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Y
BULK

SOURCE

GATE

DRAIN
   
FOX FOX FOX FOX
N+ P+ P+ P+ N+

P-Field

N-Well

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BULK

GATE
DRAIN SOURCE


FOX FOX FOX FOX


N+ L     ain P+ N+

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$=(,1?7:=5KMYI;>0@PE(,1?A7@B(?A?C08?J\GRBIPUI0 E(0@?A,/QOU Y(PAKO7@;A,/7@08?-;>=5KM;=(0@./Y(?$;>GWG XR08PC78G D 0 ?AG D 0GOJb;>=I0
7:=5KO.1./0@U(QR08?$GMJbE(0@?A,/QOU(,/U(Q =I,/QR= XRGR.N;:KOQO0,/U&K ?C;>KOU(E5KOPCE "$#   Y(PAG 780@?A?@2

Z 6  3  P 4O$:#! 7   3 J8-/*


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X ,/7@08?KOPC0 ,/U+;>0@QRP>KM;A08E ,1U`;AGFKOU U 60@./.cGOU(. * Y(PAG 780@?A?  ;A=(0 =(,1QR= XRGO.1;:KMQR0  #   ;AP>KOU(?C,/?;>GRPC?
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2
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R2
Body Transconductance (mA/V)

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

6.4
Transconductance (mA/V)

6.0

5.6

5.2

4.8

4.4
1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M
freq (Hz)

c,1QRB(PC0
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Regulated Supply = 5V
Istb
High Side Switch

VLS D1
M0

Short To Battery OUT

Vbattery = 12V Current Load

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=

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VDD
Blocking Diode
M1
D1

VLS

D2
M2

OUT

     
ect Sensor

c,/QRBIPA0
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Z > > DG!    " $&" 8*4KF  @


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8\

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E(0dX,1780  #  -,N;>= gRg 2 hM  
   ^KO?$BI?A08E ,1U
PA0dXR0@PA?A0 ;>G KO7:=(,10@XO0 ;A=(0PA08_`B(,1PA0@E ?C=(GRPC;-;AG ) KM;A;A08P * 2
 J5;>=I06
  6KOU(E3
    ) PA08KO9`E(G -U XRGR.N;:KOQR0@?bKOPC0^?AB W7@,/0@U`;',1U ) GO;>= EI,/PA0@7@;A,/GRU(?
J\GRP$;>=(KM;Y5KOPC;A,/7@B(.ZKOP$EI0@X ,/7@0  GRU(. * GRU(0 ,/?-U(0@08E(0@Ef2$B(0;>GH;>=(0 B(?C0aGOJcGRU(. * GRU(0;>PAKOU(?C,/?C;AGRP 
;>=I,/? =(,/QR= ?A,1E(0&? -,1;A7:= -,1;A= ?C=(GRPC; ;>G ) KM;C;>08P * Y(PAGO;A087d;>,/GOU -,/.1.^=5KeXR0 ;>=(0 D GR?; 0 78,108U+;
B(?C0 GOJ'KMPA0eK2U(0 E(PAK ) KO7:9 GOJ ;>=(0@?A037@,/PC78B(,N;>?,/?-;>=(0@,/P-?AB(?C780@YI;>, ) ,/.1,1; * ;>GW.ZKM;A7:= !BIYf2G G E
.ZK * GRBI;'Y(PAKO7@;A,/780@? D B(?C; ) 0-B(?A0@E ;AGa0@U(?AB(PC0;A=5KM; ;A=(0-?AB ) ?;>PAKM;>0,/?b;A,/08EHE(G -U ,/U ;>=I0-X ,178,/UI,1; *
GOJ;>=(0E(PC,1XO08P82

VDD

R1
M1

D1
Current Limiting Resistor
VLS

D2
M2

OUT

     
ect Sensor

c,1QRB(PA0
I2 = " G DWD GRU PA0@?A,1?C;>GOP$=(,/QR= ?C,/E(0? -,1;>7:= 2

8Y

Z Z   7    %  #! J@$)&8 4 "
B(0;>G ;A=(0=(,/QR=FXOGR.1;>KOQR0E(0dX,1780 ./, D ,N;:KM;A,/GRU(?'.1,/?C;A08E&K ) G XR0 7eKOPC0 D B(?C; ) 0;>KO9O0@U&;AG
08UI?AB(PC0 ;A=5KM;KO.1.fE(0@X ,17808?$J\B(UI7@;>,1GRU ,/UF;>=I08,/P$?AKMJ\0GRY 08P>K ;>,/UIQHKOPA08KI2
$=(,/?-Y(./KO780@?KH.1, D ,1;>KM;>,1GRU
GRU =(G ?A, D YI./0$E(,1QR,1;>KO.I.1GRQR,/767eKOU ) 0-, D Y(.10 D 08U+;>0@E +08?CY[0@78,ZKM./. * -=(08U ;>=(,1?.1GRQR,17 D B(?;6E(PC,1XO0
% #  EI0@X ,/7@08?;>=5KM; KMPA0 78GOU(U(087d;>0@E ;>GF   R2
$=(0 E(08?C,/QRU GOJ ./0dXR0@. ?A=(,NJ ;>08PC?;>=5KM;GOY[0@P>KM;A0
,/UIE(08Y 08U(EI08U+;GMJ  G XR08PC78G D 0;>=(,1?$?A,1;AB5KM;A,/GRUf2
$=(0; 6G ) KO?C,/7; * Y[0@?GMJ .10@XO08. ?A=I,1J ;>0@PA?KOPC0
-08?A,1?A,N;AXR0 KOUIE ,1GE(0 " GRU(U(0@7@;>0@E % # [2

Z Z 6  " $&" $:#!



