Introduction to the Abhidhamma

Nina van Gorkom
Zolag 2011

First edition published in 2011 by Zolag www.zolag.co.uk c Nina van Gorkom This work is licensed under the: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to: Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. $Id: iabh.texi,v 1.2 2011/04/12 07:43:20 alan Exp alan $

i

Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Introduction to the Abhidhamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ultimate Truth and Conventional Truth . . . . . . 2 Dhamma in Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Abhidhamma in the Sutta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Citta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Citta and Cetasikas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kamma and result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Rootless Cittas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Experience of Objects through different doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Life-continuum, bhavanga-citta . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Feelings (part 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Feelings (part 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The four Great Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Eight Inseparable R¯ pas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 u The Sense organs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Five Khandhas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Death and Rebirth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

ii

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Rebirth in different planes of existence (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Rebirth in different Planes of Existence (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Accumulated inclinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Four Planes of Consciousness (part 1) . . . . . . 30 The Four Planes of Consciousness (part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Latent Tendencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Seven Books of the Abhidhamma . . . . . 35 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Dhammasangan¯ the first Book of the ˙ ı, Abhidhamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 The Vibhanga, the Second Book of the ˙ Abhidhamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Dh¯tu-Kath¯, the Third Book . . . . . . . . . 39 a a Puggalapa~ natti, the fourth Book . . . . . . . . . . 40 n~ Kath¯vatthu, the Fifth Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 a Yamaka, the Sixth Book of the Abhidhamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Patth¯na, the seventh book of the .. a Abhidhamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

He knew the dispositions of a different beings and which kind of teaching was most suitable for them. pa~natti. satipatth¯na. The Commentary to the “Middle Length Sayings”. after having heard the teaching . and were skilled to attain distinction. dukkha and anatt¯. but also the teaching by way of ultimate realities. and ultimate truth. a brahman. The teaching of the Abhidhamma is mainly by way of ultimate realities. Here the Blessed One taught to those in the conventional way who by means of it. sensefields (¯yatana). and concepts.. Such is the teaching in the conventional way. penetrated the meaning and abandoned ignorance. a man. a god. Impermanence. and Mara. such as a person or a tree. anatt¯. a woman. the aggregates. a being. n~ . There is a human. But who by means of ultimate realities. the Blessed One: the teaching in the conventional way and the teaching by way of ultimate realities. sammutti sacca. dukkha.Chapter 1: Introduction to the Abhidhamma 1 1 Introduction to the Abhidhamma The Buddha taught conventional truth. elements. a man of the warrior caste. after having heard the teaching. sutta 5. he pointed to the truth of impermanence. to those he taught by way of ultimate realities. a a . When the Buddha spoke in the suttas about situations and people. paramattha sacca. and were skilled to attain distinction. “No Blemishes”. a Such is the teaching by way of ultimate realities.” In the Suttanta we find the teaching in conventional way. penetrated the meaning and abandoned ignorance. states: “There is a twofold teaching of the Buddha. In order to have understanding of the Abhidhamma it is essential to know the difference between ultimate realities. paramattha dhammas. paramattha dhammas.

N¯ma a a and r¯pa are interrelated. a have each their own characteristic which cannot be changed. it is real for everyone. We should know the u a u difference between ultimate truth. The r¯pas that are sense objects. ears. tree or animal. and also the r¯pas that are the sense organs of eyes. It is useful to examine the meaning of concept. no matter how we name it. in P¯li: paramattha dhammas. u nose. tongue and bodysense. Thus. The word concept can a n~ stand for the name or term that conveys an idea and it can also stand for the idea itself conveyed by a term. We can think of concepts. Seeing is n¯ma. it is real for everyone. without having to name them. but the characteristic remains the same. consists of changing phenomena. That part of the Buddhist teachings which is the “Abhidhamma” enumerates and classifies all phenomena of our life: mental phenomena or n¯ma and physical phenomena or r¯pa. that functions as the eye-door through which visible object is experienced. are conditions for the n¯mas to experience objects. tongue. flavour and tangible object. paramattha sacca. Visible object or colour is r¯pa. nose. conventional truth. and also the idea we form up of “tree” is a concept. it does not experience u anything. it has its own unalterable characteristic. bodysense or mind. Seeing is an ultimate reality. Anger has its own characteristic. Ultimate realities. but they are not realities that can be directly experienced. visible object. is also r¯pa. Ultimate truth is not abstract. for “our mind” and for “our body”. . it experiences a u a visible object through the eye-door. We may change the name. sammutti sacca. it experiences visible object which appears through the eyes. namely. N¯ma and r¯pa are ultimate realities. and conventional truth. in P¯li: pa~natti. the world of concepts. Before we learnt about Buddhism. Ultimate realities can be directly experienced when they appear through eyes. They arise because of their appropriate conditions. was the only truth we knew. u u smell.Chapter 2: Ultimate Truth and Conventional Truth 2 2 Ultimate Truth and Conventional Truth Through the Buddhist teachings we learn that what we take for “self”. Conventional truth is the world of concepts such as person. ears. the name “tree” is a concept. sound. The eyesense.

it is real. it is real. . Colour is a dhamma. ears. nose. teach people the development of the way leading to the end of defilements. As regards the Abhidhamma. The form of this part of the Tipitaka is different. is real. The prefix “abhi” is used in the sense of “preponderance” or “distinction”. bodysense and mind. The intellectual understanding of realities (pariyatti) should encourage us to the practice (patipatti) which is necessary . The aim of all three parts of the Tipitaka is to . but the aim is the same: the eradication of wrong . He taught about cause and effect and about the practice leading to the end of all sorrow. it is real. for the realization of the truth (pativedha). He taught us the “Dhamma”. a u we can be reminded to be aware of the n¯ma and r¯pa which appear at that moment. view and eventually of all defilements. Seeing is a dhamma. The Buddha taught about all realities appearing through the “six doors” of eyes. phenomena (n¯mas) and physical phenomena (r¯pas) and while we are pondering over them. about everything which . Our defilements are dhammas. they are realities. Feeling is a dhamma. and for “self” what is non-self. the “Discourses”. Thus. Without the Buddha’s teaching we would be ignorant of reality. this is an exposition of all realities in detail. “Abhidhamma” means “higher Dhamma” or “Dhamma in detail”.Chapter 3: Dhamma in Detail 3 3 Dhamma in Detail In all three parts of the Tipitaka we are taught about “dhamma”. when we study the many enumerations of realities. While we are studying the different mental . we should not forget the real purpose of our study. We are inclined to take for permanent what is impermanent. for pleasant what is sorrowful and unsatisfactory (dukkha). that is. the Dhamma is explained to different people at different places on various occasions. When the Buddha attained enlightenment he clearly knew all dhammas as they really are. In a u this way we will discover more and more that the Abhidhamma explains everything which is real. tongue. the “worlds” appearing through the six doors of the senses and the mind. In the Suttanta. the teaching on realities. in order that we also may know dhammas as they are.

that which doesn’t bring sorrow: “Of slight account. “Of slight account. You must train yourselves to win that. Miserable indeed among losses is the loss of wisdom. The Abhidhamma helps us to understand the deep meaning of the suttas. monks. about thinking of what was seen.. as the above-quoted sutta states. monks. be these unpleasant or pleasant. and physical phenomena. r¯pa. is the increase of such things as reputation.. Miserable indeed among losses is the loss of wisdom. is the loss of such things as wealth. Sutta reading is not easy and we have to carefully consider each word of the sutta. mental factor. seeing experiences a different object: visible object. be it pleasant or unpleasant. and the sorrow caused by clinging. We have to know what kind of understanding. The Abhidhamma is not a theory one finds in a textbook. clings. It is the understanding that whatever occurs in life. monks. monks. These are three conditioned u paramattha dhammas. The Abhidhamma teaches about seeing. The conditioned realities of our life are citta. is a cetasika that can only arise when there n~a are the appropriate conditions for it. there are only n¯ma. monks. it falls away and then there is a next moment of consciousness. feels sadness. you should train yourselves thus: We will increase in wisdom. Of slight account. understanding. Of slight account. Understanding of realities is the most precious in life. When we suffer the loss of dear people we should remember that also sadness is a conditioned dhamma. about their clinging to pleasant objects. pa~n¯. is the loss of such things as relatives. cetasika. Chief of all the increases is that of wisdom. monks. Whatever reality arises does so because of the proper conditions.” This sutta is an exhortation to develop right understanding of realities.. is the increase of such things as wealth.. There is no person. Book of the Ones (Ch VIII. no matter he taught Sutta or Abhidhamma. is the loss of such things as reputation. It only lasts for one moment. In the above-quoted a u sutta we are reminded that right understanding is more precious than people we hold dear or possessions. Chief of all the increases is that of wisdom. a cetasika. the teaching of the Abhidhamma is about all the realities that appear at this moment. consciousness. mental factors arising with the citta and r¯pa. Each citta only experiences one object at a time. We have to know what kind of understanding is meant in this sutta. are only conditioned dhammas. We may be inclined to overlook the implications of the meaning of understanding. that only citta and the accompanying cetasikas experience different objects. no person who suffers.Chapter 4: Abhidhamma in the Sutta 4 4 Abhidhamma in the Sutta In the Anguttara Nik¯ya. understanding of which objects. is the increase of such things as relatives. physical phenomena. Wherefore I say. Miserable indeed among losses is the loss of wisdom. Also in the suttas the Buddha teaches to develop right understanding of ultimate realities. Chief of all the increases is that of wisdom. arising with akusala citta. He spoke in conventional terms in order to help people to understand what is true in the ultimate sense. no self who sees. There is no person who develops understanding. but in the suttas the Buddha mostly speaks about people’s situations in daily life. mental phenomena. monks. At the moment of seeing there is no sadness at the same time. Of slight account. Of slight account. 4) we read about right understanding a as being the most precious in life . The Buddha pointed to the development of understanding of all realities in daily life. when we read that understanding is the most precious of all. about . Through the Abhidhamma we are reminded all the time that there is no person who clings.

.Chapter 4: Abhidhamma in the Sutta 5 all the defilements arising on account of what is experienced through the senses and the mind-door.

it is different from the cittas which arise afterwards. when someone speaks unpleasant words to us. In reality there are only citta. Some cittas are neither cause nor result. What we take for a person are only n¯mas. but it arises with akusala citta. Even when we are sound asleep and not dreaming. For instance. Citta. mental factor arising with the citta. cetasika and r¯pa that arise because of their own conditions. N¯ma a u a and r¯pa are real in the ultimate sense. but this is not so. mean thinking about it. can a motivate unwholesome action or speech. that arise and fall away. Some cittas are kusala (wholesome). Some cittas are the result of wholesome or unwholesome deeds. they can motivate wholesome or unwholesome deeds through body. Each citta lasts only for an extremely short time and then it falls away. There are four j¯tis: a a a • kusala • akusala • vip¯ka a • kiriya Both kusala vip¯ka (the result of a wholesome deed) and akusala vip¯ka (the result of a a an unwholesome deed) are one j¯ti. It is important to know which j¯ti a a a a a citta is. they a are kiriyacittas (sometimes translated as “inoperative”). consciousness. Each citta experiences an object. they are different from concepts such as person or u animal. The five senses and the mind are the doorways through which citta can cognize the different objects which present themselves. are both n¯ma. The citta which sees has what is visible as object. citta experiences an object. such as the cittas which know what it is that was perceived and which think about it. in P¯li: ¯rammana. dosa. Only one citta arises at a time: at one moment a citta that sees arises. They experience different objects. When we have understood that cittas both of ourselves and others arise because of conditions we shall be less inclined to dwell for a long time on someone else’s behaviour. hear and think. There are many different types of citta which can be classified in different ways. and r¯pas. they are vip¯kacittas. and cetasika. Citta experiences only one object and then it falls away to be succeeded by the next citta. Cittas can be classified by way of j¯ti (j¯ti literally means “birth” or “nature”). some are akusala (unwholesome). Knowing or experiencing an object does not necessarily a a . the a moment of experiencing the sound (hearing-consciousness) is akusala vip¯ka. a It is not a self or a person who experiences something. the j¯ti of vip¯ka. We can learn to distinguish these moments from each other by realizing their different characteristics. In the ultimate sense there is no person to be blamed and no person who receives unpleasant results. We may have thought that there is one consciousness that lasts.Chapter 5: Citta 6 5 Citta The truth is different from what we always assumed. speech or mind which are able to bring about their appropriate results. it is citta that cognizes an object. at another moment a citta that hears arises. mental phenomena. We cannot develop wholesomeness in our life if we take akusala for kusala or if we take akusala for vip¯ka. There isn’t any citta without an object. Kusala cittas and akusala cittas are cittas which are cause. The aversion which may arise very shortly afterwards is not vip¯ka. physical phenomena. Aversion or anger. u . that can see. the result of a an unwholesome deed we performed ourselves. The citta which hears (hearing-consciousness) has sound as its object.

