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“Food for Thought and Action “ by Arthur Kikuchi
Kale Swiss chard Parsley Radishes Chives Fava beans (Broad beans) Zucchini Runner Beans Garlic Jerusalem artichokes Grains Nasturtiums Green Leaves of Root Vegetables Pestos Ultimately sustainable dishes Sweet Treats Coffee and Tea Alternative Edible Native (and Wild) Food Plants Sustainable cooking tips Afterword Appendixes Resources
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On our small farm on Pender Island, British Columbia, Canada, we are making every possible effort to move towards a sustainable lifestyle. In our natural way of farming, we try to grow food more sustainably. Instead of relying on off- island inputs such as synthetic fertilizers, commercial potting soils, peat moss or manure, we use natural resources available in our backyard garden, such as leaves from the trees, grass clippings, and anything else on our site to make natural compost. For the same reason, I developed the following recipes using plants that we grow on our farm and that are possible to grow in our temperate zone. Although the recipes may not be gourmet, they will provide you with the wonderful taste of nature. I am grateful to Clarice Bloomenthal for editing advice, to Julia and Gregory Nicholls for sharing their beautiful harvest, to Mae Moore and Lester Quitzau for Mason bee advice, to Nancy Silo for sharing her pottery skills, to Micha Rogg who changed our life style by teaching us how to make German- style healthy sour dough bread and sprouted bread, to Elizabeth Clarke for Tisanes (herbal infusions ) information, to many Pender Island local people for sharing huge amount of apples, pears, plums, grapes, hazelnuts and walnuts, to Michael Sketch for uploading information and to Julie Johnston for uploading the recipes. Special thanks to my 10 years old son, Kenta, who photographed all the recipes so artistically and to 8 years old daughter, Yoko, for all the illustrations. Sanae Kikuchi Pender Island B.C., Canada
“Food for Thought and Action “ by Arthur Kikuchi
Experience the power of food Looking back on my younger days, my diet and life style furnished a good example of how bad food directly affects the health of body and mind. To tell the truth, I used to eat what was considered “the first junk food” which contained lots of sugar, fat and many kinds of chemical condiments. I thought I was not doing anything wrong because I was eating what other people were eating in those days. Besides, after my dietary habits had already established, it was extremely difficult for me to change because my sense of taste did not allow me to quit eating unhealthy food– just like people who are addicted to drugs or alcohol. While having been a defiant and impulsive student in my high school days, I suffered from lots of bodily dysfunctions such as tonsillitis, tympanitis, nasal catarrh, conjunctivitis, rheumatic fever, anemia and decayed teeth with lots of pain. Finally, at the age of 29, I was diagnosed with nephritis at a national hospital in Tokyo and was afflicted with chronic fever and dropsically swollen hands and legs, all of which lasted over three years. I thought my suffering would be fatal because no medical doctors at the hospital could tell me what the true cause of the diseases was and how to treat them. However, I was fortunate enough to change my diet when I was invited to work on Kishima, which is a beautiful island in the Inland Sea of Japan. It is a designated nature preserve used as a seasonal nature camp for children and for the practice and research of Natural Agriculture. With my impaired health condition, my job on the island was very simple: planting, harvesting and eating vegetables grown by the Natural Agricultural method while planting trees, raising free range chickens and looking after three dogs. I was happy to be reminded of the old days of farm life in my grandmother’s home town. Though I was served quite simple meals each passing day, I truly enjoyed farm fresh seasonal bounties available on the Island and I could feel my diet and lifestyle moving back into harmony with nature. Besides, when I ate freshly picked fruits and vegetables grown in pure natural soil free from synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, I could feel full of “life force energy” radiating from within my stomach to my entire body and at last, my devastated health condition greatly improved in only a few months. During this healing process, I experienced profound changes to my bodily systems which resumed working in harmony with each other and I finally came to realize that the strong life force energy that is emitted by foods fresh from the field was the essential source of nutrition that helped strengthen true vitality to sustain my life.
Kishima Island in September 1999
Furthermore, what I learned from Natural Agriculture on Kishima Island is that our consciousness and attitude play a crucial role in the quality of our food: The more love, thankfulness and respect we give to the fundamental elements in our natural environment, such as the sun, air, water, soil, and diverse life forms, the higher the nutritional value of food becomes because our food comes from the physical and spiritual essence of those natural elements, all of which are interconnected in the process of food production in nature. Planting, harvesting, and eating – simple, but genuine involvement in a sustainable food production process on the Island successfully reconnected me with the land, food and nature and I could finally return to the very starting point of human life, from which abundant health and happiness has been brought to the rest of my life. What has happened to my home country - Japan? As a father of four children, I am now considering seriously how I can ensure the health and well-being of now and future generations. In order to learn from past errors, let me look into the history and current situation of Japan in terms of “Food and Agriculture”. Since the advent of rapid economic growth, from the mid 1950’s through the 1960’s, domestic farmlands under cultivation have been reduced through a national policy of the then government and the number of agricultural households has also decreased because, in concurrence with further economic growth, the work force in Agriculture has shifted to the other industries. Because of this change, one farmer has to grow food for more than twenty Japanese households today and traditional family-based, small-scale Japanese agriculture has shifted to industrialized mass production systems, which have polluted the Japanese land and water with agricultural chemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Besides, in exchange for allowing exportation of industrial products from Japan, the country has opened the market to import agricultural products from around the world and food imports in Japan have significantly increased. As a result, the self-sufficiency rate of cereals has lowered to less than 30%, with other agricultural and fishery products being reduced by 20 to 50 % since 1965. What are the repercussions of this increased reliance on an industrialized and globalized food system? What I have found is that as the Japanese people have lost their intimate relationship with the land due to the changes in food systems, they have also lost their sense of place, the pleasures and unity of community and their traditional slow food culture. Unfortunately, this modification of the Japanese food system and culture has now been transformed into health problems such as we are currently facing today.
For example, the traditional Japanese diets of rice, vegetables, fish and miso soup are now being replaced by, or mixed up with imported products. In fact, according to research done by the Japanese government in 2005, the Japanese now tend to consume more fat and fewer carbohydrates and because of the dietary changes, statistics reveal that more and more people in Japan suffer from cancer, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure and heart disease, just like many North American people do. Moreover, transporting food over long distances causes big problems; imported foods have a high risk of pesticide, herbicide, and fungicide contamination, which occur during food production in foreign countries and through the food inspection process at the port of Japan. Agricultural produce with these chemical residues causes many illnesses such as atopic dermatitis. Besides, food transported over long distances is more likely than locally produced food to be tainted by synthetic food additives such as preservatives because the food has to be “preserved” or “processed” with those chemicals to transport or to keep it longer on a store shelf. As you might know, many food additives used in the processed food production also have a high risk of causing food allergies, nerve damage, birth defects and cancer in consumers. In Japan, it is estimated that an ordinary Japanese individual consumes around eighty kinds of food additives per day through daily diet and ends up taking in the total amount of four kilograms of additives per year. Perhaps this is one of the main reasons why the morbidity rate for all cancers has been increasing since the 1960’s, when the Japanese food system began to transform and the consumption of processed food skyrocketed. Furthermore, it is widely reported that thoroughly refined, processed food with artificial coloring, sweeteners, or flavoring such as junk snacks can adversely affect children’s mentality and behavior, resulting in symptoms generally recognized as ADHD (AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Because of these analyses, I am concerned that what is happening to Japan must also be happening in many parts of the world, especially in Canada and the U.S.
Morbidity Rate for All Cancers
(per 100,000 Japanese population)
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1950's 1960's 1970's 1980's 1990's 2002 2009
Moving towards a sustainable way of life Is there a way to restore a healthier society on both a global and locale scale? Yes, there is and I think each one of us plays a vital role in changing the food system so it can again become a more sustainable place to live for now and future generations. How can we do it? I think what we eat and how we grow food play a pivotal role in the system change. First of all, as consumers, we would do better to support local growers by consuming local, seasonal food, not only because it is fresher, tastes great and is good for our health, but also because we can preserve farmland and the surrounding natural environment. Furthermore, localization of food systems will develop a stronger local economy, re-establish a good consumer-producer relationship, secure a local food supply, and reduce greenhouse gases, which will all lead to a moderation of global climatic changes through the reduction of environmentally unfriendly long distance transportation systems in our society. However, we do not have to end up being just a consumer. I think everyone could become “a small producer” and be involved in a food production process by growing one’s own food in a backyard garden, a community garden, a schoolyard garden or even a tiny space on a balcony. This simple action of planting seeds at home will help secure our food supply while reconnecting us to our intimate relationship with our regional food culture. Let’s learn from nature So, how can we grow food more sustainably? Before answering this question, let’s have a look at a natural forest surrounding our residence. At first, you may be amazed to see trees growing to such splendid heights and native shrubs and herbs proliferating without any human interventions, such as plowing, planting, thinning, watering or fertilizing the soil. Then, if you take steps further into the woods and dig up the forest ground, I’m pretty sure that you’ll find varieties of soil organisms like earthworms, ground beetles, ants, spiders, centipedes and so on. Looking closely at a spoonful of soil through a powerful microscope, you will also be surprised to see many kinds of micro fauna and flora, such as arthropods, hundreds of nematodes, protozoa, algae, fungi and millions of micro organisms. Is there any significant reason why Mother Nature fosters so many kinds of plant and animal species, giving them the means to proliferate in natural world? What are those diverse life forms doing above and below ground in the forest?
