802

sequential weight of the

trols

a reduction power supply

electrical II and III,

I and

lbs

for

Lunar

Gemini for the

distributed

shown the and

in

Section Gemini The

Modifications and the

accounting 14-day is Gemini

weight

differences in Figures Volume

between 3-19 I.

Lunar 3-20.

spacecraft supply

are to

presented Figure

power

schematic

identical

3-17,

ELECTRICAL POWER COMPARISON

SYSTEM

GEMINI EARTH

14-DAY ORBIT

LUNAR GEMINI 1

REDUCE WEIGHT 824 LB. INCREASE

REACTANTS

(-94) (+33) WEIGHT 763 LB.

SEQUENTIAL

CONTROLS

D

_

--]D-

FIGURE

3-19

MCDONNELL

3-21

1_

-

REPORT 9182 NO, 31OCTOBER 1962
+

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

VOLUME

II

3.4
t

(Continued)

ELECTRICAL POWER COMPARISON

SYSTEM

GEMINI EARTH

14-DAY ORBIT

LUNAR GEMINI 11 & ]]I

REDUCE WEIGHT 824
L I ; +

REACTANTS

(-55) (+33) WEIGHT 802 LB.

'rl,,.;

LB.

INCREASE

SEQUENTIAL

CONTROLS

,

=

I+'=+

FIGURE
_!!!!.+_+ [ 7

3-20

3.4.1
_ii:i.li

Power of

System Volume and

Comparison

-

The to

power Lunar

system Gemini.

comparison,

contained

in

Section
i • == -:

3.4.1

I is applicable Emergency Power except shown

3.4.2 3.4.2 during Lunar system

Normal

Spectra that the

- The total and

general average 3-22 3-2 Gemini

discussion electrical Lunar

in

Section

of Volume each Gemini load

I is applicable phase III, is

load I and

mission II and

in Figure Tables

3-21 3-1

for

Gemini

respectively. for Lunar Gemini

and

summarize II and

individual III, respective-

requirements

I and

Lunar

[+J _m::+!

ly.

[J

It4CDONItlEL

L

3-22
..... CnNFInl:NTI61

t,._

REPORT NO9182 31 OCTOBER 1962

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

VOLUME

I1

LUNAR GEMINI
| :

1

ELECTRICAL

LOAD

PROFILE
STACKS

1.45 KW PEAK, 127 KW-HR AT 660 WATT AVERAGE

2ooo] ............................................................................................................. i

1OOO

..................................................

3

500
lb,.., ..................... ° ........ "......................................... ° ......................... ° .......................... • ...... " ............... 1

-.-i
0 MISSION PHASE
l ] I [ I I 1 |

L-_

SURVIVE RECOVERY I INJECTION MID-COURSE I I LUNAR LAND LAUNCH IMID-C_OURSEI NORMAL ECOVERY R DURATION HOURS •2 2 56 4 2 1.3 48 4 80 4 .5 24 144 FIGURE 3-21 LUNAR GEMINI Tr & 111"

LAUNCH TRANS LUNAR LUNAR R LUNAI'RESTTRANS-EARTHRE-ENTRYI 0 BIT

I I

_" I

ELECTRICAL

LOAD

PROFILE
AVERAGE STACKS

1.65 KW PEAK, 169 KW-HR

AT B80 WATT

E*¸

2000

I" .................................................................................................................................................
................... " ...................... "....... "....... " ...... "....... " ....... " ....... " ...................... "...................... " ...........

6
5

..........................................
LU

4

LU .J ,V
LLI

,ooo,_ .................... ................................ l...........
500

O
eL

!ii:_

O

MISSION PHASE

i I I 1 I I I I I I J _ /_-I LAUNCH TRANS LUNAR LUNAR ORBIT LUNAREST R EARTH RE-ENTRY nrenucnv I SURVIVE I TRANS_ _ INJECTION MID-COURSE LUNAR LAND I

DURATION HOURS .2

LAUNCH RECOVERY [M'DCOUeSE
4 80 4 .5 24 144 FIGURE 3-22

2

56

4

2

1.3

48

MCDONNELL

3-23

.. i 132 298 196 297 =====.REPORT NO. '_ ...WATTS STUDY VOLUME II ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY (AVERAGE) EQUIPMENT COMMUNICATIONS LIGHTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL NAVIGATION GUIDANCE STABILIZATION CONTROL ! MISCELLANEOUS & & TABLE LUNAR GEMINI 3-2 11"AND Tn' ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY I- .. ° i 297 : = 3 307 _ 3 266 = == ==. 196 =:.WATTS (AVERAGE) EQUIPMENT u Z :) z COMMUNICATIONS 340 340 . = ' °=S_=o = =z 1= 300 49 14 LIGHTING 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 -- ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL NAVIGATION GUIDANCE STABILIZATION :i _!] 1"7'] 290 279 283 279 280 279 289 279 283 279 -- 100 -- & 440 627 125 532 687 590 -557 113 532 428 --- & 225 225 143 223 223 223 -- 223 137 223 224 CONTROL MISCELLANEOUS 260 117 100 112 120 119 59 110 74 112 88 19 -- MC D OI_I I_I E L L 3-2_ ._. == : o .9182 31OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT TABLE LUNAR APOLLO 3-1 GEMINI 1" ..

5 of Volume I is appli.4.6 Volume Maintenance and Serviceabilit 7 .5 Modes . for Lunar Gemini I and Lunar II and III. in Section 3.4.4..The discussion are provided in for 660 3. 3.6 of I is applicable Deviation 3.4.The discussion to Lunar Gemini. 1.The discussion in Section 3.4.It.4 Volume Distribution and Regulation to Lunar Gemini.The deviations discussed in in Section 3.3 of Volume I is applicable that reactants Gemini watts and 880 watts.4.3 Section Basic Generating Principle and Operating except Modes . for the 8 day duration.7 of Volume I are applicable to Lunar Gemini. MCOO_ELL 3-25 . 3. 3.4.4.7 Section 3. respectively..4 of I is applicable Control 3.The discussion cable to Lunar Gemini. from Apollo Statement of Work .4. 3l OCTOll[I1012 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLoME.2 ..4..

54 1. to A The equipment for Lunar II and III are essentially in Section that defined summary for the Two-Man comparison Apollo and described systems 3..oME.1 LB FT 3 7.9 134.999 10.2 functionally consideration present Lunar Gemini 41.8 60 20 DSIF SUBSYSTEM NEAR-EARTH INTERCOM RECOVERY DATA i 39LB.0.g62 3. TABLE 3-3 TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM WEIGHT EARTH-ORBITING COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI SUBSYSTEM e_g GEMINI (14-DAY MISSION) LUNAR GEMINI I Tr & 11T 39 LB.4 6.1 104.237 I .5 LB FT 3 116 105.69 9. : = .5. the same primary as in the Two-M_n a minimum for Lunar Gemini I represents Gemini modification to the present identical I. Volume of applicable is presented I.5.53 287.5. 18.488 218 673.29 5.5.5 3. . ENVIRONMENTAL & STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS TOTAL TOTAL WEIGHT VOLUME 3. 54.43 24.The telecommunications in Section system for Lunar Gemini I is the same as described 3. electrical load analysis is contained in Table 3-5.4 6. MCDONNELL 3-26 . Volume Gemini weight of these to those of Project is presented in Table 3-3. Telecommunications Summary System equipment for the Lunar Apollo Gemini (Volume spaceI).The telecommunication functions craft provides The system Gemini. 53 4. gII7 ocT.3 31 SYSTEMS PROCESSING SPARES INSTRUMENTATION ANTENNAS WIRING. ho}rever. in Table 3-4. primary components of the An is given to maximumutilization A detailed list of components Gemini.REPORT.8 31 LB.1 4.29 88.1 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo..6 203 LB FT 3 494.

13 24. .4 11 12 .6 1.0 .6 4.007 OMNI OMNt CMI(1) SM'(1} CM (1) MULTIPLEXER CM (I} 9 .4 2.S 3.407 .49 8.7 4 .076 .(1) CM SM CM'(1) ANT.28 1.7 0.210 .300 .5 12 (I) (11 14 7 .2 7.8 .14B .145.026 CM (2) CM CM (2) (1) 6.5 _194 CM CM CM{i) SM (11 14 7 .041 .81B .61 2.SO0 .ORBIT GEMINI 14 DAY WT-LB VOL-FT 3 LUNAR LOCATION GEMINI Z LUNAR 3 LOCATION GEMINI WT-LB Tr & VOL-FT 3 WT-LB VOL-FT SM{2) SM(2) 9 30 .SSO SM(2) SM(2) 9 30 .151 CM (I} 9 .035 . 035 .203 . DIGITAL VNF/FM AID SYSTEMS TRANSCEIVER TRANSMITTER TRANSPONDER TRANSPONDER BEACON COMMAND TRANSMITTER CM(2) CM(2) CM SM SM SMI(I SM (1} (1} {I) I I11 6.O14 .7 4 .028 .2 3.029 .700 7. ANTENNA ANTENNA MODULATOR ANTENNA ANTENNA CM(3) SMt(t) CM {11 1.818 .49 .62 7.0 4.o52 .31 .042 CM(1) CM(I) 3.SOD .0 ..010 ..004 .144 .031 .999 CM SM CM CM CM SM 20 40 20 8 90 40 673.13 2.4 11.140 .O2B .035 .20 HF RECOVERY ASSOC.65 2.024 .s 1.024 CM I1) 4.590 .4 .34 1.200 .320 .239 .072 CM{2) CM(2) CM |11 20 20 13 .040 SMr(2) CM(3) C-BAND C-BAND PHASE VHF VHF CM (3) CM'(I) CM_(1) 1.OBI .210 .250 CM SM CM SM CM(2) 18 25 21 7.0 4.5 2.407 .026 .O04 .250 .69 .210 .03 .004 . & DRIVE PANELS SUPPLY SUPPLY CM I11 SM (1I 14 7 .320 .035 .003 TRACKER OMNI ANT. SM_{1) EM'{I) CM_(1} CM. ANTENNAS DSIF EARTH OSIF [ ANT.035 .45 . ANT. 9182 310CTOB[R 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II TABLE 3-4 TELECOMMUNICATION DETAIL WEIGHT SUMMARY EARTH CRAFT LOCATION DSIF SUBSYSTEM DSIF DSIF NEAR RECEIVER POWER TRANSMITTER AMPLIFIER .0 2.004 RECOVERY HF VOICE/BEACON VHF RECOVERY T/R CM CM SM (1) (11 (1) 3.5 20 5 S 12 12 7.0 ..4 _ ..O14 CM SM SM(2) SM{2} SO 6 o.70 .2 1. VHE VHF STUB EXTENDABLE MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL ENVIRONMENTAL ELECTRONIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL SUPPORTS SUPPORTS CONTROL INTERFACE PROVISION PROVISION CM SM 72.8 .488 CM SM 15.028 CM (ll TELESCOPE TV CAMERA TV CAMERA TIMING PATCH POWER POWER i i I.042 .035 .4 9.237 TOTALS MCDONNELL 3-27 .024 CM_(I) HF VOICE DATA PROCESSING LL COMMUTATOR LL COMMUTATOR HL COMMUTATOR HL COMMUTATOR PROGRAMMER RECORDER CM SM CM SM CM {11 (1) (1) (1) (1} 1.0SB .0 10 0.7 0.004 SM(2) SM_(2) SM (2) S0 6 0.OSB .0 0.012 .4 2.328 .0 .186 INTERCOM RELAY CABIN HAND TRANSCEIVER SPEAKER MIKE CM (11 CM (11 _ 1.004 CM(t) CM{1) CM(It 3.8 3.590 .0 28 20 .62 7.145 .425 CM(1) SM CM(I) SM CM CM(I) (1) (1} (I) 1.420 .250 CM SM CM SM 10 15 18.25 4 16.o76 .nl .O28 .425 CM SM CM CM CM SM 20 40 20 8 80 35 494.0 3.350 .070 .8 11.070 .026 .7 _ .151 1..194 .151 1.700 10.O14 CM (ll CM'(1) S S .O54 .328 .75 4.5 10..IS1 L MULTIPLEXER S-BAND VHF ANTENNA ANT..73 21.020 .200 CM CM CM SM (1) (I} 1..010 .070 .072 . RECOVERY CM (1) CM'(I) CM SM 1.5 2.05.035 .69 O.0 1.034 .32 .035 .6 2.007 CM CM [1) (11 1.055 .004 CM(I} CM (I) CM(I) 3.5 _042 .10 25.16 1.013 .6 2.026 .203 .7 0.550 EARTH VHF/AM VHF/FM C-BAND S-BAND ACO.0 12 .REPORT NO.32B .6 11.203 . 0.463 .5 10. COMPONENTS COMPONENTS ANTENNA t ASSOC.002 .59 .0 0.029 .00 287.6 1.02B .001 .076 .072 ..031 .239 .014 CM (1I CM (11 SM (11 CM(1) 7.5 1.400 CM(4) SM CM (21 (1) CM(1) CM(?) CM SPARES INSTRUMENTATION SENSORS SENSORS SIGNAL SIGNAL 16MM 3SMM CONDITIONING CONDITIONING CAMERAS CAMERA CM SM CM SM 4.1B 5.470 .425 CM(2) SM (2) 3.042 .041 .S00 5.15 .in .25 40 16.042 .7 0.