or they may have moha as their only root. speak or think with akusala citta. For example. Some a a cetasikas. whereas sobhana cetasikas. Moha arises with each akusala citta. Citta a a only knows or experiences its object. accompany each citta. it does not feel. We may find it difficult to see that even when we do not harm or hurt others. Confidence. There are three cetasikas which are unwholesome roots. it “contacts” the object so that citta can experience it. and we should find out for ourselves when thinking is kusala and when akusala. There are many shades and degrees of the akusala hetus n~a and the sobhana hetus. the citta can still be akusala. Citta may be of one of the four j¯tis of kusala. For example. Whenever we remember something it is sa~n¯. akusala hetus: attachment (lobha). We think time and again of people. marks the object so that a n~a it can be recognized later on. accompany kusala cittas. non-aversion (adosa). is another cetasika which a arises with every citta. Thus we go on accumulating more and more akusala. it is the root of all evil. but the cittas which think can still be akusala cittas. At such a moment there is “unwise attention” to the object which is experienced. it is different from unselfishness. of things which have happened or will happen. it is always accompanied by cetasikas. or in moha and dosa. However through the study of the Dhamma we can acquire more understanding of akusala dhammas and then we may begin to see the danger of all degrees of akusala. Akusala cittas may be rooted in moha and lobha. mental factors. such as feeling and remembrance or “perception” (sa~n¯). When we do not have a pleasant or an unpleasant feeling. which n~a remembers. some are roots. hetus. we are enslaved to that object and do not see the danger of akusala. however. Perception or remembrance. just as the roots are the foundation of a tree. and they may or may not be rooted in wisdom. Whenever the citta is not intent on wholesomeness. we act. Unwholesome mental factors. We may see the danger of akusala which is coarse. There are three sobhana hetus. they are akusala cittas whenever we do not think wholesome thoughts. Feeling is sometimes pleasant. one does not see that akusala citta is impure and harmful. there is confidence in wholesomeness. akusala cetasikas. in P¯li: vedan¯. akusala cittas with attachment tend to arise. Feeling. It is sa~n¯ which. but it is difficult to see the danger of akusala which is more subtle. There are also types of cetasika which do not arise with every citta. Citta is the leader in cognizing an object and the accompanying cetasikas have each their own function while they assist citta in cognizing an object. pa~n¯. Feeling. Akusala citta is impure and it leads to sorrow. A root or hetu is the foundation of the akusala citta or kusala citta. is a cetasika which arises with every citta. vip¯ka or kiriya. Among the cetasikas which can accompany akusala cittas or kusala cittas.Chapter 6: Citta and Cetasikas 7 6 Citta and Cetasikas Citta does not arise singly. remembers that this colour is red. We may not have unkind thoughts or thoughts of coarse desire. aversion (dosa) and ignorance (moha). there is a degree of attachment and attachment is not kusala. has the a function of feeling. when we see a pleasant sight. They give a firm support to the citta and cetasikas they arise together with. All n~a kusala cittas are rooted in non-attachment and non-aversion. n~a others do not. when we like nature. in P¯li: sa~n¯. a akusala. Contact. Moha is blindness. there is still feeling: at that moment the feeling is neutral or indifferent. it does not know the danger of akusala. When the citta is kusala. or that this is the sound of a bird. and wisdom (pa~n¯). vedan¯. “beautiful” mental factors. Cetasikas are of the same j¯ti as the citta they accompany. At the moment of akusala citta there is no confidence in wholesomeness. accompany only akusala cittas. not self. for example. that this is a n~a house. beautiful roots: non-attachment (alobha). . sometimes unpleasant. in P¯li: phassa. Only one citta arises at a time and each citta is accompanied by several cetasikas.

is a sobhana cetasika. When we see the value of kusala. they are non-self. Each kusala citta is assisted by many sobhana a cetasikas. . Defilements and wholesome qualities are cetasikas. They are not listed just to be read and memorized. there are conditions for the arising of kusala citta. they are realities of daily life and they can be known as they are by being mindful of them. saddh¯.Chapter 6: Citta and Cetasikas 8 or faith. Kusala citta is pure and it is capable of producing a pleasant result.

helping others or paying respect. Three cetasikas are beautiful roots. There are akusala kamma-pathas and kusala kamma-pathas. (adosa) and wisdom (pa~n¯). aversion (dosa) and ignorance (moha). Ill deeds are called in P¯li: akusala kamma. three cetasikas are unwholesome roots. Unwholesome roots. A good deed. . lying. As regards akusala kamma-patha. The term kamma-patha (literally a “course of action”) is used as well in this sense. can motivate ill deeds through body. This shows how deeply rooted defilements are.Chapter 7: Kamma and result 9 7 Kamma and result As we have seen. there are ten akusala kamma-pathas and these are conditioned by lobha. sexual misbehaviour. ill-will and wrong view (ditthi). Whatever conduct a we follow in daily life is conditioned by the wholesome or unwholesome roots accumulated from life to life. can produce a pleasant result. Each moment. kusala kamma. ill deeds and good deeds. Due to kamma gain and loss. is conditioned. When we are generous.(alobha). If there is right understanding of the citta that is cause and the citta that is result we shall know the meaning of anatt¯. cittas that are results. sobhana hetus: non-attachment. hearing and the other sense-impressions that are vip¯kacittas. motivate good deeds such as generosity. dosa and moha. akusala hetus: attachment (lobha). Beautiful roots. . it is conditioned by the roots and many other factors. accomplished through body. Throughout our life kamma produces seeing. In this way kamma is capable to produce its result later on. They are: killing. Kamma is a mental activity which can be accumulated. in Pali: cetan¯. or in an unhappy plane of existence such as a hell plane or the animal world. slandering. frivolous talk. speech and mind. and an evil deed can produce an unpleasant result. However. sobhana hetus. mental development which includes samatha and vipassan¯. the word “kamma” is also used in a more a general sense for the deeds which are intended by cetan¯. from one life to the next life. Kamma produces result at the first moment of life: it produces rebirth-consciousness in a happy plane of existence such as the human plane or a heavenly plane. abstention from ill deeds. the force of kamma is carried on from one moment of citta to the next moment of citta. speech or mind. There is no self who can determine to do wrong or to do what is right. Kamma is the cetasika (mental factor arising with the citta) which a is intention or volition. whatever we do. n~a akusala hetus. non-aversion. stealing. a We shall come to understand that there is no self who can cause the arising of pleasant or unpleasant experiences through the senses. Seeing a pleasant object is the result of kusala kamma and seeing an unpleasant object is the result of akusala kamma. Kusala cittas and akusala cittas alternate in our life. we may believe that there are only kusala cittas.. rude speech. Since cittas that arise and fall away succeed one another in an unbroken series. such as conceit or being intent on some advantage for ourselves. what we take for wholesome may be motivated by akusala. However. praise and blame alternate in our life. covetousness. Vip¯kacittas are neither a a kusala cittas nor akusala cittas.

This citta is “sahetuka”. If we want to know ourselves we should not merely know the moments of akusala cittas or kusala cittas but other moments as well. same time as like or dislike of the object. this citta is also “sahetuka”. the eyesense. For example. is sahetuka. The citta which dislikes a the object may arise afterwards. The citta or cetasika which is accompanied n~a by a hetu is sahetuka (“sa” means “with”). they are: lobha (attachment).Chapter 8: Rootless Cittas 10 8 Rootless Cittas Each citta experiences an object. When a pleasant or an unpleasant object impinges on n~a . Nobody can cause the arising of seeing. An evil deed produces akusala vip¯kacitta and a good deed produces kusala vip¯kacitta. We are inclined to think that the “five pairs” (dvi-pa~ca-vi~n¯na). When one uses the word “seeing” one usually means: paying attention to the shape and form of something and knowing what it is. Seeing that is a a akusala vip¯kacitta experiences an unpleasant object and seeing that is kusala vip¯kacitta a a experiences a pleasant object. there are five pairs of ahetuka vip¯kacittas a a a which arise depending on the five sense-doors. what is meant is: what appears through the eyes. etc. However. Seeing-consciousness is an ahetuka vip¯kacitta. these are sahetuka cittas (arising with hetus). Whenever we see. but there is a great diversity of cittas that experience objects. but this is not so. Different cittas arise at different moments and the feelings which accompany the cittas are different too. taste or experience tangible object through the bodysense. they are: alobha (greedlessness or generosity). and it may be accompanied by pleasant feeling or by indifferent feeling. Thus. with hetus (roots). ahetuka. These five pairs are called in Pali: dvi-pa~can vi~n¯na (two times five vi~n¯na). Or the citta which likes the object may arise. they are the results of kamma.) there are two kinds experiencing an object through one of the five sense-doors: one is ahetuka akusala vip¯ka and one is ahetuka kusala vip¯ka. Cittas a which like or dislike the object arise later on. a deed performed in the past. . such as seeing or hearing. rooted in lobha. There are many ahetuka cittas arising in a day. There is not only one type of citta. they can motivate good or evil deeds. citta rooted in u dosa. and this citta does not know anything else. What is seen we can call “visible object” or “colour”. As we have seen. hearing or the other sensea cognitions. can occur at the n n~a . hetus. and these deeds can produce their appropriate results later on. these realities arise each because of their own conditions and they are non-self. Seeing is not the same as thinking of what is seen. attachment. Three hetus are sobhana (beautiful). dosa-m¯la-citta. adosa (non-hate or loving kindness) and amoha (pa~n¯ or wisdom). Kusala cittas and akusala cittas are cittas that are cause. Of each of the five sense-cognitions (seeing. Kusala cittas and akusala cittas are accompanied by cetasikas that are roots. there are ahetuka vip¯kacittas before akusala cittas or kusala cittas arise. There are u also cittas that are rootless. there must also be a kind of citta which merely sees visible object. Seeing. smell. hear. n~a . dosa (aversion) and moha (ignorance). tasting and the experience of tangible object through the bodysense are ahetuka vip¯kacittas. moha and dosa are the hetus which arise with dosa-m¯la-citta. hearing. there is no like or dislike yet of the object. such as a person or a thing. and it is accompanied by unpleasant feeling. smelling. seeing-consciousness only experiences what appears through the eyes. three of these hetus are akusala. aversion. it is akusala citta rooted in dosa.

It is named after the relevant sense-door. Kusala performed in the past is a condition for the arising of kusala at present. not visible object. . which experience that same object. that investigates the object. The Buddha pointed out the dangers of being infatuated with the objects we experience through the six doors. Visible object is r¯pa and it lasts longer than u citta. After the mind-door advertingconsciousness has adverted to the object it is succeeded by either kusala cittas or akusala cittas (in the case of non-arahats). He taught people to develop the wisdom which knows the realities experienced through the six doors as n¯ma and r¯pa. They appear just for a moment. Very shortly after the sensedoor process is finished. All the time sense objects impinge on the different doorways. When the sense-door process of cittas is finished. This citta is followed by seven javana-cittas that are. they do not pay attention to shape and form or think of a person or a thing. There is a fixed order in the cittas arising within a process and nobody can change this order. it is an ahetuka kiriyacitta. The experience of visible object conditions the thinking of concepts of people and things which arises later on. it is not akusala citta. They all cognize the same object. Although it has fallen away. which experience the sense object which has just fallen away. but each of the sense-cognitions arises in a series or process of cittas succeeding one another and sharing the same object. These cittas are receiving-consciousness (sampaticchana-citta). a u 1 The five-sense-door adverting-consciousness (pa~ca-dv˚ avajjana-citta) turns towards the object through n ar˚ one of the five sense-doors. But time and again there are also other mind-door processes of cittas which think of people or things and then the object is a concept. it can be object of cittas arising in a mind-door process. a mind-door process of cittas begins. such as eye-door advertingconsciousness or ear-door adverting-consciousness. There is not only one citta that experiences visible object. in the case of non-arahats kusala cittas or akusala cittas. phenomena which are impermanent and non-self. which adverts to visible object. but they each perform their own function. and then they fall away. The mind-door adverting-consciousness is neither akusala citta nor kusala citta. ıran The investigating-consciousness is succeeded by the determining-consciousness (votthapanacitta). They perform a function different from seeing while they cognize visible object. which is an ahetuka kiriyacitta. Cittas arise and fall away succeeding one another extremely rapidly and nobody can make kusala citta arise at will. It does not see but it merely turns towards the visible object that has just impinged on the eyesense1 This citta is an ahetuka kiriyacitta (inoperative citta). ble object and investigating-consciousness (sant¯ . that receives visi. or one citta that experiences sound. not kusala citta and not vip¯kacitta. is succeeded by two more ahetuka vip¯kacittas which do not see but still coga a nize visible object that has not fallen away yet. a-citta). Heara ing is an ahetuka vip¯kacitta that experiences sound through the ear-door. There is no self who can determine whether the determining-consciousness will be succeeded by akusala cittas or kusala cittas. Seeing. When visible object is experienced through the mind-door the cittas only know visible object.Chapter 9: The Experience of Objects through different doorways 11 9 The Experience of Objects through different doorways Seeing is an ahetuka vip¯kacitta that experiences visible object through the eye-door. the sense object experienced by those cittas has also fallen away. Seeing is preceded by the eye-door adverting-consciousness. which is an ahetuka a vip¯kacitta. Each of the a sense-cognitions experiences an object through the appropriate doorway. The first citta of the mind-door process is the mind-door adverting-consciousness (mano-dv¯r¯vajjana-citta) which adverts through the mind-door aa to the object which has just fallen away.

we will be less infatuated with objects. it cannot be happiness. . When we come to know things as they are.Chapter 9: The Experience of Objects through different doorways 12 What is impermanent is “dukkha”.