When the seed of a plant sprouts in a forest, the roots penetrate the ground and reach down into the soil to draw up nutrients and water. As the plant grows, the green leaves capture energy from sunlight to produce food by carrying out photosynthesis. Then, at the turn of seasons, the plant sheds its leaves and the forest floor is covered by a rich blanket of plant litter. After this primary food production, the living organisms in the forest play a role in recycling the organic matter which is actually products of sunlight energy; they shred, decompose and mineralize plant residue in and on the soil to make it available for themselves and for the plant communities in the forest. Through this functional food production process, the soil organisms are also involved in the enhancement of soil structure, nutrient-holding, water-holding and water infiltration capacity by creating soil aggregates from soil particles, which benefit plants for the optimum growth of roots. It is life’s transformational processes and the diverse webs of food in nature that make the forest ecosystem remain dynamic, balanced and full of life. So, why don’t we learn from this self-sustaining process of nature and incorporate it into our food production systems to make our own way to growth and prosperity? What are we doing on Pender Island, B.C. Canada? In the spring of 2000, my wife and I started setting up a small farm on Pender Island, British Columbia because we simply wanted to raise our children with healthy minds as well as sound bodies by nourishing them with safe, fresh, nutritious food. We also believed that if each individual grows food even in a small kitchen garden, we would be able to significantly reduce our ecological footprints on earth. We still have no fancy farming machinery, tractors or large acreage but we keep learning from the magic of natural processes in our surroundings and keep trying a natural way of farming in the hope that we can grow food in a more sustainable manner. We are also willing to share the real taste of food with a community of people to help them regain abundant health and happiness. On our small farm on Pender Island, our primary objective is to keep the soil more natural and dynamic in order to maximize its intrinsic forces. For that end, we mimic the characteristics of natural ecosystems and make the best use of natural resources found in our backyard forest, such as fallen leaves from the trees, to make natural compost. We also use grass clippings for mulching, which acts as a blanket, keeping the soil warm and moist, making it porous and less compacted while increasing the soil biodiversity.
Learning from nature, we put a layer of natural compost in our natural container garden, which is a raised bed encased by natural wood slabs. Then, we wait for a few weeks until the natural compost is mixed with the soil by hard-working friends of ours – earth worms, ground beetles, and any other soil organisms living in the ground.
Once we feel the soil is ready, we plant kale, swiss chard, radishes, turnips, fava beans, peas and sun chokes in the early spring. These crops are very hardy and strong and therefore, they must be the right crops for our regional climatic and soil conditions. Besides their extremely better flavor and taste, we can expect that these crops will provide us with powerful life energy and nutrition. In our small greenhouse, my children simply broadcast a handful of kale and oriental greens seeds over the raised planting bed. They grow vigorously and sometimes too densely throughout the year and garden snakes sneak into the greenhouse to pick slugs and bugs for us so we can enjoy the tasty veggies until the following spring. As the season becomes warmer, we plant heritage beans, carrots, and squash in our outdoor raised bed garden. For overwinter crops such as fava beans and garlic, which we usually plant in October, we apply zero-tillage or a scratch-plowing system using a simple tool such as a traditional Japanese garden hoe. Then the soil aggregates can remain intact and act like a sponge to keep soil moisture during the dry summer and to protect soil from erosion, water logging and nutrient leaching during the heavy rainy season of the Island.
We find the natural system of raised beds with natural compost, reduced tillage and mulching by grass clippings allows soil to develop its structure and create an ideal habitat and food for various life forms above and below ground. Thus, it makes the agro-ecosystem more diverse and functional, just like what we can observe in the forest ecosystems. Besides, this natural food production system releases no pollutants into the environment and replaces external inputs such as commercial fertilizers, organic compost and pesticides with nutrient cycling and predator-prey population regulating mechanisms. The beauty of this natural system is that it requires only clean air, clean water, pure soil and the energy of sunlight which is a renewable source of energy. This system also helps us to reduce the need for non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels by reducing the use of repeated conventional horticultural practices such as intensive tillage, application of synthetic fertilizers, mechanical weeding and irrigation. Therefore, it works for everybody in the world and even children can do it. Recently, my children have built up their own natural container garden in our backyard. They can now plant and grow their own food and pick and taste the real flavor and power of food grown by pure natural soil that they develop by working with diverse life forms in the garden. It seems children have a natural ability to learn how to grow food and they are now learning how to save seeds for the next planting season. If we continue to care for the seeds we plant and save them from one generation to next, they will have the past, present, and future in their genetic memory and become more resilient to on-going global changes. And if we plant seeds with our love, thankfulness and respect for nature, the seeds will grow into food that will in turn nourish our body, mind and spirit as if they were conscious of our thoughts and emotions. These are the kinds of seeds I’d like to pass on to my children, their children and the next generations in my community.
Kale has been cultivated for more than 2000 years. It is very hardy and it suits any climate and soil conditions. Kale is one of the healthiest vegetables. It has a definite role to play in support of the body’s detoxification processes. It is a food that one can count on for unsurpassed health benefits. Kale is available year round, but it best in the winter and colder months as the cold temperatures help to make the leaves sweeter. We could add chopped Kale liberally to many dishes.
Kale Peperontino Serves 4
8 cloves garlic peeled and crushed 3/4 pound spaghetti 4 red chili peppers seeded and cut into small pieces 1 bunch finely chopped kale 1 Tablespoon olive oil Heat olive oil in a medium saucepan. Add garlic and stir. When garlic starts to steam and small bubbles appear, reduce to low heat. Add chili. Turn off the heat. Stir in kale. Meanwhile, cook pasta according to package directions. Drain. Add pasta to kale mixture. Stir briskly. Sea salt and pepper to taste.
Kale Salad (summer)
1 bunch kale finely chopped 1 zucchini grated 1 carrot grated 1 Tablespoon parsley finely chopped 1/4 cup olive oil 1/2 cup cider vinegar 3 cloves garlic peeled and minced 1 Tablespoon miso Remove stems from kale if desired. Chop fine. Toss together kale, zucchini and carrot. To make the dressing, combine remaining ingredients in blender. All proportions can be varied to suit your taste. Garnish with lots of nasturtium flowers and calendula petals.
Kale Salad (winter)
I bunch kale 1/2 teaspoon olive oil 1 Tablespoon cider vinegar 1 Tablespoon lemon juice 1 apple cored and diced 1/4 cup dried cranberries
Rip the leaves of the kale apart into large bowl. (Remove stem) Add lemon juice and sea salt. Thoroughly mix by hand. Add oil and vinegar. Mix for another 2 minutes. Add apple and nuts just before serving.
Kale Pesto (Genovese)
Makes 1 cup
1 bunch kale 2 cloves garlic peeled and quartered 1/3 cup walnuts (could use other nuts instead) 1 Tablespoon olive oil
Drop kale in boiling water and cook uncovered for 5 to 10 minutes depending on how you like it. Drain (reserve water) and cut finely. Place all ingredients into food processor. Pulse a few times, then process until fairly smooth. (Add some reserved water from cooked kale to adjust the consistency.)
1 bunch kale 2 large onions finely chopped 2 teaspoons oil 2 cups water 1/3 cup cooked soybeans rinsed and drained.
Over low heat, cook the kale in a minimum of water until tender. Reserve any water. Cool the leaves and chop. In large pot, sauté the onion in oil. Adds 2 cups water. Combine all ingredients in blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds. Bring to a boil. Sea salt and pepper to taste.
Kale African Wrap
2 Tablespoons smooth peanut butter 1 Tablespoon honey 2 teaspoons toasted sesame oil 2 Tablespoons soy sauce 1 bunch kale 1 large yam cut into thick strips 1 cup steamed brown rice 4 tortillas Combine peanut butter, honey, oil and soy sauce to make peanut sauce. Drop kale in boiling water. Cook uncovered for 5 minutes or until soft enough to bite off. Drain and cool. Squeeze out any excess liquid. Steam or bake yam until tender. Arrange yam, kale, brown rice and peanut sauce on the tortilla. Roll up. (Tortilla will be very full.)
Makes 1 drink
1 pear cored and cut small 1 apple cored and cut small 1 cup kale finely chopped 3/4 cup yogurt or soymilk 2 Tablespoons honey 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Combine all ingredients in blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds or until the drink is completely smooth. All proportions can be varied to suit your taste.
Kale Chips (Baked)
1 bunch kale 1 Tablespoon olive oil 1/2 teaspoon sea salt
Preheat oven 350 degrees (F). Line non insulated cookie sheet. Remove leaves from thick stems and tear into bite size pieces. Wash and thoroughly dry kale with a salad spinner. Dizzle kale with olive oil and sprinkle with sea salt. Bake until the edges brown but are not burnt. (10 to 15 minutes)
Kale Chips (Raw)
Use same ingredients as baked one. Remove leaves from thick stems. Tear into bite size pieces. Wash and dry kale. Dizzle kale with olive oil. Sprinkle sea salt. Place kale on tray of dehydrator. (Do not overlap.) Set temperature 110 degrees (F), about 1 hour.
Chard is a tall leafy green vegetable. Chard belongs to the same family as beets and spinach and shares a similar taste profile with a flavor that is bitter, pungent and slightly salty. Swiss chard is truly one of the vegetable valedictorians with its exceptionally impressive list of health promoting nutrients. Swiss chard could be harvested throughout the year. Swiss chard isn’t native to Switzerland. Its actual homeland lies further south, in the Mediterranean region; in fact, the Greek philosopher, Aristotle, wrote about chard in the fourth century B.C.
Lentils with Oyster Mushrooms and Swiss Chard
Serves 5 to 6
1 Tablespoon butter or olive oil 1 cup oyster mushrooms sliced 1/4 cup finely chopped shallots or onions 1 clove garlic peeled and finely chopped 1 cup French lentils 1 bunch Swiss chard chopped (about 6 cups)
Melt butter in a skillet. Set over medium-high heat. Add mushrooms and sauté until lightly browned. Remove mushrooms from pan and reserve. Reduce heat to medium and add shallots and garlic to the pan. Cook, stirring often for 5 minutes. Add lentils and water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium- low. Simmer for 30 to 35 minutes or until most of water has been absorbed and lentils are tender but still whole. Stir in reserved mushrooms and Swiss chard. Cook, stirring occasionally for 2 to 3 minutes or until the Swiss chard is wilted.
Swiss Chard Namul (Korean Sesame)
Serves 3 to 4
1 bunch Swiss chard 2 cloves garlic peeled and minced 1 Tablespoon soy sauce 1 Tablespoon toasted sesame oil 1 Tablespoon sesame seeds
In a small pan or skillet, heat sesame seeds on medium heat, shaking pan occasionally. (about 3 to 5 minutes) Remove sesame seeds when they darken and become fragrant. (You do not need to use oil.) Steam Swiss chard about 5 minutes or until chard is wilted. Drain. Squeeze out any excess liquid. Toss in a large bowl with garlic, soy sauce, sesame oil and Swiss chard. Add sea salt if you want. Sprinkle sesame seeds. Serve at room temperature.