5.. 7 8 -40 z -(2) 39 200 12 (56) 1372 .5: 25 51 12 (0...9182 31OCTOBER 1962 DIRECT { Continued FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME 11 3..The PCM data processing of the Gemini spacecraft is retained in this application. The DSIF equipment and associated antennas considered for this application are the same as those described in Section 3...The V_/AM voice Both transceivers provide an RF and power VHF/FM output data of trans3 watts retained. communications during the transition from near-earth to DSIF operation may be interrupted on some missions..3) 90 z .a (48) 1023 z -. The C-Band transponder from Gemini is retained in the providing Two-M_nApollo.9 20 1.5 _ _ -1286 -2778 PHASE TOTALS MISSION TOTAL WATT-HOURS NOTE: FIGURES IN PARANTHESES DENOTE PHASE TIME IN HOURS DSIF System - To enable the Gemini spacecraft to conmlunicate at lunar distances_ communication equipment compatible with the DSIF network is added. (1.. (80) 1960 i v (4) 278 "_ (0.. I_ear mitters of Earth the Systems Gemini are . a peak power output of i000 watts as compared to 2500 watts Data Processing . As a result.377.2)* 3.8 360 24 480 24 3 70 85 6 412 1455 2500 560 6223 140 250 40 732 55 125 40 368 26.5 100 9 44.Si -50 oo (24| _ 84 144 1068 (144) ---2778 12 7.. 336 24 (4) 278 3 (2) 139 z -. as compared to 20 watts for the comparable equipment of the Two-_n Apollo.5_ Vol_e I..2 .. The equipment is capable of commutating and MCDO_NE-- -- 3-28 .2 / TAB L E 3-5 LUNAR GEMINI T TELECOMMUNICATION ELECTRICAL LOAD ..5 46 80 -224 1080 1375 46 _3884 140 250 40 732 2080 3560 800 8880 140 250 40 732 12.5 21 -86.. (4) 278 : w...I REPORT NO...WATT HOURS • SUBSYSTEM DSIFSUBSYSTEM NEAR-EARTH INTERCOM RECOVERY DATA PROCESSING INSTRUMENTATION ANTENNA SYSTEMS SYSTEMS _ 69.

weight loads are considered to be the same as that shown in Table 3-9.lls_ 31 oc.. ..The HF and VHF recovery A relay transceiver is added to accomodate extravehicular Lunar Gemini II and III- Telecommunication in Section for Lunar Gemini 3.. Volume II and the III is essentially exception the same as that described resulting summary I with of minor variations A detail from the _lifferent conm_nd module is contained in Table 3-4. 1.3 .2 encoding tape . 3.5.. cation.. for Lunar Gemini I is similar to that Instrumentation of the 14-day sensors.... systems from the Gemini spacecraft communi- Other Systems are retained.2 3.. L APOLLO STUDY VOLU_E._ _" IE_oIT. configuration.The instrumentation Gemini with the addition capability of photographic equipment and additional Television is not included. Volume MCDONNELL 3-29 ... The electric I.o.5.000 bits per second. DIRECT FLIGHT (Continued) of data at a composite is retained with earth rate of 50. temporary storage The 300 channels recorder from Gemini to provide of data during periods when communication is interrupted.5.

.6 The command Structure module design loads DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.OlO Gemini spacecraft is mainly.025 within stiffeners. . safety is 1. strucand is this afterbody thermal protection.1. module consistent primary present is Gemini to and essentially structural withstand earth the philosophy. For bond temperature is limited 500°F. weight.6.7. sandwich.36. Gemini in I and the pressurization module is landing same as conditions. are are IIl Gemini design and loads abort Figure in 3-23. conical the shell. sequence with the seats during dyrmmlc Ablation provide ture is panels similar to those described The front in Paragraph heat 3.Structural factor of design is based on the criteria with the of Section 2. i18Z 31OC_Oltl11912 3. .uM.6. face a fiberglass for the the hcmeycomb increased line similar and abort to that re-entry to used load strengthened construction. 3-24 command module launch loads are shown Figures spacecraft for 3. factor. equipshell. Primary structure designed paraglider structure or parachute. below I.Lunar Gemini except command modules are structurally details.2 identical The Command to the Module . outer in the to at _ne compartof the pressurized is is located between this the outer wall and most The equipment ment Two is located pressure and shell.llEP011TM0.6. Volume for are Lunar shown Structural the same as launch loads and II command Lunar and modules Gemini 3-25.1 employed spacecraft in Structural the in Lunar Description Gemini 3.0.2. Volume shield on backup Gemini.6. I. is O. " MCOO_NE'A 3-30 .020 certain and equipment the basic mounting shell crew primarystructure with AMS 4901 titanium titanium titanium ment longitudinal wall . I and for II structures Two-Man spacecraft Volume described the Apollo Paragraph 3. 0. described design in command Section 3. from launch Command abort.Conventional as I.6. accessible through are removable designed ejection structural with adequate panels structural permit maximum rapid structural in hatches strength aborts opening pressure.

0 g I 1 16 T 6 5! LOAD FACTOR .67 g oO..6_ :_ _['_ J_ \ L \1 I Z_ u_ 4 _\ . _ .2g l I I I SHEAR BENDING 10 8 MOMENT - SHEAR BENDING MOMENT AXIAL LOAD (COMPRESSION) _49 321 " AXIAL LOAD rCOMPRESSION) 4 2-0 400 0 " 450 SO0 550 600 650 SPACECRAFT STATION 700 4OO 450 500 550 600 650 SPACECRAFT STATION 700 too-. \ I SHEAR AXIAL r BENDING MOMENT LOAD (COMPRESSION) %% BENDING MOMENT AXIAL LOAD (COMPRESSION) t1 500 550 STATION FIGURE 3-23 6O0 LOAD • 400 450 500 550 STATION 600 400 450 SPACECRAFT SPACECRAFT LUNAR GEMINI 1111' LIMIT DESIGN BOOST 9 - LOADS PHASE 18 MAXIMUM DYNAMIC PRESSURE q = 820 O.ol .aR i x__ \ ..] I MODULE I SYSTEM MCDOI_iNELL COMMANOI _AU"¢H"CAP_ ! MODULE I SYSTEM FIGURE 3-24 3-31 .... • S.A REPORT NO. II 10_8 _ q = 820 PSF DYNAMIC AXIAL LOAD PRESSURE FACTOR = 2.= 10 ° AXIAL 12 PSF i HARD OVER GIMBAL q = 40 PSF I_....o.= 10 ° AXIAL _ 7 - 14 FACTCR t i = 5. o I\ .1182 31 |CTOI[| 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LIMIT GEMINI DESIGN RE-ENTRY PHASE LOADS MODULE LOADS BOOST MAXIMUM HARD m 5 m_ .2..1 g q = 35 _= _AXIAL 10 ° LOAD FACTOR PSF OVER E GIMBAL = 5.0 _ 3r O >_2 / I- o1\ ...

n lg0_ DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LUNAR GEMINI lrrr LIMIT DESIGN LOADS ABORT TUMBLING o_. :9 4 =.._ STATION LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM PLUS 300 INCHES FIGURE 3-25 MCDONr_EU. 3-32 ..._ls2 3..nEPo. 400 500 600 700 ___ COMMAND MODULE GEMlil ..ocTo......... oJ ..o...

oo/\.7111ttti t I _ T---'- _ r_...lia2 3_ 0C.._g_. basically Gemini compartment is completely redesigned accommodate escape tower parachute...6LB.m. MCDO_N_-- L 3-3_ .Z._A_I_..NI ' IiI L.2 With heat allow Lunar shield DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLU.7_.A I(P01T..6. FIg. Although skin gages and the stringer same as to sizes for cylindrical I and the II..ERGLAS$ HONEYCOMB FUTURE CONSTRUCTION i LUNAR GEMINI I&ll .oo POSSIBLE ::. sandwich pounds a will for structure saving III by of beryllium of 70 pounds steel I or honeycc_b II and 50 a weight Gemini the Lunar bond permitting higher llne temperatures heat shield thus substantially are reducing illustrated thickness in Figure of ablative 3-26.- G EM I N I i._gi___ COMPOSITE _ _._._..___ ii°K25"IsB ER * L l' U/i_ 8'_3 _ "0258 84"_1_1N _ LUNAR GEMINI i:' Yf" II: M • RF3OOJ _9"6 LB'/FT'3 STAINLESS STEEl.. $3 ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION / uo -_N_ ¢OMPOS|TI LUNAR GEMINI ELASTOMERfC b._.._FT..iZ 3.. The structures FRONT L MAC FACE MOOIFIEO $3 HEAT GEMINI SHIELD STRUCTURE /MAC. HO-NEYCOME r _/_J/_/_////////_ 19.. sl t_ xx._j. consist conical recovery and associated launch Structural in both Lunar the modifications and the of increasing shell._ LUNAR .<. material.._:lf__ .3 STEEL " STAINLESS 'S°F_0OJ HONEYCOMB FIGURE m 3-26 I The except loads Lunar Gemini III co_nand module is basically with the the same higher as Lunar Gemini and abort for due structural to the escape reinforcements tower. I & II f-_ _ '_. (IIIINI//IIi_IllHIIIN/N/SKINS __ _/////////'//////////_ .:I. (Continued) some improvement in the state-of-the-art faced for stainless Gemini of beryllium fabrication..

