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# Gain

from the

## Fundamentals oF engineering maths, Physics and chemistry

12 Modules over 3 MonThs
CommenCement Date: 5 July 2010

## what you will gain:

Key know-how in maths, physics and chemistry knowledge that is applicable to engineering The ability to confidently work with engineering chemistry, maths and physic concepts A warm up to the perhaps forgotten world of study

Course designer

dr steve Mackay
dean of engineering

steve has worked in engineering throughout Australia, europe, Africa and north America for the past 30 years. he has presented numerous electrical engineering short courses worldwide to over 18,000 engineers and technicians, and has a particular interest in practical and leading edge aspects of marketing, business and engineering practice. he is a fellow of engineers Australia.

## what you will learn:

Module 1 - MATheMATICs
Algebra Trigonometry Permutations and Combinations Probability Functions and Graphs differential and Integral Calculus Complex numbers Financial Math

Module 2: PhYsICs
Motion 1d and 2d heating and Cooling light and optics elasticity electricity sound nuclear Physics

Module 3 - CheMIsTrY
Matter and Material structure and Bonding Analytical Chemistry Gases and solutions equilibrium Acids and Bases Industrial Chemistry

## enrol now: Fax the enrolment form to us,

or email enquiries@eit.edu.au
eDuCation Partner

Presents

Physics

MOTION - I
ONE-DIMENSIONAL

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Topics
Equations of motion Newtons laws of motion Potential energy and kinetic energy Conservation of mechanical energy

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Introduction
Motion Change in location of an object as a result of applied force. Motion in single dimension can be described with the following quantities:
Position or displacement Speed or velocity Acceleration Time

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Introduction

(cont...)

Frame of reference

Introduction

(cont...)

## x = x final xinitial (m)

Displacement does not depend on the path travelled.

## Velocity rate of change of position

x 1 (m.s ) v= t
Instantaneous velocity and average velocity
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Introduction

(cont...)

v 2 a= (m.s ) t

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Equations of Motion

v final = vinitial + at
x = (vinitial + v final ) 2 t

1 2 x = vinitial t + at 2
v
2 final

=v

initial

+ 2ax
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## Newtons Laws of Motion

First law
An object will remain in a state of rest or continue travelling at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced (net) force.

Second law
Force equals mass times acceleration (F=ma).

Third law
For every action there is equal and opposite reaction.

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Problem 1
What happens while the car turns?

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Problem 2
Two crates, 10 kg and 15 kg respectively, are connected with a thick rope according to the diagram. A force of 500 N is applied. The boxes move with an acceleration of 2 ms2. One-third of the total frictional force is acting on the 10 kg block and two-thirds on the 15 kg block. Calculate:
The magnitude and direction of the frictional force present. The magnitude of the tension in the rope at T.
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Problem 3
A force T = 312 N is required to keep a body at rest on a frictionless inclined plane which makes an angle of 35 with the horizontal. The forces acting on the body are as shown. Calculate the magnitudes of forces P and R.

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Problem 4
Which of the following pairs of forces correctly illustrates Newtons Third Law?

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Solution 2

Assume the direction of motion to be positive. FR = ma Fapplied + Ff = ma 500 + Ff = (10 + 15) (2) Ff = 50 500 Ff = 450 N The frictional force is 450 N opposite to the direction of motion.
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Solution 2

(cont...)

Calculating tension on the rope : The frictional force on the 10 kg block is one third of the total, therefore : 1 Ff = 450 3 Ff = 150 N If we apply Newton s Second Law : FR = ma T + Ff = (10)(2) T + (150) = 20 T = 170 N

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Solution 3
Finding the magnitude of P : T is the force that balances the horizontal component of P (Px) and therefore it has the same magnitude. T = P sin 312 = P sin 35. P = 544 N Finding the magnitude of R : P can be determined using trignometric ratios : R tan 55 = T R tan 55 = 312 R = tan 55 312 R = 445.6 N
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Mechanical Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
The energy of an object due to its position above the surface of the Earth.

PE = mgh ( joules )
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object has due to its motion.

1 2 KE = mv ( joules ) 2
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Mechanical Energy

(cont...)

## Mechanical Energy, U is the sum of Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy.

U = PE + KE
Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but is merely changed from one form into another.

## Conservation of Mechanical Energy

The total amount of mechanical energy in a closed system remains constant.
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## Conservation of Mechanical Energy

In the absence of friction, mechanical energy is conserved.

U Before = U After
In the presence of friction, mechanical energy is not conserved.

U = U Before - U After

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Problem 5
During a flood, a tree trunk of mass 100 kg falls down a waterfall. The waterfall is 5 m high. If air resistance is ignored. Calculate
The potential energy of the tree trunk at the top of the waterfall The kinetic energy of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall. The magnitude of the velocity of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall.

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Problem 6
A 2 kg metal ball is suspended from a rope. If it is released from point A and swings down to the point B (the bottom of its arc):
Show that the velocity of the ball is independent of its mass. Calculate the velocity of the ball at point B.

