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ARCHITECTURAL FINISHES AT SPRUCE TREE HOUSE, MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK: CHARACTERIZATION AND INTERPRETATION OF ROOM 115(2)

Rebekah Krieger A THESIS in Historic Preservation Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HISTORIC PRESERVATION 2011

______________________ Advisor Frank G. Matero Professor of Historic Preservation ______________________ Program Chair Randall F. Mason Associate Professor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my advisor, Frank Matero, for providing academic

inspiration, guidance, and imagination. I would also like to thank my colleagues at Mesa Verde National Park,

notably Kay Barnett and Patricia Lacie, for sharing their knowledge and procuring unpublished reports and other data for me. Lolita Rotkina devoted much energy and enthusiasm to the characterization chapter of this work. John Walsh also offered many useful observations on the mineral components of my samples. Karen Gomez and Suzanne Hyndman also deserve thanks for their help and reassurance with any and all queries, no matter how trifling. My parents, who have provided both intellectual and emotional support,

also deserve much thanks. My partner David and faithful hound Benny have kept me on task, focused and seeing things in perspective. Lastly, my fellow students have been invaluable sources of camaraderie,

sympathy and advice. Thank you to everyone who has made this thesis possible.

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TAbLE Of CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES 1.0 INTRODUCTION ii v vii 1
1 3 4

1.1 History 1.2 The Ancestral Puebloans 1.3 Spruce Tree House and Room 115(2)

2.0 METHODOLOGY 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

6 10

3.1 Room 115(2) and Related Finish Schemes 3.2 Symbolism in Pueblo Architecture

10 20

4.0 Stabilization History of Room 115(2)

4.1 Architectural Description of Room 115(2) 4.2 Interventions by the National Park Service 4.3 Current Site Use and Maintenance

23

23 29 30

5.0 Spruce Tree House Architecture

5.1 Ancestral Puebloan Architecture Categories & Designations 5.2 Spruce Tree House Construction Chronology 5.3 Integrative Architecture

33
33 35 38

6.0 Classification of Finishes at Mesa Verde


6.1 Types of Finishes and Pigments 6.2 Classification of Finish Schemes

42
42 43

7.0 Use of Finishes and Iconography

7.1 Finishes as Strategy for Spatial Definition and Meaning 7.2 Public and Private Imagery 7.3 Triangle and Mound Imagery 7.4 New Directions: Iconography

46

46 47 49 51

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

8.0 Characterization of Finishes

8.1 Methodology 8.2 On-site Observations 8.3 Optical Light Microscopy 8.3.1 Sample Preparation 8.3.2 Optical Light Microscopy Observations 8.4 Stratigraphy Data Forms 8.5 SEM Testing 8.5.1 SEM Sample Preparation 8.5.2 SEM Findings

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54 56 60 60 62 65 83 85 86

9.0 Interpretation of Finishes at Spruce Tree House and Rm 115(2) 92


9.1 Spruce Tree House Finishes 9.1.1 Methodology 9.1.2 Interpretation 9.2 Room 115(2) Finish Schemes 92 92 93 102

10.0 Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A

112 114 119

Integrative Architecture Construction Sequence APPENDIX B


D iagram Of Sample Locations Comparison: East Wall Samples Comparison: South Wall Samples Comparison: West Wall Samples

F irst Story Plan of Spruce Tree House

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APPENDIX C APPENDIX D

Data Table Analysis of Spruce Tree House Finishes SEM-EDS Spectra

127 137

Index
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LiST Of fiGurES
Figure 1.1. Spruce Tree House from across the canyon. Figure 3.1. Chapin 1891: after page 148. Figure 3.2. Nordenskiold 1893: after page 52, Plate X 2. Figure 3.3. Nordenskiold 1893: Fig 77. North wall of Room 116(2). Figure 4.1. Ortho-rectified photograph of the south wall. Figure 4.2. Ortho-rectified photograph of the east wall. Figure 4.3. Ortho-rectified photograph of the west wall. Figure 5.1. Detail from a construction sequence diagram by author. Figure 8.1. Heavy sooting in the southwest corner of Room 115(2). Figure 8.2. The white dot where sooted red wash has fallen off. Figure 8.3. The blue-gray smear on the west wall. Figure 8.4. A plaster sample embedded in resin. Figure 8.5. A deposition of soot in sample 5MV0640-115-15. Figure 8.6. Backscatter image of Sample 5MV0640-115-02. Figure 8.7. An elemental map of Silicon in sample 5MV0640-115-02. Figure 8.8. Elemental map of 5MV0640-115-02 Figure 8.9. Backscatter image of 5MV0640-115-13. Figure 8.10. Particles of calcium in 5MV0640-115-13 2 12 12 13 26 27 28 37 57 58 60 61 64 84 84 87 89 89 91 91

Figure 8.11. Backscatter image of sample 5MV0640-115-17. Figure 8.12. Elemental map of 5MV0640-115-17.
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LIST OF FIgURES

Figure 9.1. Map of finishes on the first story of Spruce Tree House. Figure 9.2. Map of finishes on the second story of Spruce Tree House. Figure 9.3. Comparison of Rooms 115(2), 116(2), 122(2) and 123(2). Figure 9.4. East Wall, Scheme 1 with aura. Figure 9.5. East Wall, Scheme 1 without aura. Figure 9.6. East Wall, Scheme 2 with aura. Figure 9.7. East Wall, Scheme 2 without aura. Figure 9.8. South Wall, Scheme 2. Figure 9.9. West Wall, Scheme 2. Figure 9.10. West Wall, Scheme 3. Figure 9.11. South Wall, Scheme 3. Figure 9.12. East Wall, Scheme 3. Figure 9.13. East Wall, Scheme 4. Figure 9.14. Scheme progression in Room 115(2).

96 97 101 103 103 105 105 106 106 109 109 110 110 111

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LiST Of TAbLES
Table 8.1. Sample and testing matrix. Table 9.1 Finish distribution by room. 55 98 98 99

Table 9.2 Finish distribution by percent of total rooms. Table 9.3 Finish distribution by percent per floor.

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1.0 iNTrODuCTiON
1.1 History
The sandstone walls of Mesa Verdes Spruce Tree House remained silent

for 700 years after abandonment by its builders in A.D. 1300. Mesa Verde was inevitably discovered by Anglo-Europeans as American westward expansion progressed in the nineteenth century. The ancient architecture of the Ancestral Puebloans suddenly entered the American popular imagination through the glass plate negatives of an isolated structure, Two Story House, taken by William Henry Jackson in 1874.1 Jackson and his guides did not venture into the interior of the canyons and the expedition had no inkling of the villages containing hundreds of rooms in sheltered sandstone alcoves nearby. The discovery of Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House and numerous other

alcove sites is credited to the Wetherills, a family whose ranch lay just outside the mesa. Richard Wetherill and brother-in-law Charlie Mason happened upon Cliff Palace while searching out stray cattle during the winter of 1888. The Wetherills publicized their discoveries and began a guide service, housing tourists at the family ranch and leading horseback expeditions into the canyons. In 1891, Gustav Nordenskiold, a young Swedish aristocrat with an avid interest in archaeology, paid a visit to the Wetherills Alamo Ranch. Nordenskiold followed meticulous recording and excavation techniques

1 Duane A. Smith, Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries (Boulder: University of Colorado, 2002), 13. 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

that were advanced for the day. He photographed sites and structures, numbered rooms and carefully noted artifacts found within each site. The area was designated a National Park in June 1906, shortly after the passage of the Antiquities Act that established the governments right to protect cultural heritage. Smithsonian archaeologist Jesse Walter Fewkes was chosen to prepare the park for visits by the American public. Fewkes prioritized stabilization over

Figure 1.1. Spruce Tree House from across the canyon.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

reconstruction, choosing to present the structures to the public as ruins.

1.2 The Ancestral Puebloans


The precedent set by Fewkes for maintaining the built heritage at Mesa

Verde as stabilized ruins has resulted in a high level of architectural integrity throughout the park. The physical integrity of the ruins has allowed generations of researchers to gather evidence surrounding the sudden departure of Mesa Verdes residents at the end of the 13th century. The dwellings were found filled with cooking implements, grinding stones, fabric, sandals and other objects that suggest residents left in a hurried, abrupt fashion. The alcove sites, uninhabited for centuries and protected from the elements by overhanging sandstone cliff faces, give a snapshot view of life on the mesa in the 13th century, allowing a depth of interpretation uncomplicated by later centuries of occupation. It is now believed that the people who inhabited the Mesa Verde

region during the 13th century migrated from the area, rather than dying out or mysteriously disappearing.2 A likely explanation for an abrupt migration is given by the dendrochronology of timbers used in construction that suggest increasingly desperate periods of drought.3 Consequently, ethnographic and archaeological researchers look toward nearby Native American tribes for clues
2 Donna M. Glowacki, The Social Landscape of Depopulation: The Northern San Juan, A.D. 1150-1300, PhD Diss., Arizona State University, 2006.

3 Larry Benson, Kenneth Petersen and John Stein, Anasazi (Pre-Columbian Native-American) Migrations During The Middle-12th And Late-13th Centuries Were They Drought Induced?, Climate Change 83 (July 2007): 187-213. 3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

to the cultural traditions of Mesa Verde. Many tribes of the Southwest trace their lineage back to the peoples of Mesa Verde, including the Hopi and Zuni.4 Previous research labeled the ancient people the Anasazi, a Navajo word, but current writings use the term Ancestral Puebloans to suggest their connection to many different contemporary Pueblo tribes.5

1.3 Spruce Tree House and room 115(2)


Spruce Tree House is one of the largest alcove dwellings at Mesa Verde,

second only to Cliff Palace. The site is comprised of 121 rooms with ten nearby ledge rooms and eight kivas. Archaeologists speculate that the site was home to as many as eighteen households year round.6 The Park museum, visitors center, rest rooms and other amenities are located near Spruce Tree and the site is accessible through self-guided tour, making it the most visited site at the park. Room 115(2) is located on the second story of a large block of rooms

that ranges from two to three stories. Its floor area is 8.8m2 and it is 1.85m in height.7 There is no ceiling or floor intact, but two vigas that once supported the floor remain, as do three vigas that once supported the ceiling. Room
4 Wesley Bernardini, Reconsidering Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Prehistoric Cultural Identity: A Case Study from the American Southwest, American Antiquity 70, no. 1 (2005), 31-54. 5 Hugh C. Rogers and Harry Walters, Anasazi and Anaasz: Two Words, Two Cultures, Kiva 66, no. 3 (2001): 317-326.

6 Larry Nordby, Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture, in The Mesa Verde World, ed. David Grant Noble (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 2006), 116. 7 Joel Brisbin, Donna Glowacki and Kay Barnett, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation (Mesa Verde National Park: Archaeological Site Conservation Program Division of Research and Resource Management, 2007), 144. 4

1.0 INTRODUCTION

115(2) is decorated with a complex full plaster finish featuring several types of embellishments, suggesting it might be a room with a public or ceremonial function. It is directly above Room 24(1), known as the weaving room. This room features four loom anchors in the floor and other various features that mark it as a place where textiles were woven, died and stored. Directly to the west of Room 115(2), and also on the second level, is

Room 116(2), also a room with a public or ceremonial function. The two rooms are connected by an unusually small wall entry at floor level in their shared northern corner. Room 116(2) shares a similar finish scheme with Room 115(2), with a red dado and white field with red triangles and dots where the two meet. Its colors are much more intact due to a lack of soot and more intact plaster. The conservation of finishes at Spruce Tree has been given priority due

to the sites high public visibility and good state of preservation. Thousands of visitors view plaster finishes at Spruce Tree House throughout the year, yet little information is presented on the method of their application, their extent throughout the park, and how the dwellings might have originally looked. Through characterization and analysis of finish schemes at Spruce

Tree House, this thesis seeks to gain a fuller understanding of how Ancestral Puebloans utilized architectural surface finishes in different architectural typologies for a variety of functions. This study presents a complete vision of how Room 115(2) looked during its occupation and may have functioned within a larger architectural program.
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2.0 METHODOLOGY
This study utilizes a review of relevant literature, in situ field investigation,

stratigraphic and compositional analysis, and the comparison of data to analyze the appearance and significance of earthen finishes in Room 115(2). The questions that this thesis attempts to answer are: What was the original appearance of Room 115(2)? What other rooms in Spruce Tree House have schemes of similar complexity? What characteristics and attributes do the rooms with complex schemes share? Is Room 115(2) part of a group of rooms at Spruce Tree House that functioned as integrative or public architecture? Are the finishes in Room 115(2) consistent with the rooms function as integrative architecture? Background information on Spruce Tree House architecture and the

construction chronology of the site are reviewed here as essential components to understanding the context in which Room 115(2) was built and functioned. The classification system currently used by the park service for documentation of service finishes is summarized, and this same system of classification has been used within this thesis. An empirical understanding of the original appearance and composition

of Room 115(2) forms the basis for all further study. The study of the rooms
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2.0 METHODOLOgY

finishes began with investigation and recording of the finishes in situ. Significant loss of material greatly reduces the visual impact of the decorative scheme but familiarization with the remaining material through extended observation proved useful. Room 115(2) is a second story room with no intact floor, and therefore scaffolding was erected at its original floor level to facilitate conditions assessment and consolidation treatment. The scaffolding platform allowed close observation of all three extant walls and the careful collection of samples from strategic and representative locations. The locations from which finish samples were collected were chosen

to provide a representative group of scheme elements and embellishments. Field, dado and floorband as well as triangle and dot embellishments were all sampled. The area of abutment of the no-longer extant north wall (on the eastern exterior wall of Room 113(2)) was also sampled. This variety of locations allows the creation of a cohesive idea of the rooms scheme(s) and confirmation of its construction history. Thick section analysis is used to determine the appearance and

number of schemes present in the room and their method of application. Thick sections were examined under reflected visible light under low (5x) and higher (115x) magnifications. Select samples were observed with a BV filter to gain further information about their layer structure. Stratigraphy analysis data forms with scaled micrographs are included to document the stratigraphy, color and

2.0 METHODOLOgY

thickness of each sample. Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Backscatter Imaging,

Elemental Dispersive Spectra and Elemental Mapping were utilized to identify the presence and location of elemental constituents of three representative samples. Previous graduate theses on earthen finishes at Mug House, Long House and Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde National Park provided an excellent template on which to base the finish study of Room 115(2).1 These theses examine many aspects of the parks history, geology, and archaeological theory on Ancestral Puebloan culture. This work takes a new direction by examining the distribution of finishes at Spruce Tree House to better understand the context of the finish scheme in Room 115(2). A summary of architectural documentation prepared by the park in 2007

provides descriptions and measurements of every room, miscellaneous structure, open area and kiva in Spruce Tree House.2 The wealth of information in this report has been used to compare physical and spatial characteristics of Room 115(2) with of other rooms of Spruce Tree House to determine the rarity and significance of its finishes. With the complete architectural survey of Spruce Tree House, quantitative data on the occurrence of finishes, complex schemes, and embellishments can be assessed. This study seeks to support the hypothesis that formal finish schemes at

2 Brisbin, Joel, Donna Glowacki and Kay Barnett, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation. 8

1 See bibliography for theses by Collum, Dix, Hall and McDougall.

2.0 METHODOLOgY

Mesa Verde are found within rooms of a public, social or ceremonial function, and that their significance can be quantified by the rarity and complexity of the scheme as well as the physical characteristics and spatial attributes of rooms. While we cannot know the exact function of formalized architectural decorations, their presence in the second story Room 115(2) suggests that the space had a special status or use. It is this researchers hope that analysis of the plaster finishes found in Room 115(2) will help clarify the rooms intended use and the use of integrative architecture in the Spruce Tree House community.