Curried Swiss Chard
1 bunch Swiss chard 1 Tablespoon safflower oil 1 teaspoon cumin seeds ground 1 teaspoon coriander ground 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon ground 1 medium onion peeled and finely chopped 1 clove garlic peeled and finely chopped 1/2 inch ginger peeled and finely chopped 2 ripe medium fresh tomatoes (or canned) finely chopped 1 teaspoon turmeric 1/2 fresh chili pepper finely chopped. 3 Tablespoons yogurt (or water) 1/2 cup water 1/4 cup hazelnuts quartered (or other nuts instead)
Steam Swiss chard about 5 minutes or until chard is wilted. Drain. Chop finely. Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat .When hot, add cumin, coriander and cinnamon. Stir once and add onion, ginger and garlic. Stir until onion just starts to brown. Add tomatoes, turmeric and chili. Stir and cook 5 minutes. Add water and yogurt. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook gently for 15 minutes. Add Swiss chard and nuts. Puree with blender. Bring to a boil. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Garnish with cilantro. This Swiss chard dish goes well with steamed rice and some chutney or relish. You can use any green vegetables instead of Swiss chard.
Swiss Chard Miso Gravy Rice Bowl Serves 4
1 Tablespoon sesame oil 3 Tablespoons whole wheat flour 2 cups hot (but not boiling) water 4 Tablespoons miso 3 cups steamed brown rice 1 bunch Swiss chard finely chopped 1/2 cup green onion chopped 1/2 cup sunflower sprouts ( or other sprouts)
Dissolve miso in hot water and put mixture aside. Immediately, heat up oil on medium high. Once hot, add flour and mix thoroughly. After that mixture is good and hot, add miso water mixture. Stir frequently until it’s of gravy consistency. This should happen in less than 5 minutes. Turn off heat and put on pot lid to keep it warm. Serve rice in warmed bowls. Decorate vegetables and sprouts on rice. Pour warm miso gravy over vegetables.
Parsley is native to the Mediterranean region of Southern Europe. It is a hardy biennial. It self seeds around the garden. It’s loaded with vitamin C, iron, iodine and magnesium. We can harvest it for long seasons. Especially in spring, it will be one of the most precious vegetables in the garden. We can add parsley liberally to many culinary dishes and use it as a lively garnish. It is very HANDY.
1 1/2 cups uncooked quinoa, (rinsed and drained) 1 3/4 cups water 2 cups finely chopped parsley 1/2 cup finely chopped green onion 1/2 cup dried cranberries 3 teaspoons lemon juice 1 Tablespoon olive oil 2 cloves of garlic minced
In a saucepan combine quinoa and water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat. Simmer covered, about 15 minutes or until liquid is absorbed. Transfer quinoa to a medium bowl. Add parsley, green onion, dried cranberries, lemon juice, olive oil and garlic. Stir to combine. Add sea salt to taste.
Couscous salad Serves 4
1 cup couscous (uncooked) 1 cup water (or vegetable broth) 1 large onion finely chopped 1 teaspoon oil 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin 1/2 teaspoon ground coriander 1/2 teaspoon turmeric 2 cloves garlic minced 1/2 cup dried currants 1/2 cup chickpeas (steamed, drained) 1/2 cup hazelnuts 1 cup finely chopped parsley In a saucepan combine couscous and water (or broth). Bring to a boil. Cover, remove from heat. Let stand 5 minutes. Heat oil in large nonstick skillet. Add onion and sauté about 3 minutes. Add cumin, coriander, turmeric and couscous. Remove from heat. Add raisins, chickpeas, hazelnuts, garlic and parsley. Stir to combine. Add sea salt to taste.
Orzo Pasta Salad Serves 2
1/4 pound dried orzo pasta (8ounces) 1/4 cup feta cheese, cubed 1/2 Tablespoon olive oil 2 teaspoons lemon juice 1 clove garlic, peeled and minced 1 cup parsley finely chopped 2 Tablespoons nasturtium capers ( see nasturtium page) 1 teaspoon turmeric powder
Cook pasta according to package directions, drain. Rinse with cold water, drain again. Transfer pasta to a large bowl. Add feta cheese, olive oil, lemon juice, garlic, parsley, nasturtium capers and turmeric. Stir to combine. Add sea salt to taste. (Add 1/4 cup chopped pitted kalamata olives if desired) * nasturtium capers : see nasturtium page
See the Pesto page
Radishes were a well-established crop in Greek and Roman times, which leads to the assumption that it was brought into cultivation at an earlier time; there are almost no archeological records available to help determine its earlier history and domestication. Wild forms of the radish and its relatives, the mustards and turnips, can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting that their domestication took place somewhere in that area. In Egypt, ancient writing has shown they were cultivated before the building of the pyramids. Radishes mature rapidly, with many varieties germinating in 3-7 days and reaching maturity in three to four weeks. Radishes are generally used as a garnish or salad, but they are much more than just a garnish.
Radishes with Chive Miso Dressing
2 Tablespoons miso 1 Tablespoon honey 1 Tablespoon finely chopped chives
To make dressing, mix all ingredients. Serve with washed, fresh radishes.
10 radishes split in half with leaves 1 Tablespoon butter or olive oil 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Cook each radish until the bottom is slightly brown. Flip and cook until the other side is slightly brown. Add butter and lemon juice. Pour radishes into a warm serving plate and serve.
Radish and Parsnip Soup
1 medium onion sliced 2 teaspoons oil 2 cups radishes cubed ½ cup parsnip cubed 3 cups water or vegetable stock 2 Tablespoons soy sauce
In large pot, sauté onion in oil. Adds radishes, parsnips and water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat. Simmer, covered about 5 minutes or until vegetables are tender. Add soy sauce. Sea salt and pepper to taste. Garnish with parsley. *Peel four red radishes very thinly and roll them up. They will be beautiful rose shape toppings.
Crushed Tofu and Radish Salad
1 block firm tofu, drained well 1/4 cup kale boiled and well drained, chopped 2 cups radishes cut into thin strips 1/2 cup carrots cut into thin strips 2 Tbsp. sesame seeds 2 Tbsp. honey 2 Tbsp. soy sauce
Wrap tofu with paper towels and place it on a flat tray. Put a cutting board or a flat plate on top the tofu and let sit for about 15 minutes. Lightly squeeze tofu in a cotton cloth to drain out excess water. Strain tofu through a strainer into a large bowl. Set aside. Sprinkle salt over radishes and carrots. Squeeze out any excess liquid. In a small pan or skillet, heat sesame seeds on medium heat, shaking pan occasionally.( You do not need to use oil.) Remove sesame seeds when they darken and become fragrant. (about 3 to 5 minutes) Place sesame seeds in food processor. Pulse a few times. Add tofu, honey and soy sauce. Pulse a few times, then process until all ingredients are incorporated into a paste-like sauce. Mix vegetables with sauce. Sea salt to taste.
Makes 1 1/2 cup
1 1/2 cups radishes cubed Vegan Mayonnaise half block firm tofu well drained 1 small clove garlic 1 teaspoon mustard 1 teaspoon cider vinegar 2 Tablespoons olive oil and /or safflower oil Place radishes in food processor. Pulse a few times, then process until fairly smooth. Lightly squeeze radishes in a cotton cloth to drain out excess water. Set aside. To make vegan mayonnaise, place tofu, garlic, mustard and vinegar in food processor. Process until fairly smooth. Add oil and process. Add radishes and mix well. Sea salt and pepper to taste. * Roll up the dip with young greens.( kale, Swiss chard, mizuna, komatsuna etc.) It tastes great.
Radish Carving (flower)
Use a sharp knife to cut away petal shapes from the top of the radish. Remove some of the white at the top. Make lower cuts in radish as well. See illustrations. Soak in cold water so flower shape will open.
Cut four sides
Cut off peel on four lower sides
Chives are native to Europe, Asia and North America. They are a perennial and very easy to grow. Cut the chive leaves with scissors when required. The leaves rapidly grow back and can be cut several times in the growing season. In culinary uses, chives leaves are shredded for use as a garnish, in soup and in salad, but there is much, much more.
Creamy Chive Sauce Serves 4
1 Tablespoon flour 2 teaspoons olive oil 1/2 medium onion finely chopped 1 1/2 cups water or vegetable stock 1/3 cup vegan sour cream 1 Tablespoon Dijon mustard 1/2 cup chives finely chopped Vegan Sour Cream Makes 1/3 cup 1/4 block tofu well drained 1 teaspoon lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon cider vinegar
TO MAKE VEGAN SOUR CREAMPlace tofu, lemon juice and vinegar in food processor or blender. Process several minutes until very creamy and smooth. (If your blender didn’t work because there is not a large enough amount to run it, you can add water (or stock) to the sauce to make this sauce.) Set aside. TO MAKE SAUCE- Heat oil in pan over medium-high heat. Add onion and cook, stirring constantly and scraping up any browned bits, until golden brown. Sprinkle with flour; stir to coat. Add broth. Bring to a boil. Stir often. Stir in vegan sour cream and mustard until smooth. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Stir in chives just before serving. * This sauce is good with steamed Swiss chard or asparagus. TO COOK SWISS CHARD- Steam young leaves of Swiss chard about 5 minutes or until chard is wilted. Drain. Squeeze out any excess liquid. Roll up each leaf.
Tofu Steak with Chives Serves 4
1 block tofu 2 cups chives cut 1 inch long 1 Tablespoon toasted sesame oil 1/2 cup water 2 Tablespoons soy sauce 1 Tablespoon potato peeled and cut into tiny cubes
Wrap tofu with paper towels and place it on a flat tray. Put a cutting board or a flat plate on top of the tofu and let sit for about 15 minutes. Lightly squeeze tofu in a cotton cloth to drain out excess water and slice. Mince potato with garlic masher and mix with water and soy sauce. Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Lightly oil the surface and drop on tofu. Cook tofu until the bottom is golden brown. Flip and cook until the other side is golden brown. Add chives and potato mixture. Stir and cook until the water is of soup consistency. *The small amount of potato is a substitute for corn starch and helps to thicken the soup. When we stay away from corn starch, we can reduce the consumption of energy used in : processing, packing, transportation… and we can stay away from GMO’s.
