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# Gain key expertise in fundamentals of engineering Maths, Physics and Chemistry

**Please finD enCloseD samPle ChaPters
**

from the

engineering stuDies PreParation Course

**Fundamentals oF engineering maths, Physics and chemistry
**

12 Modules over 3 MonThs

CommenCement Date: 5 July 2010

**what you will gain:
**

• Key know-how in maths, physics and chemistry knowledge that is applicable to engineering • The ability to confidently work with engineering chemistry, maths and physic concepts • A warm up to the perhaps forgotten world of study

Course designer

**dr steve Mackay
**

dean of engineering

steve has worked in engineering throughout Australia, europe, Africa and north America for the past 30 years. he has presented numerous electrical engineering short courses worldwide to over 18,000 engineers and technicians, and has a particular interest in practical and leading edge aspects of marketing, business and engineering practice. he is a fellow of engineers Australia.

**what you will learn:
**

Module 1 - MATheMATICs

• • • • • • • • Algebra Trigonometry Permutations and Combinations Probability Functions and Graphs differential and Integral Calculus Complex numbers Financial Math

Module 2: PhYsICs

• • • • • • • Motion 1d and 2d heating and Cooling light and optics elasticity electricity sound nuclear Physics

Module 3 - CheMIsTrY

• • • • • • • Matter and Material structure and Bonding Analytical Chemistry Gases and solutions equilibrium Acids and Bases Industrial Chemistry

**enrol now: Fax the enrolment form to us,
**

or email enquiries@eit.edu.au

eDuCation Partner

live, interative classes over the internet

Presents

a sample chapter from the

Advanced Diploma Preparation Course Fundamentals of Engineering

Physics

Website: www.idc-online.com E-mail: idc@idc-online.com

MOTION - I

ONE-DIMENSIONAL

Technology Training that Works

Topics Equations of motion Newton’s laws of motion Potential energy and kinetic energy Conservation of mechanical energy Technology Training that Works .

Introduction Motion – Change in location of an object as a result of applied force. Motion in single dimension can be described with the following quantities: Position or displacement Speed or velocity Acceleration Time Technology Training that Works .

..Introduction (cont.) Frame of reference Technology Training that Works .

) Displacement – change in position (x) Δx = x final − xinitial (m) Displacement does not depend on the path travelled.s ) v= Δt Instantaneous velocity and average velocity Technology Training that Works .. Velocity – rate of change of position Δx −1 (m.Introduction (cont..

) Acceleration – the rate of change of velocity. Δv −2 a= (m.Introduction (cont...s ) Δt Motion at constant acceleration Technology Training that Works .

Equations of Motion v final = vinitial + at Δx = (vinitial + v final ) 2 t 1 2 Δx = vinitial t + at 2 v 2 final =v 2 initial + 2aΔx Technology Training that Works .

unless acted upon by an unbalanced (net) force. Second law Force equals mass times acceleration (F=ma).Newton’s Laws of Motion First law An object will remain in a state of rest or continue travelling at constant velocity. Technology Training that Works . Third law For every action there is equal and opposite reaction.

Problem – 1 What happens while the car turns? Technology Training that Works .

Problem – 2 Two crates. One-third of the total frictional force is acting on the 10 kg block and two-thirds on the 15 kg block. Calculate: The magnitude and direction of the frictional force present. The magnitude of the tension in the rope at T. Technology Training that Works . 10 kg and 15 kg respectively. A force of 500 N is applied. are connected with a thick rope according to the diagram. The boxes move with an acceleration of 2 m·s−2.

Calculate the magnitudes of forces P and R. Technology Training that Works .Problem – 3 A force T = 312 N is required to keep a body at rest on a frictionless inclined plane which makes an angle of 35◦ with the horizontal. The forces acting on the body are as shown.

Problem – 4 Which of the following pairs of forces correctly illustrates Newton’s Third Law? Technology Training that Works .

Technology Training that Works . FR = ma Fapplied + Ff = ma 500 + Ff = (10 + 15) × (2) Ff = 50 − 500 Ff = − 450 N The frictional force is 450 N opposite to the direction of motion.Solution – 2 Assume the direction of motion to be positive.

Solution – 2 (cont..) Calculating tension on the rope : The frictional force on the 10 kg block is one third of the total.. therefore : 1 Ff = × 450 3 Ff = 150 N If we apply Newton’ s Second Law : FR = ma T + Ff = (10)(2) T + (−150) = 20 T = 170 N Technology Training that Works .

P = 544 N Finding the magnitude of R : P can be determined using trignometric ratios : R tan 55° = T R tan 55° = 312 R = tan 55° × 312 R = 445.6 N Technology Training that Works . T = P sin θ 312 = P sin 35.Solution – 3 Finding the magnitude of P : T is the force that balances the horizontal component of P (Px) and therefore it has the same magnitude.

PE = mgh ( joules ) Kinetic Energy The energy an object has due to its motion. 1 2 KE = mv ( joules ) 2 Technology Training that Works .Mechanical Energy Gravitational Potential Energy The energy of an object due to its position above the surface of the Earth.

) Mechanical Energy. U = PE + KE Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed..Mechanical Energy (cont. U is the sum of Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy. but is merely changed from one form into another. Technology Training that Works . Conservation of Mechanical Energy The total amount of mechanical energy in a closed system remains constant..

mechanical energy is not conserved. mechanical energy is conserved.Conservation of Mechanical Energy In the absence of friction.U After Technology Training that Works . U Before = U After In the presence of friction. ΔU = U Before .

Problem – 5 During a flood. The magnitude of the velocity of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall. Technology Training that Works . a tree trunk of mass 100 kg falls down a waterfall. Calculate The potential energy of the tree trunk at the top of the waterfall The kinetic energy of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall. The waterfall is 5 m high. If air resistance is ignored.

Technology Training that Works . Calculate the velocity of the ball at point B.Problem – 6 A 2 kg metal ball is suspended from a rope. If it is released from point A and swings down to the point B (the bottom of its arc): Show that the velocity of the ball is independent of its mass.

Technology Training that Works .Solution – 5 Potential energy at the top: PE = mgh = 100 × 9.8 × 5 = 4900 J Kinetic energy at the bottom: KE of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall is equal to the potential energy it had at the top of the waterfall.