$=(0 ]5PA?; ./0@XO08.$?C=(,1J ;A08PHE(08?C,/QRU ,1? ?A=(G -U ,1U c,/QRBIPA0
I2 \I2  ; B(?A0@? K =(,1QR= XOGR.1;>KOQR0
 #   E(0dX ,/780 -,1;>= PC08?C,/?C;AGRPA?,/U ,1;A?E(PAKO,/U KO? 60@./.cKO?,/U ,1;>??AGRB(PC780M2a
$=(0 QRKM;>03GMJ'E(0@X ,/7@0
#
,/?E(PA,NXR0@U )+* ?C;:KMU(E5KOPCE EI,/QR,N;:KO. ./GOQR,/7M2
$=(0 GRBI;AY(BI;GMJ ;>=(0 .10@XR0@.b?A=I,1J ;>0@P,/??AB(,N;:K ) ./0a;AG
E(PC,1XR0 KH% # &E(0dX ,/780;A=5KM;-,/?$7@GRU(U(0@7@;A08E ;AGHR2

$=(0 GRBI;AY(BI;$XRGO.1;:KMQR0GOJ;>=(0./0dXR0@.?C=(,1J ;A08P$,1?$08_`B5KO.f;AG
      e 
I2  

KOU(E ;>=I0 7@B(PAPC08U+;78PC0eKM;A08E ,1UF;>=(0./0dXR0@. ?A=(,NJ ;>08P$,1?


     
I2  g 

-=(0@PA0

    g " 8      
I2 


-=(,17:= QR,NXR0@?K .10@XR0@. ?A=(,NJ ;>08P^XOGR.1;>KOQR0GOJ


         
I2  

 _`B5KM;>,1GRU
I2  F?A=(G -?;>=(KM; 3,1? ) KO?C08E GRU ;>=I0H;A=(PA0@?A=(GO./E XRGR.N;:KOQO03GOJ';>=(0 =I,/QR=
XRGO.1;:KMQR0 #  E(0@X ,1780KM? 08./. KO? ;A=(0PAKM;>,1GaGMJ ;>=(0PA08?C,/?;>GRPC?^ KOU(EF  2 5GRP ) 0@?C;$Y 08PJ\GRP
D KOU(780;A=(0PA0@?A,/?;>GRPC?-?A=(GRBI./E ) 0GOJ;>=(0?AK D 0; * Y 0 KMU(E GRPA,108U+;>0@E ,1U ;A=(0?>K D 0E(,1PA087d;>,1GRUf2

gOh
VDD

R1
VLS

EN M0

R2

c,1QRB(PC0
I2 \ '0@?A,/?;>,NXR0 ) KO?C08E&./0@XO08. ?A=I,1J ;>0@P82

Z Z > P $: D ! 98 SGF H J



$=(0a?A087@GRU(E .10@XO08.?A=(,NJ ;>08P-E(0@?A,1QRU ,1??C=(G -U ,/U c,/QOB(PA0
I2 YI2^ ;B(?A0@?K ?A, D ,/./KOP6=I,/QR=
XRGO.1;:KMQR0  # &E(0dX ,/780 ;>=5K ;,1?E(PC,1XO08U )+* E(,1QR,1;>KO. ./GRQO,/7O2 !U ;A=(0 ?CGRB(PA7@0 GOJbE(0@X ,/7@0 # $,/?K
78BIPAPA0@U+;?CGRB(PA7@0 KOU(E&,/UF;>=(0E(PAKO,/U ,1?-KHEI,/G E(078GRUIU(087d;>08E % #  E(0dX ,/780 #
2

VDD

M0

VLS

EN M1

I1

Y
c,/QOB(PA0
I2 ',1GE(078GRU(UI087@;A08E % #   ./0dXR08. ?C=(,1J ;A08P@2


$=(0 ) ,ZKM?$78B(PCPA08U+;?ABIY(Y(./,108E >; G ;>=I0 EI,/G E(078GRUIU(087d;>08E % #  E(0dX ,/780 ,/?$0@_`B5KO.f;>G
   " gO   \        
I2  i 

-=(,17:= PC08?ABI.1;>?-,1U KMU&GOBI;>Y(B;XOGR.1;>KOQR0J\GRP^;A=(0./0dXR08. ?C=(,1J ;A08P-GOJ



     gM"  C      
I2   

g 
< ;IK D ,1U(,/UIQ  _ B(KM;>,1GRU
I2  3?A=(G -?$;>=(KM;$;>=(0.10@XO08.f?C=(,1J ;A08P6XOGR.1;>KOQR0,1?$E(08Y 08U(EI08U+;GRU
;>=I07@B(PAPC08U+;  KOUIE ;A=(0$;>=(PC08?A=IGR./EHXRGR.N;:KOQO0^+2  =(0@U K./0dXR08.5?C=(,1J ;A08P ,1?UI0808EI08EW;AGE(PA,NXR0K
=(,1QR=!?C,/E(0? -,1;A7:= ;>=(0 E(,1GE(07@GRU(U(0@7@;>0@E ./0dXR0@.?C=(,1J ;A08P,/?$;>=I0 ) 08?;GRY;>,/GOU KO?-;>=I0 ;A=(PA0@?A=(GR.1E
XRGO.1;:KMQR08?^;AP>KO7:9 2

Z
9$5#! DG:-N  "
! U D KOU * KOY(YI./,/78KM;>,1GRU(?f,N;,/? E(08?C,/PAK ) ./0 ;AG=5KeXO0^K7@.ZK D Y(,1U(Q$78,1PA78BI,1; ;>=5K ; -,1./.+PC08QRB(./KM;>0
KaXOGR.1;>KOQR0KM;$K 7@,/PC78B(,N;6U(G E(0?AG ;A=5KM;^,N;6EIG0@?^U(GO;6?A080K =(,/QO=(08P'XRGR.N;:KOQO0O2b
* Y(,/78KO./. * K 08U(0@P
E(,1GE(0 6GRBI./E ) 0FBI?A08E ;AG KM7@; KO? ;A=(,/?3XOGR.1;>KOQR0 7@.ZK D Yf2 !U ;>=(0FY(PCG7@08?C? EI,/?A7@B(?A?C08E K ) G XO0
;>=I08PA0HKMPA03U(G 0@U(08P7@.ZK D Y(?  -=(,17:= ) PA,/UIQR?B(Y ;>=I03U(080@E J\GOP?AG D 0 ?CGRPC;GMJ6KM7@;>,NXR037@.ZK D Yf2
c,1QRB(PA0
I2  h ?C=(G -?=(G KW; * Y(,/78KO.cKM7@;>,NXR0a78.ZK D Y 6GRBI./E ) 0378GOUI]5QRB(PC08Ef2 -,1?KOU GOY5K D Y
;>=(KM; E(PC,1XR0@? ;>=I0 Q+KM;A0 GOJ #
2
$=(0 EIP>KO,1U GOJ #
,/? 78GRU(UI087@;A08E ;>G ;A=(0 Y GR?A,N;>,NXR0 ,1U(Y(BI; GOJ
;>=I0FGRY5K D Y KOU(E ;>=I0&UI08Q+KM;A,1XO0F,/U(Y(B; ,/?3;A,/08E ;AG K PC0@J\0@PA08UI780FXRGR.N;:KOQO0  -=(,/7:= 0@_ B(KO./? ;>=I0
78./K D Y(,/U(Q XOGR.1;>KOQR0M2  =(0@U ;>=I0WGRB;>Y(BI;aGOJ ;>=(0H78./K D Y PC0eKO7:=(0@?a;A=(0WPC0@J\0@PA08UI780WXOGR.1;>KOQR0 ;>=I0
GRY5K D Y3;AB(PAU(? GOU EI0@X ,/7@0 #
-=I,/7:=H?A,1U(9`?7@B(PAPC08U+; KOU(E 78KOB(?A0@?;A=(0$GRBI;AY(BI; XOGR.1;>KOQR06;AG?C;>,17:9 2
% PAGRY 08P6E(08?C,/QRU GMJKOU KO7@;A,1XO078./K D Y D B(?;^08UI?AB(PC0;>=5KM;^KO./. 78BIPAPA0@U+;$?AGRBIPA780@E )`* ;>=(0XRGR.N;:KOQR0
 " # %  D B(?C; ) 0?AB(U(9 )+* EI0@X ,/7@0 #
2