There are bhavanga-cittas at such moments. smelt it and ate it. In the “Atthas¯lin¯ the commentary to the first book a ı”. took the fruit. Even when there are no sense-impressions and no thinking there must be citta. they do not experience the sound. There are still some bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away before the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness (pa~ca-dv¯r¯vajjana-citta) adverts to the sound through the ear-door and hearing arises. The bhavanga-citta keeps the continuity in a lifespan.Chapter 10: Life-continuum. when one does not think. Bhavanga literally means “factor of life”. so that what we call a “being” goes on to live from moment to moment. n aa The bhavanga-cittas do not perform the function of adverting to the sound which contacts the earsense. Also when we are awake countless bhavanga-cittas arise.” Processes of cittas occur at this moment: seeing. bhavanga-citta 13 10 Life-continuum. 271. the function of just seeing by visual cognition. thinking about it and taking it for a person or thing. We read (Expositor. of the Abhidhamma. But verily only the apperception (the series of javana-cittas) enjoys the taste of the object. stretched out his hand. the parable of the Mango is given. one “joins” them together. for example. impinges on the earsense. We read: “What does this simile signify? The function of the object striking the sentient organism. no 2. but even when we are in a dreamless sleep there still has to be citta. bhavanga-citta There are moments when there are no sense-impressions. they arise in between the different processes of citta. When one has not studied the Dhamma one confuses the different doorways and the different objects. attachment to what is seen. One is inclined to believe that there is a self who coordinates all the different expriences. but in reality there are different processes of citta and in between these processes bhavanga-cittas arise. In reality there are only different cittas arising because of their appropriate conditions that experience different objects one at a . but each citta cognizes only one object at a time. the determining of the object by the inoperative element of mind-cognition (the kiriyacitta which is determiningconsciousness). That is the function of the bhavanga-citta. When this happens there is the function of adverting by the five doors just agitating the life-continuum. of just the examining of the object by the resultant element of mind-cognition (investigating-consciousness). grazing his ear. They have their own function which is keeping the continuity in a lifespan. the Dhammasangani. When we are asleep and dreaming akusala cittas and kusala cittas arise. It seems that hearing. It is beneficial to learn about the different processes of cittas that succeed one another extremely rapidly. when there are no akusala cittas or kusala cittas. explaining a ˙ process of cittas after the stream of bhavanga has been arrested. no thinking. otherwise there would be no life. When sound. for example. part X. can arise very shortly after seeing. squeezed it. There are countless bhavanga-cittas arising at those moments when there are no sense-impressions. The type of citta which arises and falls away at those moments is called bhavanga-citta. of just receiving the object by the resultant mind-element (receivingconsciousness]. It seems that when there is seeing we think at the same time of a person or thing. there cannot be a sense-cognition immediately. Awakened by the sound he looked. bhavanga is usually translated into English as “life-continuum”. However. A ripe mango fell down. there is not immediately hearing. Discourse on the moral result of the sensuous realm) that a man went to sleep under a mango-tree. When an object contacts one of the five senses the stream of bhavanga-cittas is interrupted and a sensecognition arises. no akusala cittas or kusala cittas.

There are many different moments of thinking and these fall away. and this is because we think for a long time of shape and form of people and of things. When we look at people they seem to last. We can learn to discern when we are in the world of concepts and when in the world of paramattha dhammas. Thinking is a paramattha dhamma. .Chapter 10: Life-continuum. bhavanga-citta 14 time. but the concepts that are the objects of thinking are not paramattha dhammas.

a beautiful sound. but it is different from citta that is the leader in cognizing an object. Somanassa which is kusala and somanassa which accompanies lobha are different kinds of somanassa arising closely one after the other. Somanassa can accompany kusala citta. can arise with cittas of all four jatis: with a kusala citta. mindfulness. It arises with the citta it accompanies and then it falls away immediately. . a soft touch or an agreeable thought. we may a believe that this is kusala. akusala citta. observe s¯ ( morality) or apply a ıla ourselves to mental development. There can be a moment of pure generosity accompanied by pleasant feeling. Feeling experiences the object in its own way. we may think that there is one kind of feeling which lasts. indifferent feeling. There can be pleasant feeling when one likes a pleasant visible object. We take feeling for something lasting and we take it for my feeling. but many moments of attachment are bound to arise after the kusala cittas have fallen away. happy feeling. evenmindedness. Feelings are manifold and they can be classified in different ways. otherwise we are misled by our feelings. we want to be liked by the person who receives our gift. They all condition the pleasant feeling that is kusala. u somanassa is also akusala. but it does not accompany each kusala citta. there can be somanassa or upekkh¯. When we enjoy delicious food with pleasant feeling. attachment. a with the kusala citta. When there is not pleasant feeling or unpleasant feeling. or we may expect something in return. When mental feelings and bodily feelings are taken into account. a vip¯ka or kiriya. feelings can be classified as fivefold: • pleasant bodily feeling (sukha) • painful bodily feeling (dukkha) • happy feeling (somanassa) • unhappy feeling (domanassa) • indifferent feeling (upekkh¯) a Feeling is different as it accompanies cittas of the four j¯tis (classes) of kusala. In reality feeling is a cetasika accompanying each and every citta. it experiences the flavour of the object. Feeling experiences the same object as the citta it accompanies. Somanassa. When somanassa accompanies lobha-m¯la-citta (citta rooted in attachment).Chapter 11: Feelings (part 1) 15 11 Feelings (part 1) We think of ourselves as having happy feeling or unhappy feeling. When we have happy feeling. akusala. but in reality there are different moments of feeling accompanying different cittas. that feeling is different from pleasant feeling arising when we appreciate someone else’s kusala. When we perform d¯na (generosity). When we give a present to someone else with pleasant feeling. In the latter case it is more refined and calm. It seems that there is one kind of somanassa and that it lasts. a fragrant odour. Such moments of attachment may be accompanied by somanassa. There is no moment without feeling. There are many sobhana cetasikas accompanying kusala citta: calm. We may be attached to the person we give to or to the thing we give. but most of the time it accompanies akuala citta rooted in lobha. there is indifferent feeling. confidence in kusala. and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. It is important to know of which a j¯ti feeling is. a delicious taste. In reality there are many different moments of somanassa. vip¯kacitta and kiriyacitta.

it is neither a happy nor unhappy. arises only with cittas of the j¯ti which is akusala. indifferent feeling. We are enslaved to our feelings. Pleasant bodily feeling and painful bodily feeling are n¯ma. Upekkh¯ can arise with cittas of all four j¯tis. smelling and tasting which are vip¯kacittas experiencing a pleasant or unpleasant object. we let ourselves be carried away by the feelings which arise on account of pleasant or unpleasant objects we experience through the senses. a is not accompanied by indifferent feeling but by pleasant bodily feeling or by painful bodily feeling. kusala cittas and akusala cittas arise closely one after the other. a a wholesome deed. temperature which is just the right amount of heat or cold impinges on the bodysense the body-consciousness which experiences it is accompanied by pleasant bodiIy feeling. arises. At such a moment there is no compassion. but it does not arise with a a every citta. are always accompanied by a indifferent feeling. We cling to life and we want to go on living and receiving sense-impressions. When. it is the result of kusala kamma. is different from somanassa and from domanassa. u When we see someone else suffer. but we may not notice this. we have compassion and want to help him. The impact of tangible object on the bodysense is more intense than the impact of the other sense objects on the corresponding senses. they fall away immediately. and it does not arise with lobha-m¯lau u citta. Often it is not known whether the object experienced by these cittas was pleasant or unpleasant. . citta rooted in attachment. such as a pen or a book. We attach great importance to feeling. We can call them “bodily feeling” because they are conditioned by a impact on the bodysense. an unwholesome deed. Upekkh¯. but they are only realities which arise because of the appropriate conditions and do not last. When a pleasant or unpleasant tangible object is experienced through the bodysense.When we walk or when we u get hold of different things we use in our daily life. citta rooted in aversion. which is vip¯kacitta. there is bound to be clinging even when we do not feel particularly glad. Indifferent feeling can accompany lobha-m¯la-citta.Chapter 12: Feelings (part 2) 16 12 Feelings (part 2) Domanassa. We may be sad because of someone else’s suffering and then akusala citta rooted in dosa. When it experiences a pleasant object. hearing. it is the result of akusala kamma. it always a arises with dosa-m¯la-citta. the body-consciousness. The Buddha classified feeling as a separate khandha because people cling very much to feeling. aversion. This is accompanied by unhappy feeling. and when it experiences an unpleasant object. Body-consciousness is vip¯kacitta and in this case a kusala vip¯kacitta. for example. citta rooted in ignorance. However. nor with moha-m¯la-citta. unhappy feeling. Seeing.

u u but that they are realities appearing in daily life. but they are. Viewing the body and the things around us as different combinations of r¯pas may be new to us. which have to arise together with each and every group of a u u r¯pas. the four “Great u Elements” (Mah¯-bh¯ta r¯pas). but in reality it falls away immediately. it has no abiding substance. and the r¯pas in such a u u group arise together and fall away together. are not mere textbook terms. in fact. The element of water cannot be experienced through touch. it is devoid of a “self”. but it does not fall away as quickly as n¯ma. it falls away again. specific r¯pas u each with their own characteristic. When we are more precise. Gradually we shall realize that r¯pas are not abstract categories. In the Abhidhamma they represent ultimate realities. We used to think that a cushion or chair could be experienced through touch. The element of earth appears as hardness or softness. they arise in units or groups. the element of fire as heat or cold. it is hardness or softness that can be experienced through touch. only different compositions of r¯pa u elements. It may seem that hardness can last for some time. Because of remembrance of former experiences we can think of a cushion or chair and we know that they are named “cushion” or “chair”. can be directly experienced. but these are only elements arising because of conditions. This example can remind us that there is a difference between ultimate realities and concepts we can think of but which are not real in the ultimate sense. The hardness that is experienced now is already different from the hardness that arose a moment ago. pathav¯ dh¯tu. but only through the mind-door. the element of wind as motion or pressure. They are the following r¯pas: u • the Element of Earth (pathav¯ atu) or solidity ıdh¯ . R¯pa arises and falls away. or hardness. cold which is the element of fire. translated into ı a . We take softness and hardness of the body for self. When a a u a characteristic of r¯pa such as hardness impinges on the bodysense it can be experienced u through the bodysense by several cittas arising in succession within a process. English as “solidity” or “extension”. which is the element of earth. Fire and Wind do not in this context have the same meaning as in conventional language. Every day we experience a great variety of sense objects. R¯pas do not know or experience anything.Chapter 13: The four Great Elements 17 13 The four Great Elements R¯pas. It can be directly experienced when we touch something hard or soft. The element of earth. The types u u u of r¯pa other than the four Great Elements depend on these four r¯pas and cannot arise u u without them. neither do they represent conceptual ideas as we find them in different philosophical systems. . they can be known by u n¯ma. When we touch a cushion or chair. When we touch what we call water. • the Element of Water (¯podh¯tu) or cohesion a a • the Element of Fire (tejodh¯tu) or heat a • the Element of Wind (v¯yodh¯tu) or motion a a Earth. consisting each of different kinds of r¯pa. It is an element that arises and falls u away. But even though r¯pa lasts longer than citta. such as hardness or softness. These three elements can be experienced by touch. We do not have to name this r¯pa “element of earth” in order to experience it. material phenomena. no matter whether these are r¯pas of the body or r¯pas outside the body. There are four kinds of r¯pa. R¯pas do not u u arise singly. they are realities that can be u directly experienced. has the characteristic of hardness or softness. Water. What we take for our body is composed of many groups or units. it is impermanent. tangible object may appear.