.) Velocity of the tree trunk: 1 2 KE = mv 2 1 4900 = 100v 2 2 98 = v 2 v = 9.90m.Solution – 5 (cont.s −1 Technology Training that Works ..

U After = U Before PE After + KE After = PE Before + KE Before mgh After + 1 m(v After ) 2 = mghBefore + 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 2 mgh After + 0 = 0 + 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 mgh After = 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 gh After = 1 (v Before ) 2 2 Technology Training that Works .Solution – 6 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy: As there is no friction. mechanical energy is conserved.

.8 m..s Technology Training that Works .5 = (v Before ) 2 2 −1 (v Before ) = 9.8 × 0.) gh After = (v Before ) 1 2 2 2 × 9.Solution – 6 Velocity of the ball: (cont.

QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT Technology Training that Works .

MOTION .II TWO-DIMENSIONAL Technology Training that Works .

Topics Projectile motion Circular motion Rotatory motion Periodic motion Universal gravitation Technology Training that Works .

Projectile Motion Technology Training that Works .

(a) Position vs. time graph. time graph (c) acceleration vs. time graph (b) velocity vs. Technology Training that Works .Projectile Motion Projectiles have zero velocity at their greatest height.

**Path of a Projectile motion
**

Horizontal and vertical motions are completely independent of each other.

The parabolic trajectory of a particle that leaves the origin with a velocity of v0. (changes with time) Vx is the x-component of the velocity, (remains constant in time) Vy is the y-component of the velocity (0 at the peak of the trajectory, but the acceleration is always equal to the free-fall acceleration and acts vertically downward.

Technology Training that Works

**Equations of Projectile Motion
**

At t = 0 : v = v 0 (initial velocity)

θ = θ 0 (projection angle)

v 0x is the initial velocity in the x - direction v 0y is the initial velocity in the y - direction.

In the x - direction, we have : v x = v 0x + a x t x = v 0x t + v x = v 0x

2 2

1 axt 2 2 + 2a x Δ x

where v 0x = v 0 cos θ 0 .

Technology Training that Works

Equations

(cont...)

**In the y - direction, we have : v y = v 0y + a y t y = v 0y t + vy
**

2

1 ay t 2 2 2 = v 0y + 2a y Δy

where v 0y = v 0 sin θ 0

The object’ s speed v is given as : v = vx + vy

2 2

The angle that the velocity vector makes with the x - axis is given by :

θ = tan (

-1

vy vx

)

Technology Training that Works

Technology Training that Works .Problem – 1 A ball is thrown upwards with an initial velocity of 10 m·s−1. Determine the maximum height reached above the thrower’s hand. Determine the time it takes the ball to reach its maximum height.

At the maximum height the velocity of the ball is 0 m·s−1 Therefore. vi = −10m·s−1 (it is negative because we chose upwards as positive) vf = 0m·s−1 g = +9.102m = height Technology Training that Works .8m·s−2.8m·s−2 We can use: v2 f = v2i + 2gΔx Substituting the values and solving for Δx we get: Δx = 5.Solution – 1 Given: Initial velocity vi = 10 m·s−1 Acceleration due to gravity g = 9.

8t t = 1.) The appropriate equation to determine the time vf = vi + gt Substitute the values and find time t: vf = vi + gt 0 = −10 + 9..02s Technology Training that Works .Solution – 1 (cont.8t 10 = 9..

Circular Motion Technology Training that Works .

Circular Motion Circular motion is rotation along a circle. Centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path A force directed perpendicular to the motion and towards the centre of curvature of the path. Technology Training that Works .

..Circular Motion (cont.) The centripetal force is given by: v2 Fc = mac = m R v Fc ω v = Rω v2 Fc = mac = m = mRω 2 R Technology Training that Works .

) The force directed outwards. The change in velocity is only in terms of change in direction.. Uniform circular motion The motion of a body traversing a circular path at constant speed..Circular Motion Centrifugal force (cont. This is called a fictitious force. Technology Training that Works . away from the centre of rotation due to the effect of inertia.

) Uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane • An object tied to a string is rotated in horizontal plane by virtue of the tension in the string. the string should be slanted such that the tension as applied to the object forms an angle with the horizontal plane.Circular Motion Example: (cont.. • Horizontal component of the tension provides the needed centripetal force • Vertical component balances the weight of the object. Ideally we cannot obtain uniform circular motion due to gravitational pull.. Technology Training that Works . In order to obtain.

Circular Motion

(cont...)

Note: String is not in the plane of circular motion.

Taking ratio we get,

Uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane

Technology Training that Works

Rotatory Motion

Technology Training that Works

Rotatory Motion

Central concepts of rotatory motion are:

Angular velocity Angular acceleration Angular momentum Torque

ω

Technology Training that Works

r is the length of the position vector A bird’s-eye view of a door hinged at O.m) F is magnitude of the force acting on an object.Torque Force causes acceleration. The magnitude of the torque exerted by a force is given by: τ = rF (N. Technology Training that Works . and torque causes angular acceleration. An object remains in a state of uniform rotational motion unless acted on by a net torque. with a force applied perpendicular to the door.

Condition of Equilibrium An object in mechanical equilibrium must satisfy the following two conditions: The net external force must be zero: ΣF = 0 • Translational equilibrium: The sum of all forces acting on the object must be zero The net external torque must be zero:ΣƮ = 0 • Rotational equilibrium: The sum of all torques on the object must be zero Technology Training that Works .

Angular Velocity The angular velocity is a pseudo-vector quantity that specifies the angular speed of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating. The direction of the angular velocity vector is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. Technology Training that Works .

The magnitude L of the angular momentum of a particle is Where I is moment of inertia. Angular momentum L of a particle with respect to some point of origin is: r is the particle's position from the origin p = mv is its linear momentum.Angular Momentum A vector quantity that is useful in describing the rotational state of a physical system. and × denotes the cross product. ω is the angular velocity Technology Training that Works .