Dumplings Makes 16 pieces
Filling 1/2 cup soy beans cooked and drained 1/2 cup carrots grated 1 cup chives finely chopped 1 small clove garlic minced 1/2 inch ginger finely chopped 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil 1 teaspoon cider vinegar 1 Tablespoon soy sauce Dumpling Dough 1/2 cup stone ground whole wheat flour 1/2 cup unbleached flour 3 1/2 Tablespoons water Mix whole wheat and white wheat well. Slowly stir in water. Knead the dough into a smooth ball. Cover dough and let it rest. While the dough is resting, prepare filling. Sprinkle sea salt onto carrots and squeeze to remove excess water. Place soy beans into blender and pulse many times until crushed to pieces. In a bowl, mix all filling ingredients. To make dumpling dough: knead dough until it forms a smooth ball. Divide the dough into 4 pieces. Roll each piece out into 5” x 10”. Cut into 5”x 2 ½ “. Place a small portion (about 1/2 Tablespoon) of filling into the middle of each wrapper. Fold the dough over the filling into a long rectangle shape and pinch the edges to seal. Continue with the remainder of the dumplings. Heat griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Lightly oil (about 1 Tablespoon of toasted sesame oil) the surface and add dumplings. Cook until the bottom is golden brownabout 10 minutes. Heat up griddle to maximum. Pour 1/3 cup water and cover griddle. Cook until all the water is evaporated.
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)
Fava beans have a long tradition of cultivation in Old World Agriculture, being among the most ancient plants in cultivation and also among the easiest to grow. Fava beans are nitrogen fixers, which means they can be grown as cover crops that add both nitrogen and organic matter to soil. They also have deep taproots that break up compacted soils. Fava beans are harvested for fresh eating when the seeds swell in the green pods. Properly cooked fresh-shelled favas have a sweet, buttery taste. Young seeds can be eaten raw. Fava beans are a significant protein source for raw food eaters. Boiling and steaming shelled favas is the easiest way to eat them. Dizzle with olive oil, lemon juice, minced garlic or herbs of your choice.
Grilled Fava Beans
Place fava beans with pods (no shelling) on grill. Cook fava beans on both sides until the pods are slightly burned. Shell fava beans. Eat with good quality sea salt.
Pasta with Fava Beans Sauce Serve 4-5
1 Tablespoon extra virgin olive oil 1 clove garlic minced ( or garlic scapes) 1 Tablespoon oregano finely chopped 1 1/2 cups water or vegetable stock 2 cups cooked fava beans 1 Tablespoon soy sauce 3/4 pound dried fetttuccine or other pasta
1 2 3
Heat olive oil in a medium saucepan. Add garlic and sauté briefly until brown. Stir in oregano. Add water. Bring to a boil. Add fava beans. Simmer about 3 minutes. Scrape into blender container and puree until smooth. Add soy sauce. Sea salt and pepper to taste. Meanwhile, cook pasta according to package directions. Drain. Pour pasta into a warm serving bowl and add sauce.
Fava Beans Spread
2 cups shelled fava beans 2 garlic scapes finely chopped 2 green onions finely chopped 2 stalks cilantro finely chopped
Makes 1 1/2 cups
1 Tablespoon olive oil 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Boil or steam fava beans 1-10 minutes until tender. Drain. Place all ingredients in a food processor. Pulse a few times, then process until fairly smooth or to the desired consistency. Sea salt and pepper to taste. All the vegetables in this recipe can be harvested at the same time in a home garden. Can be frozen.
Zucchini is a popularly cultivated summer squash. Most squash are heavy feeders which means they need a lot of fertilizer and organic matter to grow. However zucchini can be grown with just a little natural fertilizer.( such as grass and leaves compost ) It is one of the easiest vegetables to cultivate in temperate climates. Zucchini can be prepared using a variety of cooking techniques, including steaming, boiling, grilling, stuffing, baking, barbecuing, frying.
Zucchini Pasta with Basic Basil Pesto (Raw Food)
2 medium size zucchini 2 bunches fresh basil leaves 1/4 cup walnut pieces (could use other nuts instead) 2 Tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 2 Tablespoons water 1 large clove garlic peeled and quartered 1 Slice and cut zucchini into long, thin spaghetti shapes. 2 Place basil, walnut, oil, water, garlic in a food processor. Pulse a few times, then process until fairly smooth or to the desired consistency. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. 3 Mix with zucchini.
3 pounds zucchini cut up 1 medium sweet pepper cut up 1 large onion cut up 2 Tablespoons salt 5 Tablespoons honey 2 teaspoons mustard seeds 1 teaspoon celery seeds (or dill seeds) 2 teaspoons turmeric or curry powder 1 cup cider vinegar 1 teaspoon sea salt
Makes 9 cups
1 Place vegetables in a large bowl. Sprinkle with the 2 tablespoons salt. Stir well. Cover and chill overnight. Rinse well in colander under running water. Drain. 2 In a large pot, stir together honey, mustard, celery seeds and turmeric. Stir in vinegar. Bring to a boil, stirring to dissolve honey. Stir in vegetables. Return mixture to a boil, stirring frequently. Remove from heat. Drain and save the liquid. 3 In the same pot, stir the liquid and sea salt. Bring to a boil, stirring very frequently until there is very little liquid. Stir in vegetables. Remove from heat. 4 Ladle hot relish into hot, sterilized half pint jars, leaving a 1/2 inch head-space. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Process in boiling water canner for 5 minutes for half-pint or 10 minutes for pints. ( starting when water begins to boil.)
* The evaporation
process makes the relish become sweeter with a minimum use of honey.
Zucchini Sweet and Sour
1 medium onion chopped 1 clove garlic finely chopped 2 teaspoons safflower oil 4 ripe medium tomatoes chopped (or 1medium can of tomatoes ) 2 medium zucchini cut up 1 cup chickpeas boiled and drained 1 Tablespoon vinegar 1 Tablespoon honey
In non stick pot, cook onion and garlic in oil over medium heat about 3 minutes or until tender, stirring frequently. Stir in tomatoes. Simmer about 5 minutes. Stir zucchini and chickpeas. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat. Simmer, covered about 20 minutes or until vegetables are tender. Add vinegar, honey, salt and pepper to taste. Served with cooked quinoa or brown rice.
1/2 teaspoon cumin seed 1/2 teaspoon coriander seeds 1 Tablespoon safflower oil 2 medium onion chopped 3 cloves garlic finely chopped 1/2 inch ginger peeled and finely chopped 3 medium zucchini cubed 1 yam cubed 1 sweet pepper cut small 1 carrot cut small 1 cup kidney beans boiled and drained 2 cups water 2 teaspoons curry powder Fresh cilantro leaves Grind cumin and coriander seeds in coffee grinder. Heat oil in large pot over medium heat. When hot, put in cumin and coriander. Stir once and add onion and ginger. Stir fry until onion just starts to brown. Add all vegetables, beans, and curry powder. Stir and cook 5 minutes. Add water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat. Simmer, covered about 20 minutes or until vegetables are tender. Add sea salt to taste. Garnish with fresh cilantro leaves.
Green beans and other beans, such as kidney beans, navy beans and black beans are all known scientifically as Phaseolus vulgaris. They are all referred to as "common beans," probably owing to the fact that they all derived from a common bean ancestor that originated in Peru. Green beans contain important amounts of the antioxidant mineral manganese and they support bone health.
Green Bean Stir Fry
1 Tablespoon safflower oil 1 block tofu 1/2 cup carrots chopped and sliced 1/2 pound green beans trimmed and chopped 1 small zucchini chopped 2 Tablespoons soy sauce 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil Wrap tofu with paper towels and place it on a flat tray. Put a cutting board or a flat plate on top the tofu and let sit for about 15 minutes. Lightly squeeze tofu in a cotton cloth to drain out excess water. Cut into cubes. Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Cook each piece of tofu in safflower oil until the bottom is slightly brown. Flip and cook until the other side is slightly brown. Repeat until all the surfaces are brown. Transfer tofu to dish and set aside. Stir carrots, green beans, and zucchini about 5 minutes or until they are slightly wilted. Add tofu, soy sauce and sesame oil. Sea salt to taste. If you use garlic soy sauce (see garlic page) instead of soy sauce, add 1 clove of soy sauce pickled garlic minced. It will enhance the taste very much.
Green Beans with Goat Cheese Salad
1 lb green beans boiled and chopped 2 medium tomatoes sliced 1 clove garlic minced 1 Tablespoon olive oil 1 teaspoon lemon juice 1/4 cup goat cheese crumbled
Grill tomatoes about 5 minutes or until the surface is slightly brown. To make dressing, combine garlic, olive oil and lemon juice. Toss together green beans, goat cheese and dressing. Sea salt and pepper to taste. Garnish with grilled tomatoes. In a large bowl, combine all the ingredients. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Chill before serving.
Creamy Vegan Chowder without Corn
Corn is an extremely heavy feeder. It is absolutely impossible to grow without any external imput (such as chemical fertilizer and manure) in the temperate zone home garden. Also, most conventional corn is genetically modified. Corn pollen will blow long distances and even non GMO organic corn will be GMO. There is no way for them to be certified as being free of GMOs. In this chowder, green beans will make a corn-like texture and sprouted wheat makes a sweet taste.