visible object is experienced. When u we recognize what kind of flavour we taste. Flavour is another r¯pa included in the eight inseparable r¯pas. temperature u and motion are always present wherever there is materiality. The u u a a a u derived r¯pas cannot arise without the four Great Elements. Odour cannot arise alone. The thinking of a “thing”. such as hardness or heat. These four r¯pas are the following: u • visible object (or colour) • odour • flavour • nutrition The four Great elements and these four derived r¯pas. it needs the four Great Elements which arise together with it and it is also accompanied by the other r¯pas u included in the eight inseparable r¯pas. Life is actually one moment of experiencing an object. When there are u conditions for seeing. u Four among the derived r¯pas always arise together with the four Great Elements in every u group of r¯pas and are thus present wherever materiality occurs. attachment tends to arise. there may be remembrance of the shape and form of a thing. colour. motion. Wherever solidity arises. If one does not develop understanding of realities one will be enslaved by all objects experienced through the senses. However. As soon as we have tasted delicious flavour. Apart from these four elements there are other r¯pas. At the moment of seeing the world of visible object is experienced. is experienced. temperature. . we think about a concept. flavour and nutritive essence. Insects are able to digest what human beings cannot digest. On account of these objects akusala cittas tend to arise. at the moment of hearing the world of sound. the present moment. and at the moment of touching the world of tangible object. We are forgetful of the reality of flavour which is only a kind of r¯pa. cohesion. which always arise together. he may be inclined to commit unwholesome deeds such as stealing. Only one r¯pa at a time can be experienced by citta. are u called the “inseparable r¯pas” (in P¯li: avinibbhoga r¯pas). It is present in any kind of materiality. It can be exerienced only through the u mind-door. the accompanying visible object cannot be experienced at the same time. When we close our eyes. for example. If someone thinks that there is a self who can own what is seen. touched or smelt.Chapter 14: The Eight Inseparable R¯pas u 18 14 The Eight Inseparable R¯ pas u R¯pas always arise in groups. but this thinking is conditioned by the experience of flavour through the tongue. there u a u also have to be cohesion. Nutrition is another kind of r¯pa which has to arise with every kind of materiality. In the ultimate sense life exists only in one moment. but that is not the experience of visible object. is different from the actual experience of what is visible. When odour appears we tend to be carried away u by like or dislike. Nutritive essence is not only present in rice and other foods. no matter whether r¯pas u u of the body or materiality outside the body. no matter whether our eyes are closed or open. and the four Great Elements of solidity. However. they are dependent on them. it is also present in what we call a rock or sand. such as. odour. We are attached to food and we u u find its flavour very important. odour is only a reality which is experienced through the nose and it does not last. they arise and then fall away immediately. namely twentyfour “derived r¯pas” (in P¯li: up¯d¯ r¯pas). wood. We are attached to fragrant odours and we loathe nasty smells. Visible object has as its proximate cause the four Great Elements because it cannot arise without them. In reality all these objects are insignificant. when a characteristic of one of these four Great Elements.

also produces r¯pas. For u hearing. It is true that these factors are the right conditions that have to be present so that a plant can grow. Eyesense u u does not know anything since it is r¯pa. The four factors which produce the r¯pas of u our body support and consolidate each other and keep this shortlived body going. different combinations of r¯pas. Our different moods become u u evident by our facial expressions and then it is clear that citta produces r¯pas. appearing as hardness or softness. citta. Throughout our life kamma produces seeing. Nutrition is another factor that produces r¯pas. not by kamma. What we take for u rocks. When these characteristics appear they can be directly experienced wherever there is bodysense. such as soil. plants or houses are r¯pas and these originate from temperature.Chapter 15: The Sense organs 19 15 The Sense organs For the experience of objects through the senses there have to be sense organs and these are r¯pas. hearing and the other sense-impressions that are vip¯kacittas. none of which u can arise without the element of heat or temperature that produces them. visible object. but it is a necessary condition for seeing. odour. As we have seen. light and moisture are. Citta also produces r¯pas. so that citta can experience it. Thus. there are five kinds of sense organs. capable of receiving visible object. citta or nutrition. also inside the body. the experience of sound. . when we are more precise. tastingsense for the experience of flavour and bodysense for the experience of tangible object. there has to be earsense. R¯pas of the body and also r¯pas u u outside the body do not arise without there being conditions for their arising. R¯pas outside u the body are only produced by temperature. As we have seen. The bodysense is all over the body. Rebirth-consciousness is the mental result of kamma. capable of u receiving sound. Kamma produces particular kinds u of r¯pas such as the sense organs. There are not only r¯pas of the body. When food has u u been taken by a living being it is assimilated into the body and then nutrition can produce r¯pas. u there are also r¯pas which are the material phenomena outside the body. appearing as motion or pressure. Through the bodysense are experienced: the earth element. These sense organs can be the doorways for the cittas that experience sense objects. kamma is actually the volition that motivates good and evil deeds. We may wonder u whether there are no other factors apart from the element of heat that contribute to the growth of plants. Eyesense u is a r¯pa in the eye. There must be smellingsense for the experience of odour. Temperature. sound. Some of the groups of r¯pas of our body are produced by kamma. Throughout life the element u of heat produces r¯pas. u u when it stops producing r¯pas our life-span has to end. temperature (the element of u heat) and nutrition. There are four factors that produce r¯pas of the body: kamma. some by citta. Visible object and also the r¯pa which is eyesense are conditions for seeing. But what we call soil. but since it is a mental activity it is accumulated and can produce result later on. cittas that a are results. vip¯kacitta. u u some by temperature and some by nutrition. light and moisture. u which is actually the element of heat. appearing as heat or cold. the wind element. flavour and tangible object (which consists of three of the four Great Elements) are experienced through the corresponding sense-doors and they can also be experienced through the mind-door. Kamma that has been committed has fallen away. the fire element. a r¯pa in the ear. but at that a moment kamma also produces r¯pas and kamma keeps on producing r¯pas throughout life. If we see the intricate way in which different factors condition the r¯pas of our body we shall be u less inclined to think that the body belongs to a self.

attachment (lobha). but these are concepts we think about. Bodhi) that the Buddha. we can experience them when they present themselves. As regards citta. the khandha of formations. they are classified as three khandhas: the cetasika which is feeling (vedan¯) is classified as one khandha. At the moment of thinking there are five khandhas. in sankh¯rakkhandha are in˙ aa ˙ a cluded cetasikas such as volition or intention (cetan¯). they are impermanent ˙ aa not “self”. When seeing arises. they are real. they each have their own characteristic that can be realised without naming. they are not seen through the eyesense. feeling (vedan¯) a a • Sa~n¯kkhandha. generosity (alobha) and wisdom (pa~n¯). a the cetasika which is remembrance or “perception” (sa~n¯) is classified as one khandha. cetasika. remembrance or “perception” (sa~n¯) n~a n~a • Sankh¯rakkhandha. Three n¯makkhandhas u a a are cetasika and one n¯makkhandha is citta. The citta that thinks is vi~n¯nakkhandha. n~a as regards the other fifty cetasikas. Although khandhas arise and fall away. All a conditioned realities that arise and fall away can be classified as five khandhas. paramattha dhammas: as citta. Thus. n~a u Thus. accompanying cetasikas: vedan¯kkhandha.Chapter 16: The Five Khandhas 20 16 The Five Khandhas All that is real can be classified as four ultimate realities. Cittas arise and fall away so rapidly that it is difficult to distinguish different cittas from each other. the khandhas are: citta. a as soon as it has arisen it falls away again. We read in the “Kindred Sayings” (III. cetasika and r¯pa are conditioned realities that arise and u a u fall away and nibb¯na is the unconditioned element that does not arise and fall away. aversion (dosa). sa~n¯khandha. All a n~a defilements and all good qualities are included in sankh¯r¯kkhandha. all physical phenomena u • Vedan¯kkhandha. The khandhas arise and fall away all the time. Anything which is khandha does not last. Moreover there is a r¯pa that is the physical u base of thinking. We may think of a person or tree with clinging and wrong view. For example. they are classified altogether as one khandha. and there are the n~a . a ignorance (moha). cetasika and r¯pa. said to the monks: a . one khandha n~a . comprising fifty cetasikas (mental factors arising with the citta) ˙ a • Vi~n¯nakkhandha. is r¯pakkhandha and the other four khandhas are n¯makkhandhas. but we may be confused about different cittas and take seeing and thinking together. while he was dwelling at Ayojjh¯. aggregates. it seems that we see immediately a person or a tree. loving kindness (mett¯). As regards the fifty-two kinds of cetasika which may arise with citta. sa~n¯khandha and sankh¯rakkhandha in which a n~a ˙ a are now included clinging and wrong view. We take seeing and thinking for my seeing and thinking. We do not have u to name them in order to know them. translated by Ven. Citta. Thinking arises shortly after seeing has fallen away. Thus. comprising all cittas n~a . and there is eyesense which is r¯pa-kkhandha. r¯pa and nibb¯na. It seems that there is one citta performing different functions at the same time. Seeing sees only what is visible and it is different from thinking. Sankh¯r¯kkhandha is sometimes translated as “activities” or “mental forma˙ aa tions”. cetasika and r¯pa arising at this moment. all cittas are one khandha: vi~n¯nakkhandha. The five khandhas are: u • R¯pakkhandha. accompanying cetasikas: vedan¯kkhandha. sankh¯rakkhandha (including a n~a ˙ a cetasikas apart from feeling and sa~n¯). sankh¯r¯kkhandha. The five khandhas are not different from the three paramattha dhammas which are citta. there is vi~n¯nakkhandha. 140. but these are different from the khandhas that arose at the moment of seeing. and there are the n~a .

and carefully investigates it. perception.Chapter 16: The Five Khandhas 21 “Bhikkhus. bhikkhus. we have wrong view of self. Thus. future or present. far or near: a bhikkhu inspects it. whatever kind of form there is. whether past. and it would appear to him to be void. and it would appear to him to be void. insubstantial. gross or subtle. ponders it. . When we a take the khandhas as a “whole” of a person. For what substance could there be in a lump of foam? So too. when we fail to see the different characteristics of naama and ruupa when they appear one at a time. internal or external. A man with good sight would inspect it. and carefully investigate it. inferior or superior. For what substance could there be in form?” The Buddha then goes on to make the same observation by way of similes on the four n¯makkhandhas of feeling. we take them for a self or a person. hollow. suppose that this river Ganges was carrying along a great lump of foam. ponder it. insubstantial. hollow. volitional formations and conscious-ness.

When consciousness dissolves. it cannot be experienced through the body-door. person. an ultimate reality with its own inalterable characteristic. In the planes of existence where there are a u n¯ma and r¯pa. No [world is] born if [consciousness is] not Produced. to our life in this world. where there are dhammas cognizable by the eye. We read in the “Visuddhimagga” (VI. Through each door the appropriate object can be experienced and the different doorways should not be confused with one another. lord. we only know the world by way of conventional truth. 68. We attach great importance to our experiences in life. We read in the “Kindred Sayings” (IV. lasting only as long as one moment of citta. Visible object. visible object. through touch. pleasure. can be experienced through the eye-door. when that is present. a being or person. in Bamboo Grove. The study of r¯pas can help us to have more clarity about the fact that only one object at a time u can be experienced through one of the six doors. 39) : “Life. Ch I. Samiddhi came to a see him and adressed him: “ ‘The world! The world!’ is the saying. then it lives. seeing-consciousness. all the objects we experience. The a u a u u a r¯pas that are sense objects and the r¯pas that can function as sense-doors are conditions u u for the different cittas arising in processes which experience sense objects. but actually life is extremely short. Samiddhi sutta) .42).” . Samiddhi. Only one object at a time can be cognized as it appears through one doorway. pain . So long as we take what appears as a ‘whole’. When we are thinking about the world and all people in it. Without the doorways of the senses and the mind the world could not appear. Gradually we shall come to understand a that all our experiences in life.a that when the Buddha was staying near R¯jagaha. we do not know the world. but in reality there is citta experiencing different dhammas arising and falling away very rapidly.1. our bodily movements and our speech are only conditioned n¯ma and r¯pa.” (The same is said with regard to the other doorways.Chapter 17: The World 22 17 The World The study of the different kinds of n¯ma and r¯pa and the various conditions for their arising a u will help us to understand that they are anatt¯. Second Fifty. such as hardness or softness. thus. for example. lord. A concept or conventional truth can be an object of thought. we think of a concept.just these alone Join in one conscious moment that flicks by. Kindred Sayings on Sense. the world is dead: The highest sense this concept will allow (Nd. Ceased aggregates of those dead or alive Are all alike. gone never to return. Pray.) In our life happy moments and sad moments alternate. It seems that there is the world full of beings and things. Seeing-consciousness experiences what is visible and body-consciousness experiences tangible object. to what extent is there the world or the concept of ‘world’ ?” “Where there is eye. n¯ma conditions r¯pa and r¯pa conditions n¯ma in different ways. When we believe that we can see and touch a flower. Sal¯yatana vagga. there is the world and the concept of ‘world’. but it is not a paramattha dhamma.