3.0 LiTErATurE rEViEW


3.1 room 115(2) and related finish Schemes
The first mention of plaster finishes and embellishments at Spruce Tree

House can be found in Frederick H. Chapins 1891 work, The Land of the CliffDwellers.1 Chapin explored and photographed the area in 1889 and 1890, guided by Richard and John Wetherill. Chapin discusses Spruce Tree House at length and illustrates his description with several plates, two of which relate directly to Room 115(2). A plate titled Projecting Timbers, Navajo Caon looks eastward into Spruce Tree House towards Room 190(2), 111(2) and 113(2).2 Rooms 24(1), 115(2), 25(1) and 116(2) are also visible as is the pre-stabilization profile of the base of the missing wall of Room 115(2). A second plate shows the dado and field scheme of Room 116(2), with

its square textile-like embellishment on the upper east wall.3 Chapin does not identify the location of the image, titled only Painted and Plastered Wall, but its unique embellishment allows for a positive identification. Room 116(2) is directly to the west of Room 115(2), and the rooms connect through a small opening placed at floor level, Wall Entry 50(2). Room 116(2) has no western wall and is illuminated by sunlight for most of the day, and therefore is relatively easy to photograph. The lighting conditions in Room 115(2) are so low that photography would have been practically impossible in 1890. It is likely that the finish scheme
1 Frederick H. Chapin, Land of the Cliff Dwellers (Boston: W. B. Clarke and Co., 1891). 2 Ibid., after page 148. 3 Ibid., after page 152. 10

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

for Room 115(2) went unnoticed and unrecorded for years because of the rooms limited lighting. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde by Gustav Nordenskiold contains the next known image of Room 115(2) and accounts of similar finish schemes.4 The book is a comprehensive work, including chapters on pottery, weapons, implements, woven articles and paintings and rock art. The book contains the first published map of Spruce Tree House, and a photograph of the ruin that closely replicates Chapins image looking eastward toward rooms beyond Kiva C.5 The image is taken further away from Room 115(2) than the Chapin image, and shows a wider view of the rubble in the area. The image is also much darker and unlike the image by Chapin, it does not show any of the rooms interior. Nordenskiold does not describe any markings in Room 115(2), but

describes a similar scheme at Spruce Tree House:


The lower part of the mural surface is dark red, and triangular points of the same colour project over the yellow plaster; above this lower part of the wall runs a row of red dots, exactly as in the estufa at Ruin 9. To the left two figures are painted, one of them evidently representing a bird, the other a quadruped with large horns, probably a mountain sheep. 6

An image of the design follows the description and is identifiable as the north wall of Room 116(2).
4 Gustav Nordenskiold, Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, trans. by D. Lloyd Morgan (Chicago: P. A. Norstedt & Soner, 1893). 5 Ibid., after 52: Plates IX and X. 6 Ibid., 110: Fig 77.

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3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Figure 3.1. Chapin 1891: after page 148. Looking east toward Room 115(2).

Figure 3.2. Nordenskiold 1893: after page 52, Plate X 2. Looking east toward Room 115(2).

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3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Figure 3.3. Nordenskiold 1893: Fig 77. North wall of Room 116(2).

Nordenskiold also documents two other instances of similar triangle and

dot motifs in the park. One is in a second story room at the southern end of Cliff Palace, still in existence today and known as Room 121.7 The other occurrence, Kiva A at Painted Kiva House, is studied and diagrammed extensively by Nordenskiold. This space contains patterns and embellishments nearly identical to those in Room 115(2): triangles rising out of a red dado, occurring in groups of three with a continuous row of dots over both the dado and triangles. Nordenskiold grasped the relation of the finishes to the architectural form of the kiva, and included them in a diagram in which he defines the form of the round room itself.8 Two photographs of this space are included in the book, first in the
7 Ibid., 109. 8 Ibid., 15.

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3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

chapter Excavations in Cliff Caon, and then again in the chapter Paintings and Rock Markings.9 In 1909 Jesse Walter Fewkes penned an exhaustive work on the

architecture and artifacts of Spruce Tree House. Fewkes does not, however, dwell on finishes at the site. He does note that the favorite designs are of triangular form and theorizes that the finishes were evidently put on with the hands, impressions of which can be found in several places.10 Room 115(2) can be seen in Plates 3 and 12. Plate 3 contains two images, a before and after of repairs to the block of rooms surrounding Room 115(2). The base of Room 115(2) is identical to the uneven form observed in the Chapin and Nordenskiold photos, and therefore took on its current shape after the era of Fewkess stabilization. In a section on kivas, Fewkes also describes how one of the pedestals

in kiva A is decorated with a triangular figure on the margin of the dado.11 Much more of this design has been detected since Fewkess observation and it is described in Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation, addressed later on in this chapter.12 In a similar work on Cliff Palace completed two years later, Fewkes

9 Ibid., 17 and 109.

10 Jesse Walter Fewkes, Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce Tree House (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909), 52. 11 Ibid., 20. 12 Barnett, Brisbin, and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation. 14

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

describes the plastering and painting techniques found at Mesa Verde in more detail. He observes, in several instances where the plaster is broken several successive layers are seen, often in different colors, sometime separated by a thin black layer deposited by smoke.13 Fewkes also describes the triangles, parallel red lines with dots and a

square figure, in red, crossed by zigzags also noted by Nordenskiold and still extant today in Room 121, an upper level room in a four-story block of rooms at Cliff Palace. The finish schemes at Spruce Tree House were not studied again

for the next eighty years. In a 1918 guidebook published by the park, many aspects of Spruce Tree House are covered but its complex finish schemes are not described.14 Watson Smith summarizes known finishes at Mesa Verde, but his descriptions are limited to those in the literature also reviewed here. His description of the extent of finishes at Spruce Tree House are limited to those described by Nordenskiold, Chapin and Fewkes. No mention of Room 115(2) is made but Smith remarks on the pair of zoomorphic figures in Room 116(2).15 Constance S. Silver directed a research project in 1985 that surveyed

sixty sites with plaster at Mesa Verde. Spruce Tree House was included in this
13 Jesse Walter Fewkes, Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911), 31. 14 General Information regarding Mesa Verde National Park: Season of 1918 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918).

15 Watson Smith, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awatovi and Kawaika-a: with a survey of other wall paintings in the Pueblo Southwest, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Vol... 37 (Cambridge: Peabody Museum, 1952), 62. 15

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

survey. Silver addresses the need for quantitative assessment of plaster and rock art within the park to fully understand the cultural context of architectural finishes.16 She notes the wealth of Pueblo III plaster resources intact throughout the park, claiming that by the height of the Pueblo III period, architectural plaster is almost the rule, rather than the exception.17 In the quantitative data on Spruce Tree House, Silver specifies the number of finished walls and the total square feet of finishes, rather than giving finish information by room. This breaking up of decorated spaces into abstract units makes it difficult to compare her work with later surveys. It is especially difficult to compare her quantitative data on square footage with data analyzed later in this report, as this work is based on an assumption that architectural finishes are intimately related to the spaces they adorn. In 1987 a second study was conducted on plaster finishes at twelve sites

at Mesa Verde; Spruce Tree House was not included in the survey. The survey found red and white bi-chrome schemes at five of the twelve sites, and a border of red triangles with dots above them in close to 50% of its occurrences. 18 Fetterman and Honeycutt note that the red and white bi-chrome design was the only type of design found in kivas. Furthermore, the design was found only
16 Constance Silver, Architectural Finishes of the Prehistoric Southwest: A Study of the Cultural Resource and Prospects for its Conservation, Masters thesis, Columbia University, December 1987. 17 Ibid., 17. 18 Jerry Fetterman and Linda Honeycutt, 1987 Mesa Verde Plaster Recordation Project. (internal report commissioned by Mesa Verde National park by Woods Canyon Archaeological Consultants, Inc., 1989), 64. 16

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

in kivas or in upper-story rooms overlooking kivas.19 These observations are consistent with other known locations of the design throughout the park, and will be tested at Spruce Tree House by this thesis. J. J. Brody presents an art historical framework for Pueblo painting and

pottery traditions in Anasazi and Pueblo Painting.20 Presenting 2000 years of image creation is no easy task and Brody discusses triangle and dot motifs only briefly. He identifies the motif as specific to kivas, and mistakenly assumes that Nordenskiolds Fig. 77 of Room 116(2) is in a kiva. 21 Brody also asserts that according to Fewkes white painted dados and triangles were used at another kiva in Spruce Tree House and sites the reference to Kiva A. Fewkes does not identify the triangle as white and the pattern in fact includes red plaster with some triangular incisions and white outlines, a pattern described in later architectural documentation by the park.22 A comprehensive survey of rock art and plaster finishes at Mesa Verde

National Park was completed by Sally Cole in 2004.23 The finishes at Spruce Tree House are described briefly and included in her quantitative assessments of such resources at the park.24 This report includes brief discussions of the function
19 Ibid., 64. 21 Ibid., 61.

20 J. J. Brody, Anasazi and Pueblo Painting (Albuquerque: School of American Research, 1991).

22 Brisbin, Glowacki and Barnett, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary, 261. 23 Sally J. Cole, Archeological Documentation and Assessment of Rock Art in Mesa Verde National Park, 1999-2004 (Mesa Verde National Park, CO: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 2004). 24 See Chapter 7 for more discussion of this report. 17

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

of architectural finishes at Mesa Verde but maintains a broad scope and does not interpret finishes on a room-by-room level. Sally Cole also addresses the triangle and dot motif as a significant

phenomenon in the San Juan region in Imagery and Tradition: Murals of the Mesa Verde Region.25 Cole does not expressly address the scheme found in Rooms 115(2) of Spruce Tree, but cites twelve known sites at Mesa Verde that exhibit similar triangle patterns and identifies the mural in Room 121 in the tower at Cliff Palace as the finest example.26 Starting from a different perspective, Larry Nordby uses architectural

forms and decorative finishes to understand how sites functioned at the village, clan and family level. Nordby notes that the most elaborate schemes at Spruce Tree House, Rooms 115(2) and Room 116(2), are also found in a large, threestoried building near the center of the village. He notes that the structure that includes Room 115(2) had kiva plazas on either side of it and was linked to both kivas by tunnels. Nordby cites these facts as clues to the social function Room 115(2) played as part of a central building used to unify the villages dual clan affiliations.27 A complete summary of architectural documentation on Spruce Tree

House was compiled in 2007 by Joel Brisbin, Donna Glowacki and Kay Barnett,
25 Sally J. Cole, Imagery and Tradition: Murals of the Mesa Verde Region, in The Mesa Verde World, ed. David Grant Noble (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 2006): 92-99. 27 Larry Nordby, Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture, in The Mesa Verde World, ed. David Grant Noble (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 2006), 116. 18 26 Ibid., 96.

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

and contains many indispensable facts on Room 115(2) and surrounding structures.28 This comprehensive document summarizes the sites occupational history, construction chronology, excavation and preservation history as well as a conjectural account of each rooms use. The report includes measurements for each space and summarizes the pictographs, petroglyphs and plaster finishes found throughout Spruce Tree. The report examines rooms and spaces within the context of their use:

household affiliation, ceremonial (kivas), public integrative architecture and miscellaneous structures. Room 115(2) is described as part of a complex of integrated architecture that was not affiliated with any one household or clan but utilized by the entire Spruce Tree community. Rooms 115(2) and 116(2) are described as sister rooms because both rooms are elaborately painted above and beyond any other room at Spruce Tree House, are adjacent and communicate with one another through a small wall opening.29 The application and design of the plaster finishes in Room 115(2) are

described as an overall coat of black plaster followed by a red dado with white triangles in groups of three projecting upward, surmounted by a continuous line of white dots that were later coated red. 30 The accumulation of soot on a white field, and not an initial application of black plaster, is responsible for the current

28 Brisbin, Glowacki and Barnett, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary. 29 Ibid., 146. 30 Ibid., 144. 19

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

dark upper portions of Room 115(2). The actual sequence of plaster applications can be demonstrated by reading sample stratigraphies and is discussed in Chapter 6 below. Before they were sooted, the finish scheme in Room 115(2) looked very similar to the scheme in Room 116(2), the original colors of which are still visible.

3.2 Symbolism in Pueblo Architecture


Many interpretations exist for the ubiquitous triangular patterns in Pueblo

painting and pottery. Cole lists mountains, clouds and corn mounds as possible sources for triangle imagery.31 According to Fewkes, the triangles at Spruce Tree House resemble similar inverted figures used by the Hopi, who use them as symbols for butterfly and rain clouds.32 A chart of cloud symbols used in existing Pueblo villages by Smith includes images similar, but not identical, to the triple isosceles triangle arrangement found throughout Mesa Verde.33 Assigning meaning to symbols and patterns in prehistoric Southwestern

art is a difficult pursuit. Ethnographic research on descendant groups is often used to suggest likely candidates, but how relevant recent meanings are after 700 years is unclear. Further more, the idea that the geometric patterns in Ancestral Puebloan had a single definite symbolic meaning is an assumption that may or may not apply to Spruce Tree House.
31 Cole, Imagery and Tradition, 96-99. 32 Fewkes, Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce Tree House, 52. 33 Smith, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awatovi and Kawaika-a, 244. 20

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Smith makes an important distinction between representation, an

attempted likeness of a thing, and symbolism:


is a sign by which one known or infers a thing or an idea. It stands for or suggests something else without having intentional resemblance to it; thus a pattern or a design element may stand for an intangible idea or quality or perhaps for some other object, which, by reason of outward similarity, familiar association, or arbitrary convention is brought to the mind of the observer when he beholds the symbol. 34

Smiths separation of these two terms is useful to keep in mind when

examining the patterns in Room 115(2) and throughout Spruce Tree House. It is impossible to know what an Ancestral Puebloan who used Room 115(2) thought as he created the markings, and what ideas or objects came to mind when another person beheld the markings. It is unknown whether the triangle and dot motif around the room

represented an aspect of the physical world or stood in symbolically for some other concept. Furthermore, it possible that the triangle over dado configuration, found throughout Pueblo II and III settlements, was an established convention by the time it was painted in Room 115(2) and any possible original representational meaning was already lost to time. Ortman escapes the maze of symbolism by suggesting an explanation

based on nonlinguistic metaphor at work in Ancestral Puebloan material culture.35 He proposes that interiors decorated with continuous banded patterns, kivas in
34 Ibid., 168.

35 Scott G. Ortman, Conceptual Metaphor in the Archaeological Record: Methods and an Example from the American Southwest, American Antiquity 64, no. 4 (2000): 613-645. 21

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

particular, reveal these rooms as containers, much like baskets and pottery.36 By suggesting the types of thought conventions at work in Ancestral Puebloan culture, Ortman suggests an insightful way to look at complex architectural finish schemes based on observed patterns and similarities. The cosmological order and religious belief system behind the container

metaphor is described at length by Swentzell. She suggests that pueblo myths give a clear description of the nature of the cosmos as well as the structuring of the house, kiva, and community forms.37 A diagram demonstrates possible morphological links between cosmologies of a world surrounded by sacred mountains, terraced pueblos surrounding a kiva, and a kiva interior surrounded by a banded motif of terraced triangles.38 Nordby cites the use of color and finishes to define spaces that helped

clans identify as a unified community. An example of this type of integrative architecture is Kiva Q at Cliff Palace, a kiva with no adjacent residential rooms that is painted in two colors that meet halfway.39 Nordby believes the same dual identity and unifying function is expressed at Spruce Tree House by similar finishes in Rooms 115(2) and Room 116(2), and the configuration of Rooms 23(1), 24(1), 25(1), 35(1) with the connecting tunnels below.
36 Scott G. Ortman, Ancient Pottery of the Mesa Verde Country, in The Mesa Verde World, ed. David Grant Noble (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 2006), 107. 37 Rina Swentzell, Pueblo Space, Form and Mythology, in Pueblo Style and Regional Architecture, ed. N. C. Markovich, W. F. E. Preiser and F. G. Sturm (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990), 23. 38 Ibid., 28.