VCLAMP

A1 M0
VREF

c,/QRBIPA0
I2  
h 7@;>,NXR0XRGO.1;:KMQR078./K D Y 2

Z  D ! 3"W$!

$=(0J\GRB(P'E(08?C,/QRUWY(P>KM7@;>,1780@? D 80 U+;>,1GRU(0@E ,/UH;>=I,/?'7:=5KOYI;A08P =(08.1YW;>G G XR0@P678G D 0?AG D 0-GOJ
;>=I0./, D ,N;:KM;A,/GRU(? ;>=5KM;^KOPA0Y(PA0@?A0@U`;A08E )+* ;A=(0?;:KOU(E(KOPAEFE(,1QR,1;>KO. "$#  Y(PCG7@08?A?@2'
$=(0B(?C0GOJ

gRg
;>=I08?A0 E(08?C,/QRU KMY(Y(PAGRKO7:=(08? -,1./. ) 0 , D (Y .10 D 08U+;>0@E 1, U >; =I03E(08?C,/QRU GOJ GRB(P=(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0 KO.1.
E ,/?A7@B(?A?C08E 1, U A? ,/QOU(,1]578KOU+;>. * D GRPA0EI0@;:KM,/.f,1U " =(KOYI;>0@P
0 [087d;?C08U(?CGRP-,/U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0 -=(,/7:= -,/.1. ) 0I
i2

g

g
  / 

 U                           

6 ? $:!@BAC!:8-![P  #$& V[F - O@$ % $ $58-$:!"


? D 0@U`;A,/GRUI08E ,1U " =5KOY;>08P g c;>=I0 =(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0HE(0@X ,17808? ,1U ;A=(,/?aY(PAG 780@?A? 0 ;=(, ) ,1;

XR0@P * Y GGRP D KM;>7:=I,/U(Q 7:=5KOPAKO7@;A08PC,/?C;A,/7@?82 B(0 ;>G&;>=(0WKOE(EI,1;>,1GRU GOJ6;A=(0 ./,/QO=`;A. * E(GRY 08E EIP>KO,1U
PA0@QR,/GOU  ;A=(08?C0 E(0@X ,17808?KMPA0 UIGO;J\B(.1. * ?A0@.1J !KO./,1QRU(08E 2
$=(,1?78KOB(?A0@?;>=(0 D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ ;>G ) 0aXO08P *
E(0@Y[0@U(E(08U+;HGRU ;A=(0F O% ; * Y[0 E(PA,NJ ; PC08QR,1GRU G XR0@PA.ZKMY B(U(E(0@P ;>=(0 Y[GR. * Q+KM;>0  -=(,17:= KO./.1G-?
;>=I0 0  0@7@;A,1XR0 ./0@U(QO;A=&GMJc;>=I0 7:=(KOU(U(0@. ;AG ) 0@78G D 0?AB(?C7808Y;>, ) ./0;>G D ,1?>KO.1,/QRU D 0@U`;82 # K ;>7:=(,1U(Q
GOJ$;A=(08?C0 E(0@X ,17808? ,1? XO08P * E(0@Y[0@U(E(08U+;HGRU GRPA,108U+;:KM;A,/GRU 2 # 08KO?ABIPA08E U(GOP D KO./,808E ?A,1Q D K Y5K
P>K D 0d;>08PC?J\GRP;>=(0 +hM % #  KMU(E  #  E(0dX ,/780@? KMPA0H  
  i O2
D   D KMU(E
  
  `i2  D   D 2 " G D Y5KOPC08E ;>GF;A=(0 D K ;>7:=(,1U(QFY5KOPAK D K ;>08PC?J\GRP;A=(0H?C;>KOU(E5KOPCE
# 3E(0@X ,17808?',1U3;>=(,1?bY(PAG 780@?A? L    \I2 Y D   D KOU(E      D   D  R;>=(0 +h 
=(,1QR= XOGR.1;>KOQR0 E(0@X ,17808?H0 ;I=I, ) ,N;
;>, D 0@? D GRPA0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= ;A=5KOU ;A=(08,1P3./G  XOGR.1;>KOQR0W78GRBI;A08P
Y5KOP;>?@2'VU(E(0@PA?;:KOU(EI,/U(Q ;>=I0 D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ3./, D ,N;:KM;A,/GRU(? GMJ;A=(08?C0E(0@X ,/7@08?$,1?6XR0@P * , D Y GRPC;>KOU+; J\GOP
Y(PC0878,1?A,1GRU&KOU5KO.1GRQ E(08?C,/QRU 2

> DG344 JU"W


  &$4(F - O@$&
-N
" $"