---L . increased radiator as coolant to withstand higher temperatures. discussed _dule Landing 3.2 (Continued) of ejection escape hatches hatch at seats actuating the high on Lunar system dynamic Gemini and III permits a reduction since launch in the rapid escape Elimination weight . the spacecraft pressure centerline. retrograde stiffeners to beryllium 3..3 Paragraph thickness launch Service 3..6..5 in Volume .1.1. on the two of flat the to Structural changes crewmen. 3.. Gemini IlI command module structural modifications are shown in Figure Lunar 3-27 • Ultimate "%_ load factors module on the order of lO0 land g's are anticipated requiring of adding on the Lunar Gemini changes the men in two III for command crew structure during impact consist and structural a beam below are the between crew- protection.6.6 Volume Separation in Paragraph Joints 3.4 Terminal in Paragraph Retrograde 3.5.6..Rl.Lunar Volume are Gemini 13 except separation forthe joints command by are the same to as described L - module three service module straps.The I. and _dule . . the is made the added shell. .6.. _-_ . order distribute earth structural 3.uM l..4.. 3.6.. terminal landing module is the same as described 3. cut at These modules by dual structurally linear connected shaped tension which separation flexible charges (FLSC).6.The module is the same as described Paragraph 3. The and adding a beam between the cabin where impact pressure attachment forces to walls strengthened to the vicinity beams in pressure bulkhead. with service module is similar to that described one gage the in in Volume longitudinal tubes in changed Paragraph ..6.F__ _liPl_Pli<l'l'l • I -- A .6.glal 31OCTOIIIlli l DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo. Module I.I. walls.% of of the the associated structure with opening is not pressures associated required.___J .6.The I.6. interface.. MCDONNELL 3-3_ I_.7.

.. _y.00 X0. i _' BEAMS / FOR EARTH /-STy._ F_E._.75 LOWER WINDOW U 0 SILICATE GLASS . .--._.35 UPPER WINDOW . _ w.173..=. SIDE ._ jABLATION PANEL MAC S-3 ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITE v._9 UPPER WINDOW / L4 _.o oo/o.00 t-STA..1162 3l 0CT06[il1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II LUNAR GEMINI lIT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS _ '._ MIN . H.r| - 3-35 _u.:..uooo. .._ . ._AT ST CREW SUPPORT STRUCTURE TYP. 20 RiNG _ i ADDED CREW SUPPORT IMPACT .oow f_l\_/ I>'K _ REMOVE ALL RADIATION _LOWER SHINGLES WINDOW 'TLoAUNCH E AND ADD ABLATION PANELS GEMIHI STATIONS HAVE Y0. _" ._.O0 MODIFY RI SILL IN TH REMOVE W L. 450. \_ ""--Jr AL .97 RING _STA.(60.co.. BEAM CROSS SECTION U-_l/ ABLATION PANELS OMITTED FOR CLARITY FIGURE 3-27 MCDONNELL • ._-__ ___ ._>HATCHES _----_'i_ _'_'__i\_1_'_'_"_\ __'_"_%_. ow_._ _ . .L CO_ i_. .0_T_0. "_ 11" \_/ INGRESS-EGRESS _.

20 RING 450..ooo/o_uooo.c. ]t_ / _ \ ADDED CREW SUPPORT BEAMS -_-i i / i _-_Jl_ '_ _X0. SIDE OF SPACECRAFT SHINGLES AND C'_-_ ADD ABLATION PANELS {-_-( _ ._._s_.97 j= -STA.o.._J_i_t\_! _\_\ /f INGRESS-EGRESS RE-ENTRY TE GLASS / . 460..oo _ .HEAT REFLECTIVE TAPE\ \ _jSTA. \._- .c.cov." FLIGHT LUNAR CTURAL APOLLO GEMINI 1][ STUDY VOLUME II MODIFICATIONS t THERMOFLEX i.97 RING 460._l_. .040 TITANIUM ANGLE//'`" FULL TYPICAL SCAL STRI I/ -STA._.20 RIB AT STA.o .3s. S STA.00 AND HATCH SILL IN THIS AREA TO REMOVE WINDOW WELL FROM L. _:__ . IPPER WINDOW . AND ADD ABLATION PANELS _STA. REMOVE RADIATION FOR EARTHIMPACT 13-_B ['.00 RIB (. 473..Ms ..O0 _f"_"i_ _ MODIFY RING AT STA.o. s.i _LOWER REMOVE ALL RADIATION SHINGLES GEMIHI STATIONS HAVE BEEN CHANGED BY 300 INCHES WINDOW _ LAUNCH ESCA TA.35 THICK)"_\ ALUMINIZED IN.H.04( FIGURE 3-27 3-35 MCDONNELL .EOLOOUT FR_E . J__(_ xo.00 THICK RF1000 ABLATION PANEL MAC S-3 E LASTOME RIC COMPOSITE ADD NEW RECOVERY SYSTEMSCOMPARTMENT/ EXPLOSIVE BOLT ACTUb RELEASE CABLE PARACHUTE DEPLOYM [ HINGED NAVIGATION o. 473._E _EAM CROSS ECTION ABLATION OMITTED PANELS FOR CLARITY CHANGE HA ADD (2).44 INSULATOR MIN K-1301 Y0'00%_jSTA..OWER WINDOW _t_. 450.s.. __ _ /%_. 403.30 ADD (2).

44 INSULATOR MIN K-1301 (.97 2./ RELEASE CABLE FOR _CHUTE DEPLOYMENT STA.ADD 1 x 1 x 1.97 3.GO. | NIUMANGLE/"Jt.00 SECTION _ 10 X SCALE STA.. 473. REDESIGN RING AT STA.35 IN.-_\ LES AND PANELS _"_/ . TITANIUM PANEL RFI00b THICK) (1.040 TO BASIC ANGLES HAT TO TOP OF HAT SCALE IN INCHES CHANGE HAT GAGE ADD (2) .97 I STA.30 'STRINGER (130 ° ) 0 I 20 L_L__ I 40 I I 60 I I 80 I I 100 I SCALE ROTATED STRINGER REDESIGN FROM . 491.///.090 _.llZ ED HEAT \ "TIVE TAPE _ \ _ 31ATION . DEEP) TO._/ . 491.38 IN.97 STA.008 S-3 ELASTOMERIC STITCH COMPOSITE WELDED TITANIUM CORRUGATION (._ f ! __:" TITANIUM CHANNEL . 4. 473.5 x . REDESIGN RING AT STA.040 TITANIUM . THICK)'_ '._ NEW RECO_ COMPARTMENT-/ / SIVE BOLT ACTUATED .032 TO .00 . ADD CHANNEL NEAR OUTER ML (8 PLACES).30 FLANGES ADD (2) . REMOVE BERYLLIUM SHINGLES AND ADD MAC S-3 ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITE ABLATION PANELS STA._ -'_ _THERMOFLEX ( _ J Lt_ _ . _. 479. FULL TYPICAL /_ _ !. I 403.97 J _/ \ Y BASIC CHANGES FOR THE SECTION AREI 1. _MAC \ \ f _i t.. 486.

as interconnected 3.6..e.6 (Continued) also sever wire bundles by mild and fluid detonating and oxygen fuses lines.6. 3.6.The Lunar Gemini 3.7 described (MDF) for positive spacecraft utilize all-fire Tankage . DIRECT =_ - FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLoM_.It.lll2 ]10CTOI[II 19i2 ... _e FLSC's are pyrotechnically assurance.7_ Volume I. the same tankage in Paragraph MCDONNELL 3-36 .

3 itudinal increases initial range desired with and the initial range. to reach vides an emissivity temperature 3. Convective heating increasing and gaseous radiative increases re-entry angle becomes the heating steeper. module results in high local heating In order and for the pro- caused by oblique radiator heating shock wave impingement.1 erence Escape DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME. heat a peak of 1225°F Space Fli6ht discussed .7.o.2 of equipment Gemini of 0.8.External loads and passive environmental control in Section 3. heat loads and heating distributions Volume I. by the amount of longheating as the 3.R. The selected of a 39-1/2 degree half-cone module angle on the service module and the 20 ° half-cone areas of the service to obtain high withstand external angle of the command module. service efficiencies the high aerodynamic structure during launch. heat loads following do not exceed these design A. as tower legs for Lunar Gemini based on Project design Mercury III are covered experience. the beryllium during launch. Re-entry ..sla2 ocT. temperatures a local are determined transition using the Eckert ref- temperature assuming Reynolds number of lOO.3. With an external skins are expected coating.Re-entry heat loads are influenced re-entry angle. Loads . Re-entr_ Heat conditions. The heat protection system is designed and by an abort for re-entry within limits of a shallow Re-entry long range re-entry a 20 g structural limit steep re-entry.o. Heat Protection Launch .. beryllium is chosen which of the service module.7.7 3.7. Volume I. with an ablative material required. during space flight.Structural method.O00. are applicable to the Lunar spacecraft.19s2 3.3. Mercury and preliminary applicable Project wind tunnel test heating distributions are directly to the convective MCDONNELL 3-37 ..Re-entry by the methods are determined The Project results discussed in Section Gemini 3.7.

3 on DIRECT (Contlnue_) Lunar Gemini.4 . 0.IE.2 S/D 0 IN PITCH .ON /-EQUILIBRIUM /RADIATION . _iONVE_T..5 / / ///_J _w.I-----------i-- 2 o" O" _. The FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.l_.2 PLANE .4 . FRONT q"REF BASED ON FACE HEATING STAGNATION POINT DISTRIBUTION OF HEMISPHERE (RADIUS = RN) 2"0 RN/D=o 1"6 _WW / --i_--i---- .6 x 106 ..2 31OCT|Ill l!$2 3.35 _"_ " _-'_'"L'_v -_ • .0 / .6 OJ = -20 ° Re_D = 1.. / 0 .uM.7.6 / ..22 I I I FIGURE 3-27b MCDONNELL 3-38 .RN) RN/D = 1. heating distributions for the front face and after- body are as shown in Figures 3-27a and 3-2To.6 WINDWARD LEEWARD FIGURE 3-27a ESTIMATED CONVECTION q"REF BASED ON STAGNATION AFTERBODY DISTRIBUTION POINT OF HEMISPHERE (RADIUS .

The ablative material S-J elastomerlc on the command module (See Figures 2-3 3.. less for Lunar The resulting weights 3-28.15 factor applied Nominal Material thermophysical behavior based to predicted properties heating based rates. Volume I. test results.7. design are similar weights to the are summarized Insulation • MCDONNELL 3-39 . The selection of thls material is discussed in Section Commaudmodule following 1.. radiation on available in the combined on NASA-Ames convection and gaseous environment investigations. distribution is shown in Figure The varia3-27c The front face ablative for Lunar Gemini material I for a long range re-entry and a 20 g re-entry. ablative material is the same for Lunar Gemini III.3 B. for the insulation 3. 2. Gemini and II..IEPOltT B1|2 NO.. Thermorad and 3-26. ablative : material distribution is determined with the considerations A 1. (Continued) .) Volume I. is Re-entr F Heat Protection M. The resulting on the front face and afterbody thickness requirement is shown in Figure 3-28.I AAI . 3. 31OCTOI[I le$2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUMEII 3.7.. .3.A. with linear adequate design thickness front face ablative tions between heat shield is designed which provides several points ablative thickness material at several The I for either re-entry points condition.. Shield composite.7..C.3.. and is slightly are shown in Figure The requirements discussion in Figure in Section 3-28.