39 Nordby, Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture, 116. 22

4.0 STAbiLizATiON HiSTOrY Of rOOM 115(2)


Spruce Tree House has been stabilized and modified in various

ways during its post-occupation history. Nordenskiold and the Wetherill brothers excavated through the rooms debris in their quest for artifacts and an understanding of the sites layout. In 1907 the rubble was cleared and the architectural fabric stabilized by Jesse Walter Fewkes in preparation for visitation to the newly established park. Since that time, efforts by the National Park Service and its partners have focused on maintaining the existing built fabric of the site and ensuring its stability for future generations.

4.1 Architectural Description of room 115(2)


Room 115(2) is currently defined by three walls on the east, south

and west sides (see plan of Spruce Tree House in Appendix A). A north wall completed the room during occupation but no longer exists. A narrow portion of the north wall remains adjacent to the north end of the west wall and there is plaster evidence that a north wall once abutted the north end of the east wall. The north wall of Room 115(2) overlooks Open Area D, the courtyard area above Kiva D. Two wooden vigas (beams) remain in place that once formed the ceiling

and floor between Room 24(1) and Room 115(2), respectively. The height of the original floor above the vigas can be inferred from thick plaster floor remnants that curve outward from all three remaining walls.

23

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

The east wall of Room 115(2) is shared with adjacent Room 113(2). The

rooms are connected by a wall entry that was originally T-shaped. The wall entry was modified prehistorically to a rectangular shape with a small step in the filled lower portions of the T. The wall entry contains a mortar collar that once held a stone slab that was opened and closed from Room 115(2).1 The south wall also contains a T-shaped wall entry that was modified

prehistorically into a rectangle by filling the bottom portion. This wall entry leads to Open Area 13(2), the roof top space above Room 35(2). The upper west corner of this wall entry is covered by a diagonally placed metal brace. It is not known when it was installed by the park service, but probably during the 1930s stabilization. This wall also contains two niches; one near the west wall and one near the east. The south wall also contains a vent near the ceiling adjacent to the west wall. This vent is directly above the heavily sooted southwest corner where a hearth was located. The south wall abuts the west wall, which has separated 18cm (at its widest point) from the south wall.2 The west wall of Room 115(2) contains a small wall entry on its north end.

This rectangular wall entry is located low on the wall, almost floor height, and is significantly smaller than the other nearby wall openings. It communicates with Room 116(2), an adjacent room with a similar finish scheme to Room 115(2). Three vigas extend across Room 115(2) and five vigas from an earlier

1 Brisbin, Glowacki and Barnett, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary, 145. 2 See discussion of construction sequence and diagram on page 36. 24

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

balcony extend partially across, delimiting the ceiling height of Room 115(2). A sharp line where the black soot ends on the upper walls at the level of the vigas also provides an obvious demarcation of where plaster for the ceiling of Room 115(2) and floor of Open Area 9(3) began. Ortho-rectified photographs of the south, west and east walls are illustrated on the following three pages.

25

26 4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

Figure 4.1. Ortho-rectified photograph of the south wall.

27 4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

Figure 4.2. Ortho-rectified photograph of the east wall.

28 4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

Figure 4.3. Ortho-rectified photograph of the west wall.

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

4.2 interventions by the National Park Service


After the creation of Mesa Verde National Park, Jesse Walter Fewkes

performed stabilization at Spruce Tree House with the goal of making the sites architecture accessible and comprehensible to visitors. Fewkes cleared rubble, patched areas and in some cases rebuilt portions of walls that were unstable or threatened without such interventions. An example of this significant type of intervention is the rebuilding of the wall above the T-shaped wall entry of Room 26. Fewkes determined that the walls condition, divided into two segments due to a collapse, required the rebuilding of the portion of the wall above the door. No historic documentation on the stabilization of Room 115 was available

during this study but interventions have been observed and recorded by NPS archaeologists during recent documentation efforts. Notable changes to the fabric and appearance of Room 115 are described below. Historic photos of Room 115(2) show that the top of the north wall of

Room 24(1), which would be the beginning of the north wall of Room 115(2), has an uneven profile different from that of today. Photographs taken during the prepark era by Chapin (1891) and Nordenskiold (1893) show missing masonry along the top course at the western edge of the wall. The wall profile remains the same in pre- (1907) and post-stabilization (1908) photographs by Jesse Nussbaum. A photograph by an unidentified photographer from 1925-30 shows a new profile, where the formerly depressed space has been filled in with masonry and raised

29

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

to a height slightly above the rest of the wall top. It is unknown what types of openings and or wall entries the north wall of Room 115(2) may have had. T-shaped doorways are commonly found in walls adjacent to kiva courtyards and the wall opening that opens onto Open Area D adheres to this pattern. It is therefore likely that Room 115(2) had a T-shaped wall opening on the north wall. A flat metal bracket has been placed at a 45-degree angle to the upper

west corner of the wall entry in the south wall. This metal bracket connects to a metal rod that continues outside the room. The top of the south wall has a number of large masonry units that are loose and may not be in their prehistoric locations. There are also numerous Fewkes-era and later patches in empty latilla

and viga sockets. A crack monitor has been installed by the NPS to demonstrate movement between the remaining portion of the north wall and the west wall that abuts it. Early Anglo-European visitors carved (now historic) graffiti into the rooms decorative finishes, and later attempts by the park to obliterate inscriptions with abrasion have damaged the finish in some areas.

4.3 Current Site use and Maintenance


Spruce Tree House is located in close proximity to other park amenities

and accessibility via a self-guided tour, making it one of the most popular and visited sites at Mesa Verde National Park. These facts combined with its high degree of material integrity have made the preservation and maintenance of
30

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

Spruce Tree House a park priority (see hierarchical resource sorting, described below). In 1994 the park began a collaboration with the Architectural Conservation

Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania on methods of documenting and conserving plaster finishes in alcove sites. The multi-phased Conservation of Architectural Surfaces Program for Archaeological Resources, CASPAR, was design to encompass a wide range of conservation activities.3 After the completion of a model project at Mug House, the architectural surface finishes in front country alcove sites were ranked according to physical condition, relative importance, and public accessibility.4 Since its development CASPAR has performed research and conservation work at numerous sites throughout Mesa Verde, including Cliff Palace, Long House, and Spruce Tree House. At Spruce Tree House, this work has included field documentation,

conditions assessments and reattachment of finishes at select high-priority areas throughout the site. Areas include Open Area 6(2), Room 104(2), Room 122(2), Room 123(2) and Room 115(2).

4.4 CASPAR in Room 115(2)


Conditions assessment and treatment were performed on Room 115(2)

in August 2010. Scaffolding was erected within Room 24(1) just below Room
3 Frank G. Matero, Managing Time, Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 42, no. 1 (2003): 39-58. 4 Ibid., 55.

31

4.0 STABILIZATION HISTORY

115(2)s former floor level. This arrangement allowed the conservators to have excellent access to all three of the rooms wall surfaces for close observation and careful consolidation treatment. A glossary of conditions previously used at Spruce Tree House was

augmented for the specific characteristics found in Room 115(2). Loss, deterioration, historic changes, and stabilization were carefully recorded in color on ortho-rectified black and white images of small wall sectors. This survey was in the process of digitization as this thesis was being written. After completion of the survey, consolidation techniques were assigned

to specific recorded conditions. Solutions of 5-10% gelatin in water with small amounts of glycerin and alcohol were used as a fixative to reattach delaminating plasters and washes. The temperature of the solutions was varied so that the gelatin could be used in its gel and liquid forms. Syringes and metal canulae were used to inject the gelatin. As the clay constituents expanded upon exposure to water, the finishes

became more plastic. Plaster and wash fragments were gently pressed back in place and became re-adhered to the underlying substrate with the gelatin adhesive and through the re-hydration of the clays. Finally, lime-based grout was used to secure loose stones, mortar and fill masonry cracks as needed.

32

5.0 SPruCE TrEE HOuSE ArCHiTECTurE


Spruce Tree House is a village built within a sandstone alcove; one

of many such alcoves that were adapted for communal use during the 13 th century A.D.. While cliff dwellings are one of the major attractions at Mesa Verde National Park, mesa top, canyon rim and valley settlements were a much more common type of Ancestral Puebloan settlement type. Many consistencies in Ancestral Puebloan architecture have been observed and codified into a standardized system of categorization, described below.

5.1 Ancestral Puebloan Architecture Categories & Designations


The types of structures found within Spruce Tree House are consistent

with other Ancestral Puebloan alcove dwellings and mesa top sites throughout the region. Standardized nomenclature has been developed at the park to aid in documentation and to further archaeological investigation into the way structures were used and built. The following is a summary of names and concepts used to study and describe architecture at Mesa Verde. The most common type of built structure at Spruce Tree House is the

simply dubbed room, an enclosed roofed space that is more often then not rectangular in plan. There are 131 rooms at Spruce Tree House that can be further subdivided by their presumed function.1

1 Donna M. Glowacki et al., Preserving the Occupational History of Spruce Tree House: Finalizing Architectural Documentation for Research, Public Education, and Management (Mesa Verde National Park, CO: Mesa Verde National Park, 2008), 5. 33

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

The function-derived categories are living or habitation room, granary

(storage for foodstuffs), storage room (for non foodstuffs) and mealing/grinding rooms.2 Rooms are usually built in interconnected blocks and can reach heights of four stories, though two stories are much more common. A second type of structure is the kiva, a long-used Hopi word for a

subterranean masonry structure with a wooden cribbed roof. The wooden roof was usually plastered over with earth and formed into a courtyard (see below). The use of kivas in Hopi, Tewa and other Pueblo communities in recent centuries has been ceremonial, and prehistoric kivas were once assumed to have adhered to this pattern. However, recent research suggests that the Ancestral Puebloans used kivas for multiple uses: residential use, ceremonial activities, perhaps even for burials and as refuse middens.3 The many interstitial spaces found throughout groups of room blocks

and kivas are called open areas. An open area can be a small rooftop above a second story room or designed as a large courtyard space above a kiva surrounded by rooms. Nordby further divides open areas into courtyards and work areas.4 Room suites and courtyard complexes are interpretive terms that

describe how groups of structures may have been utilized by individual social
2 Larry V. Nordby, Prelude to Tapestries in Stone: Understanding Cliff Palace Architecture (Mesa Verde National Park, CO: Mesa Verde National Park Division of Research and Resource Management, 2001), 10-15. 3 Ibid., 14. 4 Ibid., 14. 34

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

groups. Room suites are groups of rooms that connect with one another but may be physically attached to other rooms with which that they do not share entries, much like urban row houses. Room suites often encompass habitation, granary, and storage rooms. On a slightly larger scale, groups of room suites that look onto the same open areas (and likely shared kivas) are called courtyard complexes. Towers are less common structures but figure prominently in the spatial

configurations of Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House and similar large Pueblo III sites. Towers are circular in plan and rise to more than one story, often containing a hearth.5 A final term, miscellaneous structures, is used to categorize all other

structures occurring within Ancestral Puebloan sites that do not easily conform to the above categories. Examples of these include retaining walls and isolated walls built to limit access to certain areas.

5.2 Spruce Tree House Construction Chronology


The relative construction sequence at Spruce Tree House has been

diligently pieced together by National Park Service archaeologists through the use of tie-and-abutment patterns observed at wall intersections. Absolute dates have been established through dendrochronology performed on wooden

5 Barnett, Brisbin and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation, 2. 35

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

elements found throughout the site. With the use of over 300 tree-ring dates and observations of wall ties and wall abutments, 90% of Spruce Tree House has been accurately dated. The site was constructed over a period of 71 years, between A.D. 1206 and 1277.6 The construction of Spruce Tree House took place in energetic bursts

of building and reconfiguration over a century-long occupation period. The construction sequence forms a picture of an expanding community that had to continually adapted to new social and environmental challenges.7 The length of the alcove runs approximately north-south, with its open

ledge facing west-southwest. The northern end of the alcove contains the earliest structures of the settlement, built in A.D. 1200-1220. This group of kivas and rooms was followed by the construction of a kiva, room blocks and a large D-shaped courtyard near the center of the alcove in A.D. 1230-1240. This courtyard structure was added onto repeatedly and would eventually grow to contain Room 115(2).8 In a series of building campaigns that continued until A.D. 1277 (the latest tree ring date found), surrounding areas were filled with room blocks, kivas with open areas above them, and towers connected to defensive walls.9
6 Barnett, Brisbin and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation, 1.

7 The following summary of the construction sequence has been derived from Barnett, Brisbin and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation, and Glowacki et al., Preserving the Occupational History of Spruce Tree House. 9 Ibid., 7. 8 Ibid., Figure 1.5.

36

rm 23(1)

rm 23(1)

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

The D-shaped walled courtyard, originally built in A.D. 1231-1235, was

m 24(1)

split into rooms and had upper stories added through A.D. 1248. A schematic rm 24(1)

drawing of the complex construction sequence of this central D-shaped room

yard

block is shown below. The diagram below shows tie and abutment patterns, rm 25(1) which show how the west wall was completed first as the exterior of Room 113(2). The west wall and (now missing) north wall were built around A.D. 1246. rm 26(1) Lastly, the south wall was constructed, completing Room 115(2) by A.D. 1248.

A complete diagram of each stage of the construction sequence is shown in

1243-1244

A.D.1246 1246

A.D. 1248 1248


May 2011
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

rm 113(2)

rm 113(2)

rm 115(2)

rm 116(2)

rm 116(2)

Figure 5.1. Detail from a construction sequence diagram by author. See Appendix A for the complete diagram. 37

Rebekah Krieger

Integrative Architecture Construction Sequence

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

Appendix A.

5.3 integrative Architecture


The structure and functional designations described in Section 5.2 above

are an important tool in analyzing Ancestral Puebloan architectural sites and for facilitating standardized communication among scholars involved with Southwest archaeology. However, these designations do not address an emerging concept in the study of Ancestral Puebloan village organization: integrative architecture. This concept has been described in recent scholarship and has direct relevance to the appreciation of Room 115(2)s architectural context. Integrative architecture is described by Brisbin, et al (2007), as rooms

which are not clearly associated with a household. The complex of rooms that contains Room 115(2) is identified in the report as integrative architecture by virtue of its unusual morphology and construction history, which point toward a use other than habitation or storage.10 The 121 rooms at Spruce Tree House contain ample evidence that many

households groups occupied the site simultaneously in a cooperative manner. Integrative architecture presumably provides unifying space for the community, allowing social groups to connect through the use or appreciation of a shared structure. In an article that examines social structure in nearby Sand Canyon,

10 Ibid., 125. 38

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

Michael Adler notes that communities are not simply aggregates of interacting people; they are also aggregates of shared risks, interdependence, and identities.11 He also reminds the reader of an important fact, often over looked in architectural studies, that in practice the community is always in the process of being defined and redefined based on emigration and immigration, relationships with surrounding local populations, histories of land use, and conflict.12 These key notions of villages and communities as evolving and dynamic

support structures are key to understanding the architectural fabric of Spruce Tree House. As the village and its number of households grew, so too did its need for architecture that could be shared by multiple kinship groups: a structure to promote integration of an expanding community. The division of aggregated Puebloan communities at the supra household

scale into two separate precincts has been well documented by Ortman, Lipe and others.13 Dual divisions are also a part of the social structure and religious practices of contemporary pueblo communities in the area, notably the Tewa.14 Room 115(2) is part of a multi-storied D-shaped room block of 11

11 Michael Adler, Pueblo Community as Structure and Strategy in Seeking the Center Place, ed. Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen (Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 2002), 7. 12 Ibid., 3. 13 William Lipe and Scott Ortman, Spatial Patterning in Northern San Juan Villages A.D. 1050-1300 in Kiva 66, no. 1 (Fall 2000): 91-122.