G ) 0@;C;>08PHB(UIE(08PC?C;:KMU(E =(G D ,/? D K ;>7:= 7eKMU K [087d;H;>=(0 Y 08PCJ\GOP D KOU(780 GOJKOU KOU5K
./GOQ 78,1PA7@B(,1;bK E(0d;:KO,1./08E D ,1? D KM;>7:= KOU5KO. * ?A,/?aGOJ$;>=I0 78,1PA78BI,1;a?A=(G -U ,/U c,/QRBIPA0 I2  -,1./. ) 0
Y 08PCJ\GOP D 08Ef2 c,1QRB(PA0 (2  ?C=(G -? ;>=(0 ) KO?C,/7 ?;>PCB(7@;AB(PA0 GMJ^;>=(0 KO.1. 0[087@; ?C08U(?CGRP3,/U+;A08PCJLKM780O2
 ; 78GRUI?A,/?;>? GOJ6K&=(,1QR= ?A,1E(0H? -,1;A7:= D KOE(0 B(Y )+* E(0@X ,/7@08? # KMU(E #  -,N;>= ;>=(0@,/P?AGOB(PA7@08?
KOU(E 60@./.1? ;A,/08E ;>GOQR0@;A=(08P@2&
$=I,/? ? -,1;A7:= ?ABIY(Y(./,108?   ;>G&;>=(0WKO.1. 0[087@; ?C08U(?CGRP -=(,17:= ,1?
PA0@Y(PA0@?A0@U`;A08E )`* K 7@B(PAPC08U+; ?AGRBIPA780M2 Y[0@P>KM;A,/GRU(KO.6K D Y(.1,1]50@P BI?A08E -,1;A= ;>=(0 J\0@08E ) KM7:9

gRi
E(0dX,1780  # KO? 60@./. KO?E(0dX ,/780@? # KMU(E # ,1?BI?A08E ;>G 7@PA08KM;>0a
 
 -=(,17:= ,/?KOU KO787@B(P>KM;A0
D ,/PAPCGRPGOJ'  A2
$=I0 J\GR./.1G -,/U(Q D ,1? D KM;>7:= KOU5KO. * ?C,/? -,/./.7eKM./78BI.ZKM;A0 ;A=(0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= 78PC0eKM;A08E
)+* -KM? 08.1.cKO? # $KOU(E # ;>GWE(0@;A08P D ,/UI0 =IG KM7878BIP>KM;A0aGRBIP=(,1QR=&, D Y[0@E5KOU(7@0a7@B(PAPC08U+;
D ,/PAPCGRP -,1./.fPC08Y(.1,/78KM;>0;A=(078B(PCPA0@U`;,/U   A2

VDD

M1 A-m1
+ M3 +
A-m3
Vds-m1 Vds-m2
- -

VLS

+ +
A-m2 Vds-m2 A-m4 Vds-m4
M2 - M4 -

Iout Isense

-
Vos-amp A1 M5
+

OUT SENSE

 
ect Sensor Rsense

,/QRB(PC0 (2  0@U(?AGRP,/U+;A08PCJLKM780 D ,/? D KM;A7:= KOU5KO. * ?C,/?$7@,/PA7@B(,1;82

V?C,/U(Q ?C;>KM;>,1?C;>,17eKO.KOU(KO. * ?A,1? ;A=(0 PC08./KM;>,1GRU(?A=I,/Y  J\GRPH;>=(0 ?C08U(?C0 78BIPAPA0@U+;F=(08.1Y(?W;AG


E(0dXR08.1GRY K ) 0@;C;>0@PB(U(E(0@PA?;:KOU(EI,/U(Q GMJ'=(G EI0@X ,/7@0 D ,/? D KM;A7:= KOU(E K D YI./,1](08P-G
[?A0@;XRGR.N;:KOQR0
K [087d;a;A=(0 ?C08U(?C0 78B(PCPA0@U`;   g  2 0@X ,/7@08? # KOU(E #  J\B(U(7d;>,1GRU KM?3K =(,/QR= !?A,1E(0H? -,N;>7:=
-=(,17:= 78B;>?
G  GRPH?ABIY(Y(./,108?HY G 08PH;>G K ?A08UI?AGRP ./G+KMEf2
$=(08?C0 E(0dX,1780@?W=5KeXO0 K XR08P * ./G
GRU PA0@?A,/?;:KOUI780 ?CG ;>=(KM; ;A=(0 XOGR.1;>KOQR0&E(PAGRY J\PAG D   ;>G ;>=(0 ?A0@U(?AGRP 7eKOU ) 0 KM? ? D KO.1.KM?

g

Y RG ?A?C, ) .10O2
* Y(,17eKO.$=I,/QR= ?A,1E(0F? -,N;>7:=(0@? GRY 08PAKM;>0 ,/U ;A=(0F;>PA,1GEI0FPA08QO,/GRU -=(,17:= 0 ;=(, ) ,1;A?HK
./,1U(0eKMPPC08.ZK ;>,/GOU(?A=(,1Y&;A=5KM;7eKOU ) 03B(?C08E ;>G 7eKO.178B(./KM;>0a=(G ;A=(0 PAKOU(E(G D G
[?A0d;,/U&;>=(0 ?A08UI?A0
K D Y(./,N]508Pa -,/./.6K [087@;H;A=(0 ?A08UI?A0&78B(PCPA08U+;82 U(G -,/UIQ ;A=(,/? 
 
     ;>=(0 D ,/? D KM;A7:=
7eKMB(?A0@E )+* K D Y(./,N]508P6 67eKOU ) 078KO./7@B(.ZKM;A08E KO?

 
     
 (2  
 
 
    
  


KOU(E&
 
^,1?$08_`B5KO. ;>G

 
 
    
    (2 g

 
     
   
 =(0@PA0   F08_`B5KM./?3;>=I0  G
[?A0@; XOGR.1;>KOQR0 J\GOP ;>=(0F?C08U(?C0 K D Y(.1,1]50@P KMU(E 
  
KOU(E 
  KOPC0a;A=(0 D ,/U(, D B D E(P>KO,1U!?CGRB(PC780XRGR.N;:KOQR0@?KO7@PAGR?C? # KOU(E #  2B ) ?C;A,1;>B;>,/UIQ
 _`B5KM;>,1GRU(?  I2 ^KMU(E  (2 g 6,/U+;>G      
K3;AGR./0@P>KOU(7@008_`B5KM;A,/GRU ,/?-KM7:=(,/0dXR08E&;>=5K ;-?A=(G -?
  