MATERIAL SHIELD 169 LB..< co < .< m Od LU RANGE RE-ENTRY % % \ < LU m 4 t / / / / % . 1" RF 700.mo. FACE MATERIAL SHIELD 342 LB. 3 PCF) ABLATIVE 1.. FIGURE 3-28 MCDONNELL 3-i_O ..2 S/D 0 IN PITCH PLANE .4 LEEWARD . THERMORAD 55 PCF) 101 LB..2 .6 FIGURE 3-27c LUNAR GEMINI I & Tr* HEAT ABLATIVE WINDWARD MATERIAL PROTECTION DESIGN WEIGHT SUMMARY WEIGHT SUMMARY FRONT .4 WINDWARD . = . "" S-3.* INSULATION (1" RF 1000.6 --20 ! GEMINI ° T W=5300 L/D I LB.3 D = 7.14"_ LEEWARD *LUNAR GEMINI TiT TOTAL IS 589 LB.2 CD = 1. 10 PCF & 7 PCF) TOTAL 616 LB.2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-uME.6 . O . (MAC S-3.5 FT. I I" FRONT FACE ABLATIVE MATERIAL THERMORAD 500°F SHIELD MAXIMUM S-3 ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITE BOND TEMPERATURE 20"g" 8 RE-ENTRY i LU LONG 6 .. INSULATION (.I 2 RN/D LUNAR 5= = 1.m2 _10cT0m 1.2&.._. REQUIRED MAC 10 LL a. THERMORAD 55 PCF) 4 LB.375" RF 300. AFTERBODY ABLATIVE (MAC 1.=.3 2" _'___.

DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II BUBBLE CANOPY DETAIL EXPLOSIVE BOLT ACTUATE[ RELEASE BAND FOR FAIRING JETTISON BU "0" RING PRESSURE FAIRING J ACCESS HATCH EXPANDING RING LOCK -SHAPED CHARGE BUBBLE CANOPY SPACECRAFT PRI MIN K-13011NSUL. ABLATION MATEF CANOPY ACCESS HATCH I=IGURE 3-29 MCDONNELL EOLDOUT FRAME .

VOLUME II EXPLOSIVE BOLT ACTUATED RELEASE BAND FOR FAIRING JETTISON LAUNCH FAIRING BUBBLE CANOPY FAIRING JETTISON SPRINGS A ° _SHAPED CHARGE SEPARATES HATCH A _RE-ENTRY. CANOPY J -CANOPY ACCESS HATCH RETAINING HATCH RETI HATCH RELEASED SECTION FIGURE 3-29 EOLDOUT FRAME .

HANDLE )'\_ RETAINING RETAINING RETAINING . L///H SAFETY PINANDLE J _ SUPPORT SPRING ASSEMBLY HATCH CLOSED CANOPY ACCESS HATCH V_ t _..-HATCH _SUPPORT / \ HATCH R HATCH RELEASED SECTION A-A HATCH CLOSED SED ASS.: iNG HATCH RELEASED _ou_ouT F_E 3 .RELEASE H RETAINING A p.

These features are identical to those of Section Erectable I. Mirrors .9 of Volume MCDONNELL 3%3 .5 Control Volume Linka6es .9 described in Section An operational 3. ..E.8.6. Lunar Gemini is accomplished a three parachute sysa entry is tem as described spacecraft in Section3. inversion Volume I. Volume Earth Landin 6 Systems I design is identical to the present for water Gemini design landings.R[P01T.The lunar landing I. of space costed.8. 3.13.Control linkages are similar for the orbital 3.8.8.a2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu. 3-30. are necessary for gear extension.1.8.8. a parachute Ejection system identical to Lunar Gemini II design that developed visions incorporates for the present Gemini. Lunar Landin6 shown in Figure Mechanism .8. presented 3.13. mechanism is identical 3-45. (Continued) is illustrated in Section in Figure 3. and Lunar Gemini includes lock-out of nmin gear extension Gear oil- strut shock absorbers ments and all bearing motions are sealed surfaces from the effects environNo unusual are moly-dlsulfide or complex B. Volume 3..8.4 points. I. 3. and also includes for capsule of the above parachute system to allow corner system in water landings. and bail-out Gemini.7 with that 3.8 A.8.l. pro- are also identical IIl landing with those of the present vlth C.6 Gemini. discussion pyrotechnlc in Section Systems systems are identical with those 3. to those designed Other umbillcals are identi- This system cal wlth those described 3.3.Pyrotechnic I.

REPORT NO..9162 310CTOOER 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME. [ : L] COMMAND-SERVICE | MODULE STRUCTURE AND UMBILICALS MOLDED BLAST SHIELD --_ APED CHARG[ DETONATOR -_ SECTION L RETAINING A-A STRAP MODULE RE-ENTRY MODULE WIRE BUNDLE CHARGE ASSEMBLY SHAPED A ABLATION COVER DETONATOR EXPLOSIVE INTERCONNECT VIEW TYPICAL 3 PLACES FIGURE 3-30 MCDONNELL _--_ .

. Volume I... with the exception of the systems the command 3..The reaction control systems (RCS) in the Lunar Apollo spacecraft located in spacecraft are basically the same as those in the Two-Man discussed in Section module.T.uM . Volume 3.9 craft Propulsion . in Reference 3-4 and the system specifications are coverea [3 v F MCDONNELL 3.10 Gemini Control .9192 31 OCTOl[I 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.5 .10. Reaction in the Two-Man Apollo spacecraft. RCS is described in Reference in detail 3-5.The propulsion to those systems utilized in the Lunar Gemini space- are identical I.10. Command 3. 3.The command module reactio_ control system is the tanks to The same as the 14-day Gemini accommodate Gemini the increased RCS except propellant for modification loading of the propellant (from 74 pounds to 131 pounds).I Module . discussed in Section 3-9.

11.11.11. LEPS rocket as presented for the spacecraft Rocket Motor are in Section Volume . essentially I.11. in Gemini Lunar III as presented lunar landing in Section gear is the Touchdown I. same characteristics Volume I.u2 31OCTOI[I 1062 3.z I[po. ejection 3-31.The launch and off-the-pad shown . by lethal equivalent presents function weight the of TNT Figure the and of crew lung two 3-32 as a variation of blast Also pressure are the experienced estimated that to time of warning time. Volume MCDONNELL 3-A6 .The 3. of is escape Volume I. dispersion Also shown in parachute are several equal to is shown for performance based on an values I0% wave shock first : : wave stage overpressure propellants. fireball for 3-32 zero geometry seconds compared warning ejection The seat displacement warning shown in Figure by two-second the time dictated and Lunar Apollo yields a minimum 425 feet.l.5 each seconds a two-second boundary..The as discussed 3. is distance between fireball extremity The Two-Man seat of approximately III LEPS Gemini performance 3. performance. spacecraft.1 Gemini seat System from time the Performance Saturn C-5 .. for the propulsion system Lunar === L designed to criteria presented = = 3.11. indicated figure is w damage overpressure warning event of of an thresholds.12 Section Characteristics the same motor 3. + in Figure Parachute opening of of over- deployment time ku* is 4.2.The launch for the escape system Rocket for Lunar Gemini seats I and are used II is presently and designed from Gemini. . impending ejection This explosion seat indicates ri!ii_ a minimum crew of 3-33 Figure seconds in the required A is L_ w satisfy history safety minimum to time. utilizes a tower-mounted in Section envelope vehicle launch 3.ii the system Launch DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II Escape .12. propelled for and ejection parachute separation Automatic man-seat separation deployment Gemini the III is provided.2 for Lunar 3.

I u_ I I.| t._///_.//////////////// 20 % L ._. WARNING FOR EJECTION SEAT OPERATION WARNING TIME IS TIME OF EJECTION SEQUENCE INITIATION PRIOR TO EXPLOSION TIME I_ _| ri_ii t::TJ i O..M '.Z 31 ocT. ! 100 -- 80' /////ESTIMATED 6O EJECTION 40 -"_.-- < 200 100 t I 10 PSi I OVERPRESSURE-I-At=0.0 I 4._. 1.5 SEC.D i-I-. I I I I I I I '_ 4.ii 400 M.. _1"_ P.:_ MCOON_ELL 3-4_7 .THRUST MISALIGNMENT_ a ..l..FEET 800 900 1000 FIGURE 3-31 BLAST WAVE OVERPRESSURE VS.M > O "<___/__//////////_. • II I.2 SEC._.0 WARNING I 2._ SEAT PERFORMANCE /--ESTIMATED DAMAGE DISPERSION LUNG THRESHOLD LETHAL THRESHOLD eL "<1 riLl N L:J L. I 3.0 TIME..0 FIGURE 3-32 . . AFTER START OF EJECTION SEQUENCE TIMES SHOWN ON PRESSURE WAVES ARE TIMEAFTERBOOSTEREXPLOSION I --[ ] 5O0 "_" I.I 300 50 PSI OVERPRESSURE At = 0.45 SEC.n ILl I.I II II II II \ I I I I Oo 100 200 300 400 500 DOWNRANGE 700 600 .2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II GEMINI EJECTION SEAT OFF-THE-PAD TRAJECTORY NOTE ! t 6OO * PARACHUTE DEPLOYMENT BEGINS 4.65 SEC. [ 1.m0_T. A tSEC.- _T = 0..

MAXIMUM DISTANCE I 100 1 SEC..... • "''_ /3 _' SEC..] _T_- 200 "_.. I ru 'SEC" 7 __ _-2 _. := w MCDONNELL -==- 3-_8 ..400 LILI I. I 1"-... .U uL J • . __ ..REPORT NO. SEC. I l I < .. A. ] - 2 GEMINI 600 2 EJECTION SEAT OFF-THE-PAD TRAJECTORY 500 EJECTION SEAT ENVi_LOPE J FIREBALL EXTREMITY TIMES SHOWN ARE TIME AFTER BOOSTER I EXPLOSION i-.. 0 I I I I I I I I II II \ ___ II II II II 800 900 I I I I 1000 0 IO0 200 300 400 500 600 FEET 700 DOWNRANGE--iiiii-- H FIGURE 3-33 L. "_ \ \ 2 SEC.._""_\\ L_ a i.9102 31OCTOB[R 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II -.. _. \\ 3 SEC.. 4 SEC. 300 °_._ 4 SEC.

lO.C_IFID_TLAL_ A 31|{T01[II Ill2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY V. where a fixed cable length a touchdown of additional by unreeling pyrotechnic After landing.)O~N " " 3-49 .LU-K.OO0 feet. C. except is identical to that described of a bridle in Parato Volume for the addition system the spacecraft at 55° from the vertical for corner penetration MC. the bridles are pyrotechnically released the para- chute from the spacecraft. exposing the psraglider. Vertical Lunar Gemini paraglider The drogue lize I . release bridle ment bag from the spacecraft parachute which deployment. paragraphs. deployed at drogue parachute 10.000 feet to stabisection deployment cover and the re-entry spacecraft module. cutters are fired. the drogue deploymain the recovery compartment and the main parachute the main parachute. Lunar Gemini graph 3. and deploys After cables Upon pyrotechnic disconnects suspend the spacecraft at a 55° angle from the vertical. Descent Control consists of a drogue parachute being designed and inflatable for Gemini. 3. and to separate the recovery After from the command inflation of shroud maneuver cable. of the paraglider. the spacecraft is maneuvered bY manipulation flare nose cables to an altitude is performed of 125 feet.The alternate ing system is used which corner-first reefed penetration suspends the spacecraft at an angle of the spacecraft during water is mortar landings.13. releasing the paraglider B.13.1.13 Earth Landing .600 (18. 84-foot diameter parachute Gemini landto achieve A II .The earth landing systems for Lunar Gemini are described in the following 3. Lunar Gemini suspension cables from the spacecraft. separating impact. suspend IIIThis system I.4 feet diameter) At approximately cover approximately separates feet.This system system identical parachute to that presently is deployed at approximately 80.i A.