In order to understand what causes birth we should know what conditions the n¯ma and r¯pa which arise at the first moment of a u a new lifespan. or they produce result in the course of a future life. there are only n¯ma and a r¯pa arising and falling away. but. Rebirth-consciousness is the result of kamma. One may have doubts about past lives. The patisandhi-citta of the next life experiences that same . That is why tendencies one had in the past can continue by way of accumulation from one citta to the next one and from past lives to the present life. We have performed deeds in past lives which could produce rebirth but which have not yet come to fruition. The Visuddhimagga (XVI. it is vip¯kacitta. the patisandhi-citta must also have conditions. some produce result in the form of rebirth-consciousness of a future life. The citta which arises at that moment is called the rebirth-consciousness or patisandhi-citta. it “links” the previous life to the present . but it is . The kamma that will produce the next rebirth conditions the last javana-cittas arising before the cuti-citta to experience that object. 164-168) explains by way of similes that although the present is different from the past there is continuity. . and it also produces throughout our life the r¯pas which can function as the sense-doors through which these u objects are received. Our life starts at the moment the patisandhi-citta arises together with a . experiences that same unpleasant object. It is usually translated as rebirth-consciousness. The being who is born is not the same as the being of the past life. or a sign of one’s future destiny. The present life is different from the past life but there is u continuity in so far as the present life is conditioned by the past. . The patisandhi-citta . pleasant object. A lifespan ends when the last u citta. is the first citta of a new life and thus its cause can only be in the past. there are only n¯ma and r¯pa which are born. Patisandhi means relinking. Cittas which arise and fall away succeed one another and thus each citta conditions the next one. In that case kusala cittas arise shortly before the cuti-citta and they experience a pleasant object. Kamma produces the vip¯kacittas which a experience pleasant and unpleasant objects through the sense-doors. birth-consciousness would be more correct. life. If akusala kamma produces the rebirth of the next life there will be an unhappy rebirth.Chapter 18: Death and Rebirth 23 18 Death and Rebirth What is birth. There is no self who transmigrates from one life to the next life. Since people accumulated different tendencies in past lives. We should consider what birth really is. The object experienced shortly before the dying-consciousness may be a sign of kamma one performed. In that case the cittas which arise shortly before the dying-consciousness are akusala cittas and they experience an unpleasant object. they are born with different tendencies and inclinations. but in fact. but how can people be so different if there were no past lives? We can see that people are born with different tendencies and talents. Since there isn’t any citta which arises without conditions. The patisandhi-citta of the next life which succeeds the cuti-citta (the dying-consciousness). and what is it actually that is born? We speak about the birth of a child. the dying-consciousness (cuti-citta) falls away. The word “birth” is a conventional a u term. or it may be any object experienced through one of the senses. Kamma produces r¯pa not only at u the first moment of life but throughout our life. without there being any interval. We cannot know which kamma will produce the next rebirth. The last citta of the previous life (dying-consciousness) is immediately succeeded by the first citta of this life. If kusala kamma produces the rebirth there will be a happy rebirth. . Some kammas produce results in the same life in which they have been performed. the r¯pa which is at the same time produced by kamma. since there is no person who is reborn.

etc. connectedness By continuity denies Identity and otherness. as their cause and come into being without going elsewhere. We read with regard to the patisandhi-citta: . “An echo. a light. or its like. and a shadow. a looking glass image. For just as an echo.Chapter 18: Death and Rebirth 24 conditioned by the past. a seal impression..” . a seal impression. so also this consciousness. supplies The figures here. a light. have respectively sound. for the fact of its not coming here from the previous becoming and for the fact that it arises owing to causes that are included in past becomings. And here let the illustration of this consciousness be such things as an echo. as the Visuddhimagga explains. There is “neither absolute identity nor absolute otherness”.

the result of kamma. good Gotama. arising in different planes of existence. Each person experiences different results in life: there a a are gain and loss. the human plane and the six heavenly planes which are deva planes.Chapter 19: Rebirth in different planes of existence (1) 25 19 Rebirth in different planes of existence (1) Akusala kamma and kusala kamma of different beings can produce nineteen different types of rebirth-consciousness. human beings of short lifespan are to be seen and those of . In the heavenly planes there is more kusala vip¯ka than in the human plane and less akusala vip¯ka. One patisandhi-citta is akusala vip¯ka a a . but during one’s lifespan in this plane there are both a kusala vip¯ka and akusala vip¯ka. The descriptions of hells in the Buddhist teachings are not merely allegories. a a There are eleven classes of sensuous planes of existence in all. Only one type of patisandhi-citta is akusala vip¯ka. The experience of pleasant and unpleasant things through eyes. Birth in a woeful plane is the result of a bad deed and birth in a happy plane is the result of a good deed. sutta 135) we read that Subha asks the Buddha what the cause is of the different results human beings experience from the time of their birth: “Now. tongue and bodysense are the results of kamma. when one’s lifespan in a hell plane is over there can be rebirth in another plane. honour and dishonour. the world of asuras (demons). There are different kinds of hell planes because there are many degrees of akusala kamma which produce different kinds of unhappy rebirth. akusala vip¯kacitta arises in an unhappy plane of existence and the patisandhi-citta that a . nose. Other happy planes. There are a . the experience of unpleasant things through eyes. nose. is kusala vip¯kacitta arises in a happy plane of existence. to the end of birth and death. praise and blame. Life a a in a hell plane is not permanent. and eighteen types are kusala vip¯ka. ears. are the heavenly planes. Apart from the animal world there are three more classes of woeful planes. which we cannot see. There are different woeful planes and different happy planes of existence. smelling. In the “Discourse on the Lesser Analysis of Deeds” (Middle Length Sayings III. what is the reason that lowness and excellence are to be seen among human beings while they are in human form? For. One can study Dhamma and learn to develop the way leading to the end of defilements. The patisandhi-citta that is . A plane of existence is the place a where one is born. the experience of tangible object through the bodysense and other k¯m¯vacara cittas (cittas of the sensuous plane of consciousness). The unhappy rebirth we can see in this world is birth as an animal. Since the deeds of beings are of many different degrees of kusala and akusala. The akusala vip¯ka in hell is more intense than a the sufferings which can be experienced in the human plane. are sensuous planes of existence. happiness and misery. the results are of many different degrees as well. Birth as a human being is a happy rebirth. There a a are several heavenly planes and although life in a heavenly plane lasts a very long time. There are many degrees of each of these nineteen a types of patisandhi-citta because the kamma that produces them can be of many degrees. tongue and bodysense is akusala vip¯ka and akusala vip¯ka is reality. and the hell planes. ears. . It is due to kamma whether someone is born into pleasant or unpleasant surroundings. what is the cause. good Gotama. patisandhi-citta. in all. patisandhi-citta is vip¯kacitta. The woeful planes. it is not permanent. Sensuous planes of existence are planes where there is seeing. . The . In the human plane there is opportunity for the development of kusala. whether he belongs to a family which is well-to-do or which is poor. tasting. apart from the human plane. many varieties of akusala kamma and thus there must be many varieties of an unhappy rebirth. Birth in the human plane is kusala vip¯ka. they are the world of petas (ghosts). hearing. but it is of many degrees.

deeds are arbiters.” The Buddha answered Subha: ”Deeds are one’s own.Chapter 19: Rebirth in different planes of existence (1) 26 long lifespan. that is to say by lowness and excellence. those who are beautiful. those who are of little account. those who are poor. beings are heirs to deeds. those who are weak in wisdom. those of great account. those of many and those of few illnesses. Deed divides beings. brahman youth. those who are full of wisdom. deeds are kin.” . those who are of lowly families. those who are wealthy. those of high families. those who are ugly. deeds are matrix.

it a u can also arise in higher heavenly planes which are not sensuous planes of existence. If one cultivates the eightfold Path one can have lokuta u a tara cittas. supramundane cittas which directly experience nibb¯na. If they attain ar¯pa-jh¯na u a u a they can be reborn in ar¯pa-brahma planes where there is no r¯pa. ar¯p¯vac¯ra cittas a a u a a u a u a a which are ar¯pajh¯nacittas and lokuttara cittas. If one cultivates the eightfold Path and attains arahatship there will be no more rebirth. which are still bound up with materiality. asa~nasatta. Thus. absorption. but the end of birth is to be preferred to any kind of rebirth. experiences the same object as those jh¯nacittas. The u u result of an ar¯p¯vacara kusala citta (kusala citta which is ar¯pa-jh¯nacitta) is birth in u a u a a heavenly plane which is an ar¯pa-brahma plane (immaterial world).Chapter 20: Rebirth in different Planes of Existence (2) 27 20 Rebirth in different Planes of Existence (2) Rebirth-consciousness does not only arise in sensuous planes of existence. The result of r¯p¯vacara kusala citta a u a (kusala citta which is r¯pa-jh¯nacitta) is birth in a heavenly plane which is not k¯mau a a bh¯mi (sensuous plane of existence) but a r¯pa-brahma-plane (fine-material world). There are thirty-one classes of planes of existence in u all. There are differu ent r¯pa-brahma planes and ar¯pa-brahma planes. namely: 11 sensuous planes: • 4 woeful planes • 1 human plane • 6 deva planes • 16 r¯pa-brahma planes u • 4 ar¯pa-brahma planes u Kusala kamma can cause a happy rebirth. cultivate ar¯pa-jh¯na. If one is born in one of the k¯ma-bh¯mis and one sees the disadvantage of sense impressions. Lokuttara citta experiences nibb¯na. There are sixteen u r¯pa-brahma planes in all. only u a r¯pa-patisandhi. only n¯ma. but it can produce a result in the form of patisandhi-citta. In that case . The kusala kamma which a is jh¯na does not produce result in the same lifespan one attains it. there are jh¯nacittas arising shortly before death and the patisandhi-citta of the next life a . here there is not a rebirth-consciousness. . as we have seen. Which of these planes of citta a particu a ular citta belongs to. R¯p¯vac¯ra cittas and ar¯p¯vac¯ra cittas experience with absorption the u a a u a a meditation subjects of r¯pa-jh¯na and ar¯pa-jh¯na. one a u may cultivate jh¯na. Those who see the disadvantages of the meditation subjects of r¯pa-jh¯na u u a . not n¯ma. r¯p¯vac¯ra cittas which are r¯pajh¯nacittas. One of these is the plane of unconscious beings. k¯ma-bh¯mi. the kusala kamma he performs is not k¯m¯vacara kusala a a a kamma. There are u u a four classes of ar¯pa-brahma planes. Then one can. besides k¯m¯vacara cittas. depends on the object it experiences. at the moment of jh¯na there are no sense impressions. Those who attain r¯pa-jh¯na can be u u u a reborn in r¯pa-brahma-planes where there are less sense-impressions. is the place where rebirth-consciousness arises. the patisandhi-citta of the next life. u n~ Those who cultivate r¯pa-jh¯na and see the disadvantage of n¯ma may be reborn in a plane u a a where there is only r¯pa. also have r¯paa a a u jh¯nacittas and ar¯pa-jh¯nacittas. When someone attains jh¯na. There are four planes a of citta: k¯m¯vacara cittas. K¯m¯vacara citta experiences a a a sense object. u a u a a A plane of citta is different from a plane of existence which. The dying-consciousness (cuti-citta) of the arahat is not succeeded by .

O monks. The Buddha reminded people of the dangers of birth and encouraged . The Exalted One proceeded with a great company of the monks to Kotig¯ma. that which leads to renewed becoming is destroyed. in order to attain the “deathless’” which is nibb¯na. the Ariyan truth about the cessation of dukkha. and there he stayed in the village itself.. to wander so long in this weary path of rebirth. But when these Ariyan truths are grasped and known the craving for future life is rooted out. 1-4): a a “. and said: ‘It is through not understanding and grasping four Ariyan Truths. the Ariyan truth about the cause of dukkha. And at that place the a Exalted One addressed the monks.. and then there is no more birth!’ ” . 16. chapter I. them to be mindful. no.Chapter 20: Rebirth in different Planes of Existence (2) 28 a patisandhi-citta. both you and I!’ And what are these four? The Ariyan truth about dukkha. that we have had to run so long. and the Ariyan truth about the path that leads to that cessation. We read in the a Mah¯-parinibb¯na-sutta (Dialogues of the Buddha I.