;>=I0$0[087@;A?'GOJ ;>=(0$,1U(Y(BI;'G
[?A0d; XRGR.N;:KOQO0^GOJ ;>=(0$?C08U(?C0K D YI./,1](08Pc GRU ;>=(0 D ,/PCPAGRPC08E37@B(PAPC08U+;

 
d2
$=(,/? D ,/? D KM;A7:=F08_`B5KM;A,/GRU&,/?$0@_ B(KO.f;>G

 
         (2


 
  
    
  
   

$=(0-GO;A=(08P D ,/? D KM;A7:=3JLKO7@;AGRPA?b;A=5KM;U(080@E ;AG ) 0-./G GR9M08E KM;KOPC0^;>=(0-E(0dX,1780 D ,/? D KM;A7:=
) 0@; 0808U #   #  KOU(E #   #  2aV?A,1U(Q ;>=I0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= 0@_`B5KM;>,1GRU J\GRPEI0@X ,/7@08?J\GRB(U(E ,1U
            KOU(E         7eKMU ) 07eKO.178B(./KM;>0@E ;AG ) 0
H
 
     gM       (2 


  
    

KOU(E

 
     gM      (2 i 

 
 
      
    KOU(E     HKOPC0W;>=I0 D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q Y5KOPAK D 0@;>0@PA? J\GRP E(0dX ,/780@?  #  KOU(E # HPA0
?AY 087d;>,NXR08. * KOU(E   KOU(E  KOPA0;>=I0aY(= * ?A,17eKO.KOPC0eKHGOJc;A=(08?C0 E(0dX ,/780@?82$V?A,1U(Q  _`B5KM;A,/GRUI?
 I2
  (2   KOU(E  (2 i -,N;>= ;A=(0 ?C_`B5KOPA0WPAG GO;a.ZK K D ,/? D K ;>7:= ;>GR.108P>KMU(780HJ\GRP;>=(0W?A08UI?A0
78BIPAPA0@U+;,1?$7eKO.178B(./KM;>0@E ;>G ) 0

 


  
    
 
   
 
   
  
  

 
     
 
    
 
    
 
    (2  

V?C,/U(Q  _`B5KM;A,/GRU  (2  K PA0@.ZKM;A,/GRU(?C=(,/Y ) 0d; 60@08U ;>=(0 E(0dX ,/780 D ,/? D K ;>7:= ,/U #  KMU(E
#  7eKMU ) 078G D Y5KMPA08EF;AG3;>=(0
G [?A0d;-GOJ ;>=(07@B(PAPC08U+;?A0@U(?A0 K D Y(./,N]508P@2b
$=(,1?$KOU5KO. * ?A,/?6?A=(G -?
gV=
;>=(KM;EI,[08PA0@U+;JLKO7d;>GRPC?-7eKOU ) 0 78GRU+;APAGR.1./08E ;>=(KM;EI,/PA0@7@;A. * K [087d;;A=(0 D ,1? D KM;>7:=f2
$=(0 ,/U(Y(B;

G [?A0d;$XRGR.N;:KOQR0GOJbK D Y(.1,1]50@P ^,1?$K D KM,/U 7@GRU+;>PA, ) BI;A08P-KO? 08.1. KO?^;>=I0XRGR.N;:KOQR0E(PAGRY&KO7@PAGR?C?
;>=I0W=(,1QR= ?A,1E(0H? -,1;A7:= KOUIE ;A=(0 KMPA0eK&KOU(E D KM;>7:=(,1U(Q Y5KOPAK D 0d;>0@PA?J\GRP # KOU(E #  2 V?A,1U(Q
;>=I,/?$,/UJ\GRP D KM;>,1GRU ;A=(0?C;:KMU(E5KOPCE E(0dX ,ZKM;A,/GRUFGOJ 
 
^J\GRP$   7eKOU ) 00@?C;>, D K ;>08E 2

Z ? $:!@BAC!:8-!ED -N" V SC4*  98$!


V ?C,/U(QF;A=(0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= KMU5KO. * ?C,/?E(0dXR0@./GRY 08E ,/U ;A=(0 Y(PA0dX ,/GRB(??C087@;A,/GRU  ?C;>0@Y(? 7eKOU ) 0

;:KM9O08UF;AG3PA0@E(B(780;A=(00[087d; D ,1? D KM;>7:= -,/.1.[=5KeXO0GRU KOU KOU5KM./GRQaE(08?C,/QRUf2U(0GOJ ;>=(0 D KCGRP
78GOU`;APA, ) BI;>GOPA?c;AG D ,1? D KM;>7:=3,1U K=(,1QR= XOGR.1;>KOQR0 E(08?C,/QRU ,1?c;>=(06Y[G GRP D KM;A7:=(,/U(QY 08PJ\G D KOU(780 GOJ
;>=I0a=(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR0E(0@X ,/7@08?@2$ U&0eKO? * 6K * ;>G PA0@E(B(780 ;>=(0 0[087d;GMJ D ,/? D KM;A7:=&,1?$;>G PA08YI.ZKO7@0
=(,1QR= XOGR.1;>KOQR0H;>PAKOU(?A,1?C;AGRPA?a,/U 7@PA,N;>,/78KO. D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q KOPC0eKO? -,1;>= ./G  XOGR.1;>KOQR0 E(0@X ,/7@08?@2  J$;>=(,1?
0 ;Y GR?A0@? ;>=I0 .1G  XRGR.N;:KOQO0 #   b
;>G K =(,/QO= Y GO;>0@U+;>,ZKM.^;>=5KM;W0 ;7@0808EI?F,1;>? ) PC0eKO9`E(G -U
./, D ,N;:KM;A,/GRU 5=(,/QR= XRGO.1;:KMQR0 ;AP>KOUI?A,/?;>GRPC?7eKMU ) 03B(?C08E ;>GFY(PCGO;>0@7@;;A=(0 E(0dX,1780HKOUIE UIGO; K [087d;
,1;A? D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q Y[0@PCJ\GRP D KMU(780M2
0 (2 g ?C=(G -?KW=(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR07@B(PAPC08U+; D ,/PAPCGRP82^0@X ,/7@08? #   # [KOU(E 
c,1QRB(PA # KOPC0
+hM< #  ;>P>KMU(?A,1?C;>GOPA? -=(,1./0 # $KOUIE # KMPA0?C;>KOU(E5KMPAE ./G XRGR.N;:KOQO0 # [2 V?A,1U(Q  # 
KOU(E # KO?-7eKO?C78G E(0aEI0@X ,/7@08?KO./.1G -? # -KOU(E # ;>G ) 0 Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>0@E&J\PCG D ;A=(0a=I,/QR= XRGR.N;:KOQO0O2
0@X ,1780 # 78PA08KM;>0@?;>=I0aXRGO.1;:KMQR0a  
;A=5KM;E(PA,NXR08?;>=(0 Q+KM;>0aGOJb;A=(0 =(,1QR= XOGR.1;>KOQR0 7eKO?C78G E(0
E(0dX,1780@?  #  KOU(E #  2b!UH;>=(0 D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q KOU5KO. * ?C,/?'GOJ[;>=(,1? 78,/PC78B(,N; # 'KOUIE # 6KOPA0-.1G78KM;>0@EW,1U
;>=I0 78PA,N;>,17eKO. D K ;>7:=(,1U(QFKOPC0eKO?@2 % PAGM;>087d;>,1U(Q ;>=(0@?A0 E(0dX ,/780@?E(G0@?; 6GF;A=(,/U(QO?  ]5PC?C;,N;Y(./KO780@?
./G TXRGR.N;:KOQO0FE(0@X ,/7@08? -,1;A= ) 0d;A;>0@P D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ 7:=5KOP>KM7@;>0@PA,1?C;>,178? ,1U 7@PA,N;>,/78KO. D KM;A7:=(,/U(Q KMPA0eKM?
KOU(E ?C0878GOU(E ,N;78PC0eKM;A08? K =(,1QR=(08PGRBI;>YIBI;, D Y[0@E5KOU(7@0  -=(,17:= KO./.1G -?J\GRP ) 0@;A;A08P D ,/PCPAGRPC,/U(Q
GOJ;>=(07@B(PAPC08U+;e2