14 Alfonso Ortiz, The Tewa World (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969), 8-11 and discussions of the Summer and Winter moieties of the Tewa. 39

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

contiguous rooms that are not associated with any household suites. The length of the room block is oriented east-west. Attached to its south end are buildings that demarcate the edge of the north district. The room block has a deliberately modulated series of entrances into both the south and the north courtyard complexes that surround it (see map of Spruce Tree House, Appendix A). One of the modes of access to the block of integrative architecture is through a tunnel from Kiva D to Room 26(1), below room 116(2). As described in a diagram in Appendix A, Room 115(2) was the final

addition to a series of building episodes that culminated in a three-story D-shaped room block that projects into the center of Spruce Tree House. Indeed, the frequent addition and increasing complexity of spaces within the integrative architecture block undoubtedly reflected the increasing plurality of the community living within the Spruce Tree alcove. The sequence in which walls around Room 115(2) were constructed is

rather convoluted and does not reflect typical Ancestral Puebloan wall planning. The unorthodox order in which the walls of the integrated architecture were built may reflect unexpected changes to the Spruce Tree community that necessitated unforeseen architectural adjustments. Furthermore, the D-shaped structure was an atypical geometry and the building techniques for curved walls may have been less codified than those for more commonly built rectangular room blocks and circular kivas. For discussion on instances of D-shaped structures in

40

5.0 SPRUCE TREE HOUSE ARCHITECTURE

the surrounding region, see Lipe and Ortman 2000 and 2002 on Sand Canyon community spatial arrangements.1516

15 William Lipe and Scott Ortman, Sand Canyon Pueblo: The Container in the Center in Seeking the Center Place, ed. Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen (Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 2002): 41-78.

16 Lipe and Ortman, Spatial Patterning in Northern San Juan Villages A.D. 1050-1300. 41

6.0 CLASSifiCATiON Of fiNiSHES AT MESA VErDE


6.1 Types of finishes and Pigments

Earthen finishes are one of the oldest types of architectural decoration,

formed of readily available natural materials: soil and water. Finishes is an umbrella term that encompasses many types of applied surface wall treatments. At Spruce Tree House, only two types of applied finishes are found: plasters and washes. Plasters and washes are distinguished by their application thickness and indirectly by their grain size distribution (see section on classification below). In her thesis on the characterization of finishes at Mug House (another site at Mesa Verde), Dix writes that
soil an assemblage of sand, silt, and clay particles comprises the bulk of the plaster. Clay is the binder, providing both cohesion between the [larger] soil particles and adhesion between the plaster layers and the wall. Sand and silt contribute bulk, although sand also helps control shrinkage and cracking. 1

This description applies to washes as well, though the size of particles used for washes are generally finer than those for plasters. Unlike many finishes and paints in the European architectural tradition, the finishes at Mesa Verde do not appear to contain an organic binder. Instead, they depend on the clay content of the soils and occasionally cryptocrystalline lime and gypsum for plasticity and adhesion. When the architectural finishes at Spruce Tree House were conceived

and executed, the creators chose materials that would suit their particular needs.
1 Linnaea Dix, Characterization and Analysis of Prehistoric Earthen Plasters, Mortars, and Paints from Mug House, Mesa Verde National Park Colorado (Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1996), 27. 42

6.0 CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES

According to Dix, soil is carefully selected for known properties such as grain size distribution, color, texture and lime contentit may be sifted and refined to achieve the optimum blend of clay and sand particles.2 Watson Smiths seminal work on Pueblo mural paintings contains

information on the material profiles and application techniques used for murals and finishes. Smith presents his descriptions as a tabulation of the work of many investigators on sites throughout the Southwest, noting how the results so closely corroborated each other that is seems perfectly safe to generalize from them. 3 Smith reported that the most commonly used red pigment was hematite

(Fe2O3), a stable iron oxide. For whites, Smith reports the use of kaolin (Al 2O3 2SiO22H2O) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Yellows vary widely in their intensity and have been found to include limonite (Fe 2O3n(H2O)). Smith suggests that in many instances, grays were intended as blues or have faded from their original intensity and bluish hue. It is certainly true that a mixture of pure white and black becomes an optical blue when juxtaposed with yellow- or red-hued colors. Puebloan gray/blue may have been a black pigment, possibly carbon from burned material, mixed with white siliceous or white clay materials.

6.2 Classification of finish Schemes


2 Ibid., 29.

3 Smith, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awatovi and Kawaika-a, 22-24. 43

6.0 CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES

An ongoing part of the documentation efforts at Mesa Verde has been to

create a set of precise guidelines on how to define and describe architectural surface finishes. Surface finishes are described by their thickness and method of application. Applied plaster is a layer (that may be one of many superimposed layers) greater than 1mm thick which has been worked to create a continuous, relatively uniform surface. Washes are a similar material to plasters, but are more thinly applied, less than 1mm thick.4 Terms that are used to describe components within a finish scheme are

described below: Aura: plaster or wash applied in a ring surrounding a wall opening, vent, or niche, usually a different color than the surrounding wall finish

Dado: plaster or wash extending from the floor up to the lower third or lower half of the wall

Field: plaster or wash covering the upper section of a wall, often above a floor band and/or dado

Floorband: plaster or wash extending around the perimeter of the room, one third or less of the wall height; sometimes an extension of floor plaster onto the vertical wall surface

Embellishments: discreet or repetitive patterns or motifs in addition to the components described above; they are further broken down into descriptive categories such as zoomorph, anthropomorph, and geometric

4 Mesa Verde National Park, Architectural Surface Finishes FORM Instructions Architectural Documentation Sheets 4A, 4B AND 4C. Internal document, 2008. 44

6.0 CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES

The above terms are the most common categories used to document and interpret Mesa Verde finish schemes. Using the above concepts, schemes are categorized as either simple or complex. Simple schemes describe a room or area containing only one components Complex schemes contain more than one component. For example, a simple finish scheme may be a room with a dado or

floorband alone, or a full wall finish of one color wash/plaster, or a room that contains a painted zoomorphic figure. A complex scheme may be comprised of only a dado and field, or in the most complex combination, a floorband, dado, field and embellishments as in the case of Room 115(2). The parsing out of these designations has lent a great deal of clarity to

the applied finish documentation purposes. Additionally, a direct correlation appears to exist between the complexity of a rooms finish and its architectural significance. Chapter 9 of this work utilizes this classification system to map finishes throughout Spruce Tree House.

45

7.0 uSE Of fiNiSHES AND iCONOGrAPHY


7.1 finishes as Strategy for Spatial Definition and Meaning
Architectural surface finishes transform the architectural space they

inhabit; they hold and create boundaries for both the users and the contents of the room. The phenomenological implications of this definition become intuitively obvious if we imagine a space with a red painting on canvas hanging in it, and a room painted entirely red. In the first instance, we can appreciate a contained piece of red, recognizing its boundaries and spatial separation from where we stand. In the second case, an observer is engulfed by the red finish and her/his visual horizons are defined by the finish. The spatial awareness of an observer is informed and delimited by the surrounding architecture. Architectural surface finishes define and transform the experience of the

user in architectural spaces. Countless civilizations have utilized colors and patterns to define architectural identity and function. The Ancestral Puebloans were no exception to this seemingly universal human need to define and embellish built space. Ancestral Pubeloans did not wield the communicative power of surface

finishes arbitrarily. Repetitive occurrences of finish types and color at Spruce Tree House and throughout the Mesa Verde region suggest that complex finish schemes were reserved for spaces with special uses. There is ample evidence throughout the archaeological record that kivas were adorned with complex finish schemes and murals. Kelley Hays-Gilpins essay on Hope kiva mural painting
46

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

describes how imagery painted in kivas had contextual meanings, not merely in reference to the space itself but to specific ceremonies that took place within it. Hays-Gilpin writes, Kiva murals were not meant to be visible in perpetuity. Apparently, each was painted for use in a particular ceremonial context, then painted over with a new layer of plaster.1 Room 115(2) is not a kiva as normally defined at Mesa Verde and does not contain numerous layers of finishes schemes and reapplications. However, frequent decorative finishes documented in kivas support the connection between special, public or non-household spaces and elaborate finish schemes. A number of dichotomies can be invoked to understand the spaces in

which finishes wereand were notused. Esoteric versus public; family versus clan; formal versus informal; sacred versus every day; these are just some of the considerations that help to define how and where applied colors, schemes and symbols are employed at Mesa Verde. While the Ancestral Puebloans may not have thought in terms of these strict dichotomies, they help the current researcher describe the occurrence and distribution of simple and complex finish schemes.

7.2 PubLiC AND PriVATE iMAGErY


Chapter 5 of this work addresses the varying function and use of

1 Kelley Hays-Gilpin, Beholding the Brightly Shimmering Land in Painting the Cosmos ed Kelley Hays-Gilpin and Polly Schaafsma (Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona, 2010): 1-18.

47

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

structures and spaces at Mesa Verde. Spaces can be identified by, and in turn correlated to, a hierarchy from the individual household level to integrative architecture recognized by the village at large. Imagery on ceramics and architectural decoration adheres to a similar private-to-public spectrum. Harry Shafer highlights the importance of this spectrum in his work on

Mimbres architectural development.2 Shafer summarizes a system of three spheres of social interaction created by H. M. Wobst and applied to Mimbres ceramic designs by Shafers colleague, Robbie Brewington, in an unpublished paper.3 Shafer describes Brewingtons Sphere 1 as the domestic arena where vessels used for cooking, serving, and storage were used daily. Sphere 2 is the extra domestic arena, a context that
would likely include public feasting, ceremonies, ritual displays, or gift giving between members of a community or nearby communitiesSymbols displayed--in dress, costumes, or on ceramics--would be understood by the people in Sphere 2 since they would carry shared iconographic symbols of social identification, status, and information exchange. 4

In the most socially distant Sphere 3, people would likely recognize iconographic symbols, but may not be able to decode the meanings.5 These distinctions have direct relevance to architectural decoration,

2 Harry J. Shafer, Architecture and Symbolism in Transitional Pueblo Development in the Mimbres Valley, SW New Mexico, Journal of Field Archaeology 22, (No. 1 Spring, 1995): 23-47. 3 H. M. Wobst, Stylistic Behavior and Information Exchange, in C. E. Cleland, ed., For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers 61 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977): 317-342. 5 Ibid., 37.

4 Shafer, Architecture and Symbolism in Transitional Pueblo Development , 37.

48

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

and illustrate well common activities where the public and private distinctions would have been most evident. We can easily imagine how such everyday and ritual activities would have required the use of separate architectural spaces. Participants and observers in household tasks, feasting, and ritual performances each had carefully delimited spatial access and understanding of its associated iconography.

7.3 Triangle and Mound imagery


Holding these three spheres of social interaction in our mind, we can

begin to understand the important role that integrative architecture played at Spruce Tree House. As a large aggregated community with 15 to 18 households grouped into dual- or triadic- village divisions, Spruce Tree House hosted activities such as communal feasting, interactions between clans or moieties, and the welcoming of visitors unknown to the community.6 These events required a variety of spatial areas with restricted access and carefully chosen iconography that were separate from the household or kiva. Integrative architecture recognized by the community, even if it had restricted access and use, would have been a necessary part of interactions on the supra household or phratry level. Integrative architecture may not have been physically accessible to every

individual, but it would have been recognized as such by all in the community
6 Nordby, Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture, 116. 49

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

and perhaps by visitors. Rooms 115(2) and 116(2) can be identified as significant communal and possibly ritualistic space by the special iconography they display. Cole confirms this in her comprehensive assessment of plaster and petroglyphs at Mesa Verde.7 She writes that plaster
is seen publicly on the exteriors of buildings and privately on the interiors of rooms that are presumed to have had more restricted access over time. The more private locations were likely to have been kivas and non- household rooms, particularly upper-story rooms that may have had ceremonial use. 8

Cole also notes that iconography such as triangle and dot imagery appears to be reserved for certain spaces, and is overwhelmingly private at Mesa Verde, and esoteric and ceremonial activities probably were involved in its depiction and use.9 Cole concludes that the distribution of uniform iconography, specifically

triangle/mound [her terms] imagery, around the Mesa Verde region has wideranging implications for Ancestral Puebloan social structure. She writes that it is unlikely so many groups spread over a large region would have developed identical iconography, and that the uniformity of triangle/mound imagery at dispersed Mesa Verde sites and sites outside the park (local and regional) point to the existence of a broad-based, socially integrative society with a shared iconography.10
7 Sally Cole. Archeological Documentation and Assessment of Rock Art in Mesa Verde National Park, 1999-2004. Mesa Verde National Park, CO: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 2004). 8 Ibid., 68. 9 Ibid., 75.

10 Ibid., 75. 50

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

7.4 New Directions: iconography


Archaeological research on the Mesa Verde region has focused on collecting data, but the interpretation of its iconography is still in development stages. Cole notes that triangles projecting from or sitting atop dados have frequently been interpreted by scholars as abstracted landscapes that symbolize mountains visible on the horizon. 11 Mesa Verdes location as a flat table with many mountain peaks visible over the horizon is consistent with this idea. As part of the Archeological Documentation and Assessment of Rock Art

in Mesa Verde National Park, Cole consulted with Hopi tribal affiliates to provide interpretations of pictographs, petroglyphs and plaster schemes throughout the park. A Hopi consultant at Spruce Tree House interpreted a triangle scheme with dots as tuawi, history. If we consider that mountains are a central theme in the cosmology of many Pueblo tribes, and that their myths are filled with travels through and beyond mountains, history and mountains appear to be complementary conceptual associations. In a paper on rock art at nearby Hovenweep National Monument, Nancy

H. Olsen includes a study of Hopi and Zuni symbols as a communication system.12 Before delving into a description of a wide lexicon of Hopi iconography, Olsen identifies abstraction as a key process in the formulation of symbolism, and a concept that must be addressed within studies of visual
11 Cole, Imagery and Tradition, 96-99. 12 Nancy H. Olsen, Hovenweep Rock Art: An Anasazi Visual Communication System (Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Archaeology Occasional Paper 14, 1985). 51

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

systems. She describes the iconography of the Hopi and Zuni as a graphic coding system.13 Triangle and dot motifs are not described in Olsens lexicon, but her account of how symbols are used as a visual language provides an excellent template for further study at Mesa Verde. Additional methods of interpretation of data on iconography and

architecture are now being explored, notably by Scott Ortman in his research on the role of metaphor in Ancestral Puebloan ceramic and textile patterns. Ortman posits that metaphor, a culturally specific thought pattern, is not limited to linguistic expressions but is also displayed in the production of material culture.14 He suggests, stylistic unity between pottery and textiles may have been but one expression of a more complex world view grounded in the imagery of containers.15 To apply Ortmans theory to another product of Ancestral Puebloan

material culture, architectural finishes may have been utilized to transform architectural spaces into cosmologically referential containers. Room 115(2) is a rectangular, second-story room composed of sandstone masonry and earthen plaster. Yet perhaps its dado, projecting triangle and dot iconography is needed to create a specialized container representing Puebloan cosmology. Another possibility is a combination of interpretations suggested above:

13 Ibid., 11.

14 Scott Ortman, Conceptual Metaphor in the Archaeological Record: Methods and an Example from the American Southwest, American Antiquity 65 (No. 4 October 2000): 613-645. 15 Ibid., 637.