J R[POR1 NO. normally event is apparent spacecraft elect to the will land. it is the crew penetration the landing by landing the factor.13. Lunar land angle tration will Gemini on of water. to limit Opening vertical main second parachutes at 5000 sufficient altitude. suspended vertical load crew to beneath take parachute of 55 degrees to reduce be advantage If leave the cut. attitude and by is and impact is absorbed supporting the crew load crushing spacecraft The stroke viscous dampers to couches. feet Impact Attenuation I . descent in permitting energy a vertical structure of the limits. the apparent and descend be leave spacecraft personnel Ce parachutes.13. In event of impending to land reorient of pilot landing.l L_ (Continued) water landings. II Lunar Gemini is the II command module beneath to take If is the designed parachute of to at normally an peneimpact B.z .0182 310CTO|[i 962 1 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II 3. descend with craft by the to personnel parachutes. 55 The module from suspended vertical load degrees advantage it is corner that by to reduce on land. extended.Lunar gear for Gemini land I command landings. of 30 consists three simultanof velocity or a reserve is feet parachute. the the landing crew will factor. deployed the three per by This a drogue released system spacecraft parachutes vertical eously two to 3. factors to dampers sufficient limit the emergency _C_ONNELL 3-50 . one supporting In the bridle stay space- spacecraft. IIIThe Lunar module from the on Gemini is _ne III command module the is designed to at corner that and normally an Lunar land angle Gemini on o_ water.2 A. module For utilizes the three the skid main (aft) Lunar Gemini skids Gemini landing are not water landings. the one of the to bridle a r_ in elements = [ : ] is pyrotechnically suspension.

modification. Several the lunar landing canopy and the is crew arrangements selected window as the studied are shown pilot for in Figure arrangement Lunar 4-1. the mirror arrangement is selected for the copilot in all versions.1. A spectrum of intermediate versions may be obtained by substitution of features 4. SUPPORTING 4. Additionally. These incremental Gemini I.2 of Volume I presents a study of various Since the are Spacecraft arrangements staging propulsion identical.2 _J_. goal of obtaining Of these is fourj most the with a hypersonic crew arrange- maximum during a satisfactory a design lunar landing the formidable from standpoint. and systems system.Section 4. c) crew arrangement system. in module described in Section 2. Lunar Gemini characteristics the study spacecraft in Volume AnalTsis applicable. 4.25. Further. studies most demonstrate are. : among the configurations. Staging . launch. essentially as applicable a command earth direct Areas mission are Gemini abort spacecraft capability module.33 Trajectory is I- " Volume the and I.The Two-Man Apollo propellant and all combinations.B IEPO|T i11| gi. for From Lunar these Gemini bubble llj most pilot desirable arrangement I and side as the Gemini III.The Gemini the size and external configuration Design which b) of the command within module this is basically constraint arrangement re-entry features launch spacecraft. utilizing above.g. are possible. selected. trajectory to the analysis lunar of presentation landing of Section utilizing control 4. MCDONNELL exception re-entry during _. various combinations of the Numerous four features proportions. command module and systems three are configurations. a) that the effect interior earth escape navigation landing imposed L/D ment system.--1 . 31ICTII[I 1112 DIRECT STUDIES _bdule AND FLIGHT INFORMATION and APOLLO STUDY VOLUME{I 4. representing are the Lunar To reduce the study to manageable progression II and III configurations. position achievement task of in equipment compatible by the design of 0.1 Command Size Arrangement that of the .3 and the effect of different for the I is . during l_ar landing and d) the earth location is and impact a constraint a c.

MIRROR STRUCTURAL OPTICS REVISION REVERSED IMAGE FIGURE MCDONNELL 4-1 /4-2 .WINDWARD STRUCTURAL SIDE REVISION ECS RELOCATION WINDOW COVERS FOR RE-ENTRY MIRROR LOW OPTICS WEIGHT AND STRUCTURAL REVISION REVERSED IMAGE SELECTED CO-PILOT ARRANGEMENT FIBER OPTICS POOR RESOLUTION IMAGE REVERSED / / LENS . BUFFET AND ABORT PROBLEMS WINDOW REQUIRES REQUIRES REQUIRES ..W0. CREW ARRANGEMENTS _ OPEN HATCH FOR LUNAR .E._OPTIONAL WEIGHT STRUCTURAL CABIN REVISION LANDING L r_ _ZIPPED I__N PRESSURE SEAL MINIMUM MINIMUM t: :7 [L ::] REQUIRES / / DEPRESSURIZATION BUBBLE CANOPY REQUIRES LAUNCH REVISED HEATING DOOR AND STRUCTURE BUFFET PROBLEMS 1I SELECTED PILOT LUNAR GEMINI ! AND ARRANGEMENT WlND()W REQUIRES REQUIRES LUNAR .LEEWARD STRUCTURAL ARTICULATED SIDE REVISION INSTRUMENT PILOT PANEL ARRANGEMENT GEMINI 1Tr SELECTED GONDOLA MAXIMUM LAUNCH WEIGHT HEATING..2 S 31OCTOI[R 1982 c :] DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo-o_. .

phase for the is identical to Section 4. This figure conditions for Lunar I and II will be less than or equal indicates that re-entry limit. ment vehicle.Lunar Gemini for Gemini as a means I and II utilize of providing seats as presently from a malfunctioning envelopes based for an offon Saturn environ- crew separation launch the-pad C-5. Volume 4.The trajectory considerations Volume I. I.6 of Volume from Lunar Surface I.3. for the Lunar Gemini spacecraft are identical to Section _-3.3.DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY • 4.The discussion Gemini in 4.3. exceeds seats are used until combination.2 TraJecto.3.3. This void delay is the is also indicated launch this period.1. ejection in 4. I. III utilizes a launch is capable Figure of'Immediate separation as discussed in Section 3. until the coasting Lunar Gemini vehicle reaches a low drag enviromment escape propulsion system Volwne recourse. 4-3 presents the i0 g and 20 g recovery on the abort apogee ceillngs for Lunar Gemini Gemini III.11.1 .3 Lunar Gemini 4. is directly .The study of launch from the moon applicable. load factors to those for Lunar following an abort will be less than the 20 g emergency .11.2.1 Section Lunar Retrograde to Terminal Sta_in_ Altitude .5 configured _HJ • i Abor_. control _.r7 Control Durin_ Main Descent .The terminal descent I.a_in_ Altitude spacecraft Launch to Lunar Surface .1 presents the seat performance and fireball compared with overpressure the ejection calculations the launch After llft-off. abort Section 3. no immediate magnitude separation drag decreases in separation of separation a_parent which to the approximate capability of the service on FiE_re 4-2. is directly applicable to the Lunar spacecraft._. Abort IX and III superimposed apogees Gemini for Lunar Gemini IlI. Vol_e I.4 Section St. to this time. thrust.2 of 4.___t .3. vehicle the limits of the seat-man after lift-off This limit occurs on the launch profile capability module During exists approxiof Figure until the mately |!!!!i!| lOO seconds Subsequent and is indicated 4-2.3.

,_._.

REPORT NO,t182 31OCTOBER lg82 ']

DIRECT

FLIGHT LAUNCH

APOLLO

STUDY

VOLUME

II

ESCAPE LIMITS
TO PARKING
I

SATURN 200
r •

C5 LAUNCH
1 I

ORBIT

I

I

DRAG u_ 160i I
0
I--

= SERVICE MODULE

THRUST'

J
SEPARATION WITH LE I SERVICE MO[

"- 120
x
! ul

EJECTION SEAT 80--

_,/

/

a
p-.
=J

I:SCAPE__//__ IMMEDIATE__ _ /,,_'_ SEPARATION NOT _l /POSSIBLE _ I_=38 sEcI

¢

4O

L

/

L_

O0"_1OO0

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Am

7000

8000

RELATIVE VELOCITY _nnnJ_ n J I l [ _ 0 50 100

- Ve - FT./SEC. [ I

J

150

' 'VFIGURE 4-2

TIME - SECONDS

ABORT RECOVERY
SATURN 100 C5 LAUNCH

CEILINGS
ORBIT

TO PARKING

20g RECOVERY CEILING, L/D = 0 8O
U.

RECOVERY ABORT APOGEES WITHOUT L.E.P.S. CEILING, L/D = 0.25

',¢1"
I

0 x
jI L. |

6O 4CH PROFILE 4O

I
//
I lOg RECOVERY CEILING, L/D = 0 I ABORT APOGEES

|i iiii_

2O

0 0 4

IWITH 8

L.E.P.S. I 12

J 16 20 24 28 FIGURE 4-3

RELATIVE VELOCITY

- V e - 1000 FT./SEC.

MCDONNELL

I

m. ,0.m2 31 o.o,[, ,.2
5.3.5

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

vo u.E,,

(Continued)

| ; All
|

aborts

subsequent 4.3.5, Vol_,_e

to

earth-orbit I.

injection

are

identical

to

those

discus-

sed

in

Section

_.3.6
as the

Re-entr

7

Flight

Path

Control

- An

essential

consequence

of

using

Gemini

command

module

for

the

direct

fli6ht

Apollo

mission

is

that

the

aerodynamic

lift-to-drag

ratio

available

for

flight

path

control

during

re-entry

will

be

considerably 0.25, and it

less is

than probably

the

0.5

specified to

in

Reference any

_-i. si6nificant

The

Gemini increase.

L/D

is This

about does

impractical

effect

not

necessarily

mean

a

corresponding

reduction

in

ran6e

capability

because

flight

path

control

at

supercireular

speed

can

produce

intentional

skip

to

achieve

the

desired

range.

Hence

there

is

no

clearly

defined

"footprint"

range

limit;

control

accuracy

is

what

determines

the

practicable

range.

Figure

_-_

shows

the

effect

of

L/D

on

the

allowable under

velocity _00

component nautical miles

errors yet

at range

initiation sufficient

of

typical for maximum

skips

having

apogee

altitudes

lunar-

declination facilities.

return It is

trajectories assumed that

at

inclinations

compatible tracking or

with on-board

Mercury orbit

tracking determina-

ground-based

tion

Can

establish

the

actual

trajectory

during

the

skip.

Therefore,

the

allowable

skip

initiation

errors

are

limited

only

by

the

amount

of

range

adjustment

possible

during errors the same

the shown

subcircular in Figure and in

speed 4-4 the it

re-entry was

after

the that

skip. both

In velocity

calculating components The

the

allowable in of error this

assumed to

are

amount

direction

make

the

effects

add.

results

study

show

that

the

particular

skip

conditions

do

not

greatly

affect

the

allowable

initiation

errors,

although

at

L/D

values

typical

of

Gemini

it

is

slightly

better

to

control _ould

to

a have

shallow to be

fli_ght less

path than 16

angle fps

at even

exit. in the

For more

L/D

=

0.25

the case

velocity shown.

errors

favorable

Practical

problems

involved

in

achieving

this

precision

in

the

supercircular

control

phase

have

not

been

analyzed

in

detail.