Angular Momentum and Torque An object of mass m rotates in a circular path of radius r. Resulting net torque on the object increases its angular speed from the value ω0 to the value ω in a time interval t. L = Iω Where L is the angular momentum change in angular momentum ΔL Στ = = time interval Δt Technology Training that Works . acted on by a net force Fnet.

Example: Technology Training that Works .Principle of Moments For equilibrium: The sum of the clockwise moments about a point = sum of the anticlockwise moments about that point.

the object returns back to its former position. it again stays in equilibrium but in its new position. Unstable equilibrium: The body if disturbed does not tend to return to its former position. but tends to move further away from it. Neutral equilibrium: If displaced from its position.Stable. Technology Training that Works . Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium Stable equilibrium: If displaced.

Periodic Motion Technology Training that Works .

Periodic Motion Any motion that repeats itself in equal intervals of time along the same path is called Periodic motion. Periodic motion can always be expressed in terms of sine and cosine functions of time. Technology Training that Works . Simple harmonic motion: A period motion in which a body moves to and fro about a fixed mean position. Hence it is also knows as harmonic motion.

Acceleration and displacement must always be opposite to each other. Technology Training that Works . Acceleration must be directly proportional to the displacement from the mean position Acceleration must always be directed toward the mean position.Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) A body should obey the following conditions to execute SHM: Motion should be periodic The object must move to and fro about mean position.

( L The angular frequency is given by Substituting k we get: k ω = 2πf = m ω= g L L Therefore T = 2π g Technology Training that Works . the restoring force is Ft = mg sin θ mg )s Substituting θ= s/L.Simple Pendulum According to Hooke’s law: Ft = . we obtain: Ft = .ks Where Ft is the force acting in a direction tangent to the circular arc. From the figure.

Driven oscillations An oscillating system may be subject to some external force the oscillation is said to be driven.Oscillations Damped oscillations: Oscillations tend to decay (become ‘damped’) with time unless there is some net source of energy into the system. Technology Training that Works .

Universal Gravitation Technology Training that Works .

67 × 10 -11 N . kg -2 m1 m2 m1 is the mass of the first point mass. F is given by: F =G G is the gravitational constant ≈ 6. Magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between the two point masses.m 2 . r2 m 2 is the mass of the second point mass and r is the distance between the two point masses. Technology Training that Works . This force is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.Universal Gravitation Newton’s law of universal gravitation Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force directed along the line connecting the two.

The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the average distance from the planet to the Sun.Kepler’s Laws All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the focal points. T 2 = Ksr3 T is the period of the planet K s is the 2.97 × 10 −19 s 2 / m 3 r is the radius of the planet Technology Training that Works . A line drawn from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.

Escape Velocity Escape velocity The speed at which the kinetic energy of an object is equal to its gravitational potential energy. Ve = 2 Rg R is the radius of the planet g is the gravitational force Technology Training that Works . The escape velocity does not depend on the mass of the body.

usually around a more massive body.Orbital Velocity The speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system. In case of a satellite nearer to the earth. orbital velocity is : v o = gR Technology Training that Works .

Problem – 2 Calculate the force of attraction If a man of mass 80 kg stands 10 m from a woman with a mass of 65 kg. Technology Training that Works . until they are 1 m apart. If the man and woman move closer to each other.

Problem – 3 On Earth a man has a mass of 70 kg.8 m·s−2? Technology Training that Works . What would the man weigh on Zirgon if the gravitational acceleration on Earth is 9. The planet Zirgon is the same size as the Earth but has twice the mass of the Earth.

67 × 10 -11 )( = 3. then: m1 m 2 F=G 2 r = (6.Solution – 2 Attractive gravitational force between them: F=G m1 m 2 r2 -11 (80)(65) = (6.67 × 10 )( ) 2 (10) = 3.47 × 10 -7 N Technology Training that Works (80)(65) ) 2 (1) .47 × 10 -9 N If the man and woman move to 1 m apart.

8m .2 ) = 686N Technology Training that Works . rZ = rE the man’s weight on Zirgon (wZ)? On Earth: m1 m 2 w = mg = G r2 w E = mg E = G mE m rE 2 = (70 kg)(9. mZ = 2mE the radius of the planet Zirgon (rZ) in terms of the radius of the Earth (rE).Solution – 3 the mass of the man on Earth = m mass of the planet Zirgon (mZ) in terms of the mass of the Earth (mE).s -.

m rE 2 = 2(G) m E .Solution – 3 On Zirgon: (cont. in terms of the values for the Earth...) Substitute the values for mZ and rZ.m rE 2 = 2w E = 2(686N) = 1 372N Technology Training that Works . w Z = mg Z = G =G mZ m rZ 2 2m E .

QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT Technology Training that Works .

com E-mail: idc@idc-online.Presents a sample chapter from the Advanced Diploma Preparation Course Fundamentals of Engineering Chemistry Website: www.com .idc-online.

MATTER AND MATERIAL Technology Training that Works .

Topics Atomic Structure Atomic Structure Nuclear Model of the Atom Chemical Elements Properties of Elements Periodic Table • Trends within a Period • Trends within Groups Technology Training that Works .

Einstein's Equation Technology Training that Works .Topics (cont…) Radio-isotopes and Radioactivity Isotopes Radioactivity Radioactive Decay Half-Life Emission Spectra and Ionisation Energy Binding Energy & Mass Defect.

Atomic Structure Technology Training that Works .

Matter Everything that has mass and volume is called matter. regardless of state. All matter. undergoes physical and chemical changes. The classification of matter Technology Training that Works .

or rearranged in chemical reactions. The atoms of each element are unique and their properties define those of the element.Atom Atoms are the simplest building blocks of an element. separated. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. Atoms are combined. Technology Training that Works . but never changed into atoms of another element.

Atom

(cont…)

Subatomic particles

Protons Electrons and Neutrons

Technology Training that Works

Atomic Structure

Nuclear model of the atom

The atom is made up mostly of empty space. In a neutral atom, the number of protons = the number of electrons Protons determine the identity of an element. Number of protons is called the Atomic Number, Z. Each element has a unique Atomic Number.

Technology Training that Works

Atomic Structure

Mass number, A

(cont…)

The sum of the number of protons, Z, and the number of neutrons, N. Not all atoms of the same element have the same mass number. Although the Z is same, N (and thus A) are different. Electrons are either transferred or shared during a chemical reaction.