52

7.0 USE OF FINISHES AND ICONOgRAPHY

that by A.D. 1250 the use of the triangle and dot motif had become widespread throughout the region as an archetypal image whose original literal or symbolic meaning had already been lost to time. It could already have become a culturally ingrained iconography that held different meanings in different settlements and areas. This accepted, potently meaningful, decorative motif was then utilized as integrative architecture entered the architectural lexicon.

53

8.0 CHArACTErizATiON Of fiNiSHES


8.1 Methodology
Instrumental analysis was performed to characterize the physical

attributes of the finish samples. Data was collected on layer structure and micromorphology, application method, and elemental composition. Methods were chosen that had been demonstrated in past studies of finishes analysis at Mesa Verde to be useful as well as time- and cost-effective.1 Before sampling, all wall surfaces were recorded and examined. The

conditions assessment performed in August 2010 provided an opportunity for the author to familiarize herself with every detail of the walls of Room 115(2). Appropriate representative and distinct locations for sampling were noted. The condition and appearance of the finishes were recorded as part of the assessment and observed for later characterization studies. After observations and the conditions assessment were complete, samples of washes and plasters were collected from all three extant walls of Room 115(2). The exact location from which each sample was collected is shown in Appendix B. This illustration gives an effective visual representation of how the sampling was distributed over the three walls. Following that are three illustrations that show photomicrographs of each sample grouped by wall. A matrix that describes the samples collected and testing performed is on the following page.
1 See previous University of Pennsylvania Historic Preservation theses, including Collum 2008, Ferron 2007, Hall 2007, McDougall 2009, and Slater 1999 for information and testing results on finishes at Mesa Verde. 54

Spruce Tree House Room 115(2) Sample


Material Sample Location and Type west wall, middle field, off extruded smooth mortar west wall from middle triangle embellishment west wall, middle dado west wall floor band east wall, southeast group of triangles, intersection of white dot and soot south wall T-door infill mortar west wall at north wall juncture, original bedding mortar south wall, west niche's eastern corner, taken off mortar, 45" from visual floor [field] not tested not tested thick section thick section thick section with darkfield illumination thick section, SEM-EDS thick section with darkfield illumination thick section finish finish finish finish finish mortar mortar finish finish finish finish finish finish finish finish finish finish finish finish south wall, off mortar, 18" above visual floor [dado] south wall, off mortar, 6" above visual floor [floorband] east wall, off mortar, 50" above visual floor [field] east wall, off mortar, 34" above visual floor [dado] Testing and Analysis

Sample Number

5MV0640-115(2)-01

5MV0640-115(2)-02

5MV0640-115(2)-03

5MV0640-115(2)-04

5MV0640-115(2)-05

5MV0640-115(2)-06

Table 8.1. Sample and testing matrix.


south wall below west niche, taken off stone, 32" above visual thick section with darkfield illumination floor [dado] thick section thick section thick section thick section, SEM-EDS east wall, red aura south of T-door, off stone, 54" above visual thick section with darkfield illumination floor [aura] east wall, T-door interior jam, off stone, 48" from visual floor, 1" from wall of jamb east wall floor band, 3" above visual floor west wall, surface gray smear on red wash (last layer), 9" from visual floor east wall, abutment with missing north wall, off mortar, 52" above visual floor east wall off mortar, 0" from visual floor, floor/floor band thick section thick section thick section, SEM-EDS thick section thick section

5MV0640-115(2)-07

5MV0640-115(2)-08

5MV0640-115(2)-09

55

5MV0640-115(2)-10

5MV0640-115(2)-11

5MV0640-115(2)-12

5MV0640-115(2)-13

5MV0640-115(2)-14

5MV0640-115(2)-15

5MV0640-115(2)-16

5MV0640-115(2)-17

5MV0640-115(2)-18

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

5MV0640-115(2)-19

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Areas were chosen that are representative of each observed layer

element. Four samples were taken of the field, four of the dado, four of the floorbands, and three of the embellishments.2 Samples were also collected of the aura surrounding the wall entry on the east wall and from inside the jamb of the wall entry. Intact and unique embellishments, such as the white handprint on the east wall, were not considered for sampling. All samples were collected before consolidation and grouting treatments were performed on the wall. Instrumental analysis began with the observation of samples with optical

light microscopy. Each bulk sample was observed under low magnification and then divided if necessary to obtain the most complete and representative stratigraphy. Photomicrographs were taken of each sample to help in the determination of layer structure and to use as visual aids while performing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Finally, multiple SEM techniques were used to confirm layer structure,

identify texture and compositional differences in optically indistinguishable layers, and to identify the compositions of the red, white and blue/gray embellishment samples.

8.2 On-site Observations


Room 115(2) gets very little daylight and much of the wall surfaces are covered with black soot, making colors and patterns difficult to decipher. This
2 For a complete list of samples collected, see page 54. 56

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

fact may explain the dearth of observations given by Nordenskiold, Fewkes and others early observers when they provided generous descriptions of similar finish schemes in Room 116(2) directly adjacent to Room 115(2). Heavy sooting begins approximately above the dado level, and is darkest

on the south and west walls. The sooting is thickest at the southwest corner, where archaeologists presume a hearth was located. 3 The soot has adhered thickly to the field (white) while accumulating in a much more limited, thinner fashion on the dado (red) finish. This gives the appearance of a field of black plaster above a red dado, and this scheme interpretation has been recorded in several types of documentation by the park.4 Microscopic observation of stratigraphies in thick section has disproved this observation, and will be described in more detail in chapter 9 below.

Figure 8.1. Heavy sooting in the southwest corner of Room 115(2). 3 Barnett, Brisbin and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary, 145. 4 Ibid., 144.

57

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

The presence of both white and red dots above the dado and triangles

embellishments has been another source of contention. Close observation suggests that the white dots are actually the white color wash of the field showing the negative shape of where a red dot was once applied and fell off after the sooting occurred, observable in Figure 8.2 below. This problem was solved through field observation and examination of samples in thick section, described below in Section 8.3.

Figure 8.2. The white dot where sooted red wash has fallen off to reveal the white field beneath. 58

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Other scheme components that were observed were separate layers of

two light yellowish brown floorbands. Other patterns that emerged from on-site observation were that much more finish loss had occurred on stone substrate than on mortar joints or areas of extruded smoothed mortar. Many stones appear to have a white coating that is a naturally occurring calcium carbonate precipitate on the sandstone called caliche. Based on texture, depth and color, these areas were determined not to represent white finish and schemes were recorded accordingly. On-site observations were key in understanding abutment of the no-

longer extant north wall on the east wall of Room 115(2). A narrow column of the north wall exists next to the east wall and the finish scheme that is evident on the three other walls appears to continue onto this fragment of the north wall. Where the north wall once abutted the east wall, an area of red plaster that does not show any evidence of exposure to soot stretches from the floor to ceiling level. This area was sampled to confirm whether or not the red finish on the area of abutment matched a red layer on another part of the wall, presumably one applied before the area became an interior space. The remnants of an embellishment panel that has almost completely

disappeared were observed in the southern end of the west wall dado. A bluegray smear, sample 5MV0640-115-17, was collected for characterization.

59

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.3. The blue-gray smear, possibly from an embellishment, on the west wall.

8.3 Optical Light Microscopy


8.3.1 Sample Preparation The samples were first studied under reflected light using a Leica MZ16

stereoscope with a magnification range of 10x to 115x. The stereoscope provides a three-dimensional image with a zoom lens, allowing flexible observation at lowlevel magnification suitable for bulk sample analysis. General data was gathered and, where multiple fragments of a sample existed, the fragment that best
60

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.4. A plaster sample from Room 115(2) embedded in resin, prior to cutting and polishing.

represented a complete layer structure was chosen for embedding. After samples were selected from the bulk collection, they were embedded in Wards Bioplastic, a polyester/methacrylate resin. A methyl ethyl ketone peroxide catalyst is used to initiate set. The samples were allowed to cure at room temperature for four days. Cured samples were cut into 1-3mm thick sections using a Buehler

IsoMet Low Speed Saw with a micro-diamond blade. Stoddard solvent was used as a lubricant. Samples were not polished after cutting due to the delicate

61

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

and friable nature of the sample material. To help dislodge micro-particles of the embedding resin from the surface and pores, samples were vibrated in a bath of Stoddard solvent in an ultrasonic dental cleaning machine for one to five minutes. Samples were then mounted on glass slides by applying a heated droplet of Cargille Meltmount. Stoddard solvent was used in lieu of water in all processes to discourage the binderless earthen finishes from smearing or disaggregating. Before examination under a microscope, one to two drops of Stoddard

solvent was applied and each slide was covered with a glass cover slip. Two microscopes were used to examine and photograph the thick section samples: the Leica MZ16 and the Nikon Optiphot2-POL. The Leica MZ16 was used to identify overall layer structure and characteristics that are best observed at low magnification. Magnifications used ranged from 50x to 115x magnification. Color matching of the cross sectional layers was performed using the Munsell Color Notation System on the Leica MZ16 using a daylight filter and samples saturated with Stoddard solvent as described above.5 High magnification inspection and photomicrographs were taken with the

Nikon Optiphot2-POL, a compound microscope offering higher magnification than the Leica stereoscope at 500x--1000x. 8.3.2 Optical Light Microscopy Observations Overall, layers exhibited good cohesion, with fracturing between layers

occurring in only a few samples. Plaster layers contained a coarse fraction


5 Munsell Book of Color, 1976. 62

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

of fine sand that ranged in sphericity from sub-elongate to equant with particle shapes ranging from subangular to subrounded. The finer matrix of silt and clay sized particles appeared as bright loci of red pigmentation with smaller rounded agglomerates in many samples, including 5MV0640-115-03 (red and yellow), 5MV0640-115-14 (red) and 5MV0640-115-15 (red). In a few cases, isolated brightly colored artifacts were observed, such as the yellow blebs in Sample 5MV0640-115-11 and an ochre-colored inclusion in Sample 5MV0640-115-15 was observed in the form of a flattened sphere 3mm across; all to be expected in raw soil materials. Light-colored washes collected from the field portion of Room 115(2) did

not display any coarse fraction as noted elsewhere in previous studies of Mesa Verde washes. In Room 115(2), they are made up primarily of (relatively) large round and subround particles. The floorband samples are similar in color to the field but contain much finer textured sand and silt. Significantly, microscopic observation proved the theory that areas

previously identified as black plaster are in fact an accumulated layer of soot deposition on the surface. In some embedded samples the soot has partially detached from the finish surface, but in the majority of samples with sooting (for example, 5MV0640-115-01, 5MV0640-115-12, and 5MV0640-115-15) it is clearly a thin deposit of dark amorphous particles adhering to the surface. Sample 5MV0640-115-17, its source illustrated on page 60 above, is a
63

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.5. A deposition of soot on the last finish layer in sample 5MV0640-115-15.

scraping of a gray/blue colored smear in the dado, presumably the remainder of an embellishment that is now illegible due to deterioration. The photomicrograph does not represent a layer structure but is observed only as a sampling of a wash or paint. The sample shows round light-colored particles surrounded by much finer subangular aggregate. This sample was chosen for further study with SEMEDS. Samples 5MV0640-115-03, 5MV0640-115-05, 5MV0640-115-09 and

5MV0640-115-14 were observed on the Nikon Alphabot-2 microscope with a Darklite Illuminator with a BV (blue-violet) filter engaged. The Darklite Illuminator creates a pseudo-dark field illumination. This type of illumination was
64

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

utilized to see if it would reveal ambiguities in the samples layer structure. The technique was successful, with slight differences emerging under the pseudodark field illumination in layers that had appeared very similar under reflected quartz halogen light.

8.4 Stratigraphy Data forms


This section contains all 17 stratigraphy data forms that include

photomicrographs, labeled layer structures, Munsell color designations, and other pertinent information. The forms provide a useful condensed version of much of the known information connected with each sample and formed the basis for further testing and Room 115(2) scheme interpretation. The samples maintained their layer structure throughout the preparation

process. Observation of their individual stratigraphies and the recording of each samples appearance via photomicrograph proceeded well. After viewing all the samples, it became apparent that the east wall of Room 115(2) has a different layer structure from that of the west and south walls. This makes sense in light of Room 115(2)s staggered construction sequence.6 The projected schemes for Room 115(2) are discussed and illustrated in chapter 9.

6 See Figure 5.1, page 37. 65

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-01

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) west wall DESCRIPTION: middle field, off extruded smooth mortar
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: 5X SOFTWARE: MAGNIFICATION:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1 S

2.5Y 8.5/4 7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 5/6

-/ + +

pale yellow field wash, soot strong brown preparatory plaster strong brown substrate not shown

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

66

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-02

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) west wall DESCRIPTION: middle triangle embellishment
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

NIS Elements BR

50X

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

3 2 1 S

7.5YR 4/6 10YR 7/4 7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 5/6

strong brown embellishment wash very pale brown field wash strong brown preparatory plaster strong brown substrate not shown
67

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-03

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) west wall DESCRIPTION: middle dado
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: 10X MAGNIFICATION: 100X SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

BV Filtered Image

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1

7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 5/6

-/ +

strong brown dado wash, soot substrate not shown

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2

strong brown preparatory plaster

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

68

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-04

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) west wall DESCRIPTION: floor band
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: 10X MAGNIFICATION: 100X SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

4 3 2

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

4 2 3

2.5Y 6/4 7.5YR 4/4 2.5Y 6/4 7.5YR 4/4 10YR 5/6

+ +

1 S

strong brown dado wash light yellowish brown floorband, wash brown floor plaster yellowish brown substrate, not shown
69

light yellowish brown floorband, wash

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
5MV0640-115-05 SITE: Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall DESCRIPTION: SE group of triangles, intersection of white dot and soot
SAMPLE NO: DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

115X

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

4 4 3

BV Filtered Image

1 S
LAYER COLOR THICKNESS DESCRIPTION

5 4 3

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

2 1 S

7.5YR 5/6

2.5Y 6/4

-/ + + +

[embellishment detached]
light yellowish brown field wash, soot

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 1

7.5YR 5/6 10YR 3/2

strong brown dado plaster strong brown preparatory plaster very dark grayish brown plaster not shown, detached
70

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-08

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) south wall
DESCRIPTION:

west niche's eastern corner, off mortar, 45" from visual floor [field]

DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

40X

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1

2.5Y 6/4

-/ + +

7.5YR 6/10 7.5YR 4/6

7.5YR 4/6

field and soot layer preparatory red

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2

inclusion SCHEME 2 mortar substrate, only partial thickness shown

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

71

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-09

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) south wall
DESCRIPTION:

below west niche, taken off stone, 32" above visual floor [dado]

DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

50X

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

BV Filtered Image

1
LAYER COLOR THICKNESS DESCRIPTION

2 1

7.5YR 5/6 7.5YR 4/6

+/ +

strong brown dado and soot layer strong brown preparatory plaster off stone, no substrate collected

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

72

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-10

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) south wall DESCRIPTION: off mortar, 18" above visual floor [dado]
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