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Solution 5
Potential energy at the top:
PE = mgh = 100 9.8 5 = 4900 J

## Kinetic energy at the bottom:

KE of the tree trunk at the bottom of the waterfall is equal to the potential energy it had at the top of the waterfall.

Solution 5

(cont...)

1

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Solution 6
Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
As there is no friction, mechanical energy is conserved.

U After = U Before PE After + KE After = PE Before + KE Before mgh After + 1 m(v After ) 2 = mghBefore + 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 2 mgh After + 0 = 0 + 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 mgh After = 1 m(v Before ) 2 2 gh After = 1 (v Before ) 2 2
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Solution 6
Velocity of the ball:

(cont...)

gh After = (v Before )
1 2

2

2 1

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QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT

MOTION - II
TWO-DIMENSIONAL

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Topics
Projectile motion Circular motion Rotatory motion Periodic motion Universal gravitation

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Projectile Motion

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Projectile Motion
Projectiles have zero velocity at their greatest height.

## Path of a Projectile motion

Horizontal and vertical motions are completely independent of each other.

The parabolic trajectory of a particle that leaves the origin with a velocity of v0. (changes with time) Vx is the x-component of the velocity, (remains constant in time) Vy is the y-component of the velocity (0 at the peak of the trajectory, but the acceleration is always equal to the free-fall acceleration and acts vertically downward.

## Equations of Projectile Motion

At t = 0 : v = v 0 (initial velocity)

= 0 (projection angle)
v 0x is the initial velocity in the x - direction v 0y is the initial velocity in the y - direction.
In the x - direction, we have : v x = v 0x + a x t x = v 0x t + v x = v 0x
2 2

1 axt 2 2 + 2a x x

where v 0x = v 0 cos 0 .
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Equations

(cont...)

## In the y - direction, we have : v y = v 0y + a y t y = v 0y t + vy

2

1 ay t 2 2 2 = v 0y + 2a y y

where v 0y = v 0 sin 0
The object s speed v is given as : v = vx + vy
2 2

The angle that the velocity vector makes with the x - axis is given by :

= tan (
-1

vy vx

)
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Problem 1
A ball is thrown upwards with an initial velocity of 10 ms1.
Determine the maximum height reached above the throwers hand. Determine the time it takes the ball to reach its maximum height.

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Solution 1
Given: Initial velocity vi = 10 ms1 Acceleration due to gravity g = 9.8ms2. At the maximum height the velocity of the ball is 0 ms1 Therefore, vi = 10ms1 (it is negative because we chose upwards as positive) vf = 0ms1 g = +9.8ms2 We can use: v2 f = v2i + 2gx Substituting the values and solving for x we get: x = 5.102m = height Technology Training that Works

Solution 1

(cont...)

The appropriate equation to determine the time vf = vi + gt Substitute the values and find time t: vf = vi + gt 0 = 10 + 9.8t 10 = 9.8t t = 1.02s

Circular Motion

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Circular Motion
Circular motion is rotation along a circle. Centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path
A force directed perpendicular to the motion and towards the centre of curvature of the path.

Circular Motion

(cont...)

## The centripetal force is given by:

v2 Fc = mac = m R

v Fc

v = R
v2 Fc = mac = m = mR 2 R

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Circular Motion
Centrifugal force

(cont...)

The force directed outwards, away from the centre of rotation due to the effect of inertia. This is called a fictitious force.

## Uniform circular motion

The motion of a body traversing a circular path at constant speed. The change in velocity is only in terms of change in direction.

Circular Motion
Example:

(cont...)

## Uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane

An object tied to a string is rotated in horizontal plane by virtue of the tension in the string.

Ideally we cannot obtain uniform circular motion due to gravitational pull. In order to obtain, the string should be slanted such that the tension as applied to the object forms an angle with the horizontal plane.
Horizontal component of the tension provides the needed centripetal force Vertical component balances the weight of the object.

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Circular Motion

(cont...)
Note: String is not in the plane of circular motion.

Rotatory Motion

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Rotatory Motion
Central concepts of rotatory motion are:
Angular velocity Angular acceleration Angular momentum Torque

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Torque
Force causes acceleration, and torque causes angular acceleration. The magnitude of the torque exerted by a force is given by:

= rF (N.m)
F is magnitude of the force acting on an object, r is the length of the position vector
A birds-eye view of a door hinged at O, with a force applied perpendicular to the door.

An object remains in a state of uniform rotational motion unless acted on by a net torque.
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Condition of Equilibrium
An object in mechanical equilibrium must satisfy the following two conditions:
The net external force must be zero: F = 0
Translational equilibrium: The sum of all forces acting on the object must be zero

## The net external torque must be zero: = 0

Rotational equilibrium: The sum of all torques on the object must be zero

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Angular Velocity
The angular velocity is a pseudo-vector quantity that specifies the angular speed of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating. The direction of the angular velocity vector is perpendicular to the plane of rotation.

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Angular Momentum
A vector quantity that is useful in describing the rotational state of a physical system. Angular momentum L of a particle with respect to some point of origin is:

r is the particle's position from the origin p = mv is its linear momentum, and denotes the cross product.