Technology Training that Works

Atomic Structure (cont…) Technology Training that Works .

number of protons. A.Nuclear Symbol Nuclide Oxygen-18 Arsenic-75 Phosphorus-31 P+ 8 33 15 n0 10 42 16 e8 33 15 Mass number 18 75 31 Find Z. neutrons and electrons for Bromine. 80 35 Br Technology Training that Works .

Electrons are arranged in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom. The arrangement of electrons in a lithium atom. Technology Training that Works . An orbital defines the space in which an electron is most likely to be found.Electron Configuration The energy of electrons in an atom is quantized.

Electron Configuration Aufbau diagrams are used to show the electron configuration of atoms. (cont…) 1s2 2s2 2p5 An Aufbau diagram . Valence electrons: electrons in the outer energy level of an atom. excluding the valence electrons. Core electrons: all the electrons in an atom.electron configuration of fluorine Technology Training that Works .

Na+. Anion: negatively charged ion.g. e. The charge on an ion depends on the number of electrons that have been lost or gained. e. F-.g. Na(1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1) → Na+(1s2 2s2 2p6) + e- Arrangement of electrons in a fluorine ion.Ions An ion is a charged atom. Technology Training that Works . Cation: positively charged ion.

Chemical Elements Technology Training that Works .

A substance can either be an element or a compound. Technology Training that Works .Elements An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substance by a chemical change. Currently 115 elements have been positively identified.

Periodic Table of Elements Technology Training that Works .

Periodic Table (cont…) Group 1A – alkali metals Very reactive Never found free in nature React readily with water Group 2A – alkaline earth metals Occur only in compounds React with oxygen in the general formula EO Group 3A – metalloids Includes Aluminum (the most abundant metal in the earth) Forms oxygen compounds with a X2O3 formula Technology Training that Works .

Technology Training that Works . Group 6A Includes oxygen. Oxygen compound formulas within this group are EO2 and EO3.Periodic Table (cont…) Group 4A – includes metals and nonmetals Go from nonmetals at the top of the column to metals at the bottom All oxygen form compounds with a XO2 formula Group 5A All elements form oxygen or sulfur compound with E2O3 or E2S3 formulas. one of the most abundant elements.

Periodic Table Group 7A (cont…) Elements combine violently with alkali metals to form salts Called halogens. which mean "salt forming" Are all highly reactive Group 8A Least reactive group All elements are gases Not very abundant on earth Given the name noble gas because they are not very reactive Technology Training that Works .

Technology Training that Works . The stronger the attraction. The strength of the attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons determines the atomic radius.Periodic Trends Atomic radius One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. the smaller the size of the atom.

Atomic radius Technology Training that Works .

X-(g) is the anion of the element in gaseous state. X(g) is any element in its gaseous state.is the free electron gained by the atom in this reaction. Technology Training that Works . e.Periodic Trends Electron affinity (cont…) The negative of the energy change when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion.

Technology Training that Works .Periodic Trends Electron affinity (cont…) Decrease within a group with increasing atomic number as the atoms increase in size. Increase across a period with increasing atomic number as the atoms decrease in size.

An electronegative atom pulls more of the electron density from the bond towards itself.Periodic Trends Electronegativity (cont…) The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond. The element that attracts the shared electrons more strongly is more electronegative. Technology Training that Works .

Technology Training that Works .Periodic Trends Electronegativity (cont…) Decreases within a group with increasing atomic number Increases across a period with increasing atomic number.

Periodic Trends Ionization energy (cont…) It is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the valence shell of the atom to form a cation. The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a cation. Technology Training that Works .

Periodic Trends Ionization energy (cont…) Decrease within a group with increasing atomic number as the size increases Increase across a period with increasing atomic number as the size decreases. Technology Training that Works .

Periodic Trends Ionic radii (cont…) It is the radius of a cation or an anion as measured in an ionic compound. Size of an ion is different from the size of the atom due to the addition or removal of an electron. → Ionic radius of Fe2+ and Fe3+ Technology Training that Works .

Periodic Trends (cont…) Technology Training that Works .

Electronegativity b. Smaller than c. a. a. Electron affinity c. An anion is generally _____ the original atom. Which of the following properties of an atom are not always positive. Larger than b. The same size as d. Atomic radius (cont…) B. None Technology Training that Works .Periodic Trends A. Ionization energy d.

Radio-Isotopes and Radioactivity Technology Training that Works .

Chemical properties of different isotopes of an element are the same. Not all atoms of an element will have the same atomic mass. but nuclear stability varies.Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain. Isotopes of Hydrogen Technology Training that Works .

.) 40 20 Which of the following are isotopes of A) B) C) 40 19 42 20 40 18 Ca K Ca Ar Technology Training that Works ..Isotopes (cont.

Marie and Pierre Curie discovered radioactive elements polonium (Po) and radium (Ra). Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by French scientist Henri Becquerel.Radioactivity The particles and energy that a nucleus releases are referred to as radiation and the atom is said to be radioactive. Technology Training that Works .

Radioactive Decay A process whereby an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting particles or electromagnetic waves. Isotopes are less stable since they contain a larger number of nucleons than ‘non-isotopes’ of the same element. Technology Training that Works . The radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes.

beta and gamma radiation.Radiation – Types Three main types of radiation: alpha. Types of radiation Technology Training that Works .

Technology Training that Works . Sometimes represented using the chemical symbol He2+ .Radiation – Types Alpha (α) particles (cont. This type of radiation has a positive charge.) Made up of two protons and two neutrons bound together.. Low penetration power..

To reduce this repulsion.Radiation – Types Alpha decay (cont..) Occurs when the nucleus has too many protons. Can be seen in the decay of americium (Am) to neptunium (Np). and this causes a lot of repulsion between like charges.. 241 95 Am→ 237 Np + α particle 93 Technology Training that Works . the nucleus emits an α particle.

Higher penetration power than alpha particles... A neutron may be converted into a proton.) High energy electrons released form the radioactive nuclei having too many neutrons.Radiation – Types Beta (β) particles (cont. an electron and another particle (a neutrino). Technology Training that Works .