If

it

is

not

feasible

to

obtain

the

control

I_..,o,_I_2

DIRECT

FLIGHT

APOLLO

STUDY

vo.u.E,,

4.3.6

(Continued)

ALLOWABLE
6O

VELOCITY AT INITIATION

COMPONENT OF SKIP

ERRORS

1
NOMINAL INITIATION CONDITIONS AT SKIP (400,000 FT. ALTITUDE)

I

50

, Z _Z 0 0

40 V = 25,250 )/= 3.5

l
FPS

..=.
_i11 •

30

Ou
i ,

20
10

V --_#,090 DEG. 5.O FPS

L:

i=i i

00 U accuracy required required re-entry when

0.1

0.2 LIFT-DRAG RATIO

0.3 - L/D

0.4

0.5 FIGURE 4-4

for the long range

skip, it _ii

be necessary

to decrease

the orbit

range by either increasing is at northern portion

the inclination

of the return

trajectory
w

the moon

declinations,

restricting

the missionto site outside

the southern
I_: ii$

declination U.S.,

of the month,

or choosing

a landing

U

continental 4.4

e.g. a water landing - The three

in the Pacific Gemini

Ocean. modules of this study have

Aerodynamics

Lunar

command

the same re-entry sion system tion is very

configuration,

but Lunar

Gemini _.e

III has a launch Lunar Gemini

escape propulconfigura-

for aborts within similar

the atmosphere. Mercury

III abort

to the Project

spacecraft. configurations

Aerodynamic

coefficients 4-5,

for the re-entry 4-6 a_d 4-7. Trimmed
. .

and Lunar Gemini

III abort

are shown in Figure

lift-to-drag

ratio

as a function 4-8. Design

of c.g. offset points

for three

longitudinal spacecraft

c.g. positions are plotted

is shown in Figure

for the three

study

tJ

on the figure.

. ° . ..o°. I I-" z U LU lira im ILL LL' IAI 0 U 0 ..2 GEMINI a _J DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu..DEGREES 30 40 FIGURE 4-6 .." ....DEGREES -40 -50 FIGURE 4-5 STATIC STABILITY AFTER IN ABORT CONFIGURATION ROCKET BURNOUT MACH ... Y = . 1.'°" i ..1 0 '1'0 ANGLE 20 OF ATTACK ....._J 0 -10 ANGLE -20 OF ATTACK -30 ..01D... 5.°...T.*" ...o..._o.°°.°.°..016D NO.0 """°°." o ..( I-u_ i ..... RE-ENTRY CONFIGURATION VS ANGLE AERODYNAMIC OF ATTACK MACH = 20 CHARACTERISTICS 1.1 i C3 Ul.°.....Itml... r°°.....°.. lm 3_ ... CG @ Z = 1......°"°°'°°" "°'°°°°"°"°'%°1 +.

(Z/D)AND RATIO ......33D C. 0 0 10 20 ANGLE-OF-ATTACK 30 ._!/: j//" / /" O E ¢{ a_ I ... ..-- °°°o°' ...8 MAC H NO.. _ 1.. OFFSET (Y/D) (L/D) MACH ...2 / .. ..0 COEFFICIENT FOR ABORT VS. -" ... ANGLE OF ATTACK CONFIGURATION a u ! 1..G.I 1/" / d/J. °°--" .J o/ 2 C.G.INCHES 4 5 FIGURE MCDONNELL 4-8 ..5 u .t...3 DESIGN LUNAR POINTS GEMI 1 ... OFFSET (Y) 3 .20 . llt2 ]!tCTIlit Ill! DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II DRAG 2." lye: -" (_ O u.2 1..'/ T -I -'/_'/ NI__. .26D LIFT TO DRAG Z = .m.4 _..6 r..40D 4j a el I J .T.G..DEGREES 40 FIGURE 4-7 EFFECT OF LONGITUDINAL ON C.

l+-9 .. _-/_.i _-5 directly Propellant applicable _.]7!r . !!!!!!! MCDONNELL __.5 of Volume I is Lu_]ar Gemini spacecraft._r6ins to the ..g162 31OCTOai[I 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUMEII .The discussion in Section 4.. -7:::- -L::] w w L J.L R[PORT NO.

4-9 along with weight penalties ciatedwith increased MCDONNELL /4-10 .46O As a first approximation.4 6.9 13.The inherent shielding provided by the structure below and on the of the Lunar Gemini abdominal skin.The Lunar Gemini command the shielding 26..... Volume in Figt_e as does the Two-Man I.7 4.6 equipment astronaut's Radiation .5 41.6 for the eyes in the Lunar position Gemini is assumed in shown for the navigation for Two-Man Apollo module provides command a high degre e of inherent module Gemini described spacecraft protection 4.. Meteoroid Apollo in Section protection for the Lunar asso- is summarized protection.215 .ii0 •150 .. to be the same as that Section 4...7. Volume Meteoroid I. Protection meteoroid ..6.. REPORT NO.065 . spacecraft is sunmmrized for a point - = TABLE Z 4-1 Shielding Shielding g/cm 2 Aluminum 1..0102 310CTOI[R1912 I AI DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME I! tfi 4.9 Inherent Fraction Solid Angle .

999 w m (p) .) FIGUR E 4-9 v i |iiiiiii _L ] i 114CDOIVAIELL _-11 .) WHERE P= DEPTH OF PENETRATION d= PROJECTILE DIAMETER Y= A CONSTANT-. 2950 LB.99902 .) (668 LB. ( 60 LB.7 |[PORT fiB.5 LB.99979 •0590 128 LB. ADDED WEIGHT FOR p = .CREW PRESSURE WALL SERVICE MODULE TANKAGE TERMINAL LANDING MODULE TANKAGE RETROGRADE MODULE TANKAGE (REDUCTION COMMAND IN ALLOWABLE MODULE WEIGHT) COMMAND Ct = SPEED OF SOUND PROBABILITY OF NO PENETRATION IN TARGET MATERIAL ADDED WEIGHT FOR p = .7320 .57 PENETRATION EQUATION p_ /ep_ 1/3 Vp 1/3 Li L (E.ARS PAPER 499 .990 u 13. WHIPPLE .99917 .4 Qp= PROJECTILE DENSITY Qt =TARGET DENSITY Vp= PROJECTILE VELOCITY PROTECTION ITEM MODULE . 254 LB. 9102 31 OCTOI[| 1962 L_ DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II METEOROID CRITERIA PROTECTION FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION PER F.

!112 31OCTOIEi 19i| DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLO. 428 260 97 267 321 330 149 85 75 1219 54 245 16 42 482 351 29 STRUCTURAL BASIC HEAT ! SHIELD STRUCTURE CREW SYSTE/_ COMMUNICATIONS DISPLAYS AND INSTRUMENTATION (362) 174 188 207 40 193 300 340 794 TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDANCE STABILIZATION REACTION AND NAVIGATION AND CONTROL CONTROL ELECTRICAL POWER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL EARTH LANDING EQUIPh|ENT BALLAST EQUIPMENT SUPPORTS AND NAVIGATION AHD POWER CONTROL CONTROL 1 L.8 to L_ Weight Derivation Gemini for are .8. major presents weight the breakdown earth of differences between orbital Gemini Lunar II and are: MCDONNELL _-12 CONFIDENTIAL ..CONFIDENTIAL L IEPOili|. Eiiiiil _ ENVIRONMENTAL DISPLAYS TELECOMMUNICATIONS 4. 4-2 TABLE COMMAND I L i! AND SERVICE MODULE WEIGHT SUMMARY EARTH EQUIPMENT GROUP ! ! ! COMMAND MODULE SYSTEM ORBITAL GEMINI 4711 (1546) 1319 227 929 I LUNAR II GEMINI Ill 5263 (1930) 1264 666 911 (699) 271 428 260 97 267 321 330 273 85 90 1190 54 245 16 42 482 351 5625 (1859) 1187 672 1049 (534) 252 282 207 97 274 321 330 794 85 75 5157 (1829) 1157 672 1049 (695) 267.I. II.1 the structural and Structural system..The III detail follows: comparison with 4. and the ..1 of the earth Co_nand orbital Module Gemini and Service Lunar . Lunar of the III and equipment 14-day weights Gemini in current earth orbital mission.Weight The estimates summary I.1. i 7 . 113 are based command the primarily module on modifications and service module Gemini 3 the current weights..8._ SCIENTIFIC ECCENTRICITY SERVICE MODULE 1064 54 107 9 524 370 1177 54 212 43 42 443 354 29 STRUCTURAL GUIDANCE STABILIZATION ELECTRICAL .E II 4..Table weight III Module Gemini 4-3 Equipment I. Gemini System The I. presented Table 4-2.

0 47.19 1.7 15.08 76.6 (252.7 20.54 55.5O (352.4 MATERIAL 16.5 170.2) 39.0 46.0 SoM.60 17.44 53.98 4.54) 29.0 89.8) 329.42 i.4 10. 54.-13 . CHUTE PROVISIONS EQUIPMENT MOUNTING CABIN WALL EQUIPMENT BAY PARAGLIDER AND GEAR BACKUP PAINT AND SEALANT NOSE ANTENNA AND JETTISONED MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURE INTERNAL STRUCTURE BALLAST MOUNTING SNORKEL INLET MISCELLANEOUS FIXED ANTENNA 7L --% . 54.8) 159.8 7.5 88.12 665.0 10.0 4.8 55.6 (52.3 1.0 10.80 8.0 4.1 21.80) 39.0 4.6 68.0 46.5 10. DIRECT FLIGHT TABLE APOLLO 4-3 STUDY VOLUME II STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WEIGHT COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI 1] m s.8 8.M.4 15.42 5. S..3 1.1) 1297.8 7.0 33.26 (52._.2 1.52 78.0 86.4 15.5) 342.UP INSULATION HOISTING CLAMP RING ATTACH.10 61.00 33.3 1.5 1.5 (382.1 88.0 55.0 10.57 ALLOWANCE % MCDONNELL 4.4 (191.33 1.1 105.8 7.4 216.2 30.7 10.M.4 (243.39 174.3 1.2 133.9 55.45 1.0 3.4 672.9 55.0 r. I 22.1 61.45 I0.6 13.M. 1319.LATCHED HATCH AND OBSERVATION WlN[.4 (480. I 22. HATCHES AND WINDOWS HATCH .1) 297.62 7.EJECTION UMBILICAL LANDING GEAR ECS BAY MISC.7 20.5) 169.M.5) 169.8) 47.5 1.00 3.4 5.0 1157.4 10. 1187.7 (180.6 (484.7 13..0 !1264.53 11. FOREBODY ATTACH.OW SHINGLES/ABLATION BACK.4 15.5) 342.9 165. ' FOREBO'DY FOREBODY ABLATION MOUNTING FOREBODY AFTERBODY AFTERBODY AFTERBODY GROWTH ABLATION RING PROVISIONS BACK-UP ABLATION MOUNTING MATERIAL 227.0 21.4 672.20 I c.0 3.2 119.25 33..6 48.00 89. S.1 STRUCTURE BASIC GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL C.7 20.7 213.5 (401.80) 47. C.5) 29.5) 10.0 46.73 10.8) 47.0 3.1 103.6) 29.0 (55.6 13.M.64 79.6 17.4 5.7 10.0 15.4 5. BUBBLE WINDOW HATCH .6 68.0 33.70 20. SIDEWALLS SKIN AND STIFFENERS STRINGERS RINGS EQUIPMENT ACCESS DOORS AFT BULKHEAD FORWARD BULKHEAD TOWER/PARAGLIDER ATTACH.00 " (210.0 54.5 1.M.2) 39.1 88.35 15.1 61.6) 29.M.43) " 96.8 8.00 10.70 35.0 (55.8 8.6 79.0 33.A L. C.4 (243.8) 47.4 (55.7 13. HEAT SHIELD i I.5 11.0 11.5 1(382.6 79.0 (48.5 170.7 (480.6) 38.10) 297.4 (191.2 30.0 (301.0 11.00 47.3 1.