## The magnitude L of the angular momentum of a particle is

Where I is moment of inertia, is the angular velocity

## Angular Momentum and Torque

An object of mass m rotates in a circular path of radius r, acted on by a net force Fnet. Resulting net torque on the object increases its angular speed from the value 0 to the value in a time interval t.

## change in angular momentum L = = time interval t

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Principle of Moments
For equilibrium:
The sum of the clockwise moments about a point = sum of the anticlockwise moments about that point. Example:

## Stable, Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium

Stable equilibrium:
If displaced, the object returns back to its former position.

Unstable equilibrium:
The body if disturbed does not tend to return to its former position, but tends to move further away from it.

Neutral equilibrium:
If displaced from its position, it again stays in equilibrium but in its new position.

Periodic Motion

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Periodic Motion
Any motion that repeats itself in equal intervals of time along the same path is called Periodic motion. Periodic motion can always be expressed in terms of sine and cosine functions of time. Hence it is also knows as harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion:
A period motion in which a body moves to and fro about a fixed mean position.

## Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

A body should obey the following conditions to execute SHM:
Motion should be periodic The object must move to and fro about mean position. Acceleration must be directly proportional to the displacement from the mean position Acceleration must always be directed toward the mean position. Acceleration and displacement must always be opposite to each other.

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Simple Pendulum
According to Hookes law: Ft = - ks
Where Ft is the force acting in a direction tangent to the circular arc.

## mg )s Substituting = s/L, we obtain: Ft = - ( L

The angular frequency is given by Substituting k we get:

k = 2f = m

g L

L Therefore T = 2 g
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Oscillations
Damped oscillations:
Oscillations tend to decay (become damped) with time unless there is some net source of energy into the system.

Driven oscillations
An oscillating system may be subject to some external force the oscillation is said to be driven.

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Universal Gravitation

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Universal Gravitation
Newtons law of universal gravitation
Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force directed along the line connecting the two. This force is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between the two point masses, F is given by:
F =G
G is the gravitational constant 6.67 10 -11 N .m 2 . kg -2 m1 m2 m1 is the mass of the first point mass,

r2

m 2 is the mass of the second point mass and r is the distance between the two point masses.

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Keplers Laws
All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the focal points. A line drawn from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the average distance from the planet to the Sun.

T 2 = Ksr3
T is the period of the planet K s is the 2.97 10 19 s 2 / m 3 r is the radius of the planet
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Escape Velocity
Escape velocity
The speed at which the kinetic energy of an object is equal to its gravitational potential energy. The escape velocity does not depend on the mass of the body.

Ve = 2 Rg
R is the radius of the planet g is the gravitational force

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Orbital Velocity
The speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body.
In case of a satellite nearer to the earth, orbital velocity is :

v o = gR

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Problem 2
Calculate the force of attraction
If a man of mass 80 kg stands 10 m from a woman with a mass of 65 kg. If the man and woman move closer to each other, until they are 1 m apart.

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Problem 3
On Earth a man has a mass of 70 kg. The planet Zirgon is the same size as the Earth but has twice the mass of the Earth. What would the man weigh on Zirgon if the gravitational acceleration on Earth is 9.8 ms2?

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Solution 2
Attractive gravitational force between them:

F=G

m1 m 2 r2
-11

## (80)(65) = (6.67 10 )( ) 2 (10) = 3.47 10 -9 N

If the man and woman move to 1 m apart, then:

## m1 m 2 F=G 2 r = (6.67 10 -11 )( = 3.47 10 -7 N

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(80)(65) ) 2 (1)

Solution 3
the mass of the man on Earth = m mass of the planet Zirgon (mZ) in terms of the mass of the Earth (mE); mZ = 2mE the radius of the planet Zirgon (rZ) in terms of the radius of the Earth (rE); rZ = rE the mans weight on Zirgon (wZ)?

On Earth:

m1 m 2 w = mg = G r2
w E = mg E = G mE m rE
2

## = (70 kg)(9.8m .s -.2 ) = 686N

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Solution 3
On Zirgon:

(cont...)

Substitute the values for mZ and rZ, in terms of the values for the Earth.

w Z = mg Z = G =G

mZ m rZ
2

2m E .m rE
2

= 2(G)

m E .m rE
2

= 2w E = 2(686N) = 1 372N

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QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT

Presents

Chemistry

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Topics
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure Nuclear Model of the Atom

Chemical Elements
Properties of Elements Periodic Table
Trends within a Period Trends within Groups

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Topics

(cont)

Isotopes Radioactivity Radioactive Decay Half-Life Emission Spectra and Ionisation Energy Binding Energy & Mass Defect; Einstein's Equation

Atomic Structure

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Matter
Everything that has mass and volume is called matter. All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes.