80x

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

1 S

7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 5/6

+/ +

strong brown dado and soot layer strong brown preparatory plaster mortar substrate, partial thickness

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

73

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-11

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) south wall DESCRIPTION: off mortar, 6" above visual floor [floorband]
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

5X

NIS Elements BR

MAGNIFICATION: 50X

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION light yellowish brown floorband, partial thickness SCHEME 3

3 2 1 S

2.5Y 6/4 7.5YR 4/6 2.5Y 6/4 7.5YR 4/6

+ +

[overlapping] strong brown dado plaster light yellowish brown floorband plaster strong brown dado plaster

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

74

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-12

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall DESCRIPTION: off mortar, 50" above visual floor [field]
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

1 S
LAYER COLOR THICKNESS DESCRIPTION

3 2 1 S

2.5Y 7/4 7.5YR 4/6 10YR 3/2 7.5YR 4/6

-/ + +

pale yellow field wash and soot layer SCHEME 3 strong brown preparatory plaster strong brown mortar substrate
75 SCHEME 2

very dark grayish brown exterior plaster SCHEME 1

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-13

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall DESCRIPTION: off mortar, 34" above visual floor [dado]
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

63X

1 S

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1

2.5YR 6/4 7.5YR 4/6 7.5YR 5/6 7.5YR 4/6

+ + +

light reddish brown dado plaster strong brown preparatory plaster

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 1

mortar substrate, partial thickness


76

very dark gray brown exterior plaster

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-14

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall
DESCRIPTION:

red aura south of T-door, off stone, 54" above visual floor [aura]

DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

BV Filtered Image

3 2

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1 S

10YR 7/4 10YR 7/4

very pale brown field wash*

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 2

7.5YR 5/6

strong brown plaster, layers indeterminate

very pale brown aura wash* off stone, none collected

*Alternately, the aura layer maybe be on the surface. 77

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall
DESCRIPTION: T-door interior jam, off stone, 48" from visual floor, 1" from wall of jamb DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

5MV0640-115-15

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

6 5 4

3 2 1

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

6 5 4 3 2 1 S

2.5YR 5/10 2.5Y 7/4 7.5YR 4/2 7.5YR 5/6 7.5YR 6/10 7.5YR 4/6

-/ -

red wash

SCHEME 4 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 1

pale yellow wash

+ + +

brown dado wash strong brown preparatory plaster reddish yellow inclusion strong brown exterior plaster not shown
78

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
5MV0640-115-16 SITE: Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall
SAMPLE NO: DESCRIPTION:

east wall floor band, 3" above visual floor AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

4 3 2

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

3 2 1 S

2.5Y 7/4

7.5YR 5/6 2.5Y 7/4 7.5YR 5/6

pale yellow floorband wash strong brown dado wash pale yellow floorband wash strong brown floor plaster substrate not shown
79

SCHEME 3 SCHEME 3 SCHEME 2 SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-17

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) west wall DESCRIPTION: light blue grey pigment from indeterminant embellishment
DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

115X

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION SCHEMES 3 AND 4

N/A

80

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-18

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall
DESCRIPTION: DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

abutment with missing north wall, off mortar, 52" above visual floor

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen OBJECTIVE: SOFTWARE:

NIKON OPTIPHOT2-POL

5X

MAGNIFICATION:

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

50X

2 1

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

2 1 S

7.5YR 4/6 10YR 3/2 7.5YR 4/6

+ +

north wall abutment mortar

SCHEME 2 SCHEME 1

strong brown mortar substrate

very dark grayish brown exterior plaster

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

81

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS
SAMPLE NO: SITE:

5MV0640-115-19

Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde National Park LOCATION: Rm 115(2) east wall
DESCRIPTION:

off mortar, 0" from visual floor, floor [floor band]

DATE SAMPLED / ANALYZED: MICROSCOPE: CAMERA:

AUG 2010 / FEB 2011

ILLUMINATION: Reflected Quartz Halogen MAGNIFICATION: SOFTWARE:

Leica MZ16

NIKON Digital Sight Fi-1

NIS Elements BR

100X

2 1

LAYER

COLOR

THICKNESS

DESCRIPTION

1 S

2.5Y 6/4

10YR 7/4 10YR 5/6

light yellowish brown floorband wash SCHEME 3 very pale brown floorband wash floor or dado plaster
SCHEME 2

Key: + plaster, - wash, / layer of soot, ^ fracture

82

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

8.5 SEM Testing


Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed by Dr. Lolita Rotkina at the Penn Regional Nanotechnology Facility on a FEI Quanta 600 FEG ESEM microscope. SEM is a technique that utilizes a directed beam of electrons, rather than light, to study the surface of a sample. The microscope forces electrons in a vacuum through an electromagnetic field towards a sample. The ways in which these electrons react when they reach the atoms of the sample can provide a variety of data types.7

A digital image of the topography of the sample may be produced using

backscattered electrons, called a Backscatter Image. This image is created by a detector that senses high-energy electrons bounced back from the surface of the sample in a variety of ways. Backscatter images are displayed as two colors (i.e. black to white, yellow to blue), and can represent the excitation level of electrons on a scale from black to white (for example) or can show the locations of heavier and lighter elements (also on a two-tone scale). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) may be employed to create

an elemental spectrum of a given area. This spectrum shows characteristic X-ray bands of specific elements. After a spectrum was collected, significant elements were mapped over the same area. The map is formed by dots that represent
7 Information on SEM testing was provided by Dr. Lolita Rotkina and HSPV Advance Conservation Science Spring 2010 notes from Dr. A. Elena Charola. For further information on this and other types of testing, see Gilberto Artioli, Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). 83

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.6. Backscatter image of Sample 5MV0640-115-02 showing excitation levels (black to blue) and lighter to heavier elements (black to orange).

Figure 8.7. An elemental map of Silicon in sample 5MV0640-115-02, which follows closely the visible distribution of siliceous quartzic-feldspathic sand in the sample. 84

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

every location of a given element. The longer the scan, the more detailed the map may become. Elemental mapping images can be layered to show where multiple elements overlap. This technique can also provide clues on the presence of compounds. 8.5.1 SEM Sample Preparation Samples 5MV0640-115-02, 5MV0640-115-13 and 5MV0640-115-17 were

subjected to SEM analysis. Sample 5MV0640-115-02 was chosen because it contains representative samples of a red plaster finish and a portion of the red triangular embellishment applied over the white field. Sample 5MV0640-11513 was chosen because it contains a thick layer of the earlier red preparatory plaster and a layer of browner plaster that was applied to the east wall of Room 115(2) when it was the exterior of Room 113(2), allowing a comparison of the composition of these two layers. Lastly, Sample 5MV0640-115-17, the gray/blue embellishment, was tested to collect clues to its composition and source. Samples used for SEM analysis were the same embedded samples

previously used for photomicrography. The three samples chosen for SEM were removed from their glass sides and mounted with carbon tape on aluminum stages. The samples were then coated with a thin dusting of graphite powder by technicians at the Penn Regional Nanotechnology Facility. The carbon tape and coating help to ensure conductivity between the microscopes beam of electrons and the sample. Backscatter images, EDS spectra and elemental maps were

85

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

collected for all three samples, shown in Appendix D. 8.5.2 SEM Findings Sample 5MV0640-115-02 Backscatter imagery of this sample shows the presence of heavy

elements in the dado layer but none in the embellishment layer. These two layers appear virtually identical with optical microscopy. The heavier elements are confined to the dado layer and do not appear in the thin light-colored field wash.8 The EDS results show silicon (Si) as the largest elemental constituent,

which probably represents the siliceous sand fraction of the soil plaster. The results also show a very strong band pattern for bromine (Br). Aluminum (Al) closely follows the presence of bromine. Subsequent elemental mapping shows that the bromine corresponds exactly with the heavier elements shown in the backscatter image. The presence of bromine in the dado plaster but not in the similar-appearing embellishment wash suggests that the two layers were applied at different time and/or that the soils for each were retrieved from different sources. A second strong band in the spectrum is calcium (Ca). The mapping of

calcium correlated directly with the light-colored field wash. The wash is most likely composed of caliche, a calcium carbonate precipitate that forms within the soil and on rock surfaces and is a readily available source of white pigment at Mesa Verde. Iron (Fe) was detected but elemental mapping revealed only a few
8 For SEM data, see Appendix D. 86

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.8. Elemental map of 5MV0640-115-02 showing silicon (red) and oxygen (blue) to siliceous grains. Areas without nodes of silicon correlate to areas of bromine.

discreet nodes of the element. This is consistent with other analyses of similar samples from Mesa Verde. Sample 5MV0640-115-13 The goal of analysis on this sample was to determine compositional

textural difference between the thick preparatory layer and the browner layer below that was an exterior finish on the east wall. Also of interest were compositional differences between the top dado layer and the thick preparatory layer beneath, which are difficult, but just possible, to distinguish from one
87

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

another with optical microscopy. Backscatter imagery shows that the top dado layer has a much finer

texture than the plaster beneath, in which a well-sorted aggregate is observable. The lowest brown layer also has a different texture, with a similar sand grain size as the thick preparatory layer above but with less density of grains. Elemental mapping did not reveal any new or unexpected information regarding the layer structure or composition. The strongest band in the spectrum was silicon, followed by aluminum, oxygen, potassium and iron, all constituents of mineralogical clays. A backscatter image and an elemental map of calcium are shown on the following page. Sample 5MV0640-115-17 During on-site observation it was theorized that the gray/blue embellishment on the west wall might be composed of ground shale-derived clays, a plentiful mineral resource at Mesa Verde. Shale is defined as a mixture of clay minerals together with detrital quartz, feldspar and mica.9 The spectra of the sample confirmed this theory, revealing a higher

proportion of potassium (K) than the other two samples. Potassium is a key mineral in feldspar, which is a mineral found in shale. In other aspects, the spectrum was similar to the other samples, showing silicon, aluminum, and oxygen as the leading elemental constituents. Elemental mapping showed that silicon, aluminum and oxygen are concentrated in areas where fine, gray silt
9 Chris Pellant, Rocks and Minerals (New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 2002), 231. 88

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.9. Backscatter image of 5MV0640-115-13 shows a finer texture in the top layer.

Figure 8.10. Particles of calcium are distributed randomly throughout sample 5MV0640-115-13 as naturally occurring particles in a heterogeneous earthen plaster. 89

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

particles are observable in the photomicrograph. The sample also contains iron, calcium and magnesium. Two large cream-colored particles were also studied, one of which has

small light-colored spherical particles within it. These spheres may be ooliths, spheroidal particles usually composed of calcite that form in certain marine conditions.10 In the backscatter image, the small 20mm light-colored spheres were clearly visible and appear to be a similar atomic weight as the light-colored particle that does not contain any spheres. The spectrum shows calcium as the strongest band, with potassium and

silicon as significant constituents as well. Other elements include aluminum, magnesium, chloride, sulfur, phosphorus, and iron. Elemental mapping shows a high concentration of calcium in both light-

colored particles. The particle without the spheres closely resembles particles of calcium carbonate found in samples of Room 115(2)s field when observed under the optical microscope. Significantly, elemental mapping reveals that a heavy concentration of phosphorus coincides exactly with this particle. No phosphorus was found in the field-layer particles of 5MV0640-115-02 that otherwise have a similar appearance.

10 Ooliths were suggested during a meeting with petrographer John Walsh of Highbridge Materials Consulting, Inc. He was surprised at finding such small ooliths but the elemental mapping confirms that the particles are calcium. 90

8.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF FINISHES

Figure 8.11. Backscatter image of sample 5MV0640-115-17. Ooliths are visible at the center, and the large white particle at the lower right.

Figure 8.12. Elemental map showing calcium (red), silicon (green) and phosphorus (blue). The purple color on the lower right reflects a high phosphorus and calcium content. 91

9.0 iNTErPrETATiON Of fiNiSHES AT SPruCE TrEE HOuSE AND rOOM 115(2)


9.1 Spruce Tree House finishes
9.1.1 Methodology To understand the significance of Room 115(2) in relation to surrounding

architecture as implied by its finish schemes, data on petroglyphs, pictographs, and earthen finishes throughout Spruce Tree House was compiled into a table and mapped.1 This data came from a variety of unpublished reports and notes created by staff at Mesa Verde National Park.2 This architectural documentation, archaeological studies and reports

on pictorial rock and plaster resources throughout the park provided varying levels of detail and types of information. In many cases, information appeared in one resource but not another. In a few case ambiguous data was found and contradictions emerged. The most comprehensive and recent source was deferred to in those cases. The complete table of results is included in Appendix C. The contradictory data reflects the inherent difficulties in recording finishes

at Mesa Verde, not a lack of competency in the recorders. The collection of information on finishes at Spruce Tree is complicated by the deteriorated state of the finishes themselves and the difficult lighting conditions in the spaces.
1 See Appendix C for the data tables. Maps below on pages 96 and 97.

2 Sources include: internal notes provided by the CASPAR project; Brisbin et al, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation; Glowacki et al, Preserving the Occupational History of Spruce Tree House; and Cole, Archeological Documentation and Assessment of Rock Art in Mesa Verde National Park, 1999-2004. 92

9.0 INTERPRETATION

Documentation usually requires the use of electrical lighting. While the artificial light vastly improves the observers ability to see details and patterns, it is still a world away from the lighting conditions in which the finishes were used and executed. It is therefore impossible to definitively identify how the finishes were originally intended to be experienced. The completeness and deterioration of finishes also creates uncertainty

in the collection and analysis of data. It is important to always keep in mind that where no finish is observed, a finish may once have existed in that location. Admittedly, very few finishes have deteriorated so completely that a careful and trained eye cannot decipher the remnants or ghost of a nearly lost finish. Still, it would be a fallacy to assume that the data collected presents a total picture of the finishes that existed at Spruce Tree House during its period of occupation. Lastly, only data on rooms and kivas have been deemed relevant to the

study of Room 115(2). Information on open areas and miscellaneous structures has not been addressed in the study. These areas are certainly worthy of further study even while being outside the scope of this work. 9.1.2 Interpretation In order to draw out patterns in finish placement and use at Spruce Tree

House, some of the categories described in Chapter 6 above have been used to illustrate the distribution of finishes throughout Spruce Tree. The five categories of components are:

93

9.0 INTERPRETATION

Petroglyphs

not many petroglyphs are reported in Spruce Tree

House; this category includes stone modification markings such as grinding slicks discreet painted images that occur independently of decorative schemes that reference architecture only one finish component, such as a floorband or a monochrome full-wall finish in a room

Pictographs

Simple Scheme

Complex Scheme more than one finish component in a room, such as a dado and a floorband rooms that contain triangle and dado configurations with dots have been identified as a specific motif

Triangle and Dot

It is this authors understanding that under the parks classification

system, components such as petroglyphs and pictographs are included in the quantification of a rooms scheme type. In practice this means that a single pictograph qualifies as a simple scheme and a pictograph plus a floorband constitutes a complex scheme. This thesis focuses on the interaction between architectural features, program, and decorative finishes. Thus, the identification of simple and complex schemes has been limited to finish components such as dados, fields, floorbands and embellishments that reference surrounding architecture. The findings demonstrated through mapping (shown on the next two