) Occurs when the neutron to proton ratio is too great in the nucleus and causes instability.Radiation – Types Beta decay (cont. 3 1 3 H→ 2 He + β particle + v β decay in a hydrogen atom Technology Training that Works ...

) High frequency electromagnetic energy from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. Penetrate most common substances... Gamma radiation has no mass or charge. Technology Training that Works .Radiation – Types Gamma particles (γ) (cont. Thick lead and concrete can absorb this radiation. including metals.

. γ decay in a helium atom Technology Training that Works ..) Occurs if the nucleus is at too high an energy level.Radiation – Types Gamma decay (cont.

Radiation Uses of radiation Medical Biochemistry and genetics Food preservation Environment Archaeology and carbon dating Dangers of radiation Damage to body cells Genetic abnormalities Cancer Technology Training that Works .

Half-Life The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to decay into other atoms. Radioactive americium – 241 (half-life=432 years) is used in smoke detectors. Different radioactive materials have different half-lives ranging from seconds to thousands of years. Smoke detector Technology Training that Works .

.Half-Life (cont..) Half-life equation is used to calculate how the amount of radioactive material changes over time: At (t t1 2 ) = 0.life t − Time Technology Training that Works .5 A0 where A t − Amount left at time t A 0 − Original amount at time zero t1 2 − Half .

How many molecules of 222Rn will remain after 2.8 days.Problem – 1 A sample of gas contains 1500 molecules of radon-222. Technology Training that Works .0 days? The half-life of 222Rn is 3.

5 1 2 A0 A t − Amount left at time t = A 2 A 0 − Original amount at time zero = 1500 t1 2 − Half .0 days (t t ) A t = A 0 × 0.5(2 days 3.5 1 2 A 2 = 1500 × 0.8 days t − Time = 2.8 days ) Amount left after 2 days.Solution – 1 At (t t ) = 0. A 2 = 1041 molecules Technology Training that Works .life = 3.

Ionization Radiation is absorbed by the material it penetrates by a process known as ionization. Technology Training that Works .Atomic Emission An emission spectrum is produced by an electronic transition from a high energy level En to a lower energy level Em. The amount of ionization that occurs is dependent upon • The radiation energy • The type of material for which the radiation is interacting.

0005485 97 amu) matom = mass of nuclide A X (amu) Z Z = atomic number (number of protons) A = mass number (number of nucleons) Technology Training that Works .007277 amu) mn = mass of a neutron (1.008665 amu) me = mass of an electron (0. Δm = [Z(mp + me ) + (A .Mass Defect The difference between the mass of the atom and sum of the masses of its constituent parts.Z )mn ] − matom where : Δm = mass defect (amu) mp = mass of a proton (1.

Binding Energy The amount of energy that must be supplied to a nucleus to completely separate its nuclear particles. Binding energy is the energy equivalent of the mass defect. Einstein's equation relating mass and energy is E = mc 2 where c – velocity of light = 2.998 x 108 m/sec Technology Training that Works .

⎛ 931.) The energy equivalent of 1 amu can be determined by Einstein's equation Binding energy ..5 MeV per amu.multiply the mass defect by the factor of 931.Binding Energy (cont.5 MeV ⎞ B.E. = Δm⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 amu ⎠ Technology Training that Works ..

043924 amu.Problem – 2 Calculate the mass defect and binding energy for uranium-235. One uranium-235 atom has a mass of 235. Technology Training that Works .

91517 amu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 amu ⎠ = 1784 MeV Technology Training that Works .E.00866 5 amu] . = Δm⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 amu ⎠ ⎛ 931.043924 amu Δm = 1.5 MeV ⎞ B.0078 26 amu) + (235 .91517 amu Step 2 : Use the mass defect to calculate binding energy ⎛ 931.5 MeV ⎞ = 1.92)1.Solution – 2 Step 1: Calculate the mass defect Δm = [Z(mp + me ) + (A .235.Z )mn ] − matom Δm = [92(1.

QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT Technology Training that Works .

com E-mail: idc@idc-online.com .idc-online.Presents a sample chapter from the Advanced Diploma Preparation Course Fundamentals of Engineering Maths Website: www.

ALGEBRA Technology Training that Works .

Topics Systems of Linear Equations Long division Partial fraction decomposition Solve equations using Echelon form Model problems to linear equations Sequences and Series The binomial theorem Mathematical induction Technology Training that Works .

Systems of Linear Equations Technology Training that Works .

d(x) divides evenly into f(x). In special case where r(x)=0.Long Division Division algorithm If f(x) and d(x) ≠ 0 are polynomials. then there exist unique polynomials q(x) and r(x). d ( x) d ( x) The degree of r(x) is less than the degree of d(x). and the degree of d(x) is less than or equal to degree of f(x). so that f ( x) r ( x) = q( x) + . Technology Training that Works .

and write the answer 3x on the top line: 3x x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − 3 Technology Training that Works .Example – 1 Solve 3x 3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − 3 x 2 + 3x + 3 Set up the long division x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − 3 First divide the leading term 3x3 of the numerator polynomial by the leading term x2 of the divisor.

Example – 1

(cont…)

Now multiply this term 3x by the divisor x2+3x+3, and write the answer

3x x + 3x + 3 = 3x + 9 x + 9 x

2 3 2

(

)

Under the numerator polynomial, lining up terms of equal degree and subtract the last line from the line above it.

**3x x2 + 3x + 3 3x3 − 2x2 + 4x − 3 3 2 3x + 9x + 9x
**

−11x2 − 5x − 3

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Example – 1

(cont…)

Repeat the procedure: Divide the leading term -11x2 of the polynomial on the last line by the leading term x2 of the divisor to obtain -11, and add this term to the 3x on the top line:

**3x −11 x2 + 3x + 3 3x3 − 2x2 + 4x − 3
**

3x3 + 9x2 + 9x −11x2 − 5x − 3

Then multiply ‘back’: -11(x2+3x+3)= -11x2-33x-33 and write the answer under the last line polynomial, lining up terms of equal degree.