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Atom
Atoms are the simplest building blocks of an element. The atoms of each element are unique and their properties define those of the element. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. Atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged in chemical reactions, but never changed into atoms of another element.
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Atom

(cont)

Subatomic particles
Protons Electrons and Neutrons

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Atomic Structure
Nuclear model of the atom
The atom is made up mostly of empty space. In a neutral atom, the number of protons = the number of electrons Protons determine the identity of an element. Number of protons is called the Atomic Number, Z. Each element has a unique Atomic Number.

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Atomic Structure
Mass number, A

(cont)

The sum of the number of protons, Z, and the number of neutrons, N. Not all atoms of the same element have the same mass number. Although the Z is same, N (and thus A) are different. Electrons are either transferred or shared during a chemical reaction.

Atomic Structure

(cont)

Nuclear Symbol

## Nuclide Oxygen-18 Arsenic-75 Phosphorus-31

P+ 8 33 15

n0 10 42 16

e8 33 15

Mass number 18 75 31

## Find Z, A, number of protons, neutrons and electrons for Bromine, 80 35 Br

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Electron Configuration
The energy of electrons in an atom is quantized. Electrons are arranged in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom. An orbital defines the space in which an electron is most likely to be found.

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Electron Configuration
Aufbau diagrams are used to show the electron configuration of atoms. Valence electrons: electrons in the outer energy level of an atom. Core electrons: all the electrons in an atom, excluding the valence electrons.

(cont)

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Ions
An ion is a charged atom. Cation: positively charged ion, e.g. Na+. Anion: negatively charged ion, e.g. F-. The charge on an ion depends on the number of electrons that have been lost or gained. Na(1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1) Na+(1s2 2s2 2p6) + e-

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Chemical Elements

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Elements
An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substance by a chemical change. A substance can either be an element or a compound. Currently 115 elements have been positively identified.

Periodic Table

(cont)

## Group 1A alkali metals

Very reactive Never found free in nature React readily with water

## Group 2A alkaline earth metals

Occur only in compounds React with oxygen in the general formula EO

Group 3A metalloids
Includes Aluminum (the most abundant metal in the earth) Forms oxygen compounds with a X2O3 formula
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Periodic Table

(cont)

## Group 4A includes metals and nonmetals

Go from nonmetals at the top of the column to metals at the bottom All oxygen form compounds with a XO2 formula

Group 5A
All elements form oxygen or sulfur compound with E2O3 or E2S3 formulas.

Group 6A
Includes oxygen, one of the most abundant elements. Oxygen compound formulas within this group are EO2 and EO3.
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Periodic Table
Group 7A

(cont)

Elements combine violently with alkali metals to form salts Called halogens, which mean "salt forming" Are all highly reactive

Group 8A
Least reactive group All elements are gases Not very abundant on earth Given the name noble gas because they are not very reactive
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Periodic Trends
One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. The strength of the attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons determines the atomic radius. The stronger the attraction, the smaller the size of the atom.

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Periodic Trends
Electron affinity

(cont)

The negative of the energy change when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion.

X(g) is any element in its gaseous state. e- is the free electron gained by the atom in this reaction. X-(g) is the anion of the element in gaseous state.

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Periodic Trends
Electron affinity

(cont)

Decrease within a group with increasing atomic number as the atoms increase in size. Increase across a period with increasing atomic number as the atoms decrease in size.

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Periodic Trends
Electronegativity

(cont)

The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond. The element that attracts the shared electrons more strongly is more electronegative. An electronegative atom pulls more of the electron density from the bond towards itself.

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Periodic Trends
Electronegativity

(cont)

Decreases within a group with increasing atomic number Increases across a period with increasing atomic number.

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Periodic Trends
Ionization energy

(cont)

It is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the valence shell of the atom to form a cation.

The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a cation.

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Periodic Trends
Ionization energy

(cont)

Decrease within a group with increasing atomic number as the size increases Increase across a period with increasing atomic number as the size decreases.

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Periodic Trends

(cont)

It is the radius of a cation or an anion as measured in an ionic compound. Size of an ion is different from the size of the atom due to the addition or removal of an electron.

Periodic Trends

(cont)

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Periodic Trends
A. Which of the following properties of an atom are not always positive.
a. Electronegativity b. Electron affinity c. Ionization energy d. Atomic radius

(cont)
B. An anion is generally _____ the original atom.
a. Larger than b. Smaller than c. The same size as d. None

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Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain. Not all atoms of an element will have the same atomic mass. Chemical properties of different isotopes of an element are the same, but nuclear stability varies.

Isotopes of Hydrogen

Isotopes

(cont...)
40 20

## Which of the following are isotopes of

A) B) C)
40 19 42 20 40 18

Ca

K Ca Ar

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The particles and energy that a nucleus releases are referred to as radiation and the atom is said to be radioactive. Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by French scientist Henri Becquerel. Marie and Pierre Curie discovered radioactive elements polonium (Po) and radium (Ra).

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A process whereby an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting particles or electromagnetic waves. Isotopes are less stable since they contain a larger number of nucleons than non-isotopes of the same element. The radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes.

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Alpha () particles

(cont...)