4-5 presents weigj_t III are: the weig/_t control Lunar system.i DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuME.1.m2 3.0.8. Telescope Roll Moment_ %_eel • _ I 4O and Base 45 13 45 13 4.Table The 4-4 presents weight III the weight navigation orbital guidance and system.1.m 4.01T.8. II and are: Gemini II III Lunar | i i:::.2 brea]:down of the Guidance the earth and Navigation and Gemini System . Gemini major differences Gemini and II and Lunar I 17 Capability and Gemini II 17 III 17 Add I_ Increase Strapdo_m Control System Electronics Sensors Redundancy Add Sun and 60 Canopus 12 6o 12 60 12 ]i]] -'[] ]]! ]1 : MCDOI_NELL 4-14 .R._11 t between Lunar I. Gemini major differences iLii ill.Table _e I.J Add Add Add Autosextant Manual Sextant.0C_0m .. for Impact Loads 87 181 233 1-_2 246 12 192 246 12 30 -16 3o -51 3o 21 75 -51 4_ 15 42 4. (Continued) Lunar I Gemini II -44 (323) -2_16 8.3 breahdown between of the Stabilization the earth stabilization orbital and Control and System .1._ III Remove Revise [J Docking and Rendezvous Heat Ih-otection Provisions -44 (323) -216 89 -44 (31 ) -216 || Remove Shingles Add Afterbody Ablation Backup Add Afterbody Ablation _hterial Increase Forebody Ablation _-_terial Increase Forebody Bac]:up St_ucture Shorten Paraglider Housing Beef-up Structure for Tower Loads Remove Paraglider-Gear Beef-up Add Bubble Vie_@ort Revise Hatch-window System Add Parachute Provisions Revise Aft Bhd.8.

0 30. 42.0 31.6 16.0 5.24 12.M.M. 206.T. 43.6 44.0 MISCELLANEOUS NAVIGATION BASE STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS CIRCUITRY E.0 III C.01 5. 40.0 30.0 13. PROVISIONS SUN SENSOR ROLL MOMENTUM WHEEL 9.0 i Iiiiii_i ) )( SUN SENSOR CANOPUS CIRCUITRY SENSOR 9. S.0 5.77 42.0 30.0 27. S.2 61. S.0 2.21 61.5 LUNAR GEMINI II III S.5 [_ INERTIAL SYSTEM PLATFORM PLATFORM POWER SUPPLY PLATFORM ELECTRONICS COMPUTER SYSTEMS COMPUTER OPTICAL MEASUREMENT AUTOSEXTA NT MANUAL.M.M. C.40 9.24 8.0 IIIl i_ D O I_I I_I E L L _-15 .0 10.0 259.2 61.8 42.0 30.0 8.M.0 31.0 5.14 10.0 8. S.0 12.00 7.5 8.00 10.8 10.5 40.0 10.6 44.6 31.8 1.0 5.0 S.0 2.0 1.0 9. i TABLE 4-5 Ei STABILIZATION WEIGHT STABILIZATION AND CONTROL AND CONTROL SYSTEM COMPARISON GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL C.0 30.50 RATE CONTROL 8.M.51 C.0 30.1 10.0 2.90 7.6 16.0 5.0 30.M.M.63 31.M. 206.0 10.n m_ DIRECT FLIGHT TABLE APOLLO 4-4 STUDY VOLUM_II NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM WEIGHT I COMPARISON "r -- NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL C.8 42.1 18.5 42.C.0 3.0 5.0 13. C. 97.M.M. 97.1 18.0 2.2 61.0 27.M.0 I0.8 42.56 9.00 2.6 L IL.6 44.0 2.0 2.8 10.5 12.80 1.63 44. SEXTANT TELESCOPE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS SYSTEM iL k J 1.M.6 3.5 8.0 IMU STRAPDOWN :ii INERTIAL REFERENCE ACCELEROMETER RATE SENSORS GYROS ELECTRONICS 15.5 CONTROL-ELECTRONICS INVERTER 30.0 30.M.0 9.0 ! |)J J! _N ? LUNAR GEMINI II C.6 3.S. S.0 10..mpTn ill2 31 .0 259.

0 20. 3 .76 PROPELLANT SYSTEM PROPELLANT .26 1.M.=. 192.00 4.9 .Table weight 4-7 presents differences the weight the breakdown earth of the earth landing system.0 5.M.4 48.4) . 273. INSTALLATION..4) •7 6.s_ 3_ :CTO.0 37.5 !.8. REGULATOR INSTALLATION ASSEMBLY SYSTEM (29.0 21. 266.0 27.6 electrical FZLectrical System .9 2. .9 48.5 1.M.70 PRES'SURIZATI6N GAS T AN K VALVING.0 37. 266. C.i C.0 5. L-- 4. III are: .USABLE PROPELLANT .. The major between orbital Gemini and I_nar C_ni I.M.0 20.2 (152.4) 126.4) 126.7 (28.6 (28.7 (28.80 4.0 20.7 6. 88) 70.2 !(158.80 (90.4 48. The major weight d_fferences between aud IALuar Ge_ni 13 II..88 36.1.0 5.5 1.".:2 4. TABLE 4-6 REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM WEIGHT COMPARISON _EM. System .A L_ too.7 6._ble 4-8 presents -519 -253 _3 -519 -253 222 the weig_ht bre_do_n the each orbital of the Ge_ni system. II and III are: Izmar I C_ntlni II III Remove I_raglider System Remove Skid Geax System _d Sir_le 84 Foot Diammter 1_arachute System _d Three 71 Foot Diameter _rachut_ S_tem 4. System .1.5 Earth Landing. Reaction control Control system.26) LUNAR GEMINI i C.00 16.8.Table 4-6 presents the weig_ht brea_down with the increase _t of the reaction in propellant The major weight change occurs from 74 to 131 pounds.8.. REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM EARTH ORBITAL C.2 (152.0 38.0 21.4) .4 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLu.80 CIRCUITRY 35.TRAPPED PROPELLANT TANKAGE THRUST CHAMBERS VALVING.1.40 20.9) 126.

M.7) GEMINI II S.0 28. ETC.4 1.98) (445.6) 29.5 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM BATTERIES MAIN SQUIB FUEL CELL SYSTEM FUEL CELLS FUEL CELL REACTANTS REACTANT CONTAINERS PLUMBING C ONT ROLS CIRCUITRY . 793.72) (138.1 27.6 27.6 273.8 2.2 7.00 8.0 (33. 300.13 ItACDOIVIVELL h-17 .M.7) LUNAR I S.13 519.8 15.7 2.0 CHUTE SYSTEM .5 (I 38.7 2.M.61 9.5 (9.M.1 27.4 8.5 C.0 8.0 6.6) 29.0) (351. TABLE 4-7 EARTH LANDING SYSTEM WEIGHT COMPARISON EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI C.0 8.4 10.0 (27.0 28.64 9.8 2. 320.2 147.40 7.M.6 9.20 202.61 3. C.6) 29.4) 3.0 8.0 6.3 114.3 114.0 (33.6 9.00 (27.0 7.M.5) 110.8 2.5 (9.6) 1 00.2 7.M.0 19.4 (222.50) 110.uM .0 (10.3 114.6 9.0 8.0 93.CHUTE CONTROLS/BAROSTATS PARAGLIDER CIRCUITRY J RECOVERY SYSTEM RECOVERY LIGHT DYE MARKER CHAFF/SHARK REPELLANT MOUNTING AND CIRCUITRY SKID GEAR ASSEMBLY 252.1 39.0 39.6 9.0 93.80 ( 6.5 (9.0 8.M.0 (27.73 3.8 26.M. 481.81 MAIN CHUTE/CHUTE CLUSTER CANOPY AND RISERS BAG AND INSTALLATION DROGUE PILOT CHUTE & MORTAR 15.0 (10.4 8.5 {I 38.5) 110.0 7.50 (8.0) (390.25 114. 481.4) 3. 793. FUSES.POWER POWER RELAYS.0 15.1 2.4 LANDING SYSTEM LUNAR GEMINI 3" 11" TIT C.0 8.4 1.0 (33.4 8.7 3.63) 29.0 12.14 523.8 2. C.8 26. 320. C.A mORTlO.5 (138.0 (112.72 2. m2 :il OCTOI[I 1962 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.0 28.7 3.2 10.2 108.00 78.0 7.98 (33.55) 3.4 519.2 147.6 13.0 39.9 3.2 7.90 3.8 26.9 3.0 (27.7 2.5) 110.00 2.0 39.7) III S.77 20.6 9.0 93.9 3.5 C.8 149.7 3.38 27.M.1) 119.M.91 252`9 TABLE 4-8 ELECTRICAL WEIGHT SYSTEM COMPARISON GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL C.22 SYSTEM (6.62 8.1) 119.69 320.06) 119.0) (390.0) 207. DIODE PANEL CIRCU]TRY-DC POWER UMBILICAL DISCONNECTS CIRCUITRY-UTI LITY CIRCUITRY-RETROGRADE CIRCUITRY-PROPULSION INSTALLATION PARTS 8. 442.8 2.1) 119. S.75 2.M.00 28.

t . CONFIDENTIAL DIRECT 4. System major II and .1.Table weight III 4-9 presents the weight the breakdown orbital of the U display and Lunar system. Gemini differences between earth Gemini are: Lunar I II Gemini III _z | Add Additional Communications Display Increase Platform and Sextant Display Increased Sequence Panels and Overrides Add Thrust Control Flight Indicators Increased Propulsion Displays Add Lunar Landing Mirror System Increased Circuitry Allowance 8 8 12 8 8 12 i0 14 8 12 8 20 8 20 8 20 23 23 23 E ¸ IH J .7 Display The I.6 (Continued) FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II Lunar Gemini III L I Reduce Fuel Cell Reactants from Propulsion Circuitry stages II Increased Increased circuitry Internal -94 18 15 -55 18 15 -55 18 15 4.8.8.i .1.

0 2.3 8.0 6.50 4.80 10.0 2.00 2.0 20.0 2.00 1.0 6.0 7.0 i(31.18 26.30 (31.0 2.M.5 1.0 10.00 7.77) .00 (2o.5 29.42 "! I LAUNCH .8 2.3) 6.7 10.0 3.91 (6.0 6.0 26.1112 31II11l|l 1112 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II TABLE 4-9 DISPLAY WEIGHT SYSTEM EARTH ORBITAL GEMINI C.3 8.0 3.60 I6.0 6.1 4.0 11.0 2.5 .0 4.0 il C.M.0 4. 251.8 2.0) (_.0) _L MANUAL THRUST CONTROL .0 19.0 7.5 (35.0 11.5) 1.0 8.0 2.1 (SEE T E L ECOMMIJNICATION) 4.3 L_ ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE PROVISIONS .0 6.4) 1.50 (S2. 266.0 11.0 10.0 4.0 60.0 6.S) 4.0 6.0 26.90) 4.85 2.0 10.ABORT PARAGLIDER PRESSURE INDICATOR AIRSPEED BOOSTER MONITOR ACCELEROMETER ALTIMETER ABORT CONTROL RATE OF DESCENT SEQUENCE PANELS AND OVERRIDES ALTITUDE/RATE INDICATOi_ UTILITY CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM CABIN PRESSURE OXYGEN INDICATOR SUIT TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CONTROLS POWER DISTRIBUTION PROPULSION LUNAR LANDING MIRROR SYSTEM 4.0 4.0 8.0 I0.5 3.3 f Lt MCDONNEL L /4-19 !-L .0 4.0 20.0 (25.0 2.75 2.0 (26.0 (16.9 7.0 6.0 26.0 2.4) 1.3 8.0 (31.8 2.5 3.i S.0 4.0 I0. 173.0 'ill C.0) (52.0 4.A IEPIlT NO.9 4. 5) .00 .00 3.5) 4.9 7.0 7.3) 6.0 4.M.00 (12.0 CONTROL) _L 19.3) 6.0 (45.0 (52.9 7.50 1.30 COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI I DISPLAY SYSTEM _L_ COkt_UNICATIONS VOICE CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS TV MONITOR AND INSTRUMENTATION CONTROL C.0 4.5 3.o) 6.3 4.LUNAR MODE SELECTOR LUNAR LANDING FLIGHT DIRECTOR CENTER FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR FLIGHT INDICATORS(THRUST TRANSLATIONAL VELOCITY ENGINE GIMBAL ANGLE HORIZON SCANNERS 5. 270. S.0 (23.0 19.0 4.0 4.7 10.87 7.0 GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION PLATFORM GROUP SXT AND SCT COMPUTER GROUP CLOCK TIMER RADAR INCREMENT VELOCITY ANGLE GROUP POWER CONTROLSSENSOR ORIENT STABILIZATION CONTROLLER AND CONTROL 3 AXIS LANDING (21.4) 1.07 7.0 20.9 4.00 4.0 6.1 4.94) 1.0 4.30 60.7 10.0 (14.0 10.0 4.M.0 60.52) 1.0 4.9 4.5) 4.M.0 4.0 2.30) 6.0 (25.PANEL AND CONSOLES 37.0 2.0 19.RE-ENTRY .60 2.0 2. 29.0 2.M.88 4.0 6.49 4.0 2.5 (16.0 2.