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Example – 1

(cont…)

3x − 11 x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − 3

3x 3 + 9 x 2 + 9 x − 11x 2 − 5 x − 3 − 11x 2 − 33x − 33

28 x + 30

The remainder is the last line: 28x+30, and the quotient is the expression on the very top: 3x-11. Consequently,

3x 3 − 2 x 2 + 4 x − 3 28 x + 30 = (3 x − 11) + 2 2 x + 3x + 3 x + 3x + 3

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Technology Training that Works .Partial Fractions A proper rational expression is decomposed into a sum of two or more rational expressions. e.g : P( x) cx + d A B = = + Q( x) ( x − a )( x − b) ( x − a ) ( x − b) Degree of numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. Used in integrating rational fractions in calculus and finding the inverse Laplace transform.

Partial Fractions Factor in denominator (cont…) Term in partial fraction decomposition ax + b A ax + b k (ax + b ) Ak A1 A2 + + ⋅⋅⋅ + 2 ax + b (ax + b ) (ax + b )k ax 2 + bx + c Ax + B ax 2 + bx + c Ak x + Bk A1 x + B1 A2 x + B2 + + ⋅⋅⋅ + ax 2 + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c 2 ax 2 + bx + c (ax 2 + bx + c ) k ( ) ( ) k Technology Training that Works .

Example – 2 Partial fraction decomposition of Factor the denominator 8 x − 42 ( x 2 + 3 x − 18) 8 x − 42 8 x − 42 = 2 ( x + 3 x − 18) ( x + 6)( x − 3) Comparing to the given table. the partial fraction decomposition must look like. 8 x − 42 A B = + 2 ( x + 3x − 18) ( x + 6) ( x − 3) Technology Training that Works .

(x+6)(x-3) (8 x − 42)( x + 6)( x − 3) = A( x + 6)( x − 3) + B( x + 6)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 3 x − 18) ( x + 6) ( x − 3) ⇒ 8 x − 42 = A( x − 3) + B( x + 6) = ( A + B) x + (−3 A + 6 B ) Technology Training that Works .Example – 2 (cont…) Multiply both sides by common denominator.

B = -2.Example – 2 (cont…) By comparing the coefficients of like terms on both sides. we get. A = 10. Substituting the values of A and B. 8 x − 42 10 2 = − ( x 2 + 3 x − 18) ( x + 6) ( x − 3) Technology Training that Works . we get A+ B = 8 3 A − 6 B = 42 On solving the equations.

Row operations: Interchange two rows. Multiply one row by a nonzero number.Row-Echelon Form To solve a system of linear equations. Technology Training that Works . Reduce the corresponding augmented matrix to rowechelon form using the Elementary Row Operations. Write the system as an augmented matrix. Add a multiple of one row to a different row.

In each row. the first non-zero entry form the left is a 1.Row-Echelon Form (cont…) A matrix is said to be in row-echelon form if All rows consisting entirely of zeros are at the bottom. ⎡1 0 0 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ e. The leading 1 in each row is to the right of all leading 1's in the rows above it. called the leading 1.. : A = ⎢0 1 0 3 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 − 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Technology Training that Works .g .

Convert the matrix back into a system of linear equations to obtain solutions. Technology Training that Works .Row-Echelon Form (cont…) Gaussian elimination An algorithm that reduces matrices to row-echelon form.

Problem – 1 Use gaussian elimination to solve the linear system x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 9 2 x1 − x2 + x3 = 8 3 x1 − x3 = 3 Technology Training that Works .

Solution – 1 Augmented matrix is ⎡1 2 3 9 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 1 1 8⎥ ⎢ ⎢3 0 − 1 3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Gaussian Elimination algorithm proceeds as follows ⎡1 2 3 9⎤ ( Row1) ⎡1 2 3 9 ⎤ ( Row1) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 1 1 8⎥ ( Row2) → ⎢0 − 5 − 5 − 10 ⎥ ( Row2 − 2 ⋅ Row1) ⎢ ⎢3 0 − 1 3⎥ ( Row3) ⎢0 − 6 − 10 − 24⎥ ( Row3 − 3 ⋅ Row1) ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 2 3 9 ⎤ ⎡1 2 ( Row1) 3 9 ⎤ ( Row1) ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ( Row2) 1 2 ⎥ (−1 / 5 ⋅ Row2) ⇒ ⎢0 1 1 2 ⎥ ⇒ ⎢0 1 ⎢0 0 − 4 − 12⎥ ( Row3 + 6 ⋅ Row2) ⎢0 − 6 − 10 − 24⎥ ( Row3) ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ Technology Training that Works .

x2 = −1. x1 = 2. gives the solution of system. x3 = 3 Technology Training that Works .Solution – 1 Row-echelon form is (cont…) ⎡1 2 3 9⎤ ( Row1) ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 1 2⎥ ( Row2) ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 3⎥ (−1 / 4 ⋅ Row3) ⎣ ⎦ The corresponding system is x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 9 x2 + x3 = 2 x3 = 3 This can be easily solved from the bottom up.

Model Problems Steps Read the problem carefully. Technology Training that Works . Replace any unknowns with a variable. Pick out key words and phrases and determine their equivalent mathematical meaning. and Put it all together in an algebraic expression.

children's cost $4.Problem – 2 1000 tickets were sold.50. How many tickets of each kind were sold? Technology Training that Works . and a total of $7300 was collected. Adult tickets cost $8.50.

we get x = 700.Solution – 2 Let x be the number of adult tickets. Now there are two unknowns. Technology Training that Works . y = 300. Let y be the number of children's tickets. 1) Total number of tickets: x + y = 1000 2) Total money collected: 8.5y = 7300 Solving these simultaneous equations.5x + 4. therefore there must be two equations.

Sequences and Series Technology Training that Works .

: (x+y).Binomial Theorem A binomial is an algebraic expression containing 2 terms.. Binomial theorem is used to expand binomials to any given power without direct multiplication. ( P / x2) –(Q / x4) etc. Technology Training that Works .g. E.