The Buddha exhorted people to abstain from akusala. They fall away immediately but the inclination to akusala and kusala is accumulated so that there are conditions for the arising again of akusala citta and kusala citta. arises and one passes away from this life. to purify the mind. However. is the same type of citta as the patisan-dhi-citta and it experiences the same object. there isn’t any moment without citta. It is important to learn more about them in order to understand ourselves. The a patisandhi-citta is succeeded by the bhavanga-citta (life-continuum). the process of accumulation can go on from moment to moment. tongue. In the course of life kammas produce different vip¯kacittas which experience objects through the eyes. The dying-consciousness of a life that is ending experiences the same object as all the previous bhavanga-cittas and it is of the same type. . Each citta is succeeded by a following citta in the long series of cittas in our life. Bhavanga-cittas arise in between the different processes of cittas which experience an object through one of the six doors. Since each citta is succeeded by the next citta without any interval. have seen. bhavanga-cittas arise and fall away during the time there is no sense-door process or mind-door process of cittas. the ears. the nose. The bhavanga-citta keeps the continuity in a lifespan. there are nineteen types of vip¯kacitta that can perform the function of rebirth. It is citta which motivates good deeds and evil deeds and these will produce their results accordingly. The bhavanga-citta . they do not a react to the object in an unwholesome or a wholesome way. bodysense and mind-door and in between the processes there are bhavanga-cittas. and the way we react towards pleasant and unpleasant events. about the way we behave towards others in action and speech. It is a . and his impressive words were a real support for people to follow his advice. shortly after they have fallen away there are cittas which react to the objects experienced through the senses either in an unwholesome way or in a wholesome way. It performs its function of keeping the continuity in life until the dying-consciousness. Thus. So long as one is still alive.Chapter 21: Accumulated inclinations 29 21 Accumulated inclinations The first citta in a life span is the rebirth-consciousness or patisandhi-citta. Vip¯kacittas neither like nor dislike the object. ears. Each moment of kusala citta or akusala citta arising today is a condition for the arising of kusala citta or akusala citta in the future. the rebirth-consciousness. going). are called javana-cittas (literally: readiness. the a tongue and the bodysense. this object is the same as the object experienced by the last javana-cittas of the previous life and it is conditioned by the kamma that produces the rebirth-consciousness of the following life. As we have a seen. The whole day cittas arising in processes experience objects through eyes. There are different types of kusala citta and of akusala citta. to perform kusala. As we . from one life to a next life. They arise usually in a sequence of seven cittas of the same type. vip¯kacitta produced by kamma and it links the past life to the present life. nose. the bhavanga-citta and the dying-consciousness do not experience objects that impinge on the six doors like the cittas that arise in the different processes. Akusala cittas or kusala cittas arising in a sense-door process or mind-door process. impulse. the cuti-citta.

Through samatha the “hindrances” (n¯ ıvarana). u a u u • the plane of supramundane citta. . Only when there is right understanding of calm and the way to develop it. tasting. the citta is usually a ıla a a akusala. loving-kindness or mindfulness of breathing. One may be attached to silence. What plane of consciousness a citta belongs to depends on the object it experiences. They are sensuous desire (k¯macchandha). s¯ or mental development. and these are the following cetasikas: • applied thinking (vitakka) • sustained thinking (vic¯ra) a • rapture (p¯ ıti) • happy feeling (sukha) • concentration (sam¯dhi) a . hearing. When the objective of citta is not d¯na. We usually cling to all the sense objects. There are four planes of consciousness: u • the sensuous plane of consciousness. has to develop five jh¯na-factors a a which can inhibit the hindrances. k¯ma-bh¯mi. such as seeing. Jh¯nacittas do not experience sense objects. but we may not notice this. calm can grow. kusala cittas (wholesome cittas) and akusala cittas (unwholesome cittas) arise. the experience of tangible object through the bodysense and the experience of these objects through the mind-door. A meditation subject does not necessarily bring about calm. a u • the plane of r¯pa-jh¯na. tranquil meditation. mindfulness of death.Chapter 22: Four Planes of Consciousness (part 1) 30 22 Four Planes of Consciousness (part 1) There are many ways of classifying citta and one way is the classification by way of plane of consciousness. in Pali: bh¯mi. plane of consciousness is different from plane of existence which is the place where one is born. bh¯van¯. it is freedom from defilements. The sensuous plane of consciousness (k¯m¯vacara cittas) are the a a cittas that experience sense objects. The hindrances arise time and again in daily life. ill-will (vy¯p¯da). Indifferent feeling seems to be very calm. they experience with a absorption a meditation subject through the mind-door. which are akusala cetasikas. pa~n¯. Someone who a wants to develop samatha so as to be able to attain jh¯na. a a a ına restlessness and worry (uddhacca and kukkucca) and doubt (vicikicch¯). it is essential to have a keen understanding of the characteristic of calm and of the way to develop calm with a suitable meditation subject. u a u u • the plane of ar¯pa-jh¯na. Those who see the disadvantage of sense impressions and the defilements bound up with them cultivate samatha (tranquil meditation) and may attain absorption (jh¯na). True calm has to be wholesome. and this is higher than the a a sensuous plane of citta. The jh¯nacitta is of another plane of citta. ar¯pa-bh¯mi. For the development of samatha. that knows n~a precisely when the citta is kusala citta and when akusala citta is indispensable. The Visuddhimagga (Chapters IV-XII) describes forty meditation subjects which can condition calm such as disks (kasinas). but actually. lokuttara-bh¯mi u As we have seen. are temporarily suppressed. Right understanding. torpor and languor (th¯ and middha). indifferent feeling arises with kusala citta as well as with akusala citta rooted in attachment or rooted in ignorance. smelling. r¯pa-bh¯mi. On account of pleasant and unpleasant objects experienced through the senses. and without right understanding one may erroneously believe that there is kusala citta with calm. recollection of the excellent qualities of the Triple Gem.

Those who have attained the highest stage of r¯pau u jh¯na and see the disadvantages of r¯pa-jh¯na which is still dependent on materiality. Even when one n~a a n~a has attained the highest stage of jh¯na. Jh¯nacittas do not produce vip¯ka in the same a a a lifespan: their result is rebirth in higher planes of existence. when one has become more advanced. These stages are: the “Sphere of Boundless Space” (¯k¯s¯na~c¯yatana). For the first stage of r¯pa-jh¯na it is still necessary that all five jh¯na-factors u a a arise with the jh¯nacitta. and the “Sphere of n~a . . the “Sphere of Nothingness” (¯ki~ca~n¯yatana). n a a n n~a Neither Perception Nor Non-Perception” (n’eva-sa~n¯-n’¯sa~n¯yatana). defilements cannot be eradicated. with each succeeding stage being more refined than the a preceding one. The meditation subjects of ar¯pau a a u jh¯na are not connected with materiality. The result of r¯p¯vacara kusala u a cittas is rebirth in r¯pa-brahma planes. They can only a be eradicated by lokuttara magga-citta. the “Sphere of Boundless Consciousness” a aa n a (vi~n¯na~c¯yatana). There are four stages of ar¯pa-jh¯na and each a u a one of these is more subtle and more peaceful than the preceding one. might a u a want to cultivate ar¯pa-jh¯na or “immaterial jh¯na”. but at each higher stage. a jh¯na-factors are successively abandoned.Chapter 22: Four Planes of Consciousness (part 1) 31 Jh¯na is developed in stages.

Even if there is birth in a heavenly plane. but he has not eradicated all defilements. monks. The sot¯panna. Nibb¯na is the end of dukkha. in a r¯pa-brahma u plane or in an ar¯pa-brahma plane.Chapter 23: The Four Planes of Consciousness (part 2) 32 23 The Four Planes of Consciousness (part 2) As we have seen. visible a u object. that the Buddha spoke to the monks about the method to realize through direct experience the end to dukkha: “Herein. and this means the end to the cycle a u of birth and death. When the person who is not an arahat dies. the unconditioned reality. such as seeing. The fact that we are here in the human plane is conditioned by defilements. The lokuttara citta is the highest plane of consciousness. When enlightenment is attained lokuttara cittas arise which directly experience nibb¯na. thinking. So long . So long as one takes realities for self there cannot be the eradication of any defilement. a u their impermanence. The magga-citta of each of these stages is succeeded immediately by the lokuttara vip¯kacitta. The arahat has no u more defilements. it is the end of the arising and falling away of n¯ma and r¯pa. We read in the Kindred Sayings (IV. For him there will not be the arising of n¯ma and r¯pa in a new life any more. a a ı the path-consciousness (magga-citta). the plane of r¯pa-jh¯na. Pa~n¯ should continue to n~a investigate the characteristics of realities as they appear through the six doors so that the three characteristics of conditioned realities. a a Wrong view has to be eradicated first. the fruition-consciousness (phala-citta) which also experiences nibb¯na. can lead to enlightenment. so that it can never arise again. as there are defilements life has to continue. Is there a Method?). insight-wisdom. malice and illusion. an end to dukkha. and the plane of lokuttara citta. namely: impermanence (anicca). There are several a stages of insight-wisdom. sickness and death.. the eightfold Path. There are four stages of a enlightenment: the stages of the sot¯panna (streamwinner). dukkha and non-self (anatt¯). the stage of the sot¯panna. it is certain that there will eventually a be an end to the cycle of birth and death. he does not have to be reborn in any plane. arises which experiences nibb¯na and eradicates dea filements. anger or the other defilements which arise. the cuti-citta (dying-consciousness) is succeeded by the patisandhi-citta (rebirth-consciousness) of the next life and thus life goes on. At each of these stages the lokuttara kusala citta. the last citta of his life. has eradicated ditthi completely. This is actually the development of vipassan¯. is a higher stage of insight which cannot be attained so long as the characteristic of n¯ma cannot be distinguished from the characteristic of r¯pa. the sakad¯g¯m¯ (once-returner). 152. Pa~n¯ which has become lokutn~a tara pa~n¯ experiences nibb¯na. a a a ı the an¯g¯m¯ (no-returner) and the arahat. The eightfold Path is developed by being mindful of the n¯ma and r¯pa which appear in daily life. The realization of the arising and falling away of n¯ma and r¯pa. can be penetrated more and more. malice . Defilements are eradicated stage by stage and only when arahatship has been attained all defilements have been eradicated. either recognizes within him the existence of lust. hearing. the ariyan who has attained the first a stage of enlightenment. Only the right Path. old a u age. attachment. Kindred Sayings on Sense. the end of birth. supramunu a u a dane citta. it is conditioned by defilements. Third Fifty. All the a u different stages of insight have to be attained in the right order. The characteristics of n¯ma and r¯pa have to be investigated a u over and over again until they are clearly understood as they are and there is no more wrong view about them. thus: ‘I have lust. the plane of ar¯pa-jh¯na. seeing visible object with the eye. . there are four planes of citta: the sensuous plane of consciousness. When one has attained the first a stage of enlightenment. Chapter 5. Nibb¯na does not arise and fall n~a a a away. a monk. sound. feeling. When pa~n¯ has clearly understood a n~a these three characteristics enlightenment can be attained.

. tongue. The development of understanding of all that is real. lived is the righteous life. or argument as to method. malice and illusion. or delight in speculation?’ ‘Surely not. done is the task. monks. . for life in these conditions there is no hereafter. I ask. this is the method by following which. nose. to be understood by belief. are these conditions. or hearsay. also of one’s defilements. is the way leading to the eradication of defilements. lord.’ Now as to that recognition of their existence or non-existence within him.’ ” We then read that the same is said with regard to the experiences through the doorways of the ears.Chapter 23: The Four Planes of Consciousness (part 2) 33 and illusion.’ or recognizes the non-existence of these qualities within him. thus: ‘I have not lust. a monk could affirm insight thus: Ended is birth.’ ‘Are not these states to be understood by seeing them with the eye of wisdom?’ ‘Surely. . or inclination.’ ‘Then. This is the end to dukkha. apart from belief. lord. bodysense and mind. to the end of rebirth. or reflection on reasons.