$=(,1?6E(0@?A,/QOU Y(PAKO7@;A,/7807eKMUFKO./?CG ) 0BI?A08E ,/U GM;>=(0@P^KOU5KM./GRQ78,1PA7@B(,1;A?  -=(08PC0;>=I00 [087d;
GOJ D ,1? D KM;>7:=HU(0@08E(?6;AG ) 0PA08EIB(780@Ef2 " =5KOYI;A08P6iE(,1?A7@B(?A?C08?$K=(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0$GRY5K D YH;>=5K ;6=5KM?
) 0808U E(08?C,/QRUI08E ;AG PC08E(BI780 ,1;>?,1U(Y(BI;
G [?A0d;aXOGR.1;>KOQR0O2H
$=(,1?a,1? KO787@G D YI./,/?C=(08E )+* PA0@Y(.ZKM78,/UIQ
;>=I0 E(, [08PC08U+;>,/KO. ,1U(Y(BI;Y5KO,/PKOU(E 78BIPAPA0@U+; D ,/PCPAGRP./GRKOE -,1;A= ./G  XOGR.1;>KOQR0 #  b
 KMU(E
)+* B(?A,1U(Q=(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0^78KO?A7@GE(0E(0dX,1780@?J\GRP YIPAGO;A087@;A,/GRU 2c
$=(,1?EI08?A,1QRU D 0d;>=(G E(GR.1GRQ * KO./.1G -?
J\GRPcKOU30 7@,/08U+; PC08E(BI7@;>,1GRU GOJ ,1U(Y(BI;c
G  ?C0@; XRGR.N;:KOQR0 -,1;A=(GRBI; ;>=(0^BI?A0^GOJ5;APA, D GOPc?A,1QRU(,N]57eKOU+;A. *
,/UI78PA08KO?A,1U(Q ;>=(0 KOPC0eK GOJ;>=(0E(0dX ,/780@?82

g9\
Ibias Iin Iout
Vbias
Rout

M5 M3 M4 High Voltage
Cascode
Vmirr

M1 M2

c,/QRBIPA0 (2 g ',/QR= XRGR.N;:KOQO07eKO?C78G E(0 78B(PCPA08U+; D ,/PAPCGRP82

g9Y

Rh
  / 

           
   ,         

$
=(0J\GR./.1G-,1U(Q7:=5KOY;>08P E(08?C78PC, ) 08? ;A=(0EI08?A,1QRU GMJ Ka=I,/QR=HXRGR.N;:KOQO0KO./. [087@;?C08U(?CGRP
,/U+;A08PCJLKM780,/U K ?;:KOUIE5KOPAE E(,/QO,1;:KM. "$#  Y(PCG7@08?C?82^
$=(0 E(0@?A,/QOU Y(PAKO7@;A,/780@?EI08?A7@PA, ) 0@E ,/U ;>=I0
Y(PC0@X ,/GRBI?7:=(KOYI;>0@PA? 60@PA0 B(?A0@E ,1U ;A=(0E(08?C,/QRU 2

 6 ? -/& T  9 J "'!4 7  4) -/ V P " V4O$ $:


KO.1. 0[087@;-?C08U(?CGRPE(0@;A087@;A?;A=(0 D GO;A,/GRU Y[GO?A,1;A,/GRU GRP-7:=5KMU(QR0 ,/U D KMQRU(,1;AB(E(0GOJbK
D KOQRU(0d;>,/7^](08./E 2 " B(PAPC08U+;$KMY(Y(./,17eKM;A,/GRUI?cJ\GRPKOBI;AG D GM;>,1XO0-KO.1. 0[087@;',1U+;>08QOP>KM;A08E 78,/PC78B(,N;>?KOPC0
B(?C08E ,/U ,1QRU(,N;>,/GOU ? * ?;>0 D ?  ?AY 0808E 7@GRU+;>PAGO./? KO./,1QRU D 08U+;78GRU+;>PCGR./?  KOU(E Y GR?C,1;>,1GRU EI0@;>0@7@;AGRPA?@2