Made up of two protons and two neutrons bound together. This type of radiation has a positive charge. Sometimes represented using the chemical symbol He2+ . Low penetration power.

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Alpha decay

(cont...)

Occurs when the nucleus has too many protons, and this causes a lot of repulsion between like charges. To reduce this repulsion, the nucleus emits an particle. Can be seen in the decay of americium (Am) to neptunium (Np).
241 95

Am 237 Np + particle 93

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Beta () particles

(cont...)

High energy electrons released form the radioactive nuclei having too many neutrons. A neutron may be converted into a proton, an electron and another particle (a neutrino). Higher penetration power than alpha particles.

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Beta decay

(cont...)

Occurs when the neutron to proton ratio is too great in the nucleus and causes instability.
3 1 3 H 2 He + particle + v

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Gamma particles ()

(cont...)

High frequency electromagnetic energy from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. Gamma radiation has no mass or charge. Penetrate most common substances, including metals. Thick lead and concrete can absorb this radiation.

Gamma decay

(cont...)

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Medical Biochemistry and genetics Food preservation Environment Archaeology and carbon dating

Damage to body cells Genetic abnormalities Cancer
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Half-Life
The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to decay into other atoms. Different radioactive materials have different half-lives ranging from seconds to thousands of years. Radioactive americium 241 (half-life=432 years) is used in smoke detectors.
Smoke detector

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Half-Life

(cont...)

Half-life equation is used to calculate how the amount of radioactive material changes over time:
At (t t1 2 ) = 0.5 A0 where A t Amount left at time t A 0 Original amount at time zero t1 2 Half - life t Time
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Problem 1

A sample of gas contains 1500 molecules of radon-222. How many molecules of 222Rn will remain after 2.0 days? The half-life of 222Rn is 3.8 days.

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Solution 1
At (t t ) = 0.5 1 2 A0 A t Amount left at time t = A 2 A 0 Original amount at time zero = 1500 t1 2 Half - life = 3.8 days t Time = 2.0 days (t t ) A t = A 0 0.5 1 2 A 2 = 1500 0.5(2 days 3.8 days ) Amount left after 2 days, A 2 = 1041 molecules
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Atomic Emission
An emission spectrum is produced by an electronic transition from a high energy level En to a lower energy level Em. Ionization
Radiation is absorbed by the material it penetrates by a process known as ionization. The amount of ionization that occurs is dependent upon
The radiation energy The type of material for which the radiation is interacting. Technology Training that Works

Mass Defect
The difference between the mass of the atom and sum of the masses of its constituent parts.
m = [Z(mp + me ) + (A - Z )mn ] matom where : m = mass defect (amu) mp = mass of a proton (1.007277 amu) mn = mass of a neutron (1.008665 amu) me = mass of an electron (0.0005485 97 amu) matom = mass of nuclide A X (amu) Z Z = atomic number (number of protons) A = mass number (number of nucleons)
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Binding Energy
The amount of energy that must be supplied to a nucleus to completely separate its nuclear particles. Binding energy is the energy equivalent of the mass defect. Einstein's equation relating mass and energy is
E = mc 2

## where c velocity of light = 2.998 x 108 m/sec

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## Binding Energy (cont...)

The energy equivalent of 1 amu can be determined by Einstein's equation Binding energy - multiply the mass defect by the factor of 931.5 MeV per amu.

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Problem 2

Calculate the mass defect and binding energy for uranium-235. One uranium-235 atom has a mass of 235.043924 amu.

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Solution 2
Step 1: Calculate the mass defect m = [Z(mp + me ) + (A - Z )mn ] matom m = [92(1.0078 26 amu) + (235 - 92)1.00866 5 amu] - 235.043924 amu m = 1.91517 amu Step 2 : Use the mass defect to calculate binding energy 931.5 MeV B.E. = m 1 amu 931.5 MeV = 1.91517 amu 1 amu = 1784 MeV

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QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT

Presents

Maths

ALGEBRA

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Topics
Systems of Linear Equations
Long division Partial fraction decomposition Solve equations using Echelon form Model problems to linear equations

## Sequences and Series

The binomial theorem Mathematical induction

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Long Division
Division algorithm
If f(x) and d(x) 0 are polynomials, and the degree of d(x) is less than or equal to degree of f(x), then there exist unique polynomials q(x) and r(x), so that

f ( x) r ( x) = q( x) + , d ( x) d ( x)
The degree of r(x) is less than the degree of d(x). In special case where r(x)=0, d(x) divides evenly into f(x).

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Example 1
Solve

3x 3 2 x 2 + 4 x 3 x 2 + 3x + 3

## Set up the long division

x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 2 x 2 + 4 x 3
First divide the leading term 3x3 of the numerator polynomial by the leading term x2 of the divisor, and write the answer 3x on the top line:

3x x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 2 x 2 + 4 x 3
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Example 1

(cont)

Now multiply this term 3x by the divisor x2+3x+3, and write the answer

3x x + 3x + 3 = 3x + 9 x + 9 x
2 3 2

Under the numerator polynomial, lining up terms of equal degree and subtract the last line from the line above it.