Defilements that are transgressions (v¯ ıtikkama kilesa).yutth¯na kilesa) are medium defilements that . They lie dormant in the citta like microbes infesting the body. understood these by his perfect knowledge of beings’ biases and underlying tendencies (¯say¯nusaya n¯na). a disturb the citta. This is selfish desire that has been deeply accumulated and is very powerful. we should remember that these latent tendencies are not abstract notions. are of different levels. desire for becoming and ignorance are eradicated at the stage of the a a arahat. aversion (patigha). . We may have expectations as to kind words or praise from other people. Since they have not been eradicated they can strongly condition and influence our behaviour. When we study the enumeration of the latent tendencies. but because of accumulated ignorance we do not notice their arising. and it often motivates our speech and actions. more ıla defilements are accumulated again and added to the latent tendencies. because they can condition the arising of akusala citta when there are the appropriate conditions.Chapter 24: Latent Tendencies 34 24 Latent Tendencies Defilements. It can arise on account of any object experienced through the six doorways. a a a It is essential to have more understanding of the latent tendencies and their power. The latent tendencies are enumerated in the Tipitaka and the Commentaries. is immediately succeeded by the next citta. desire for becoming (continued existence. and ignorance (avijj¯). The latent tendency of aversion conditions akusala citta with aversion. The latent tendencies which are unwholesome inclinations that are accumulated are the following: sense-desire (k¯ma-r¯ga). At the second stage sense-desire and aversion are not yet eradicated a but they are diminished. Latent tendencies (anusaya kilesa) are subtle defilements that lie dormant in the citta and do not arise but condition the arising of akusala citta. the stage of the sot¯panna. the Fully Enlightened One. All latent tendencies condition the arising of akusala citta. The latent tendency of conceit conditions the arising of akusala citta with clinging to the importance of self. They can condition the arising of akusala citta even to the degree of transgression of s¯ at any time. The latent tendencies are subsequently eradicated by the lokuttara magga-citta of each of the four stages of enlightenment. The latent tendency of sense-desire or sensuous clinging conditions akusala citta with attachment to any kind of pleasant object. but we should know that this has many shades. but it also arises when we are upset or depressed because we do not receive the pleasant object we were hoping for. Defilements one is possessed with and that arise with akusala citta (pari. but they are powerful. Wrong view and doubt are eradicated at the first stage. are coarse defilements of the degree of unwholesome courses of action through body or speech. the stage of the an¯g¯mi. wrong view (ditthi). They are completely eradicated at the third stage. akusala cetasikas. (vicikicch¯). They are called subtle defilements because they do not arise with the akusala citta. we are deluded time and again. arising again and again. unwholesome and wholesome behaviour and inclinations are accumulated from moment to moment and from life to life. and why their arising is unforeseeable and uncontrollable. Conceit. bhavar¯ga). doubt a a a . conceit (m¯na). they may be subtle or more coarse.. So long as they have not been eradicated we are like sick people. where it is stated that the Buddha. It can only be achieved by the development of understanding of all dhammas appearing in daily life. and thus.. It is not only a matter of hate or anger. . Since each citta that arises and falls away a a ~a . The teaching of the latent tendencies helps us to see why the defilements in our life are so tenacious. . Thus we see that the eradication of the latent tendencies takes a long time.

Chapter 25: The Seven Books of the Abhidhamma 35 25 The Seven Books of the Abhidhamma .

where we read (1013-1015): a "Dhammas going to building up. After the Abhidhamma a matrix there is a Suttanta matrix. P. not translated into English) 7. and also trans. Patth¯na (Translated in part as “Conditional Relations”. a table of contents or matrix. This appears also in the M¯tika.) a a 4. in a wall. P. layer by layer. ) . to the Dhammasangan¯ dedicates a whole chapter to explain the notions of the M¯tika.S. Vibhanga (translated as “Book of Analysis”. like a man who continually removes the bricks as they are laid by the mason.Chapter 26: Introduction 36 26 Introduction The Abhidhamma consists of the following seven books: 1. In avy¯kata dhamm¯. kiriyacittas." The Atthas¯lin¯ elaborates: ". Nibb¯na being free from ’cumulation’. Dhammasangan¯ (translated as “Buddhist Psychological Ethics”.S.T.S. I will render ˙ ı. The commentary to the Dhammasangan¯ the first book.. Kandy. It is a survey of the contents of the first book and can even serve as an introduction to all seven books. In these three a a a a a a terms all that is real has been contained. Nyanatiloka in his “Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka” (B.S. a which is another word for ’accumulation’. fetters. Khine in the introduction to his translation of the Dhammasangan¯ Therefore. They all point to the investigation of the realities of our daily life. a ı”.T. in whom they arise. which is an ˙ ı a introduction.S. akusala dhamm¯. Yamaka (the Book of Pairs. such as the intoxicants (¯savas). indeterminate dhammas. In this way the pa~n¯ is developed that n~a sees realities as they are. hindrances.T. It is a name for the processes of rebirth and decease.S. is the “Atthas¯lin¯ edited by the venerable Buddhaghosa and translated as “Expositor”. The ˙ ı. Myanmar.) 2. to that round of rebirth’. dukkha and anatt¯. only some salient features of each book with the purpose to show that the classifications found in the Abhidhamma are not mere lists to be read and memorized. Different groups of defilements have been listed.. Kath¯vatthu (Translated as “Points of Controversy”. is called dispersion. a M¯tik¯ begins with: kusala dhamm¯.P. It is a name for co-intoxicant moral or immoral states. Or.ı lated by U Kyaw. a A summary of the contents of these seven books has been given by Ven.) n~ 5. Dh¯tukath¯ (Translated as “Discourse on Elements”. Puggalapa~natti (Translated as “A Designation of Human Types”. ties. The Dhammasangan¯ begins with the M¯tika.T. The Atthas¯lin¯ the commentary a ı. P.) a 6. This m¯tik¯ has been arranged a a by way of triads and dyads. This kind of pa~n¯ leads a n~a to the eradication of defilements. ’Leading to accumulation’ are ’those causes which by being accomplished to go to." . going to pulling down. ˙ ı.T. 1971) and also by U Kyaw . The whole Tipitaka is directed towards the liberation from the cycle of birth a . namely: vip¯kacittas. and death through insight. It is more extensive than a table of contents..’ ’Leading to dispersion’ are those states which go about destroying that very round. P.’ It is a name for the Ariyan Paths. ’leading to accumulation’ are those states which go about severally arranging (births and deaths in) a round of destiny like a bricklayer who arranges bricks. are a a included all realities that are not kusala or akusala.T. ’Leading to dispersion’ is ’going towards that dispersion which he has made his object. explaining sutta terms. yokes. ’accumulation’ means that which is accumulated by a ı kamma and corruptions. avy¯kata dhamm¯. r¯pas a u and nibb¯na. P. lead a man. P. as impermanent. going to neither.) ˙ 3.S. floods.

saddh¯. Thus. one-pointedness or concentration). odour. sound. Will or volition. concurrence of conditions. and then citta and cetasikas fall away together. The “Expositor” (p. we are not thinking of our own pleasure and comfort. samatha. The mah¯a kusala citta is accompanied by the cetasikas that always accompany citta. The list ends with: sampaja~na (sati and pa~na). vipassan¯. It enumerates all the sobhana cetasikas assisting this citta while n~a they accompany it just for a moment. When we perform d¯na or observe s¯ we are not selfa ıla ish. There have to be non-attachment and non-aversion. or as power. It refers to mah¯-kusala citta experiencing an oba ject. avikkhepa (balance. nobody can cause it to last. pagg¯ha (grasp. after the M¯tika. For example. it has no possessor. there is no one who can direct its arising. Then follows a list of all the sobhana cetasikas necessary for the arising of even one moment of kusala citta of the sense sphere.. is only a conditioned element. accompanied by joy and associated with understanding has arisen. the conceit of one who believes that states unconditionally follow one’s own will is subdued. the mutual contribution towards the production of a common result: “By this word showing thus the condition. we cannot make kusala arise at will. occasion.Chapter 27: The Dhammasangan¯ the first Book of the Abhidhamma ˙ ı. Abhidhamma The Dhammasangan¯ begins. another word for ekaggata cetasika. There has to be sati which is non-forgetful of kusala.. The Dhammasangan¯ states with regard to the first type of mah¯-kusala citta of ˙ ı a the sense sphere: ”At a time (yasmim samaye) when mah¯-kusala citta of the sense sphere a . We shall see that several cetasikas are listed more than once under different aspects. This points to daily life. with a description of mah¯-kusala citta ˙ ı. tangible object or dhamma object. kusala citta could not arise. . be it visible object. 37 27 The Dhammasangan¯ the first Book of the ˙ ı.” We cling to the idea of our own will that can direct dhammas. the cetasika confidence or faith. feeling or remembrance. the “universals”. as well as by the “particulars”. self-collectedness. at such a moment there is no agitation. sa~n¯. a a accompanied by pa~n¯. Time and again citta experiences an object through one of the six doors. flavour. unwholesome or indeterminate. Thus we see that these lists are not a mere summing up. If there is no confidence in kusala. The cetasikas condition the citta by way of conascence-condition and by several other conditions. always has to accompany kusala a citta. but this is not according to reality. 76) explains the word samaya as time. such as understanding as faculty. but that they point to the development of right understanding of realities. which is the facn~ n~ a a ulty of energy). be it wholesome. There is calm with each kusala citta. such as contact. All the sobhana cetasikas that fall away are accumulated from moment to moment so that there are conditions for the arising again of kusala citta.” and then sums up the accompanying cetasikas. It arises when the right conditions are present and then it falls away immediately. Sobhana cetasikas are necessary so that mah¯-kusala citta with pa~n¯ can arise a n~a just for one extremely brief moment and perform its function. pakinnakas. n~a cetasikas that accompany many cittas but not all.

and its com˙ mentary is the “Sammoha Vinodan¯ . to develop right understanding of n¯ma and r¯pa as they apa u pear in daily life. of health.... Among the many word explanations we read about understanding (here translated as awareness. consideration. and several other subjects. It gives explanations according to the Suta tanta method. at the moment of conceit one finds oneself important. lustre of wisdom.T. are to be abandoned. subtlety. . Only thus there can be the lustre and splendour of wisdom that causes the darkness of ignorance to disappear. differentiation. the Book of Analysis. the Second Book of the Abhidhamma ˙ 38 28 The Vibhanga. When we read about the subtlety of wisdom we are reminded that the teachings are very subtle and have to be carefully considered. of being a knowledgeable authority. a We read in the section of “the Heart of the Teaching” (1031): “The three bad roots are to be known fully. of being honoured. analysis. of youth. This book helps one to know more about the deeper-lying motives of one’s thoughts and actions. erudition. tower of wisdom. insight. but in fact there are very often selfish motives that are unnoticed.Chapter 28: The Vibhanga. splendour of wisdom. by way of ultimate realities.. Conceit is compared to hoisting a banner. proficiency. power of wisdom. ˙ a dh¯tus (elements). understanding. of prominence.” It is well worth to consider these definitions.. investigation. jewel of wisdom. by way of conventional terms. discernment. truth investigation. of life.). of being respected. truth investigation. It gives an im˙ pressive list of all the objects on account of which conceit may arise (832). the Second Book of the ˙ Abhidhamma The second book of the Abhidhamma is the Vibhanga. of having adherents. ı” The Vibhanga gives an explanation of the khandhas (aggregates).” Abandonment can only be accomplished by fully knowing them and comprehending them. namely: pride of birth. . breadth. controlling faculty of wisdom. 525): “Therein what is awareness? That which is wisdom. The aim is.S. are to be comprehended. as is the case of the whole of the Abhidhamma. It also has sections of interrogation.. translated as the “Dispeller of Delusion” (P. right view. and the Abhidhamma method. research. of appearance. of erudition.. sagacity. There are many definitions of akusala. of clan. light of wisdom. awareness. but the purpose is to know them when they arise through the development of satipatth¯na. sword of wisdom. of intelligence. wisdom. guidance. ¯yatanas (sense bases). One may take them for wholesome.. goad. The section on ‘the Small Items’ (Khuddakavatthu Vibhanga) is most revealing in the descriptions of akusala such as conceit. absence of dullness. discrimination. of wealth. of gain.