$=(0 ) KM?A,/73KO.1. ?C08U(?CGRP78GRUI?A,/?;>?GMJ6KW?A=(0@0@;GOJ?A0 D ,178GRUIE(B(7@;AGRP D KM;>0@PA,/KO. -,1;>= KOU KOY(Y(.1,/0@E
78GOU(?C;>KOU+;XOGR.1;>KOQR0?CGRB(PC780 Y  2'
$=(0GOBI;>Y(B;-GOJ ;>=(0=5KM./. ?C08U(?CGRP-,/?$K ? D KO.1. XOGR.1;>KOQR0;A=5KM;-78KOU
) 0 D 0eKO?CB(PA0@E KO78PCGR?A?;A=(0 -,1EI;>= GMJb;>=(0 ?A,/.1,/7@GRU GOP,/U ;>=(0 5B(7@;AB5KM;A,/GRU GMJ ;>=(0 KOY(Y(.1,/08E ) ,ZKM?
78BIPAPA0@U+;e2 ; * YI,/7eKM.$KO.1. 0 [087@; ?A0@U(?AGRP ,1U+;>08PJLKO780 6KO? PC08Y GRPC;A08E ;>=5K ; B(?A0@E K PA08?C,/?;>GRP ,1U
?A0@PA,108? -,1;>= ;>=I0W=(,1QR= ?A,/EI0 ? -,1;A7:= ;>G D 08KO?ABIPA0 ;>=(0 78BIPAPA0@U+; KOU(E E(0d;>087d; ;A=(0WGOU M
G  ?;:KM;A0
GOJ;>=(0 KO./. !0[087d;$?A0@U(?AGOP  h  2 !U&;A=(0 KOY(Y(.1,/78KM;>,1GRU E(,1?A78BI?A?A0@E ,/U ;A=(,/?-7:=5KMYI;>0@P-;A=(0E(7 ) ,ZKM?
78BIPAPA0@U+;aGMJ;A=(0HKM./.c?C08U(?CGRP,/? D GRU(,N;>GRPC08E )+* PC08Y(.1,/78KM;>,1U(Q K ?C7eKO.108E XR0@PA?A,1GRU GOJ;>=(0 ?C08U(?CGRP
78BIPAPA0@U+;^KOUIEW7@GRU+XR08P;>,1U(Qa,N; ;>GaKXRGR.N;:KOQR0  -=(,/7:= ,/?b;A=(08UWE(,/QR,N;>, 808E -,N;>= KOU O 78GOU`XO08P;>08P@2

$=(,1?aKM././G -?;A=(0W?C08U(?CGRP ,/U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0H;AG KM7878BIP>KM;A08. * D GRU(,N;>GRP;>=(0 KM./. 78BIPAPA0@U+; G XR0@P K -,/EI0
P>KMU(QR0GOJ D KOQOU(0@;A,/7]50@./E(?KOUIE&UIGO; CB(?C;-;>=I0 GOU M
G  ?;:KM;A0GOJ ;A=(0?A0@U(?AGRP@2

$=(0 KO.1. !0  0@7@;?C08U(?CGRPa,1U+;>08PJLKO780WKOPC7:=(,1;A087@;AB(PA0 ,/? ?A=IG -U ,/U c,/QOB(PA0Wi2 R2 0dX ,/780@?
# KOU(E #  GRY 08PAKM;>,1U(Q ,/U ;A=(0 ;>PC,/G E(0 PC08QR,1GRU 78G D ) ,/U(0W;>GRQR0d;>=(0@P3;>G J\GRP D ;A=(0F=(,/QO= ?A,/EI0
? -,N;>7:= ;>=5K ;$?AB(YIY(./,108?$Y G 08P$;AG3;>=(0 KM./. ?A0@U(?AGRP@2 B(0;AG ;>=(0./KOPAQR0XRGR.N;:KOQR0PA08_`B(,1PA0 D 0@U`;A?
GOJ ?CG D 03KM./. ?A0@U(?AGRPC?$;>=(,1?=(,1QR= ?C,/E(0 E(PA,NXR0@P D B(?;=5KeXO0 K D OK ;, D B D GRU PA08?C,/?;:KOU(7@0 GOJ'gRi


;>G /. , D ,1;;A=(0WXOGR.1;>KOQR0WE(PAGRY KO78PCGR?A? # aKOU(E #  2 0@X ,17808?  #  KOU(E # HKO? 08.1.6KO?  # 
KOU(E  #  KOPA0 D ,/PCPAGRPC?;>=(KM;QR08UI08P>K ;>0 K&7@B(PAPC08U+;;>=5K ;,/?
;>= GOJ ;>=(0 ) ,/KO
? ?ABIY(Y(./,108E ;>G ;>I= 0
KM./. 0 [087d;$?A0@U(?AGRP@2

VDD
OVRI

Und    Ov   
Voltage Voltage M1 M3 M6
Detector Detector

POR OVRV

ENABLE Level M2 M4 M7
Control EN VLS
Shifter
Block

STB Current Sense Amplifier


Switch
A1
M5
VDR
M8
Vref
Ov   
Current
STB STB VOVCNT Detector
Detector
VFB
OUT SENSE R1
VLIM
    
ect Sensor
M9
A2 Rsense A3
R2
5V
Vref
Current-Limit
5V Sense Clamp

c,1QRB(PA0 i 2  'KO./.!0  0@7@;$?C08U(?CGRP,1U+;>08PJLKO780 ) ./G 7:9 E(,ZKMQRP>K D 2

460@7eKOB(?C0 # KOUIE # $GRY 08PAKM;>0,/U ;>=(0./,1U(0eKOP'PC08QR,1GRU K 7@GRU+XR0@U`;A,/GRU(KO.[7@B(PAPC08U+; D ,/PCPAGRP


7eKMU(U(GO; ) 0B(?A0@E&;AG 78PC0eKM;A0aK3YIPA087@,/?C,/GRUFPC08Y(.1,/7eK3GMJ;A=(0./GRKOEF78B(PCPA0@U`;82'
$=(08PC0@J\GRPC0 5;>=(0EIP>KO,1U
XRGO.1;:KMQR08?&KM;F;A=(0 78B(PCPA08U+; D ,1PAPCGRP U(G E(08? D BI?C; ) 0 KM;F;A=(0 ?>K D 0 Y[GM;>08U+;A,ZKO.J\GOP KO787@B(P>KM;A0
78BIPAPA0@U+;a?C7eKO.1,/U(QI23 J\080@E ) KO7:9 7@,/PA7@B(,1;78G D Y(PA,1?A,1U(Q KOU GRY 08P>K ;>,/GOU5KO.bK D Y(.1,1]50@P KOUIE ; G
% #  ?AGOB(PA7@0WJ\GR.1./G 60@PA?  # KOUIE  #  08PC0 B(?C08E ;AG D KO,/U+;>KO,/U ,/EI08U+;>,17eKO.'E(PAKO,/U XRGR.N;:KOQO08?82
?./GOU(Q KM?-;A=(08PC0 ,1??CB 78,108U+;=(08KOE(PCGG D ;>=(0XRGR.N;:KOQO08?KM;-;>=(0 E(P>KM,/U(?GOJ # KOU(E  #  -,1./.
) 0 ,1U(E(0@Y[0@U(E(08U+;GOJ;>=(0 D ,/PAPCGRPA0@EF78B(PCPA0@U`;A?82