3x x2 + 3x + 3 3x3 2x2 + 4x 3 3 2 3x + 9x + 9x
11x2 5x 3
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Example 1

(cont)

Repeat the procedure: Divide the leading term -11x2 of the polynomial on the last line by the leading term x2 of the divisor to obtain -11, and add this term to the 3x on the top line:

3x 11 x2 + 3x + 3 3x3 2x2 + 4x 3
3x3 + 9x2 + 9x 11x2 5x 3
Then multiply back: -11(x2+3x+3)= -11x2-33x-33 and write the answer under the last line polynomial, lining up terms of equal degree.
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Example 1

(cont)

3x 11 x 2 + 3x + 3 3x 3 2 x 2 + 4 x 3
3x 3 + 9 x 2 + 9 x 11x 2 5 x 3 11x 2 33x 33
28 x + 30
The remainder is the last line: 28x+30, and the quotient is the expression on the very top: 3x-11. Consequently,

3x 3 2 x 2 + 4 x 3 28 x + 30 = (3 x 11) + 2 2 x + 3x + 3 x + 3x + 3
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Partial Fractions
A proper rational expression is decomposed into a sum of two or more rational expressions.
e.g : P( x) cx + d A B = = + Q( x) ( x a )( x b) ( x a ) ( x b)

Degree of numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. Used in integrating rational fractions in calculus and finding the inverse Laplace transform.

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Partial Fractions
Factor in denominator

(cont)

## Term in partial fraction decomposition

ax + b

A ax + b
k

(ax + b )

Ak A1 A2 + + + 2 ax + b (ax + b ) (ax + b )k

ax 2 + bx + c

Ax + B ax 2 + bx + c
Ak x + Bk A1 x + B1 A2 x + B2 + + + ax 2 + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c 2 ax 2 + bx + c

(ax

+ bx + c

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Example 2
Partial fraction decomposition of
Factor the denominator 8 x 42 ( x 2 + 3 x 18)

8 x 42 8 x 42 = 2 ( x + 3 x 18) ( x + 6)( x 3)
Comparing to the given table, the partial fraction decomposition must look like,

8 x 42 A B = + 2 ( x + 3x 18) ( x + 6) ( x 3)

Example 2

(cont)

## (8 x 42)( x + 6)( x 3) = A( x + 6)( x 3) + B( x + 6)( x 3)

( x 2 + 3 x 18) ( x + 6) ( x 3)

8 x 42 = A( x 3) + B( x + 6) = ( A + B) x + (3 A + 6 B )

Example 2

(cont)

## By comparing the coefficients of like terms on both sides, we get

A+ B = 8

3 A 6 B = 42
On solving the equations, we get, A = 10, B = -2. Substituting the values of A and B, 8 x 42 10 2 = ( x 2 + 3 x 18) ( x + 6) ( x 3)

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Row-Echelon Form
To solve a system of linear equations,
Write the system as an augmented matrix. Reduce the corresponding augmented matrix to rowechelon form using the Elementary Row Operations.

Row operations:
Interchange two rows. Multiply one row by a nonzero number. Add a multiple of one row to a different row.

## Row-Echelon Form (cont)

A matrix is said to be in row-echelon form if
All rows consisting entirely of zeros are at the bottom. In each row, the first non-zero entry form the left is a 1, called the leading 1. The leading 1 in each row is to the right of all leading 1's in the rows above it.
1 0 0 2 e.g .. : A = 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 4

## Row-Echelon Form (cont)

Gaussian elimination
An algorithm that reduces matrices to row-echelon form. Convert the matrix back into a system of linear equations to obtain solutions.

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Problem 1
Use gaussian elimination to solve the linear system
x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 9 2 x1 x2 + x3 = 8 3 x1 x3 = 3

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Solution 1
Augmented matrix is
1 2 3 9 2 1 1 8 3 0 1 3

## Gaussian Elimination algorithm proceeds as follows

1 2 3 9 ( Row1) 1 2 3 9 ( Row1) 2 1 1 8 ( Row2) 0 5 5 10 ( Row2 2 Row1) 3 0 1 3 ( Row3) 0 6 10 24 ( Row3 3 Row1)
1 2 3 9 1 2 ( Row1) 3 9 ( Row1) ( Row2) 1 2 (1 / 5 Row2) 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 4 12 ( Row3 + 6 Row2) 0 6 10 24 ( Row3)
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Solution 1
Row-echelon form is

(cont)
1 2 3 9 ( Row1) 0 1 1 2 ( Row2) 0 0 1 3 (1 / 4 Row3)

## The corresponding system is

x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 9 x2 + x3 = 2 x3 = 3

This can be easily solved from the bottom up, gives the solution of system,

x1 = 2, x2 = 1, x3 = 3

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Model Problems
Steps
Read the problem carefully, Pick out key words and phrases and determine their equivalent mathematical meaning, Replace any unknowns with a variable, and Put it all together in an algebraic expression.