1/2 cup wheat berries 1 Tablespoon safflower oil 1 small onion finely chopped 1 cup zucchini chopped 1/2 cup carrots chopped 1 cup green beans cut small 2 cups vegetable stock (or water and 1 vegetable bouillon) 1/2 cup water 1/4 block tofu 2 dashes of cider vinegar 1 dash crushed red chili pepper
Soak wheat berries for 8 hours or overnight. Put them in your sprouting trays or a large glass jar. Then rinse and drain the berries two times a day for the next 32 hours or until the wheat berries have sprouted ¼ inch tails. Heat oil in large pot over medium heat. Stir in onion; cook until just slightly golden. Transfer to a dish and put aside. Stir in zucchini, carrots, green beans and stock; cook until tender. Combine wheat berries, water, onion and tofu in blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Add the mixture into soup. Bring to a boil. Add a dash or two of vinegar and chili pepper. Sea salt and pepper to taste.
If your potatoes are ready to harvest, you can add the potatoes to the chowder. If you need a thicker consistency without potatoes, double the sprouted wheat.
Black Bean Salad Serves 6 to 8
1 cup wheat berries (sprouted or cooked) 1 1/2 cups black beans cooked and drained 3 cups green beans steamed and cut very small 3 ripe fresh tomatoes diced 1 cup cilantro chopped 1 lime juice (or 2 TBS. lime and/or lemon juice) 1 Tablespoon olive oil 1 small clove garlic minced
In a large bowl, combine all the ingredients. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Chill before serving.
Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years, dating back to when the Egyptian pyramids were built. There are different types or subspecies of garlic, most notably hard neck types and soft neck types. Hard neck varieties can last longer, stored in a cool, dry place. Eat them whenever you want. Soft neck garlic does not last long. After harvesting, use them up quickly. Garlic is usually grown with rich soil containing plenty of humus. However, it is possible to grow in poor, natural soil. It will be small and have fewer cloves. This garlic will be very strong and have a concentrated taste.
Garlic Soy Sauce
In sterilized jar, put any amount of garlic and soy sauce. Adjust lid. The soy sauce can be eaten after 1 week. Garlic can be eaten after 1 month. This Garlic Soy Sauce will last many years. Use garlic soy sauce to stir fry or in any dishes which required soy sauce. It will enhance the taste very much.
Mix any amount of miso and garlic cloves freely. Put the mixture into sterilized jar and adjust lid. Miso can be eaten after 1 week. Garlic can be eaten after 1 month. This Garlic Miso will last many years in fridge. 1 clove miso pickled garlic minced 6 Tablespoons garlic miso 1 Tablespoon honey 1 Tablespoon hot water
Garlic Miso Dressing
Mix all ingredients well. Toss together with your favorite garden vegetables. *Spread this dressing on sliced tofu and broil for 5 to 10 minutes or until slightly burned.
20 cloves garlic 2 Tablespoons olive oil
Heat olive oil in skillet over medium heat. Add garlic and fry for 10 minutes or until chips turn golden brown. (Don’t allow to get too brown.) Drain on paper towels. Can be stored in air tight container at room temperature for 1 to 2 days. Use as a garnish for soup and salad or sprinkle with sea salt and eat as a snack.
Kale with Garlic Chips Serves 4
10 cups kale chopped 5 cloves garlic peeled and sliced thin 2 Tablespoons oil
Pour olive oil into a large skillet and add garlic. Turn on stove to medium-low heat and allow garlic and oil to heat together. When bubbles appear, flip garlic and cook until it turns golden brown. (Do not allow to get too brown.) Drain on a paper towel-lined plate. Add kale to the skillet. Cook and stir only one minute. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Serve kale immediately with the garlic chips sprinkled over top. *This dish can be a bed for grilled tofu. *Eaten with angel hair pasta tossed in a tiny bit of olive oil tastes great, too.
Garlic Soup Serves 4
1 medium onion finely chopped 10 cloves garlic sliced 1 Tablespoon oil 3 cups water 1 Tablespoon soybeans 3-4 bay leaves 1 teaspoon parsley finely chopped 1 teaspoon thyme finely chopped 1 yam cubed 1 medium zucchini cubed
In non stick pot, sauté onion and garlic in oil. (Don’t allow to get too brown.) Add rest of ingredients. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat. Simmer about 15 minutes or until tender. Combine all the ingredients in a blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds. Bring to a boil. Add sea salt and pepper to taste.
Jerusalem Artichokes (Sun Chokes)
Jerusalem artichokes are natives of Massachusetts United States. They were first cultivated by the Native Americans long before the arrival of the Europeans. The tubers have a consistency much like potatoes, but a sweeter, nuttier flavor. Raw and sliced thinly, they are fit for a salad. The tubers have a tendency to become soft and mushy if boiled. They contain inulin which gives the body many health benefits. However the inulin is not well digested for some people, leading in some cases to flatulence and gastric pain. In this case, soak chopped or sliced Jerusalem artichokes in water over 30 minutes, rinse and drain, then use it for cooking. For preparing Jerusalem artichoke, you don’t have to peel all the skin. Just give them a scrub in water.
Roasted Jerusalem artichokes
Slice ½ inch thick, toss with olive oil, roast until slightly soft. (350F. 5-8 minutes) Add a little bit of lemon juice. The crispy exterior vs. creamy interior is heavenly when you bite into them.
Jerusalem Artichokes with Honey Mustard Vinaigrette
1/2 pound Jerusalem artichokes cut into thick strips 2 teaspoons safflower oil 2 Tablespoons cider vinegar 1 Tablespoon soy sauce 1 Tablespoon honey 1 Tablespoon old fashioned mustard
In non stick pot, cook Jerusalem artichoke in oil over medium heat about 1 minute. (Do not overcook.) Add vinegar, soy sauce and honey. Stir over high heat about 1 minute. Remove artichokes and put aside. Stir remaining liquid frequently on high heat until there’s very little liquid. Turn off the heat. Stir artichokes again. Add mustard. * The evaporation process makes the artichoke become sweeter with minimum use of honey. The crispy texture is heavenly with the sweet taste.
Jerusalem Artichokes Salad
½ pound Jerusalem artichokes cut into thin strips 1 small carrot cut into thin strips ½ cup kale finely chopped 1 Tablespoon miso 1 Tablespoon lemon juice 1 Tablespoon honey 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil 1 Tablespoon hempseeds Toss together Jerusalem artichokes, carrot and kale. To make dressing, mix miso, lemon juice, honey and sesame oil. Sprinkle hempseeds on top. All proportions can be varied to suit your taste.
Jerusalem Artichokes Soup
1 pound Jerusalem artichokes cubed 1 medium onion finely chopped 1 teaspoon safflower oil 3 cups water 1/2 cup boiled soybeans, rinsed and drained ( Can use other beans or nuts instead)
In non stick pot, sauté onion in oil. Add 3 cups water and Jerusalem artichoke. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat. Simmer about 15 minutes or until tender. Add soybeans. Combine all the ingredients in a blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds. Bring to a boil. Add sea salt and pepper to taste.
Roasted Garlic Mashed Jerusalem Artichokes and Potato
1 pound (Jerusalem artichokes and potatoes combined) cubed 1/4 cup water 4 garlic cloves, unpeeled 1 Tablespoon boiled soybeans (Can use other beans or nuts instead) 1 Tablespoon finely chopped parsley
1 Place unpeeled garlic cloves and 1 tablespoon water in a pie pan and broil for 5 to 10 minutes or until garlic are soft. (Don’t burn.) Remove pie pan from oven and set aside to cool. 2 Meanwhile, in a large pot, place Jerusalem artichokes and potatoes covered with water and cook over medium heat for 15 minutes or until tender. Drain. Transfer Jerusalem artichokes and potatoes to mixer and set aside for 5 minutes to dry. 3 Using fingers, squeeze garlic from their skins and mash. 4 Combine soybeans and 1/4 cup water in blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds, or until soybeans are completely smooth. 5 Combine all the ingredients and whip until smooth. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. * Add 1 tablespoon melted butter if desired Dehydrate sliced Jerusalem artichokes and rehydrate. The taste will be changed but even better. ( by Micha Rogg)
Grains are one of our basic foods that will last forever. Growing a small patch of grains once can be very satisfying. They are very easy to grow, like the grass in your lawn. You can buy grain berries at a health food store.
Red Fife Wheat
Red fife wheat is the original wheat that pioneers brought to Canada. Nowadays, most wheat varieties are bred for large harvest and disease tolerance. The original seeds are adapted to a broad diversity of growing conditions. It’s best to stay with the original species rather than the hybrids.
Kamut wheat is thousands of years old. 36 grains of Kamut were found in an Egyptian tomb in the late nineteenth century, so for more than 2000 years, human beings missed the taste of Kamut. The Egyptian word Kamut means “soul of Earth”.
Basic Stove top Whole Grain Makes 2 cups
1 cup grain berries (wheat, barley, kamut, and oats) 2 ½ cups water In a saucepan, combine grain and water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat. Simmer, covered about 1 hour or until liquid is absorbed. Turn off the heat and let it stand a few minutes. Add sea salt and fluff with wooden spoon. Cooked grains are a satisfying meal with butter, soy sauce or other seasoning. Their flavor is enhanced with your choice of herbs and garlic. They enrich soups, stews and salad. *Cover and refrigerate for up to 2 days or freeze for up to 1 month.
Soak grains over night. Rinse them twice a day for two days. They will be a raw food with a soft crunchy texture and rich sweet taste. They enrich soups, stews and salad.
Soak over night
Rinse twice a day
Put a piece of news paper on top
wheat (left) and kamut (right), two days after soaking
Wheat Berry Salad
2 Tablespoons lemon juice 1/3 cup dried cranberries 2 cups cooked wheat berries (or other grains) 1 apple diced small 1/2 cup hazelnuts (or other nuts) coarsely chopped 1 Tablespoon cider vinegar 1 Tablespoon extra virgin olive oil
Wheat berry salad with mustard, mache, miner’s lettuce and pepper grass.
Combine juice and cranberries in a small bowl. Let stand for 10 minutes. Combine wheat berries, apple and nuts in a large bowl. Drain cranberries. Reserve juice. Stir cranberries into wheat berry mixture. Whisk reserved juice, vinegar and oil in a small bowl and add to the salad. Add sea salt and pepper to taste.