Binomial Theorem Theorem: n n (cont…) n! ( a + b) = ∑ a n−k b k k = 0 ( n − k )! k! where n is a positive whole number Properties of expansion There are n + 1 terms. nCk . Progressing from the first term to the last. The first term is an and the final term is bn. the exponent of ‘a’ decreases by 1 from term to term while the exponent of ‘b’ increases by 1. Technology Training that Works . Binomial coefficients are none other than the combinatorial numbers.

Example – 3 Using the binomial theorem. and n = 4. Substituting in the binomial formula. we get : (2x + 3)4 4! =∑ ( 2 x ) 4 − k 3k k = 0 ( 4 − k )! k! 4! 4! 4! = (2 x) 4 + (2 x) 3 31 + ( 2 x ) 2 32 + (2 x)1 33 + 34 3!1! 2!2! 1!3! = 16 x 4 + 96 x 3 + 216 x 2 + 216 x1 + 81 Technology Training that Works 4 . we get a = 2x. b = 3. expand (2x+3)4 Solution: In using the binomial formula.

Valid for any real number n if |x| < 1. Technology Training that Works . where the binomial theorem deals with a finite expansion. if a = 1 and b = x. n(n − 1) 2 n(n − 1)(n − 2) 3 (1 + x) = 1 + nx + x + x + ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 2! 3! n This is an infinite series. we can obtain the binomial series.Binomial Theorem Binomial series (cont…) From the binomial formula.

Problem – 3 Using the binomial series. find the first four terms of the expansion 4 + x 2 Technology Training that Works .

if we replace the x in the Binomial series formula x2 1 with and let n = . we get : 4 2 x2 1 )2 2( 1 + 4 Technology Training that Works .Solution – 3 Change the expansion to the form of ( 1 + x)n ⎡ x2 ⎤ )⎥ 4 + x = ( 4 + x ) = ⎢4( 1 + 4 ⎦ ⎣ 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 x2 2 x2 2 ) = 2( 1 + ) = 4 (1 + 4 4 Hence.

Solution – 3 x2 2 ) ⇒ 2( 1 + 4 1 (cont…) ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ 2 − 1⎟ ⎛ x 2 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ 2 − 1⎟⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ ⎛ x 2 ⎞3 ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎝ ⎠⎝ = 2 ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ 4⎟ ⎜ 4⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2! 3! ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ x2 x4 x6 ∴ − .... 4 + x2 = 2 + − + 4 64 512 Technology Training that Works ......

Principle of mathematical induction When a statement is true for the natural number n = k. or the induction hypothesis. The statement is true for n = 1.Mathematical Induction It is a method of proving statements defined for the class of positive integers. "The statement is true for n = k" is called the induction assumption. n = k + 1. Technology Training that Works . then the statement is true for every natural number n. then it is also true for its successor.

Problem – 4 Prove that... 2 Technology Training that Works ... the sum of the first n natural numbers is given by n(n + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + . + n = ..

.. k(k + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ... + (k + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅(2) 2 To do that..... (k + 1)(k + 2) i.. add the next term (k + 1) to both sides of the induction assumption .. n = k + 1. that is k(k + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + .e 1+ 2 + 3 + .... + k = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅(1) 2 We must prove that the formula is true for its successor. + k + (k + 1) = + (k + 1) 2 Technology Training that Works ..Solution – 4 Proof : Step : 1 Induction assumption Assume that the formula is true for n = k..

+ n = 2 1 ⇒ 1 = ⋅1 ⋅ 2 2 The formula therefore is true for n = 1. Technology Training that Works . 2 Step : 2 Show that formula is true for n = 1.... Hence fulfilled both the principle of mathematic al induction..Solution – 4 = (cont…) k(k + 1) + 2(k + 1) 2 (k + 1)(k + 2) = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅Hence equation ( 2) is proved. We have : n(n + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ..

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TRIGONOMETRY Technology Training that Works .

Topics Triangles Definitions of trigonometric functions Sine and cosine rule Angle of elevation and depression Analytical trigonometry Trigonometric identities Solving trigonometric equations R sin (θ ± α) form Inverse trigonometric functions Technology Training that Works .

Triangles Technology Training that Works .

Trigonometric Functions There are three basic trigonometric functions: sine cosine tangent opposite sin θ = hypotenuse adjacent cos θ = hypotenuse opposite tan θ = adjacent Technology Training that Works .

..Trigonometric Functions (cont.) Values of trigonometric functions for some special angles Technology Training that Works .

Problem – 1 In the triangle given below. Adjacent side Opposite side Hypotenuse Technology Training that Works . side ‘b’ is ------------.

Bond has a garage at his house.how high must he build the wall BD. and he decides that he wants to add a corrugated iron roof to the side of the garage. The garage is 4m high. If he wants the roof to be at an angle of 5°.Problem – 2 Mr. and his sheet for the roof is 5m long. which is holding up the roof? Technology Training that Works .

AC BC = 5m. height of the wall BD = 5m . As we have one side and an angle of this triangle.4358m = 4.0871 = 0. we can calculate AC Height of the wall = height of the garage . Technology Training that Works .0.56m.4358m Therefore.Solution – 2 Observations: Triangle ABC is a right-angled triangle. ˆ AB C = 5 ° ˆ AC = BC × sin(ABC) = 5 × sin 5° = 5 × 0.

Elevation and Depression Angle of elevation Angle of depression θe θd Technology Training that Works .

They can be applied to any triangle. Sine rule: ˆ ˆ ˆ sinA sinB sin C = = c a b where ˆ a is the side opposite A. ˆ b is the side opposite B and ˆ c is the side opposite C Technology Training that Works .Sine and Cosine Rule These rules make working with triangle easier.

Sine and Cosine Rule (cont..) Similarly the circumference of the circle drawn through the three points of the triangle can be calculated using: a b c = = = 2R sinA sinB sin C where R is the radius of the circumcircle Circumcircle Technology Training that Works ..

.. 2ab cos C where ˆ a is the side opposite A. (cont.) Technology Training that Works . 2bc cosA ˆ b 2 = c 2 + a 2 .Sine and Cosine Rule Cosine rule: ˆ a 2 = b 2 + c 2 . 2ca cos B ˆ c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . ˆ b is the side opposite B and ˆ c is the side opposite C.

Analytical Trigonometry Technology Training that Works .