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Problem 2

1000 tickets were sold. Adult tickets cost \$8.50, children's cost \$4.50, and a total of \$7300 was collected. How many tickets of each kind were sold?

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Solution 2
Let x be the number of adult tickets. Let y be the number of children's tickets. Now there are two unknowns, therefore there must be two equations. 1) Total number of tickets: x + y = 1000 2) Total money collected: 8.5x + 4.5y = 7300 Solving these simultaneous equations, we get x = 700, y = 300.

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Binomial Theorem
A binomial is an algebraic expression containing 2 terms. E.g.: (x+y), ( P / x2) (Q / x4) etc.. Binomial theorem is used to expand binomials to any given power without direct multiplication.

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Binomial Theorem
Theorem:
n n

(cont)

n! ( a + b) = a nk b k k = 0 ( n k )! k!

## where n is a positive whole number

Properties of expansion
There are n + 1 terms. The first term is an and the final term is bn. Progressing from the first term to the last, the exponent of a decreases by 1 from term to term while the exponent of b increases by 1. Binomial coefficients are none other than the combinatorial numbers, nCk .
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Example 3
Using the binomial theorem, expand (2x+3)4
Solution:
In using the binomial formula, we get a = 2x, b = 3, and n = 4. Substituting in the binomial formula, we get : (2x + 3)4 4! = ( 2 x ) 4 k 3k k = 0 ( 4 k )! k! 4! 4! 4! = (2 x) 4 + (2 x) 3 31 + ( 2 x ) 2 32 + (2 x)1 33 + 34 3!1! 2!2! 1!3! = 16 x 4 + 96 x 3 + 216 x 2 + 216 x1 + 81
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4

Binomial Theorem
Binomial series

(cont)

From the binomial formula, if a = 1 and b = x, we can obtain the binomial series. Valid for any real number n if |x| < 1.

## n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3 (1 + x) = 1 + nx + x + x + 2! 3!

n

This is an infinite series, where the binomial theorem deals with a finite expansion.

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Problem 3

Using the binomial series, find the first four terms of the expansion 4 + x 2

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Solution 3
Change the expansion to the form of ( 1 + x)n x2 ) 4 + x = ( 4 + x ) = 4( 1 + 4
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2

x2 2 x2 2 ) = 2( 1 + ) = 4 (1 + 4 4 Hence, if we replace the x in the Binomial series formula x2 1 with and let n = , we get : 4 2 x2 1 )2 2( 1 + 4
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Solution 3
x2 2 ) 2( 1 + 4
1

(cont)

1 1 1 1 1 1 x 2 2 2 1 x 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 x 2 3 + + = 2 1 + + 4 4 2! 3! 2 4 x2 x4 x6 ......... 4 + x2 = 2 + + 4 64 512

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Mathematical Induction
It is a method of proving statements defined for the class of positive integers. Principle of mathematical induction
When a statement is true for the natural number n = k, then it is also true for its successor, n = k + 1; The statement is true for n = 1; then the statement is true for every natural number n.

"The statement is true for n = k" is called the induction assumption, or the induction hypothesis.

Problem 4

## Prove that, the sum of the first n natural numbers is given by

n(n + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ...... + n = . 2

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Solution 4
Proof : Step : 1 Induction assumption Assume that the formula is true for n = k; that is k(k + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ...... + k = (1) 2 We must prove that the formula is true for its successor, n = k + 1, (k + 1)(k + 2) i.e 1+ 2 + 3 + ...... + (k + 1) = (2) 2 To do that, add the next term (k + 1) to both sides of the induction assumption , k(k + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ...... + k + (k + 1) = + (k + 1) 2
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Solution 4
=

(cont)

k(k + 1) + 2(k + 1) 2 (k + 1)(k + 2) = Hence equation ( 2) is proved. 2 Step : 2 Show that formula is true for n = 1. We have : n(n + 1) 1+ 2 + 3 + ...... + n = 2 1 1 = 1 2 2 The formula therefore is true for n = 1. Hence fulfilled both the principle of mathematic al induction.

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QUIZ / ASSIGNMENT

TRIGONOMETRY

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Topics
Triangles
Definitions of trigonometric functions Sine and cosine rule Angle of elevation and depression

Analytical trigonometry
Trigonometric identities Solving trigonometric equations R sin ( ) form Inverse trigonometric functions

Triangles

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Trigonometric Functions
There are three basic trigonometric functions:
sine cosine tangent

## opposite sin = hypotenuse adjacent cos = hypotenuse opposite tan = adjacent

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Trigonometric Functions

(cont...)

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Problem 1
In the triangle given below, side b is ------------.

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Problem 2
Mr. Bond has a garage at his house, and he decides that he wants to add a corrugated iron roof to the side of the garage. The garage is 4m high, and his sheet for the roof is 5m long. If he wants the roof to be at an angle of 5,how high must he build the wall BD, which is holding up the roof?