Red Fife Wheat and Kale Pancakes
1 cup fresh stone ground whole wheat flour 1/2 cup unbleached white flour 1 1/ 2 cups water 1/2 inch ginger peeled and grated 4 cups finely chopped kale 1 cup finely chopped carrots 1 egg 2/3 cup tomatoes crushed 1 Tablespoon honey 2 Tablespoons cider vinegar 2 Tablespoons soy sauce ( 1 Tablespoon mayonnaise) In a large bowl, whisk flour water and ginger until no dry flour is visible. Mix kale, carrots and egg. In a small saucepan, combine rest of ingredients. Bring to a boil to make sauce. Stir in, 1 Tablespoon mayonnaise( if desired) when sauce is cool. Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Lightly oil the surface and drop the batter by generous tablespoon. Cook each pancake until the bottom is golden brown and edges look dry (about 10 minutes). Flip and cook until the other side is golden brown. Serve immediately with sauce.
Sprouted Wheat Bread
1 cup wheat berries 1/4 teaspoon sea salt
Manual Food Processor (Hand Mill)
Soak wheat berries for 8 hours or overnight. Put them in your sprouting trays or a large glass jar. Then rinse and drain the berries two times a day for the next 32 hours or until the wheat berries have sprouted ¼ inch tails. Important: Make sure the berries are well drained before processing into dough. (Don’t rinse after they are finished sprouting.) Place the sprouted wheat berries into food processor and pulse until the berries resemble bread dough and form a ball around the food processor blade. Remove dough from food processor. On the floured baking pan, form a loaf about 6”x3”. Bake at 250 degrees (F) for three hours or until the bread is a rich, dark brown. It will have a tough, thick crust on the outside and moist, brown bread on the inside. By sprouting, the natural sweetener originating from the wheat itself will enhance the flavor very much. This bread is very rich, delicious and extra nutritious because it uses sprouted berries. Because it is so nutritionally dense, you only need a small piece to accompany your salad or soup entrée. Your sprouted grain bread will stay fresh in your refrigerator for about 1 week.
German Style 100% Whole Rye Sourdough Bread
For the Rye Sourdough 11 cups stone ground rye flour 6 cups water ½ cup sourdough starter ½ cup flax seeds For the Rye Chop Soaker 8 cups coarse stone ground rye flour
Grind your grain
Makes five 8’x 4’ loaves
4 ½ cups water Rye Sourdough and Rye Chop Soaker Directions 1. Make Rye Sourdough: Grind flax seeds with coffee grinder or food processor. Pour water over sourdough starter and stir to dissolve in a large bowl. Add rye, flax seeds and mix until thoroughly hydrated. 2. Make Rye Chop Soaker: In a separate bowl, stir together the coarse stone ground rye and water.
For the Final Dough
7 ½ cups stone ground rye flour 1 ½ cups water 1 Tablespoon sea salt 1 cup sunflower seeds All of the rye sourdough All of the rye chop soaker
Final dough just mixed Expand this much
Mix together all of the final dough ingredients until thoroughly hydrated. Continue mixing in the bowl for about 10 minutes by hand. The dough will have weak gluten development and will be very sticky. Prepare loaf pans by oiling and dusting with rye flour. Divide the dough into 5 pieces and make balls. Heavily dust hands and work surface with whole rye flour for easier handling. Gently place the balls into the loaf pans and cover with parchment paper.
Final Proof ( 5 to 8 hours ) Preheat oven to 500 degrees F Set pan with water in it under baking rack. Place 5 loaf pans in the oven and close the oven door. Lower the heat to 395 degrees F and bake for 60 minutes. Remove the bread from the pan. Let cool completely on wire rack at room temperature. Don’t slice until the bread is completely cool.
Make a ball to put into a loaf pan
The bread will keep for several weeks wrapped in plastic and refrigerated. It also can be stored in a freezer after being sliced. Proof time and water amount varies depending on the room temperature and humidity. Experiment. You can make other grain bread using this method. Play with different varieties of grain. When you mix white flour, the loaf will be lighter. You can freely add molasses, dried fruit, nuts......
Just before baking
Nasturtiums are self-seeding annuals. They grow very easily and produce well. They are a native of Columbia, Bolivia and Peru. All parts of the plant are edible. The flower has most often been consumed for ornamental salad ingredients. The leaves could be used to make a delicious sandwich. The peppery taste is reminiscent of watercress. Grated young seeds could be substituted for wasabi. The young seeds and buds could be used like capers.
Nasturtium Capers Makes 1 cup
1 cup nasturtium buds or green young seeds 1 cup vinegar 1 cup water 1 Tablespoon sea salt
Rinse buds or seeds. Soak in bowl of water for a day and drain. Add fresh water. Soak another day and drain. (This process is designed to make sure all dirt and grit is washed off.) Mix vinegar, water and sea salt. In a jar, add buds. Let sit for three days. The capers will then be ready to eat. It can also be left to sit for a longer period of time. Once pickled, store jar and brine in the refrigerator.
Bean Salad with Nasturtium Wasabi Serves 4
1 pound green beans cut small (either before or after boiling) 2 teaspoons green young nasturtium seeds grated (You could mash or food process them if you don’t have a tiny wasabi grater.) 2 Tablespoons rice vinegar 1 garlic clove minced 1 Tablespoon soy sauce 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil 1 Tablespoon sesame seeds In a small pan or skillet, heat sesame seeds on medium heat, shaking occasionally.( You do not need to use oil.) Remove sesame seeds when they darken and become fragrant. (about 3 to 5 minutes.) In a pan, bring salted water to a boil. Add beans and cook for 3 minutes. Drain and set aside to cool. Mix other ingredient to make dressing. Toss the beans with the dressing. Sea salt to taste.
Basil pesto tastes great. However basil is a heavy feeder and it can only be harvested in the summer time in the home garden. Instead of using basil, we could use any greens such as arugula, parsley, cilantro and mustard. Discover the amazing taste of the different green leaves.
2 cups green leaves finely chopped 1/3 cup walnuts pieces (could also use other nuts instead) 2 Tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 2 Tablespoons water 2 cloves garlic peeled and quartered
Place all the ingredients in food processor. Pulse a few times, then process until fairly smooth, or to the desired consistency. Add sea salt and pepper to taste. Kale pesto (See the Kale page.) Fava bean Pesto (See the Fava beans Spread.)
Green Leaves of Root Vegetables
Most people throw the green leaves of turnips, radishes, beets and carrots away. However those leaves have high nutrition and unsurpassed health benefits. The taste of vegetables which are grown at low nitrogen conditions is absolutely delicious. Even the leaves of root vegetables could be fantastic meals. We can use them for salad, garnish for soup, in stir-fries and much more.
Green Leaves Tempura
1 cup water and 1 egg combined 1/2 cup whole wheat flour. 1/3 cup unbleached flour 4 cups finely chopped greens (can be combined with finely chopped root vegetables)
In a large bowl, whisk flour, water and egg until no dry flour is visible. Mix in greens. Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Lightly oil the surface and drop on generous tablespoons of batter to make tiny pancakes. Cook each pancake until the bottom is golden brown and the edges look dry. Flip and cook until the other side is golden brown. Serve immediately with sea salt.
Deep Green Salad
about 6 cups chopped green leaves 1 teaspoon sea salt 1 Tablespoon olive oil
Rip the leaves of root vegetables apart into large bowl. Sprinkle with sea salt. Rub well and squeeze out any excess liquid with your hands. Add lemon juice and olive oil to taste and mix well. Garnish with nuts, fruits freely.
Green Leaves Curry
See the Swiss chard curry.
I like this curry. It’s so yummy!
This amount of leaves
shrink this much when boiled
turn into this much curry.
Makes 8 pieces
Filling 1/4 cup sunflower seeds 1 teaspoon cumin seeds 1 teaspoon coriander seeds 8 cups green vegetables chopped 1 small onion chopped 1 teaspoon safflower oil 1 teaspoon curry powder 1 teaspoon sea salt Croquette skin Flour and bread crumbs for coating 1 egg beaten 1 Tablespoon safflower oil Make filling: Steam green vegetables about 5 minutes or until greens are wilted. Drain. In a small pan or skillet, heat sunflower seeds, cumin seeds and coriander seeds on medium heat, shaking pan occasionally about 3 to 5 minutes or until sunflower seeds get slightly brown. (You do not need to use oil.) Place sunflower seeds mixture in food processor. Pulse a few times. Transfer to a bowl. In the pan or skillet, sauté onion in oil. Transfer to the food processor. Add cooked greens to the food processor. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Transfer the mixture into the bowl. Add curry powder and sea salt and mix well. Croquette: Make flat oval-shaped patties. Coat each piece with flour. Dip in beaten egg. Lastly, coat with bread crumbs. Heat a griddle over medium heat until a sprinkle of water sizzles gently across the surface. Lightly oil the surface and drop on croquettes. Cook each croquette until the bottom is golden brown. Flip and cook until the other side is golden brown. *This croquette goes well with the sauce for Kale Pancakes. (See the grain page.)
Baked Green Samosas
Filling Same as the croquettes Pastry 1 cup whole wheat flour 1/2 cup unbleached white flour 2 teaspoons sea salt 2 Tablespoons safflower oil 1/3 cup warm water
Makes 24 pieces
Mix flour and salt in a bowl. Make a well in the center and add oil and enough water to make firm dough. Knead dough on a floured surface until smooth. Roll into a ball. Cover and set aside for 30 minutes. Make filling. (See the croquette recipe.) Divide filling into 24 pieces. Roll the pastry into 18’x24’. Cut into 3’x 6’. Place filling onto one side of the pastry. Fold the pastry over the filling into a square shape and pinch the edges to seal. Continue with the remainder of the pastry. Bake at 350 degrees F for 30 minutes or until the pastry become slightly brown.
*Eat it with your favorite chutney. (photo: green tomato chutney)
Ultimately Sustainable Dishes
When I make these recipes, I feel conflicted about one thing. Most recipes need oil and onions. Most plants that produce oil are heavy feeders as are onions. It is impossible to grow them without external input. (like manure, top soil, sea soil etc.) However miso soup dose not require any oil or onions. (If you want them, you can add them to the soup, of course) You can use any vegetables and grains freely and you will discover the true delicious taste of garden vegetables.