94

9.0 INTERPRETATION

pages) verify previous research and also reveal new patterns. The corresponding data is contained in a table of room location and finish type in Appendix C. The majority of rooms at Spruce Tree contain a finish scheme, whether simple or complex. Of those finish schemes, the majority of them are simple. On the first story, simple and complex schemes are roughly evenly distributed throughout the settlement. Rooms with simple and complex schemes appear singly and in contiguous formation. No rooms on the first story of Spruce Tree House contain a scheme with triangle and dot embellishments or a comparatively complex but separate pattern. Complex schemes are limited to architectural finish components with discreet pictographs such as handprints. More definitive patterns emerge in the map of schemes of the second

story level. Though this assertion must be qualified by fact that there are a smaller number of second story rooms, of those rooms the majority are finished. The analysis of the exact proportion of rooms with schemes is hampered by the fact that an architectural plan showing the second story of Spruce Tree House has not yet been created. Complex schemes appear to exist in contiguous rooms. The maps, tables and charts on the following four pages show a summary of data in table format in Appendix C.3

3 Table A.1 on page 33 of the Glowacki et al. 2008 report was deferred to in compiling a total room count of 120. As research on Spruce Tree House progresses new discoveries affect metrics; the 2008 report was given precedence as the most recent available count of rooms within the alcove and does not include ledge rooms associated with the site. 95

RM 40(1) RM 18(1) RM 17(1) RM 13(1) RM 12(1) RM 89(1) RM 9(1) RM 88(1) KIVA C KIVA D RM 25(1) RM 26(1) RM 19(1) RM 20(1) RM 21(1) RM 24(1) RM 35(1) RM 90(1) RM 36(1) RM 46(1) RM 47(1) RM 32(1) RM 41(1) RM 42(1) RM 51(1) RM 53(1) RM 50(1)

RM 10(1) RM 7(1) KIVA A RM 11(1)

RM 54(1) RM 133(1) RM 57(1) RM 62(1) RM 58(1) RM 63(1)

RM 6(1) RM 4(1)

RM 5(1)

RM 49(1)

RM 64(1) RM 65(1)

RM 68(1)

96

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Petroglyph

Pictograph

Triangle Embellishments

Complex Finish Scheme

Simple Finish Scheme

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

RM 34(1)

RM 52(1)

Scheme and embellishment types

FIRST STORY FINISHES

RM 106(2) RM 109(2)

RM 103(2)

RM 104(2)

RM 115(2)

RM 116(2) RM 100(2) RM 95(2) RM 96(3) RM 93(3) RM 93(2)

RM 122(2)

RM 129(2) RM 131(2)

RM 123(2)

RM 132(2)

RM 144(2)

97

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Petroglyph

Pictograph

Triangle Embellishments

Complex Finish Scheme

Simple Finish Scheme

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

RM 102(2)

RM 108(2) RM 107(2)

RM 111(2)

RM 113(2)

RM 121(2)

SECOND STORY FINISHES

Scheme and embellishment types

9.0 INTERPRETATION NUMBER OF ROOMS IN EACH SCHEME CATEGORY FIRST STORY NO FINISH SIMPLE COMPLEX TOTALS 40 23 19 82 SECOND STORY 9 9 14 32 THIRD STORY 4 2 0 6 ALL ROOMS 53 34 33 120

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 FIRST STORY SECOND STORY THIRD STORY

COMPLEX SIMPLE NO FINISH

Table 9.1 PERCENTAGE OF ROOMS IN EACH SCHEME CATEGORY FIRST STORY NO FINISH SIMPLE COMPLEX
100% 90%

SECOND STORY 8% 8% 12% 27%

THIRD STORY 3% 2% 0% 5%

ALL ROOMS 44% 28% 28% 100%

33% 19% 16% 68%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% FIRST STORY SECOND STORY THIRD STORY NO FINISH SIMPLE COMPLEX

Table 9.2 98

9.0 INTERPRETATION PERCENTAGE BY FLOOR IN EACH SCHEME CATEGORY FIRST STORY 28% 23% SECOND STORY THIRD STORY 28% 67% 33% 0% 100% NO FINISH 49% SIMPLE COMPLEX

28% 44% 100%

TOTALS 100%
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% FIRST STORY

COMPLEX SIMPLE NO FINISH

SECOND STORY

THIRD STORY

Table 9.3

Triangle embellishments appear in two groups of adjoining rooms: Rooms

115(2) and 116(2), and Rooms 122(2) and 123(2). Each of these sets of rooms is contiguous with one another and communicate with one another through wall entries. Both sets are in room blocks that project outward toward the front of the alcove and are situated between two kiva plazas. Rooms 122(2) and 123(2) looks over three kivas, though Kiva G is grouped with the cluster of structures at the southern end of the alcove and may not have been associated with the
99

9.0 INTERPRETATION

rooms. A diagram that juxtaposes all four rooms and their schemes as interpreted by NPS staff is shown on the following page.

100

RM 115

RM 116
MS 9

Roo

m1 16(2

RM 122
Rebekah Krieger
Rm 115 E and Rm 116 N E & S traced by author from hand drawings by the park. All other images are digital architectural documentation created by the park.

RM 123

101

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

May 2011

COMPARISON OF ROOMS WITH TRIANGLE EMBELLISHMENTS

PLAN

ELEVATION: NORTH

EAST

SOUTH

WEST

9.0 INTERPRETATION

9.2 room 115(2) finish Schemes


The methodology used to interpret the finish schemes in Room 115(2) is described in chapter 8 above. On-site observations and instrumental testing were analyzed to provide empirical evidence on the finishes in Room 115(2). Stratigraphy Data forms in section 8.4 record layer structure interpreted through microscopic observations. Based on those determinations of layer structure and color, projected schemes have been developed for the various construction periods throughout Room 115(2) history.4 Each wall has been addressed separately due the rooms complex construction sequence. The staggered construction of the walls has led to separate finish layer structures on each.5 The lower story of the D-shaped room block that contains Room 115(2) was built before any second story rooms were built. Room 113(2) was built in A.D. 1238, and on or after this date a darker brown plaster (Munsell 10YR 3/2) was applied to the exterior of its west wall. This wall over looked over the first story D-shaped courtyard below and the plazas over Kivas D and E through a T-shaped wall entry. The T-shaped door may have been surrounded by a white or gray aura (Munsell 10YR 7/4). Sampling shows two light-colored layers (see sample 05MV0640-14 on page 76) in this location but the exact point in the sequence at which the aura finish was applied is difficult to establish. This finish scheme has been identified as Scheme 1 of Room 115(2).
5 In this section, descriptive names for colors have been used and a Munsell code follows parenthetically. The Munsell color names have been used on the stratigraphy data forms in chapter 8.4.. 102 4 This construction sequence is illustrated in Appendix A.

Figure 9.4. East Wall, Scheme 1 with aura.

Figure 9.5. East Wall, Scheme 1 without aura.


10YR 3/2 [un nished stone] 2.5YR 6/4

10YR 3/2
May 2011
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House East Wall, Scheme 1 Rebekah Krieger Mesa Verde National Park

[un nished stone]


May 2011

103

9.0 INTERPRETATION

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

East Wall, Scheme 1

9.0 INTERPRETATION

In A.D. 1246 the north and south wall were built as part of a larger building

campaign that created Room 116(2) at the west end of the D-block. For unknown reasons, Room 115(2) was not completely enclosed at this time. The south wall was added by the year A.D. 1248 and featured a T-shaped wall entry. At this point in time, Room 115(2) existed as an enclosed space. The T-shaped wall entry in the east (earliest) wall was modified into a

rectangular entry with an entry step by filling in the lower portion of the T. It is reasonable to surmise that the wood and plaster collar to hold a slab door in place was also added at this time. There is a recognizable pattern in Spruce Tree House architecture whereby T-shaped doorways are used on external walls of rooms/spaces that look out over kiva courtyards, and become modified into the more common rectangular shape when built fabric is added that cuts the T-shaped doorway off from visual communication with the kiva courtyard.6 When Room 115(2) was built, it was given a complex scheme of a strong

brown (Munsell 7.5YR 4/6) full-wall finish and a light yellowish brown floorband (Munsell 2.5Y 6/4). This has been identified as Scheme 2.

6 This pattern is from observation and no research has been found on this idea. Many explanations for T-shaped doors have been posited in the literature. 104

North Wall

Figure 9.6. East Wall, Scheme 2 with aura.

Figure 9.7. East Wall, Scheme 2 without aura. North Wall

7.5YR 4/6
7.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 6/4 2.5YR 6/4

2.5YR 6/4

105
May 2011
Rm Scheme 2 East Wall,115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

East Wall, Scheme 2

9.0 INTERPRETATION

7.5YR 4/6

Figure 9.9. West Wall, Scheme 2.


2.5YR 6/4 [un nished stone]
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Figure 9.8. South Wall, Scheme 2.

7.5YR 4/6
Rebekah Krieger May 2011

2.5YR 6/4
May 2011

[un nished stone]

106 9.0 INTERPRETATION


South Wall, Scheme 2

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

West Wall, Scheme 2

9.0 INTERPRETATION

At some point during Room 115(2)s occupation, the room gained new

significance and a complex scheme with triangle and dot embellishments was created that matches a scheme in the adjacent Room 116(2). This scheme has been identified as Scheme 3. Before Scheme 3 was applied the T-door of the south wall was modified into a rectangle. It is unknown whether the change in room use and the creation of Scheme 3 precipitated this change, or if an exterior building campaign instigated the transformation. No soot deposits have been identified between any of the layers except

that on the current surface. There are two possible explanations for this fact. One is that there was no hearth in use during the rooms use with Scheme 2 and a hearth was added or used more frequently when the rooms function and finishes changed with the implementation of Scheme 3. A second explanation is that Scheme 3 was created so soon after Scheme 2 that there was not enough time for soot to accumulate on the wall surfaces. Scheme 3 consists of a light yellowish brown floorband (Munsell 2.5Y 6/4),

a reddish-brown dado (Munsell 7.5YR 4/6), and a white field above (Munsell 2.5Y 8/4). Reddish-brown triangles in groups of three project upwards from the dado (Munsell 7.5YR 4/6). A row of reddish-brown dots (Munsell 7.5YR 4/6), probably applied with a quick twist of the thumb or finger, hovers above the dado and triangles and forms a continuous band around the room. A pale yellow, white or gray aura (Munsell 10YR 7/4) was applied to the

107

9.0 INTERPRETATION

wall surface surrounding the wall entry in the east wall. The inside stone surface of this jamb was renewed with contrasting colors several times throughout Room 115(2)s history. I have assumed that the jamb was colored with a brown plaster during

Scheme 2 and a brown wash (Munsell 7.5YR 4/2) during Scheme 3. Soon after the jamb was finished with a wash of pale yellow (Munsell 2.5Y 7/4). At a later date, it was finished with a very bright red orange wash (Munsell 2.4 YR 5/10). This last identifiable change has been termed Scheme 4. A light gray handprint was added sometime after Scheme 3 just below the

north corner of the wall entry on the west wall. A similar light gray smear directly beneath the same wall opening may also be a handprint, but only what appears to be the round base of the palm is still intact. Other embellishments in black and gray/blue pigments, possibly anthropomorphs and flute players similar to pictographs found in other areas of Spruce Tree House, once adorned the dados on the east and west walls. These have since deteriorated to the point of illegibility. Schemes 3 and 4 are illustrated on the next two pages. Following these illustrations is a diagram showing all the schemes together, summarizing the progression of schemes throughout time.

108

7.5YR 4/6

Figure 9.10. West Wall, Scheme 3.

Figure 9.11. South Wall, Scheme 3.


2.5YR 6/4 2.5YR 6/4 [un nished stone]
May 2011

7.5YR 4/6

2.5YR 6/4

2.5YR 6/4

109
South Wall, Scheme 3
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

9.0 INTERPRETATION

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

[un nished stone]

Rebekah Krieger

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

West Wall, Scheme 3

North Wall Figure 9.12. East Wall, Scheme 3. 7.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 6/4 2.5YR 6/4

North Wall Gray dotted oval indicates indeterminate embellishments Figure 9.13. East Wall, Scheme 4. 7.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 6/4 2.5YR 6/4 2.5YR 5/10

110

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

East Wall, SchemeRm 115(2), Spruce Tree House 4 Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

East Wall, Scheme 3

9.0 INTERPRETATION

SCHEME 4

SCHEME 3

SCHEME 2

SCHEME 1
EAST

111
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

SOUTH

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

Finish Schemes 1 - 4, Rm 115(2)

not yet built not yet built

WEST

10.0 CONCLuSiONS
This work examines patterns of use and meaning in applied finishes at

Mesa Verde at two scales; one at the village-level and a second at the scale of an individual room. Several patterns have emerged by looking at the distribution of finishes throughout the settlement of Spruce Tree House. Most notably, the presence and complexity of finishes at Spruce Tree

House are not distributed evenly among the settlement or stories. Applied finish is found in just over half of the rooms at Spruce Tree House (56%). Of that 56%, exactly half are simple schemes and half are complex schemes.1 On the first story, the absence of finish is most common (49%), then

simple schemes (28%) and then complex schemes (23%) the least common. On the second story, the majority of rooms contain applied finishes (72%). Of the rooms in which applied finishes are present, there are a greater proportion of complex schemes to simple schemes (44% to 28%). The above metrics suggest that great care and labor was expended on

decorating certain second story rooms at Spruce Tree House. These rooms, moreover, are clustered together and not associated with individual household suites. Thus we can say with certainty that groups of special rooms with complex and/or symbolic finishes are located on the second story of Spruce Tree House. The second story level provided relatively private spaces where access

and sightlines could be better controlled. These attributes were undoubtedly


1 See pages 98-99 for tables and diagrams on showing these metrics. 112

10.0 CONCLUSIONS

desirable qualities in the close, limited quarters of an alcove settlement. It remains to be seen whether the phenomenon of significant or ceremonial second story rooms was limited to alcove sites at Mesa Verde or was found throughout the region. On a smaller scale, this work has clarified the complex finish scheme and

embellishments in Room 115(2) through characterization and analysis. Further sampling of areas deemed inconclusive could provide further facts on elements of the schemes presented here, such as the aura on around the east wall entry and the indeterminate embellishment panel on the west wall. Significantly, this thesis has demonstrated that Room 115(2) has an

almost identical scheme the adjacent Room 116(2), and one that is similar to Rooms 122(2) and 123(2), the other pair of second story rooms with the triangle and dot motif. The use of these rooms by clans and for ceremonial functions has been posited in several sources.2 The occurrence of two pairs of rooms in similar configurations with similar schemes on the second story level of Spruce Tree House solidifies the rooms association with continuing growth at the settlement and the emerging phenomenon of integrative architecture at alcove sites.