The external a a ¯yatanas are the five sense objects and damm¯yatana. R¯pa does not a a u have such a close association with n¯ma. vi~n¯nakkhandha. We are reminded by the Dh¯tukath¯ that the teaching on elements pertains a a to realities appearing at this moment which are anatt¯. vedan¯kkhandha. there are six internal ¯yatanas and six external ¯yatanas. Thinking itself is citta. When seeing arises. the Third Book a a The third book of the Abhidhamma is the Discourse on Elements. and there is eyesense which is r¯pakkhandha. a or not included (asangahita). subtle a r¯pas and nibb¯na. these can be classified in different ways. When we see. cetasika and r¯pa arising and falling away at this moment. the subtle r¯pas (sukhuma r¯pas) and nibb¯na. it is completely different from seeing. which includes cetasikas. it is a reality. Visible object is a a r¯pa. The internal ¯yatanas a a a are the five senses and mind-base. devoid of a self. the objects “outside”. In a u u a all these classifications concepts such as person or thing have not been included. We may think of concepts. the five sense objects. and in this book they are classified as eighteen: the five senses. Visible object or colour does not know anything. such as citta and cetasikas. but these are not real in the ultimate sense. As to the elements. hear or think we believe that a self experiences different u a objects.Chapter 29: The Dh¯tu-Kath¯. The khandhas are citta. Minda a n~a . the Third Book a a 39 29 The Dh¯tu-Kath¯. the ¯yatanas (translated a as bases) and the dh¯tus. and there are the accompanying cetasikas: the khandha n~a . they have characteristics that can be directly experienced when a they appear. It deals with dhammas that are associated (sampayutta) or dissociated (vippayutta). but in reality there is the association of the internal ¯yatana and the external a a ¯yatana. The charts added by the translator makes the a reading of these classifications easier. classified with reference to the khandhas. sa~n¯khandha. man¯yatana. the “five pairs” of sense-cognitions experiencing the five sense-objects (one of each pair being kusala vip¯kacitta and one akusala vip¯kacitta). If there is no understanding of realities as just elements. Only n¯ma can be associated with another n¯ma. It deals with realities that are ‘included’( sangahita). we shall continue to cling to the wrong view of self who sees. elements. dhamma-dh¯tu and mind-consciousness. which includes all cittas. But we should not forget that all these classifications pertain to the reality appearing at this moment. As to the n~a u a ¯yatanas. Only paramattha dhammas have been included. of feeling. and in addition: mind-element (manoa a dh¯tu). and this pertains to the different classifications of dhammas. hears or thinks. there is the khandha of u consciousness. sankh¯rakkhandha (including other cetasikas a n~a ˙ a apart from feeling and sa~n¯). a element and mind-consciousness-element comprise cittas other than the sense-cognitions. it u u is dissociated (vippayutta) from n¯ma. a . Seeing is a dh¯tu that experiences an object. Dh¯tu-Kath¯. This book a a deals with all realities. a Dh¯tus are not mere names. it is n¯ma.element (mano-vi~n¯na-dh¯tu). Dhamma-dh¯tu comprises cetasikas. it is included in r¯pakkhandha.

whereas others are full of mett¯. Thus. 30): a “Which is the person who is twice-liberated (ubhatobh¯ga-vimutta)? It is one a who. We read (I. but anger. This book deals with the cittas and the different accumulated tendencies of individuals. 31) a “Which is the person who is liberated by wisdom (pa~n¯-vimutta)? It is one n~a who has not attained. abruptness. 17) about a person who is guarded as to the sense-doors.” When we read about the attainments of different individuals we should not forget that these are citta and cetasikas with highly developed pa~n¯. and the state of being angry. has attained to the eight liberations (jh¯nas). we are constantly reminded that these are not persons. hating. others do not. of the other sense objects appearing through the other sense-doors. they are impermanent and not self. We read (II. hatefulness. the fourth Book n~ 40 30 Puggalapa~ natti. but through wise penetration his taints have come to extinction. these are cetasikas. At such moments there is no opportunity for akusala cittas rooted in lobha. that it is a dhamma which is conditioned. Some people are easily inclined to anger. resentment of heartthis is called anger. hostility. but actually. of sound appearing through the ear-door. When there is mindfulness and understanding n~a of visible object appearing through the eye-door.” (I. to the eight liberations. mental factors arising because of conditions. in his own person. it does not last. Some persons are able to attain jh¯na. n~a . He who has not got rid of this anger is said to be an angry person.Chapter 30: Puggalapa~natti. hatred. is gone completely. one is not enslaved by these objects but one learns to see these realities as they are: impermanent and non-self. in his own person. a We read about an angry person: ‘What sort of person is angry? What then is anger? That which is anger.” In this definition we read about the “state of being angry”. rudeness. dosa and moha. maliciousness. and a through wise penetration his taints (¯sava) have come to extinction. the act of being malicious. the fourth Book n~ The fourth book of the Abhidhamma is the Puggalapa~natti (Translated as “A Designation n~ of Human Types”). after it has arisen. enmity. malice. We think of an angry person. The contents of this book are the evil and good qualities of individuals. but the realities of sati and pa~n¯ are guarding the sense-doors. There is no person who is guarding the sense-doors. and this teaches us that anger is not a person.

about questions on rebirth. the question is asked (Ch VIII. the Fifth Book a 41 31 Kath¯vatthu. jh¯na attainments. In the teachings the term person is used in figurative speech. Here the Abhidhamma Pitaka was also included along with the Vinaya . the Abhidhamma-Pitaka reached its completeness and became seven books. The Kath¯vatthu a . arahats.C. The version of the a Texts in the First Buddhist Council was re-approved or re-affirmed. Thousand Arahats .) This book which is a treatise against schismatic monks has been composed by Moggali-puttatissa. This book covers a wide range of subjects. It was recited at the third Buddhist Council. the future and the present. Similar questions about the person or the world are raised today. destinies. for instance. in the absolute sense. Schismatic monks believed that a person really existed.S. impermanence. P. Thereupon. any personality (puggala) to be found?’. . The Sakav¯din asks whether it is the identical person who transmigrates a or a different person. the first question is: ‘Is there. Its commentary has been translated as “The Debates Commentary”. it is a dialogue between the sakav¯din (theravada) and the a opponent. there will always be doubt and ignorance of the truth. Or.T. the four Truths. the Fifth Book a The Fifth book of the Abhidhamma is the Kath¯vatthu (Translated as “Points of Controa versy”). and Suttanta. We read. Such questions can a remind us that so long as understanding of the dhamma appearing at this moment is not being developed stage by stage. At that time there were seventeen schismatic schools. kamma and result. 75) whether there is an intermediate stage between the end of a lifespan and the beginning of the next life at rebirth. The First Buddhist Council was held by fivehundred arahats headed by the Venerable Mah¯kassapa in R¯jagaha shortly after the a a Buddha passed away. insight and many other subjects. The Second Buddhist Council was held by sevenhundred arahats headed by the Venerable Mah¯yasa one century after the Buddha’s passing away. emancipation. but in the ultimate sense there is no person. about 240 B. consists of questions and answers. The Third Buddhist Council was convened by King Asoka at Pataliputta. in conventional sense. For example. The opponent thinks: ‘the person transmigrates’.Chapter 31: Kath¯vatthu. We read about speculative questions with regard to the Dependent Origination. were headed by Moggaliputta-Tissa Thera who preached the Kath¯vatthu treatise against a schismatic monks. and each question is viewed from various angles.

In the text we read: “Where does the bias of sensuous craving adhere? To the two feelings”. As we have seen. the conditions and the anusayas. doubt. Dukkha is often translated as sorrow and this is misleading. and so on. the Sixth Book of the Abhidhamma The Sixth Book of the Abhidhamma is the ‘Yamaka”. wrong view. craving for existence and ignorance. and it can also take these two feelings as object. the Sixth Book of the Abhidhamma 42 32 Yamaka. Analysis of Knowledge. Thus. which means: not cut off. a u When sense desire arises and has as object desirable n¯mas and r¯pas. The Buddha taught in the ‘Book of Analysis’ (Ch 16. aversion. Venerable Nyanatiloka renders a summary of it in his “Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka”.. It also adheres to visible object that is desirable. latent tendencies.Chapter 32: Yamaka. the latent tendencies are sense desire. the ¯yatanas. there are short lists. the latent tendency of sense desire of beings adheres to this. This book and its commentary have not been translated into English. Whenever there is a pleasant object sense desire clings. These a questions and answers can correct misunderstandings that may arise about the terms used in the scriptures. desirable n¯ma dhammas and r¯pa dhammas can be the objects of sense desire. The only dhammas that are not objects of clinging are the nine lokuttara dhammas of nibb¯na and the eight lokuttara cittas. the accumulation a u of the latent tendency of sense desire continues. questions and answers about subjects such as the roots (m¯la).. the Truth of dukkha. the latent tendency of sense desire that adheres to an object. Thus. We shall see that the subjects of this book are not theoretical but that they pertain to daily life. u a the dh¯tus. u . pleasant thing (piyar¯pam. one may think that with regard to the first noble Truth. It can also take as object the feelings that accompany kusala citta. In the context of the latent tendencies. These are happy feeling and indifferent feeling. the Book of Pairs. Since they are impermanent they cannot be of any refuge and are therefore dukkha. And what is the latent tendency of beings?): “That which in the world is a lovely thing. it is said: “arisen” in the sense of “having obtained a soil” (bhumiladdhuppanna). We can verify this in daily life. the khandhas. a . The text of this book is rather compact and therefore it is most helpful to study it together with its commentary. The commentary states: “When the latent tendency of sense desire arises it is conascent with unwholesome pleasant feeling or indifferent feeling. for example. vip¯kacitta a and kiriyacitta of the sense-sphere. 816. the latent tendencies do not arise with the citta. they condition the arising of akusala citta.. “Arisen in the sense of having obtained a soil” refers to the defilements which have not been eradicated and which have obtained a soil.. When we. dukkha is the same as unhappy feeling.” We read in the commentary: “When the latent tendency of sense desire arises. but the commentary goes very deeply into this subject. the four noble truths. For instance. does not merely adhere to these two feelings and to the dhammas that are conascent with them. We also read in the commentary: “Surely.” a u . s¯tar¯pam). We learn that the Truth of dukkha does not only refer to painful feeling but to all phenomena that arise because of conditions and fall away.” We should know that the word “arisen” (uppanna) has several meanings. it is most revealing. conceit. read about the latent tendencies. This book consists of .

. In each process of cittas there are. They arise at their appropriate bases. the seventh book of the Abhidhamma . a able U N¯rada as “Conditional Relations”). taking it for a being or a person that really exists. the reality which they condition. for example. Cittas succeed one another without any interval. The “Patth¯na” helps . They are a natural decisive support-condition. hearing and the other sense-cognitions are vip¯kacittas. when we walk. the conditional arising of phenomena which keep beings in the cycle of birth and death. At the first moment of our life kamma produced the heart-base and other r¯pas together with the rebirth-consciousness. The translator also wrote a “Guide to Condia tional Relations” with many explanations.. u and throughout our life kamma continues to produce the heartbase and the sense-bases. or we have wrong view a about it. which are also produced by kamma. These experience the object in a wholesome way or unwholesome way. anantara-paccaya. and therefore we are easily carried away by sense impressions. Not only kamma.Chapter 33: The Patth¯na. cannot last either. ¯sevana-paccaya. after the sense-cognitions have fallen away. which are unwholesome realities. Each conditioned reality can exist just for an extremely short moment. Defilements arise because they have been accumulated and they are carried on. Both sound and earsense are r¯pas which also arise because of their u own conditions and fall away. when we laugh or cry. On account of generosity which is wholesome. can be the object of akusala citta. When we understand this it will be easier to see that there is no self who can exert control over realities. Each reality in our life can only occur because of a concurrence of different conditions which operate in a very intricate way. for akusala citta u arising at this moment. These conditions are not abstractions.. heat and nutrition produce r¯pas of the body. Each citta experiences an object. It is necessary to know which conditioning factors are conascent with the dhamma they condition and which are not. It explains. but also citta. a 43 33 The Patth¯na. from moment to moment. attachment. from life to life. wrong view or conceit. There are twentyfour classes of conditions. a relations between phenomena. What we take for our mind and our body are mere elements which arise because of their appropriate conditions and are devoid of self. We cling to visible object. How could we control what falls away immediately? When we move our hands. pakat¯panissaya-paccaya. Hearing is conditioned by sound which impinges on the earsense.. ¯rammanaa . unwholesome citta. when we are attached or worried. The “Patth¯na” . There are usually seven javana-cittas and each preceding javana-citta conditions the following one by way of repetition-condition. It is beneficial to remember that seeing. there are conditions for such moments. several moments of kusala cittas or akusala cittas. The citta that has just fallen away conditions the succeeding citta and this is by way of proximitycondition. Each link of the Dependent Origination conditions the following one by way of several types of conditions. cittas which are results of kamma. paccaya. a Abhidhamma The Seventh Book of the Abhidhamma is the “Patth¯na” (translated partly by the Vener. The “Patth¯na” describes in detail all possible .. wholesomeness. be it a sense object or a mental object.. a . they operate now. Seeing arises time and again and after seeing has fallen away akusala cittas usually arise. can arise. We should consider the conditions for the bodily phenomena which arise and fall away all the time. hearing. the seventh book of the . called javana-cittas. that kusala. in our daily life. a vatthus. The cittas which u arise are dependent on many different conditions. and the object conditions citta by object-condition. a us to understand the deep underlying motives for our behaviour and the conditions for our defilements. it also has to fall away. We tend to forget that seeing is only a conditioned reality and that visible object is only a conditioned reality. Thus. The study of conditions helps us to have more understanding of the “Dependent Origination”.

If one thinks that akusala cannot be object of awareness and right understanding.. This is an essential point which is often overlooked. the seventh book of the Abhidhamma . the eightfold Path cannot be developed. when akusala is considered with insight.Chapter 33: The Patth¯na. for example. a 44 also explains that akusala can be the object of kusala. .

the development of vipassan¯. tual study or memorizing. including the Abhidhamma. are not meant merely for intellec. . cetasikas and r¯pas are terse reminders of the truth.Chapter 34: Conclusion 45 34 Conclusion All the texts of the Tipitaka . they u are an exhortation to develop understanding of what appears at this moment. a All the classifications of cittas. they are directed to the practice. This is the development of the eightfold Path leading to the eradication of all defilements.