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Solution 2
Observations:
Triangle ABC is a right-angled triangle. As we have one side and an angle of this triangle, we can calculate AC Height of the wall = height of the garage - AC
BC = 5m, AB C = 5 AC = BC sin(ABC) = 5 sin 5 = 5 0.0871 = 0.4358m

## Therefore, height of the wall BD = 5m - 0.4358m = 4.56m.

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## Elevation and Depression

Angle of elevation Angle of depression

e
d

## Sine and Cosine Rule

These rules make working with triangle easier. They can be applied to any triangle. Sine rule:
sinA sinB sin C = = c a b
where a is the side opposite A, b is the side opposite B and c is the side opposite C
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## Sine and Cosine Rule

(cont...)

Similarly the circumference of the circle drawn through the three points of the triangle can be calculated using:
a b c = = = 2R sinA sinB sin C where R is the radius of the circumcircle

Circumcircle

## Sine and Cosine Rule

Cosine rule:
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 . 2bc cosA b 2 = c 2 + a 2 . 2ca cos B c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . 2ab cos C
where a is the side opposite A, b is the side opposite B and c is the side opposite C.

(cont...)

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Analytical Trigonometry

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Trigonometric Identities
Trigonometric functions apply only to rightangled triangles. Trigonometric functions are related to each other. For example:
opposite adjacent opposite hypotenuse tan = hypotenuse adjacent 1 = sin cos sin = cos tan =

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Trigonometric Identities
Similarly:
Consider ABC

(cont)
sin = AC BC and AB BC

## cos = We know that from the Theorem of Pythagoras :

AB2 + AC2 = BC2 . So, AC Ab sin + cos = + BC BC AC2 + AB2 = BC2 BC2 = (from Pythagoras) BC2 =1
2 2 2 2

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

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Trigonometric Identities
1 csc = sin 1 sec = cos

(cont)
1 cot = tan

## Diving sin 2 + cos 2 = 1 throughout by cos 2 , we get 1 + cot 2 = csc 2

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Trigonometric Identities

(cont)

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Reduction Formulae

## Solving Trigonometric Equations

In most cases, trigonometric identities will be used to simplify equations. Final solution can be found either graphically or using inverse trigonometric functions. To solve any trigonometric equation, the equation itself and the range are required. Inverse trigonometric functions:
arcsin or sin-1 arccos or cos-1 arctan or tan-1
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Solving Equations

(cont)

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Problem - 3
Write down the general solution if ...

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Problem 4
Solve the following trinomial:

2

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Solution 3
3 cos( - 15) - 1 = -2.583 3 cos( - 15) = - 1.583 cos( - 15) = -0.5276... [58.2] II) - 15 = 180 - 58.2 + 360 .n, n Z = 136.8 + 360 .n, n Z III) - 15 = 180 + 58.2 + 360 n, n Z

= 253.2 + 360 n, n Z

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Solution 4
We notice that tan(2x + 1) occurs twice in the equation, hence let us assume y = tan(2x + 1) we can rewrite the equation as y 2 + 3y + 2 = 0
We can immediately write down the factorised form and the solutions : (y + 1)(y + 2) = 0 y = - 1 OR y=-2

Now just substitute back for the temporary variable : tan (2x + 1) = - 1 or tan (2x + 1) = -2

## Compound Angle Identities

sin( + ) = sin cos + sin cos sin( ) = sin cos sin cos cos( + ) = cos cos + sin sin cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin cos 2 = 2 cos 2 1 or 1 2 sin 2

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R sin ( ) Form
It is more convenient to write expressions involving the sum of sine and cosine terms, using one single term. a sin b cos can be expressed in the form R sin( ). a, b, R and are positive constants

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R sin ( ) Form
Let a sin + b cos R sin( + ) Using the compound angle formula :

(cont)

## We can expand R sin( + )as follows :

R sin( + ) R( sin cos + cos sin ) R sin cos + R cos sin a sin +b cos R sin cos +R cos sin

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R sin ( ) Form
Eq. (2) Eq.(1) : b = tan a

(cont)

## Now solving for R, we have :

[Eq. (1)]2 + [Eq. (2)]2 : a 2 + b 2 = R 2 cos 2 + R 2sin 2 = R 2 (cos 2 + sin 2 ) = R 2 ( 1) So, R = a 2 + b 2 a sin + b cos = R sin( + ) Similary, a sin b cos = R sin ( )

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Graph of cosx:

Graph of y = cosx

cosx for x = 0 to x =

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

(cont)

The graph of the inverse of cosx is found by reflecting the graph of cosx through the line y = x.

Graph of y = arc cosx The range (of y-values for the graph) for arccos x is 0 arccos x

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse sine function:

(cont)

Graph of y = sinx

Graph of y = arcsin x

The range (of y-values for the graph) for arcsin x is -/2 arcsin x /2

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse tangent function:

(cont)

Graph of y = tanx

Graph of y = arctanx

The range (of y-values for the graph) for arctan x is -/2 arctan x /2

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse secant function:

(cont)

Graph of y = secx

Graph of y = arcsecx

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse cosecant function:

(cont)

Graph of y = cscx

Graph of y = arccscx

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse cotangent function:

(cont)

Graph of y = cotx

Graph of y = arccotx

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