2 Nordby, Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture and Barnett, Brisbin and Glowacki, Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation. 113

bibLiOGrAPHY
Artioli, Gilberto. Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Bass Rivera, Angelyn. Conservation of Architectural Finishes Program, Mesa Verde National Park Project. Unpublished report, Mesa Verde National Park,1999. Benson, Larry, Kenneth Petersen, and John Stein. Anasazi (Pre-Columbian Native-American) Migrations During The Middle-12th And Late-13th Centuries Were They Drought Induced? Climate Change 83 (July 2007): 187-213. Bernardini, Wesley. Reconsidering Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Prehistoric Cultural Identity: A Case Study from the American Southwest. American Antiquity 70, no. 1 (2005): 31-54. Barnett, Kay, Joel Brisbin, and Donna Glowacki. Spruce Tree House 2007 Summary of Architectural Documentation. Unpublished report, Mesa Verde National Park: Archaeological Site Conservation Program Division of Research and Resource Management, 2007. Brody, J. J. Anasazi and Pueblo Painting. Albuquerque: School of American Research, 1991. Carr, Rebecca. Archaeological Site Conservation at Mesa Verde National Park Part I. In The Conservation of Decorated Surfaces on Earthen Architecture. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2006. Charola, Dr. A. E. Scanning Electron Microscopy. HSPV 656, Advanced Architectural Conservation Lecture Notes. University of Pennsylvania, 2010. Chapin, Frederick H. Land of the Cliff Dwellers. Boston: W. B. Clarke and Co., 1891.
114

BIBLIOgRAPHY

Cole, Sally J. Archeological Documentation and Assessment of Rock Art in Mesa Verde National Park, 1999-2004. Unpublished report. Mesa Verde National Park, CO: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 2004. . Imagery and Tradition: Murals of the Mesa Verde Region. In The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Puebloan Archaeology, edited by David Grant Noble, 92-99. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2006. Collum, Nicole. A Comparative Study of the Earthen Surface Finishes of the Eastern Facade of Open Area J and the Northern Facade of Open Area 26 at Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Masters Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2008. Dix, Linnaea A. Characterization and Analysis of Prehistoric Earthen Plasters, Mortars, and Paints from Mug House, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1996. Ferron, Amila. The Consolidation of Earthen Surface Finishes: A Study of Disaggregating Plasters at Mesa Verde National Park. Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2007. Fetterman, Jerry and Linda Honeycutt. 1987 Mesa Verde Plaster Recordation Project. Internal report commissioned by Mesa Verde National Park by Woods Canyon Archaeological Consultants, Inc., 1989. Fewkes, Jesse Walter. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce Tree House. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909. . Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911. Gettens, Rutherford J. and George L. Stout. Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopaedia. New York: Dover Publications, 1966.

115

BIBLIOgRAPHY

Hays-Gilpin, Kelley. Beholding the Brightly Shimmering Land. In Painting the Cosmos. Edited by Kelley Hays-Gilpin and Polly Schaafsma. Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona, 2010: 1-18. Glowacki, Donna M. The Social Landscape of Depopulation: The Northern San Juan, A.D. 1150-1300. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University Department of Anthropology, 2006. Hall, Lauren Reynolds. Characterization, Analysis and Interpretation of the Surface Finishes of Kiva E, Long House, Mesa Verde National Park. Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2007. Lipe, William and Scott Ortman. Spatial Patterning in Northern San Juan Villages A.D. 1050-1300 in Kiva 66, no. 1 (2000): 91-122. Matero, Frank. G., Cancino, Claudia, and Fourie, Rynta. Conservation and Architectural Surface Program for Archeological Resources: Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park. Philadelphia: Architectural Conservation Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 2002. Olsen, Nancy H. Hovenweep Rock Art: An Anasazi Visual Communication System. Institute of Archaeology Occasional Paper 14. Los Angeles: UCLA., 1985. Nordby, Larry. Understanding Mesa Verdes Cliff Dwelling Architecture. In The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Pueblo Archaeology, edited by David Grant Noble. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2006. . Prelude to Tapestries in Stone: Understanding Cliff Palace Architecture. Archaeological Research Series: Architectural Studies No. 4. Mesa Verde National Park, 2001. Nordenskiold, Gustav. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde. Translated by D. L. Morgan. Chicago: P. A. Norstedt & Soner, 1893.
116

BIBLIOgRAPHY

Ortman, Scott G. Conceptual Metaphor in the Archaeological Record: Methods and an Example from the American Southwest. American Antiquity 65, no. 4, (Oct 2000): 613-645. . Ancient Pottery of the Mesa Verde Country. In The Mesa Verde World, edited by David Grant Noble. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2006. Pellant, Chris. Rocks and Minerals. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 2002. Plesters, Joyce. Cross-sections and Chemical Analysis of Paint Samples. Studies in Conservation 2, (1956): 110-157. Rogers, Hugh C. and Harry Walters, Anasazi and Anaasz: Two Words, Two Cultures. In Kiva 66, no. 3 (2001): 317-326. Shafer, Harry J. Architecture and Symbolism in Transitional Pueblo Development in the Mimbres Valley, SW New Mexico, in Journal of Field Archaeology 22 no. 1 (1995): 23-47. Silver, Constance S. Architectural Finishes of the Prehistoric Southwest: A Study of the Cultural Resource and Prospects for its Conservation. Masters thesis, Columbia University, 1987. Slater, Mary. Characterization of Earthen Architectural Surface Finishes From Kiva Q, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1999. Smith, Duane. Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 2002. Smith, Watson. When is a Kiva?: And Other Questions About Southwestern Archaeology. Edited by Raymond H. Thompson. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990.
117

BIBLIOgRAPHY

Swentzell, Rina, Pueblo Space, Form and Mythology. In Pueblo Style and Regional Architecture, edited by N. C. Markovich, W. F. E. Preiser and F. G. Sturm. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990. Varien, Mark D. and Richard H. Wilshusen, editors. Seeking the Center Place, Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde Region. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2002. Wobst, H. M. Stylistic Behavior and Information Exchange. In For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin. Edited by C. E. Cleland. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers 61. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977: 317-342.

118

APPENDiX A

FIRST STORY PLAN OF SPRUCE TREE HOUSE INTEgRATIVE ARCHITECTURE CONSTRUCTION SEqUENCE DIAgRAM

119

120
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

Spruce Tree House, First Story Plan Courtesy of N PS

rm 23(1)

rm 23(1)

rm 23(1)

First Story
tie and abutmbent patterns from those reported in Brisbin et al 2007 STH Report rm 24(1) rm 24(1)

rm 25(1) courtyard courtyard courtyard rm 26(1)

1231-1235

1235

1238

1243-1244

1246

1248
May 2011
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

rm 113(2)

rm 113(2)

rm 113(2)

Second Story
tie and abutmbent patterns from architectural documentation drawings provided by the park abutment rm 116(2) rm 116(2) rm 115(2)

121

Rebekah Krieger

Integrative Architecture Construction Sequence

APPENDiX b

DIAgRAM OF SAMPLE LOCATIONS COMPARISON: EAST WALL SAMPLES COMPARISON: SOUTH WALL SAMPLES COMPARISON: WEST WALL SAMPLES

122

07

01 02

17

NORTH WALL

03

04

10 09 11 08

123

06 16 19
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

SOUTH WALL

15

14 13 12 05

18

Rebekah Krieger

EAST WALL

May 2011

Sample Locations

EAST WALL
eld

12

18 [wall abutment]

05 [dot]

14 [aura]

15 [jamb]

13

oorband 16 19
124

Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

Rebekah Krieger

dado

May 2011

additional components

East Wall Samples

dado

eld

SOUTH WALL

additional components

oorband

11 09 10
125
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

08

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

South Wall Samples

dado

eld

WEST WALL

additional components

oorband

04 03 02 [triangle] 17 [gray blue smear]


126
Rm 115(2), Spruce Tree House Mesa Verde National Park

01

Rebekah Krieger

May 2011

West Wall Samples

APPENDiX C

DATA TABLE ANALYSIS OF SPRUCE TREE HOUSE FINISHES

127

UNIT 002 none reported none reported none reported pictographs (anthro, zoo, grid pattern) NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 rock modification, bird track, toe grooves NONE 3 NONE 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Level 1

DESCRIPTION none reported

EMBELLISHMENT ETC

SCHEME TYPE NONE

METRIC S 1

ROOM COUNT 1

003

007

008

012 none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported

thick plaster but not interpreted as a finish

014

015

022

023

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

128 none reported none reported none reported

027

028

029

030

031

033

grayish tan plaster in one corner, may be historic

038

039

043

044 NONE NONE rock art panel with animals NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 21 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

none reported

NONE

19

19

045 none reported none reported brownish orange and yellow on east interior wall none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported

light tan on east wall single coat from exterior of room 44

048

050

055

056

059

060

061

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

129 red on interior of T-shaped doorway none reported

066

067

069

070

072

074

078

079

080

082

084 none reported NONE 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NONE NONE none reported none reported none reported none reported white floor band over red dado on east wall bichrome red and white scheme on east and south walls NONE NONE NONE NONE COMPLEX COMPLEX 8 9 1 2 3 4 1 2 none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported none reported NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

none reported

NONE

38

38

117

146

097

099

101

105

118

125

127

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

130

128

147

098

110

112

114

004

009

011

COMPLEX

56

017

four episodes: orange-reddish wash, light pink-red, light gray, light tan; red dado, white floor band 1 south wall covered by light tan plaster with a white floor band; same tan plaster on the west and east walls but only dado and the white floor band COMPLEX 4 57 COMPLEX 5 58

024

yellowish brown coat of plaster; possible red embellishments, bits of red and white plaster may geometric incisions on sill have been embellishments stone; red lines painted on door jam walls plastered; dado along west and east walls COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX

025

6 7 8 9

59 60 61 62

026 tan monochrome with reddish brown dado

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

131 red dado with white floor band

Light tan, dado, light yellow floor band

035

042

Aura (8 layers alternate between light tan and reddish); tan floor band; light tan wash; reddish plaster beneath wash

046

reddish background with white floor band; reddish aura round Wall Entry 60

COMPLEX

10

63

047

COMPLEX

11

64

053

COMPLEX

12

65

054

pinkinsh tan dado on north and west walls; east and south full wall plasterd, pinkish red; plaster on exterior wall facing O/A 18 (main st) 1 3 layers; red field (layer 2); brown field; pinkish red plaster field; dark tan plaster covers entire wall (layer 3); wash 10YR 7/2; off-white floor band (layer 1) COMPLEX 13 66 COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX 14 15 16 17 67 68 69 70

058

063

tan field; red plaster dado; beige wash on all walls; aura; floor plaster walls, smooth tan field, N and E 4 white hand prints, punctat marks

bicolor, pinkish dado,

064

Off-white on east wall, pinkish floor band on south wall

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

132 dado and floor band Two-layered T-shaped plaster design

068

two layers, red with white wash, probably red dado with white floor band

088

small patches, reddish tan, white floor band

COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX

18 19 1 2 3

71 72 73 74 75

089

aura; white; pink; light tan monochrome

095

100

large T-shaped design light brown and pale brown on W wall

104

reddish patches on W wall; whitish aura around WE 24 on E wall with reddish plaster background and whitish floor band; reddish plaster on north wall

107

monochrome tan plaster on all walls with a white floor band along the base of each; black band on E wall segment COMPLEX 5 77

white handprints

COMPLEX

76

108

109 triplets of triangles with dots, east door has aura, handprints pairs and triplets of triangle and dots, embellishments of zoomorphs triangle and dot motif; white aura over WE 63 COMPLEX COMPLEX

reddish-brown with lighter pinkish colored dado, cream colored floor band; crosshatched pattern etched in plaster reddish-brown dado; grayish 2 COMPLEX 6 7

78 79

115

aura around WE; whitish tan floorband brown dado, white field

116

sister room to 115; field, dado,

80

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

133

122

pale yellow monochrome background; dado of red plaster, white floorband;

COMPLEX

81

123

yellow field; red dado; gray floor red triangle design near WE band, 64; 9 trianges in groups of three extending upward onto yellow background

COMPLEX

10

82

124

continuous pink dado and white floor band on all 4 walls

COMPLEX COMPLEX

11 12

83 84

126

Reddish-tan dado over two-thirds of N and E walls, aura around WE 83

131

COMPLEX

13

85

132

all walls plastered, light tan field, yellow-brown field, white floor band, yellowish red dado, light red dado, reddish yellow wash, red and white aura remnants above and below WE 92 2 all walls fields of tan plaster with COMPLEX 14 86

pink floor band, pinkhand print, plaster panel 33 SIMPLE petroglyph with 3 bird tracks and two human foot prints SIMPLE SIMPLE 1 2 87 88

005 full wall reddish yellow; light tan

reddish plaster in Historic Inscription Panel 40

006

010

89

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

134 single coat of tan plaster black, red two layers: reddish brown, first layer sooted and oxidized reddish brown dado hand print

Brownish-red covered by a light almost pink wash on north, south and east walls

013

plaster present but color indeterminent

SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE

4 5 6 7

90 91 92 93

018

019

020

021

SIMPLE SIMPLE

8 9

94 95

032

floor finished with pearly white plaster, floor band on base of north wall

034 reddish floor band SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE 13 14 12 handprints SIMPLE 11 97 98 99 100

light tan floor band

SIMPLE

10

96

036

040 dado; light reddish brown, pinkish gray

whitewash on coping lining Wall Entry 82

041

049

probably single coat of tan palster on walls over a single coat of wash SIMPLE rock art panel with sheep, kokopelli, handprint SIMPLE

051

15 16

101 102

052

Reddish-brown floor band, offwhite floor plaster wash

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

135 red on all walls reddish plaster around WE 91 tan field, pinkish wash, reddish brown wash finish may be from previous room configuration Aura (white plaster fragments on south jamb and lintel) red below loop hole plast on N and E, petrglyphs on boulder

057

SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE

17 18 19 20 21 22 23

103 104 105 106 107 108 109

062

065

076

077

090

133

093 sporadic patches SIMPLE SIMPLE 4 3 SIMPLE 2 111 112 113

notes report full finish

SIMPLE

110

102

103

pinkish white; reddish yellow; light reddish brown

106

light tan present on all walls spattered with a darker pigment in SE corner of the rm reddish floor band reddish dado dark grey aura around vent extra nice rectangualar doorway SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE

111

5 6 7 8 9 1 2

114 115 116 117 118 119 120

113

121

129

all walls extruded plaster, light pinkish

SPRUCE TREE HOUSE APPLIED FINISH ANALYSIS

136 tan plaster

144

092

remnant of 3 layers, extruded tehn reddish applied than tan wash plaster, pink wash tan

096

APPENDiX D

SEM-EDS SPECTRA

137

SAMPLE 5MV0640-115-02 SPECTRA

SAMPLE 5MV0640-115-13 SPECTRA

SAMPLE 5MV0640-115-17 SPECTRA

138

iNDEX
A
Anasazi 3, 4, 17, 51, 114, 116, 117 Ancestral Puebloans iii, 1, 3, 4, 5, 34, 46, 47 aura 44

B
bi-chrome 16

C
ceremonial 5, 9, 19, 34, 47, 50, 113 Cliff Palace 1, 4, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 22, 31, 34, 35, 115, 116 community. 9, 19, 22, 49

D
dado 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 19, 21, 44, 45, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 64, 86, 87, 88, 94, 107 dots 5, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 51, 58, 83, 94, 107

E
earthen finishes 42 embellishments 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 45, 56, 58, 94, 95, 99, 107, 108, 113

F
Fewkes 2, 14, 15, 23, 29 field 5, 6, 10, 19, 31, 45, 56, 57, 58, 63, 64, 65, 83, 85, 86, 90, 107 floorband 44

I
iconography 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 integrative architecture 38, 49 Integrative architecture 49

K
Kiva 4, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 39, 40, 43, 47, 99, 116, 117

M
mural 11, 18, 43, 46

P
Painted Kiva House 13 petroglyph 94 Pictograph 94 plaster v, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25, 31, 42, 44, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 57, 59, 61, 63, 85, 86, 88, 89, 92, 102, 104, 108 public 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 19, 31, 47, 48, 49

139

INDEX

R
rock art 11, 16, 17, 51

S
Scanning Electron Microscopy 8, 56, 83, 114 scheme vi, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 18, 20, 24, 44, 45, 51, 57, 59, 65, 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113 complex vi, 94, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 simple vi, 94, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 Scheme Simple 45, 94 Spruce Tree House iii, iv, v, vii, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 49, 51, 57, 92, 93, 95, 104, 108, 112, 113, 114, 115, 119 symbolism 21, 51

T
Thick section analysis 7 triangles 5, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 51, 58, 107

W
wash v, 44, 45, 58, 64, 86, 108

140

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