9 Environmental control Control system.. Gemini Crew Systems . Gemini . System . II and III are: Lunar I II 28 -37 -13 Gemini TII 28 -37 -13 Increase Emergency 02 System Reduce C02 Absorber Capacity Reduce 02 Required 4. Components Add Patch Panels 4.1....Is2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY voLuMK.Table 4-Ii presents weight 95 _5 29 29 2O 95 29 29 2O 29 i0 20 52 54 20 52 54 20 8 19 19 8 34 20 12 8 34 20 12 the weight breakdown between the of the environmental earth orbital Gemini The major differences and Lunar I. mon.1.+.1. 4. telescopes and TV Systems Add Environmental Control Add Electronic Interface Increase Circuitry Allowance Increase Antennas & Assoc.10 crew L_ar system.8.8 Telecommunications System. II and III are: Lunar I II Gemini III Add DSIF Equipment Increase VHFAMandV}_ _4 Power Increase Recorder & Data P_-ocessing Add Spares Increased Sensors and Signal Conditioning Add Cameras._9_12 31 oc_o. II and III are: differences Lunar I Add Back Pack and Recharge Remove Egress Kit Remove Seat Catapult Reduce Food Requirements Increase Water System Ad_Miscellaneous Furnishings II Gemini IiI 82 -26 -109 -12 82 82 -12 29 27 -12 29 27 29 27 .8.Table 4-12 presents between 28 -37 -13 the weight the ear_l breakdo_rn of the orbital Gemini and The major weight I.8.Table 4-10 presents differences the weight between breakdown the earth of the telecommunications orbital and Lunar Gemini _le major wei_it I.

8 4.0 9.00 14.0 14. 106.0 90.5 25.6 2.0 50.0 9.0 9.6 11.0 5.0 28.3 4.8 1.4 11.0 20.M.70 .7 4.0 40.0 7.8 1./RCVR.31 8.0 D 14.0 3.2 9.0 5.5 5.50 .0 40.0 6. VHF/FM TRANS.0 13.0 3.05 11.7 4.0 H N 1.0 1.0 9.0 1.0 5.2 5.7 S.5 12.0 20.00 1.5 20.rre.80 1.0 21. LTELECOMMUNICATIONS C.03 10.0 7.2O 7.0 20. 245.0 8. 188.0 30.5 2.0 S.0 12..0 !.4 3.5 12.0 20.0 80.60 2..20 3.0 18.0 III S.0 40.rs.6 11.0 20.61 21.0 7.5 15.0 90.0 13.7 4.50 25.70 .69 1.M.88 WEIGHT I C. AID BEACON DIGITAL COMMAND RECOVERY HF VHF VOICE RECOVERY 3.06 4.49 6.23 DSIF SUBSYSTEM RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER POWER AMPLIFIER NEAR EARTH SYSTEMS VHF/AM TRANS.0 C.2 9.iw_m D .0 1.0 3.70 .5 20.O 1. IEPIIT Hi.8 1.00 12.13 24.50 2.4 4.5 20.M.13 2.2 9.0 30.0 1.0 6. 428.6 2.4 3.8 [i L INTERCOMMUNICATIONS MIKE & SPEAKER RELAY TRANSCEIVER DATA PROCESSING LL COMMUTATOR HL COMMUTATOR PROGRAMMER RECORDER SPARES INSTRUMENTATION SENSORS SIGNAL CONDITIONING 16MM CAMERA 35MM CAMERA TELESCOPE TV CAMERA TIMING PATCH PANELS POWER SUPPLY ANTENNA SYSTEMS DSIF ANTENNA AND DRIVE EARTH TRACKEF: ASSOCIATED COMPC NENTS DSIF OMNI ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS C-BAND ANTENNA PHASE MODULATOR VHF OMNI MULTIPLEXER S-BAND VHF RECOVERY HF RECOVERY VHF STUB VHF EXTENDED ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ELECTRONIC INTERFACE CIRCUITRY !i 1.0 .00 2.0 50.0 20.0 14.0 5.0 L _ U MCDONNELL /+-21 .5 5.0 40.0 8.0 7.0 .00 35.0 18.0 8.0 28.0 12.70 16.0 20.00 7.0 5.M.40 11.M.50 3.0 4. C-BAND BEACON S-BAND BEACON ACQ.0 2.M.0 3.62 7.3 4.70 1.0 16.%.0 7.0 1.60 2.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 70.5 2.0 1.0 20.75 .0 .M.0 40.0 30-0 COMPARISON LUNAR GEMINI II C. 281.5 25.5 12.0 21.0 6.0 5.16 1.00 kx 4.'_ i_ w t.0 6.5 5.65 L_ 4.0 20. 245.0 16.4 3.7 1.00 4.0 50.0 12.0 20. 428.40 1.0 1.34 1.0 3.M.0 18.3 4.6 7.0 5.0 20.00 .0 12. !112 1152 311CTIIEI DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II TABLE 4-10 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ! SYSTEMS GEMINI EARTH ORBITAL S.0 7.0 7.4 3. 212.0 7.69 3.7O 15.4 4.2 9.

92 8.M.0 (92.0 12.9) 92.0 40.9) 92.8 10.0 40.0 4¢0 158. & DUCTING 0 2 9.0 18.0 3.0 53.4 158.00 26.8 1.0 9.0 40.0 18.8 360.0 15.M.2 3.3 (89.9 9.3 9.0 23.M.8) 14.8 32.0 53.5 14.3 180.6 18.00 3. COOLING COLD WATER POST CABIN COOLING LANDING PRESSURE PLATES/PROV.1 15.8 32.0 3. 1048.d 3.12 38.4 10.3) 20.9 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM EARTH C.4) 40.00 3.3 (89.3 23.56 ORBITAL S.0 6.1 38.31 9.0 64.0 7.oo 58.M.8 360.1 (120.0 3.0 3.40 158.00 (180.00 3.4 71.0 22.7 10.0 9.M. 353.00 LUNAR I C.87 C.3 (92. 330.M.9 4.0 60.1 (180.0 27.0 53. 929.00 9.45 16.8 36.8 36.40 ( 92.87) 61.8 32.3 9.3 (92.4 71 .0 27.3 (89.3 10.4 6.8) 14.0 1.M.0 23. 350.0 MOUNTING CIRCUITRY TABLE 4-12 CREW SYSTEM WEIGHT COMPARISON EARTH CREW SYSTEM ORBITAL GEMINI C.3) 20.6 23.0112 31OCTODEI lU! .0 40.1 (120.0 COMPRESSOR VALVES.8) 61.0 7.5 14.0 60.80 1.o 40.64 23.0 26.7 10. 369.0 64.34 10.M.4 16.00 38.0 4.2 8.0 9.9 C.3) 20.44 8.0 60.2 8.8 36. 339.7) L_ SUIT 02 0 2 BOTTLE PRESSURE AND BREATHING (158.4 9.M. FLUID LINES VENT RELIEF MISC.6 (137. RESTRAINT AND PADS SEAT CATAPULT FIRST AID PACK FOOD DRY WATER SYSTEM WATER CONTAINER RELIEF PROVISIONS PERSONAL HYGIENE NUCLEAR INDICATOR BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS LIGHTING OVERSHOES SOLAR RADIATION GARMENT SLEEPING AND PRIVACY EXTRA VEHICULAR ACCESSORIES CIRCUITRY 360.00 18.32) L 0 2 VALVING COMPRESSORS CO 2 ABSORBERS VALVING EMERGENCY O2 0 2 BOTTLE VALVING EQUIPMENT HEAT INSTALLATION COOLING EXCHANGER DUCTING.20 30.79) 106.0 64.0 7.8 10.6 23.00 42.2 30.M.7) S.0 5.4) 40.00 23.0 6.8) 61.0 60.3 9. 350.0 3.51 (153.0 3.8 1.00 39.6 7.0 6.50 14.0 46.60 18.4 108.84 10.6 18.50 20.7) |11 S.1 15.2 30.32 (61.0 22.10 15.M.2 3.09 ASTROF'AUT BALLAST PROVISIONS PRESSURE SUIT SURVIVAL KIT BACK PACKS BACK PACK RECHARGE PERSONAL CHUTES EGRESS KIT SEAT INCL.M.0 10.9 4. 1048.0 6.8 10.6 7.0 C. SYSTEM 3.0 7.0 18.9) 92. 330. 330.0 27.1 38.0 1.0 26.5 (49.0 60.9 4.60 53.00 7.1 (12o.0 1.0 60.0 I11 C.o8) 14.5 (49.4 158.6 18.0 GEMINI II C.40 lO8.3 10.69 MCDOI_II_IELL L_-22 .76 32.| .00 6.1 38.6 23. 4) 40.7 360.60 7.5 (49.0 22.0 5.0 6.8 1.2 30.2 3.0 (180.6 7.4 71.0 6.0 9.85 4.6o 40.40 I08.0 12.8) 14.0 5.17 3.66 I0.6 (137.4 16.81) 14.0 12.4 109.4 8. 910.0 4.5 14.2 8.= L_ IEPUT NO.8) 61.6 (137.= : DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY VOLUME II TABLE 4-11 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL GEMINI SYSTEM LUNAR GEMINI I II S.4 16.68 4.

III is the comparison of Lunar Gemini and Two-Man Apollo service (991) 389 57 489 389 Temperature __= Higher Support Sidewall Structure Devices to Orbital Gemini) Fairin_Separation Tension | + Ties (Similar 56 [J L + L__ J U J = = [] = MCOONNELL &-23 .io.The lunar Gemini Volume I. The following module structure: Two-Man Apollo Structure Sidewalls (1079) Lunar Gemini I.u.rf. If. with the exception module L structure.o.2 DIRECT FLIGHT APOLLO STUDY vo.8. II and III propulsion of service modules L are the same as Two-Man Apollo. I.2 Pro?ulsion Module .[. i + 4.| L ..tt .m2 31 oc'.E.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times