Miso Soup Serves 4 large bowls
5 cups water 4-5 Tablespoons miso Any vegetables from the garden washed and chopped. In a pot, bring water to a boil. Add vegetables and cook until tender. (Green leaves should cook less than 1 minute.) Turn off the heat and dissolve miso in a small amount of water and add to the broth. Add cooked (or sprouted) grains of your choice.
How to make Miso
Miso is made of soybeans and koji, a culture starter made from beneficial molds, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. As long as you choose unpasturized organic miso, you will be getting the benefits of live friendly microflora for the health of your inner ecosystem. Making miso is very easy when you have Koji. Koji is available at most Japanese specialty food stores. You can make your own Koji too. Making Koji is best to suited for a person with some culturing experience. However, anyone can try. Once you learn how to make miso, you can try other beans, peas or lentils instead of soybeans. When you use peas, you can skip the annoying mashing process. Use about 1.5 times water to cook dried peas. (ie. To cook 1 cup of peas, use 1.5 cups of water.) Water amount varies depending on the peas. http://www.fuchu.or.jp/~kanemitu/misomaking.htm Koji starter kit ( koji spores) http://www.gemcultures.com/international.htm
* Reduce risk of cancer including breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and colon cancer. * Protection from radiation * Immune strengthening * Antiviral-miso is very alkaline and strengthens the immune system helping to combat a viral infection. * Prevents aging as is high in antioxidants, miso protects from free radicals that cause signs of aging. * Helps maintain nutritional balance as it is full of beneficial nutrients and enzymes; miso provides: protein, vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin K, tryptophan, choline, dietary fiber, linoletic acid and lecithin. * Help preserves beautiful skin as miso contains linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that helps your skin stay soft and free of pigments. * Help reduce menopausal complaints as the isoflavoness in miso have been shown to reduce hot flashes. http://bodyecology.com/articles/miso_health_and_anti-aging.php
The most ideal, sustainable way to eat sweets is by eating fresh, local fruit. However fresh fruit is available at limited times. We can preserve almost any fruit by canning, dehydrating and freezing. Collect many fruit from your yard and nearby farms and preserve them.
It's possible to can almost any fruit. Storing canned fruit doesn’t require electricity.
Sauce In a saucepan, combine peeled (or not peeled), cored (or pitted) fruit and water. Cover, and cook over medium heat for 15 to 20 minutes, or until fruit is soft. Mash with a ladle or potato masher if needed. Ladle hot sauce into hot, sterilized jars, leaving a 1/2 inch head-space. Wipe jar rims and adjust lids. Do pressure canning.
Canning Fruits Fill jars with raw fruit peeled (or not peeled), cored (or pitted or not pitted) and cut (or whole), packing as tightly as possible without crushing, being sure to leave 1-inch headspace at the top of the jar. Add boiling water to the jars again, leaving 1-inch headspace. Put the lids and rings on and make them snug, but don't over tighten them. Do pressure canning. About pressure canning: http://www.pickyourown.org/press urecanners.htm
Under the Sun http://www.ehow.com/how_6224441_dehydrate-fruits-vegetables-using-sun.html Using Dehydrator http://www.pickyourown.org/dryingfoods.htm
You can add honey or syrup on all of these treats if you desire. Your sense of taste will be changed. You will be enjoying the maximum natural taste .
Mix fresh, frozen, dried and canned fruit freely in blender. You can enjoy a healthy smoothie through the whole year.
Freeze canned fruit or smoothie. It will be a wonderful treat for hot days.
Pear Compote Serves 4
2 pears 1/2 cup water
Peel and core pears and cut into tiny cubes. In pot, cook pear and water about 5 minutes. Drain and reserve water. In same pot, stir reserved pear water frequently on high heat until there’s very little liquid. Shape pear with some container from your recycling bins. Pour pear syrup on top. Garnish with sliced nuts, berries and mint.
Waffles Makes 8 to 9 pieces
3 cups stone ground whole wheat flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/4 cup soy beans cooked and drained 2 small eggs 3 1/2 cups water Whisk whole-wheat flour and baking powder in large bowl. Place soy beans and water in blender. Cover and pulse on and off until the mixture starts to swirl evenly. Blend on high for 20 seconds. Add eggs and pulse. Stir soy beans mixture into mixed flour. Coat a waffle iron with oil and preheat. Spoon in enough batter to cover three-fourths of the surface (about 2/3 cup for an 8-by-8-inch waffle iron). Cook until waffles are crisp and golden brown, 4 to 5 minutes. Repeat with remaining batter. Serve with maple syrup, honey, fruit (fresh, frozen, canned) and nuts. The batter can also be used for pancakes. Vegan Waffle - Use 2 cups stone ground whole wheat flour and 1 cup unbleached flour instead of 3 cups whole wheat flour.
Dried Fruit Cake Without Sweetener Makes 12-16 pieces
Sprouting grains does take some planning ahead of time. However it is pretty easy and actual work is minimal. By sprouting, the wheat will develop a sweeter flavor. 1 cup wheat berries ½ cup unbleached white flour 1 cup finely chopped dried fruit (prunes, figs, cranberries, raisins, currants, etc…) 1/4 cup butter and/or safflower oil 2 small eggs, lightly beaten ( or ¼ cup water instead) ½ Tablespoon baking powder ½ cup apple sauce or pear sauce ¼ cup sliced hazelnuts or other nuts
Soak wheat berries for 8 hours or overnight. Put them in your sprouting trays or a large glass jar. Then rinse and drain the berries two times a day for the next 32 hours or until the wheat berries have sprouted ¼ inch tails. Important: Make sure the berries are well drained before processing into dough. (Don’t rinse after they are finished sprouting.) Place the sprouted wheat berries into food processor and pulse until the berries resemble bread dough and form a ball around the food processor blade.
TO MAKE SQUARES: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly grease a 10-inch square cake pan. In a large bowl combine the wheat dough, flour and baking powder. Add dried fruit and stir in evenly. Melt the butter (or oil) in a small pan. Pour over the wheat mixture, add the lightly beaten egg and mix well. Press into the prepared pan. Bake for 50 minutes. Spread apple sauce and sprinkle hazelnuts on top. Bake another 10 minutes. Allow to cool in the pan.
Apple Tart Without Sweetener Serves 8
9-inch tart pan
You can quickly make the crust for this tart in the food processor and then press it into the pan—no need to dig out a rolling pin and struggle to transfer tender pastry dough from pin to pan. You can use any flat, shallow dish or a pan instead of a tart pan. 2/3 cup wheat berries 1/4 cup hazelnuts (or other nuts instead) 1/3 cup raisins (or other dried fruit chopped) 1/3 cup unbleached flour 1/4 cup butter and/or safflower oil 1 small egg yolk (optional) 1 litre canned apples Half a fresh apple cored and sliced Soak wheat berries for 8 hours or overnight. Put them in your sprouting trays or a large glass jar. Then rinse and drain the berries two times a day for the next 32 hours or until the wheat berries have sprouted ¼ inch tails. Important: Make sure the berries are well drained before processing into dough. (Don’t rinse after they are finished sprouting.) Place the sprouted wheat berries into food processor and pulse until the berries resemble bread dough and form a ball around the food processor blade. Set aside. Drain canned apples and reserve the syrup.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly coat a 9-inch removable-bottom tart pan with oil or butter. Combine nuts in food processor; pulse until the nuts are finely ground. Add raisins and pulse. Add flour and pulse briefly to blend. With the motor running, add butter (and/or oil) until well incorporated. Add egg yolk (optional) and wheat berry mixture and pulse until the mixture begins to clump and form dough, about 1 minute. Transfer the remaining dough to the prepared tart pan; spread evenly and press firmly into the bottom and up the sides to form a crust. Bake the tart for 10 minutes. Spread apple evenly on the tart. Place sliced apple on top. Bake another 30 minutes. Let cool on a wire rack for about 30 minutes. In sauce pan, stir reserved apple syrup frequently on high heat until there’s very little liquid. Coat the syrup on tart with brush. · You can make pear tart with this method.
Coffee and Tea Alternative
Spread Kamut berries on pie pan. Bake 400 degrees F for 60 minutes, 350F for 60 minutes or until entire grain became dark brown. (Break a grain to check the color inside) * The kamut will be smoky. Ground coarsely and brew just like coffee with drip coffee maker, filter cone or French press. Kamut coffee has a delicious, rich, dark, full-bodied nutty flavor. Adjust quantities to personal taste. Drink black or serve with half and half, non dairy milk or creamer. Real coffee can cause exhausted adrenal glands, blood sugar swings, acid imbalance, mineral depletion and global warming due to transporting from faraway countries.(Coffee is the second most traded commodity in the world next to oil.) Roasted Kamut coffee helps restore healthy natural energy, alkaline balance and mineral reserves. Protect the gift of good health and Mother Earth with roasted Kamut coffee. *Quit real coffee in two weeks by blending roasted Kamut with your real coffee. Start with 3/4 coffee to 1/4 roasted Kamut and gradually increase the amount of roasted Kamut until you are drinking 100% roasted Kamut.
Lemon Balm Black Tea
Black tea is a pleaser. However it is not easy to grow the tea plants in temperate zone. Real black tea has caffeine which causes many side affects to the body. Caffeine is addictive and it is the world’s most popular drug. Rooibos tea is a great alternative to black tea and it doesn’t contain any caffeine. However it comes from Africa. Consuming food from faraway countries is not sustainable. We can make black tea using lemon balm. Lemon balm is an herb. It is very easy to grow. It is almost an invasive plant. Lemon balm black tea is full-bodied and fragrant; this brew conjures visions of real tea. The whole leaves deliver a beautiful aroma. This supposed garden nuisance will be an amazing pleaser! * Pluck the very youngest leaves and leaf buds. * Dry naturally until the leaves are slightly wilted. *On a plain cardboard, press, rub and knead the leaves about 200 to 300 times until the leaves start to darken and turn red. *Spread them out on a tray and leave them in a cool location for 2-3 days. *Dry them in full sun about 4-5 hours or in the oven at 250F for about 20 minutes. *Store in an air-tight container. You can make black tea from cherry leaves, horse tail leaves, black berry leaves and raspberry leaves too. Discoverer your favorite tea in your garden!