Trigonometric Identities Trigonometric functions apply only to rightangled triangles. For example: opposite adjacent opposite hypotenuse × tan θ = hypotenuse adjacent 1 = sin θ × cos θ sin θ = cos θ tanθ = Technology Training that Works . Trigonometric functions are related to each other.

So.Trigonometric Identities Similarly: Consider ΔABC (cont…) sin θ = AC BC and AB BC cos θ = We know that from the Theorem of Pythagoras : AB2 + AC2 = BC2 . ⎛ AC ⎞ ⎛ Ab ⎞ sin θ + cos θ = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ BC ⎠ ⎝ BC ⎠ ⎝ AC2 + AB2 = BC2 BC2 = (from Pythagoras) BC2 =1 2 2 2 2 ∴sin 2θ + cos 2 θ = 1 Technology Training that Works .

we get 1 + cot 2θ = csc 2 θ Technology Training that Works . we get tan 2 θ + 1 = sec 2 θ Diving sin 2θ + cos 2 θ = 1 throughout by cos 2θ .Trigonometric Identities 1 csc θ = sin θ 1 sec θ = cos θ (cont…) 1 cot θ = tan θ Diving sin 2θ + cos 2 θ = 1 throughout by cos 2θ .

Trigonometric Identities (cont…) Technology Training that Works .

Reduction Formulae Technology Training that Works .

Inverse trigonometric functions: arcsin or sin-1 arccos or cos-1 arctan or tan-1 Technology Training that Works . To solve any trigonometric equation. Final solution can be found either graphically or using inverse trigonometric functions. the equation itself and the range are required.Solving Trigonometric Equations In most cases. trigonometric identities will be used to simplify equations.

Technology Training that Works . tan θ + 0.5 tan θ = 1 ∴θ = arctan 1 = 45°.5 = 1.Solving Equations (cont…) Solve for the angle using the inverse function.

583 Technology Training that Works .3 Write down the general solution if . 3 cos(θ .1 = ..2.Problem .15°) ..

Problem – 4 Solve the following trinomial: tan (2x + 1) + 3 tan (2x + 1) + 2 = 0 2 Technology Training that Works .

15°) = -0.15° = 180° + 58.58.2° + 360° .5276.15° = 180° .1.n.1 = -2.15°) .8° + 360° . n ∈ Z θ = 253.583 cos(θ ..n.2° + 360° n. n ∈ Z III) θ .583 3 cos(θ .. n ∈ Z θ = 136.2°] II) θ .15°) = .Solution – 3 3 cos(θ . [58. n ∈ Z Technology Training that Works .2° + 360° n.

Solution – 4 We notice that tan(2x + 1) occurs twice in the equation.1 or tan (2x + 1) = -2 Technology Training that Works .1 OR y=-2 Now just substitute back for the temporary variable : tan (2x + 1) = . hence let us assume y = tan(2x + 1) ∴ we can rewrite the equation as y 2 + 3y + 2 = 0 We can immediately write down the factorised form and the solutions : (y + 1)(y + 2) = 0 ⇒ y = .

Compound Angle Identities sin( α + β ) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α sin( α − β ) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α cos( α + β ) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β cos( α − β ) = cos α cos β + sin β sin α cos 2α = 2 cos 2 α − 1 or 1 − 2 sin 2 α Technology Training that Works .

a sin θ ± b cos θ can be expressed in the form R sin(θ ± α).R sin (θ ± α) Form It is more convenient to write expressions involving the sum of sine and cosine terms. b. using one single term. a. R and α are positive constants Technology Training that Works .

R sin (θ ± α) Form Let a sin θ + b cos θ ≡ R sin(θ + α ) Using the compound angle formula : (cont…) sin (A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B We can expand R sin(θ + α )as follows : R sin(θ + α ) ≡ R( sin θ cos α+ cos θ sin α) ≡ R sin θ cos α + R cos θ sin α ⇒ a sin θ +b cos θ ≡ R sin θ cos α +R cos θ sin α Equating the coefficients of sin θ and cos θ in this identity.......(1) b = R sinα ...... we have : a = R cos α ...(2) Technology Training that Works ......

(2) ÷ Eq. a sin θ − b cos θ = R sin (θ − α ) Technology Training that Works .(1) : b = tan α a (cont…) b ⇒ α = tan −1 ( ) a where α is a positive acute angle and a and b are positive. Now solving for R.R sin (θ ± α) Form Eq. (2)]2 : a 2 + b 2 = R 2 cos 2α + R 2sin 2α = R 2 (cos 2α + sin 2α ) = R 2 ( 1) So. (1)]2 + [Eq. R = a 2 + b 2 ∴ a sin θ + b cos α = R sin(θ + α ) Similary. we have : [Eq.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions Graph of cosx: Graph of y = cosx cosx for x = 0 to x = π Technology Training that Works .

Graph of y = arc cosx The range (of y-values for the graph) for arccos x is 0 ≤ arccos x ≤ π Technology Training that Works .Inverse Trigonometric Functions (cont…) The graph of the inverse of ‘cosx’ is found by reflecting the graph of ‘cosx’ through the line y = x.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions Inverse sine function: (cont…) Graph of y = sinx Graph of y = arcsin x The range (of y-values for the graph) for arcsin x is -π/2 ≤ arcsin x ≤ π/2 Technology Training that Works .

Inverse Trigonometric Functions Inverse tangent function: (cont…) Graph of y = tanx Graph of y = arctanx The range (of y-values for the graph) for arctan x is -π/2 ≤ arctan x ≤ π/2 Technology Training that Works .

arcsec x ≠ π/2 Technology Training that Works .Inverse Trigonometric Functions Inverse secant function: (cont…) Graph of y = secx Graph of y = arcsecx The range of arcsec x is 0 < arcsec x < π.

arccsc x ≠ 0 Technology Training that Works .Inverse Trigonometric Functions Inverse cosecant function: (cont…) Graph of y = cscx Graph of y = arccscx The range of arccsc x is -π/2 ≤ arccsc x ≤ π/2.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions Inverse cotangent function: (cont…) Graph of y = cotx Graph of y = arccotx The range of arccot x is −π/2 < arccot x ≤ π/2 Technology Training that Works .

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