Tisane (Herbal Infusion)
We can make herbal tea (tisane; herbal infusion) using any dried fruit, flower, herbs, seeds and roots. You can create your own blend. Brewing Notes Start with spring or filtered water. Use a large strainer basket to allow the leaves to open and release their flavor. Avoid aluminum pots. Time: 3-15 minutes Amount : 2 tablespoons ( Time and amount will vary to suit your taste.) Play with the amount of tea, water temperature and steeping time. (Rely on taste, not color.) All ingredients should be dehydrated. Amounts can vary with your taste.
Delicious Flower Blend
Elder flowers Rose flowers Vervain ( Verbena) Lavender Poppy flowers
Excellent Fruit Blend
Rose hips Black currant leaves Apple Orange peel Cinnamon Black currant fruit Lemon Verbena Fig ( 1 small piece)
Comfrey leaves Pepper mint Fenugreek seeds
by David Manning
Nootka Rose Tea
Infuse rose tea by adding 2 cups fresh rose petals to 4 cups water. Bring to a gentle boil, then turn off heat. Filter out the rose petals.
Edible Native (and Wild) Food Plants (Pacific North West)
Native plants have low maintenance and low water requirements. They are adapted to local climatic conditions and endure the extremes of wild and weather over time. Native plants attract and support wildlife, thereby helping to restore habitat. Propagating native plants is a very rewarding experience. However, digging up native plants and bulbs in the wild not only disrupts natural areas, but has also caused some species to become nearly extinct. Also some plants are extremely poisonous. You can buy native plants from a reputable nursery or grow them from seeds.
miner’s lettuce, dandelion, mustard, peppergrass, wild violets (both leaves and flowers), sorrel, lamb’s quarter
Steaming or Boiling
Lady fern (fiddleheads), dandelion, mustard, cattail, lamb’s quarter, stinging nettle, cow parsnip
hazelnuts big leaf maple wild ginger
Pickling glass wort (pickleweed) Tea
labrador tea, nootka rose (flower), clover (flower)
Fruit and Berries
Tall Oregon grape Oregon grape, oval-leaved blueberry, evergreen huckleberry, blue elderberry, bog cranberry, high-bush cranberry, red huckleberry, bunchberry, bog blueberry, soapberry, low-bush cranberry, crowberry, Saskatoon berry, kinnikinnickberry, wild strawberry, salal, Indian plum, Alaska blueberry, wild crabapple, nootka rose, black huckleberry, cloudberry, wild raspberry, black cap, thimbleberry, trailing wild raspberry, salmonberry, trailing wild blackberry.
Planting native plants
1 cup salal berries 4 cups water 5 teaspoons 100% pure fruit pectin 4 teaspoons calcium water ( Pomona’s Universal Pectin contains an envelope of pectin and 1 of calcium with directions.) 1/4 cup lemon juice sweetener
In large pot, cook berries in water very high-heat, stirring very frequently several hours; or pressure cook for 20 minutes. Pour cooked fruit into jelly bag and let drip until juice stops. Put the juice and calcium water into a pan. Add water if needed. (makes 4 cups of liquid) Bring juice to a boil. Put 1 cup boiling juice in blender/food processor. Add 5 teaspoons pectin. Cover and pulse 1-2 minutes until all powder is dissolved. Add pectin-juice to pan of hot juice. Add lemon juice and sweetener to taste. Stir well. Do pressure canning. *Follow directions on the package of pectin. *You can use any edible native berries instead of salal. Pectin amount varies depending on the berry.
Sustainable Cooking Tips
Meat, eggs and dairy products are the most environmentally damaging foods that most people consume. Reducing the amount of meat, eggs and dairy you eat doesn’t mean that you have to become a vegetarian or vegan, but there are environmentally friendly, financially smart and healthy options. * Eat smaller portions of meat and dairy; eat less frequently. * Choose farm fresh bantam eggs and eat smaller portions and less frequently. A bantam is a small variety of poultry. (Chickens) Most large chickens are bred from bantams. The bantam eggs are smaller and they don’t lay eggs everyday as large bred chickens. However, they don’t need as much as space as other breeds and eat much less food. Bantam hens hatch and brood consistently. They are very protective mothers. * Use soybeans and water instead of milk. Store –bought soymilk contain a long list of additives and it needs a lot of energy for transportation, packaging and refrigeration. However, making soymilk at home is a little bit complicated. Also after making soymilk, we will get a lot of soybeans debris which has high nutrition. It is quite wasteful. I found that we could simply use boiled soybeans and water put into the blender instead of soymilk. This whole soybean mixture is perfect for soup, pancakes and mashed potatoes. Cook any amount of soybeans ahead of time and freeze in small portions. Use it whenever you require milk or soymilk in your recipe. You can use other beans and nuts instead of soybeans. When you buy soy beans, it is very important to make sure that they are organic, local or domestic. * Sweeteners: Cane sugar and sugar beets are heavy feeders and they grow well only in the warmer climates. Maple, birch and other tree syrups could be used if your place is suitable for them to grow. However it takes many years to harvest syrup and each tree has a limited supply of syrup. Collecting syrup from the forest would kill the fragile eco system too. Honey could be another option. However, honey bees are not native to North America and too large a population would destroy the ecosystem. We have to reduce the consumption of sweetener entirely. In these recipes, I used the technique of evaporation for liquid dishes such as relish and Jerusalem Artichokes Mustard. Let the liquid evaporate as much as possible to concentrate the sweet taste. *Salt
Commercial refined salt is not only stripped of all its minerals, besides sodium and chloride, but it is also heated at such high temperatures that the chemical structure of the salt changes. In addition, it is chemically cleaned and bleached and treated with anticaking agents which prevent salt from mixing with water in the salt container. Unrefined sea salt is recommended in the Pacific North West .
* Stock seeds for sprouts. 100 grams of seeds turn into 5 liters of sprouts. It will be great food in the winter time. * Choose organic, local and seasonal. * Every time you shop, you vote. Your vote will change society.
* Keep fridge and oven doors closed as much as possible. * Use small appliances such as a toaster oven for cooking instead of your stove. * Defrost food in the fridge, not in the microwave and not under running hot water. * Use pots and pans with tight-fitting lids and match them to the size of the burner. (A presser cooker saves your time and energy.) * Recycle old appliances and buy new energy efficiency ones when you replace them. * Buy a high quality non stick pan; it will reduce the oil consumption. * Turn off the tap while you wash dishes. * Wash fruit and vegetables in a basin. * Don’t pour water down the drain if you can use it for other projects like watering plants. * Cook only what you need. * Stock less food in the fridge and freezer and reduce the temperature setting. (David R. Boyd and David Suzuki: David Suzuki’s Green Guide 2008 Grey Stone)
The consequences of human technology have had an enormous impact on food safety and threaten food production. I invite you to join me and my family in exploring sustainable living and becoming more aware of environmental destruction. My mother country, Japan, is suffering with natural and manmade disasters. That is heartbreaking. I developed these recipes with my deepest prayer for Japan and for the future when human beings will respect and appreciate our planet. Thank you to my husband, Arthur, for leading me and our four children towards a sustainable life style.
Respect for Nature
Pender Island, B.C Canada in May 2011
The soil-making process is still going on but it may take 1000 years for nature to make one inch of topsoil.
Forest Preserve District of Cook County (Illinois)
The heritage of soil fertility and organic matter that we are handing on to the next generation is not large enough to be used lavishly. Careful conservation and thrifty management will be imperative.
Loss of Soil Organic Matter and Its Restoration By William A. Albrecht Professor of Soils University of Missouri
Evidence of the environmental impacts of a meat-based diet is piling up at the same time its health effects are becoming better known.
The Case Against Meat
There are not enough cows in the world to provide enough nutrients in terms of cow manure for today’s food crops.
IFOAM Organic Growing
Sustainable growing does not exhaust the resources of any given place and moves toward independence from those external inputs that require reliance on someone else’s system.
The Whole Organic Food Book: Safe, Healthy Harvest from Your Garden to Your Plate By Dan Jason
Our long-term food security is entirely dependent on the health of our natural resources. It is clear that our food system will have to adapt and change radically to meet the realities of the 21st century.
The National Trust Appetite for change http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/appetite_for_change_report-2.pdf
Food security is not only about the quantity of food we eat, but also about the quality and diversity of food sources.
The Need for Innovation in Local, Diversified Food Production http://www.celsias.com/article/need-innovation-local-diversified-food-production/
Global food supply approaching its limit.
The united States Agricultural & Food Law and Policy Blog http://www.agandfoodlaw.com/2011/01/global-food-supply-approaching-its.html
We need to replace our modern farming systems with organic. We need to grow crops locally, rather than fly them in from across the world and encourage more allotments and vegetable gardens.
The beginner’s guide to Peak Oil The Wolf at the Door
We can also play a powerful role for positive change by adjusting what we eat. Global climate change is directly related to agriculture through the loss of wilderness to farmland, methane released from animals and energy-intensive fertilizers, pesticides, food processing and transportation.
Veg.ca Toronto Vegetarian Association
Ten Reasons Why Organic Food Is Better
By Guy Dauncy
Because 95% of people are dying of the complications caused by Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Aids,… If they did not eat food that kills, 90% of them will be disease free.
Food and drinks that kill: Sugar, Fats, Refined, Processed Food,… by Curezone
About 48 million people (1 in 6 Americans) get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die each year from foodborne diseases.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
800 million people in the world suffer from hunger and malnutrition. Every year 15 million children die of hunger.
An end to World Hunger http://library.thinkquest.org/C002291/high/present/stats.htm
David R. Boyd and David Suzuki: David Suzuki’s Green Guide 2008 Grey Stone Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org
The world’s healthiest foods www.whfoods.org April Pettinger with Brenda Costanzo: Native Plants in the Coastal Garden 1995 White cap Nancy J. Turner: Food Plants of Coastal First People 1995 UBC Press Terry Domico: Wild Harvest 1979 Hancock house
Four Leaves Clovers for the Future
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