+g

$=(0
;>= PC08Y(.1,/78K ?C08U(?C078BIPAPA0@U+;^78PC0eKM;A08E )+* #  KMU(E # $,/?'78GOU`XO08P;>08E ;AG3KXRGR.N;:KOQR0
;>=IPAGRB(QO= KOU 0 ; ;>0@PAU5KM.PC08?C,/?C;AGRPW
 
 2
$=I,/?HXRGR.N;:KOQR0 ,1?H;A=(08U Y(PAG 780@?A?C08E -,N;>= KOU 0 ; ;>08P
U5KO. O 7@GRU+XR08P;>0@P82
$=(0F?C,/QRU(KO.6,1? D GOU(,1;AGRPA0@E )+* KOU 0 ; ;A08PAU(KO. D ,/78PCGRY(PCG7@08?A?CGRP -=I,/7:=
D 0eKO?CB(PA0@?;>=(0HKO7d;>,NX,N; * GMJ;A=(0HKM./. ?A0@U(?AGRP@2a
$=I0 GO;>=(0@P D ,1PAPCGRP7@GRU(?C,/?C;A,/U(QFGMJ EI0@X ,/7@08? #
KOU(E  #  KO? 08.1. KO?-;>=(0 GO;>=I08P-=(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>,1GRU ) ./G 7:9`??C=(G -U ,/U c,1QRB(PC0 i2  9O0@08Y
;>=I0=I,/QR= ?C,/E(0-E(PC,1XR0@P'?A=(0@.1;>0@PA0@E J\PCG D Y GO;>0@U+;>,ZKM./. * E5K D KOQO,/U(Q7@GRU(E(,N;>,/GOU(?bGOJ ;A08UH0 ;Y 08PA,108U(7@08E
,/U K =(,/QR= XRGO.1;:KMQR0 08U+X ,/PCGRU D 08U+;e2W
$=(08?C0 KOPC0W0 ;IYI.ZKO,1U(08E ,/U D GRPA0HE(0d;:KO,1. ,/U ;>=(0HJ\GR./.1G -,/U(Q
?A0@7@;A,/GRU(?@2
c,1QRB(PA0 i 2 g ?A=IG -? ?A, D B(.ZK ;>,/GOUPA0@?AB(.N;>? GOJ ;A=(0 KO.1.0@U(?AGRP&!U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0 ,1U ; * Y(,17eKO.
GRY 08PAKM;>,1GRUf2c
$=I008U5K ) ./0?A,/QOU5KO. ,/?E(PA,NXR08U )+* KOU 0 ;;A08PCU5KO. D ,/7@PAGRYIPAG 7808?C?AGRP  -=I,/7:= ;AB(PAU(?6GRU
;>=I0=(,/QO= !?C,/E(0? -,1;A7:=&KOU(EF?ABIY(Y(./,108?^  b;>=I0 ) ,ZKM?^78B(PCPA0@U`;$;AG ;>=I0KO.1. !0  0@7@;^08UI?AGRP@2
 

,/?^;A=(0 D GRUI,1;>GOPA,/UIQ 78BIPAPA0@U+;;A=5KM;,/?$7@PA0eK ;>08E )+* ;>=(008UI=5KOU(7@08E GOBI;>Y(B;, D Y 08E5KMU(7807@B(PAPC08U+;
D ,/PAPCGRP  -=(,/7:= E(0@;A087@;A? (B(7@;AB5KM;>,1GRU(?,/U ;A=(0 D KOQRUI0@;>,17 ]50@./Ef2H!U ;A=(0 ^KeXO0@J\GRP D ?A=(G -U ,1U
c,1QRB(PA0 i 2 g3
 
^,1? V\V\I2  f  -=I,/7:= ,1?-hI2 h  TGMJ 
2 
Voltage (V) Output Current (A) Sense Current (A)

2.0m
1.5m
1.0m
500u
0.0 Isense = 688.7 uA
-500u
7.0m
6.0m
5.0m Iout = 6.886 mA
4.0m Out1 Current
3.0m Sense1 Current
Enable 1
2.0m
1.0m
0.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0
Time (ms)

c,1QRB(PA0i2 g 
* Y(,/78KO. GRY 08PAKM;>,1GRUFGOJ;>=(0 KM./. 0[087d;$?A0@U(?AGRP,/U+;A08PCJLKM780O2

$
=(0 78G D Y(.10 ;,1; * GMJc;>=I0aKO./.!0  0@7@;-?A0@U(?AGOP,/U+;A08PCJLKM780,/?-U(0@08E(0@E ;>G 9O0@08Y ,N;-B(U(,1XO08P
?>KM./. * B(?>K ) ./0aJ\GOPKHXMKOPA,10@; * GOJ KO./. ?C08U(?CGRPA?@2
$=(,1?;AP>KOU(?C.ZKM;A08?,/U+;>GWK -,1E(0 PAKOU(QR0 GOJ Y G 60@P
?ABIY(Y(. * XOGR.1;>KOQR08?  =3;>G
g M KOUIE 78BIPAPA0@U+;>?  gH;AGFiOh D  5./G GOU!PC08?A,1?C;>KOU(780 J\GRP$;>=(0a=(,/QO=
?A,1E(0 ? -,1;A7:=  i&;AG gRi  KO? 08.1.^KO? K&;A,/QR=+; C=2 i  R?A,1Q D K D KM;>7:=I,/U(Q KO787@B(P>KO7 * ,1U ;>=I0

?A0@U(?A0F7@B(PAPC08U+; D ,/PCPAGRP@2 BI0W;>G ;>=(0 .1G ;>GR.108PAKOU(780WGOJ$;>=I0 ?A0@U(?A0 D KM;A7:=(,/U(Q A? Y 087@,1]578KM;>,1GRU


K ;>=IGRPAGRBIQR= KOU5KO. * ?A,/?GOJ';>=(0 D ,/? D K ;>7:= ) 0@; 080@U E(0dX ,/780@? #  #   #  #  ,/ ? , D Y[GRP;:KOU+;
KO? 08./. KM?KMU&BIU(E(08PC?C;>KOU(E(,1U(Q GOJ =(G ;A=(0,/U(YIBI;G
 ?C0@;-XRGO.1;:KMQR0GOJ;>=(0?A0@U(?A0 K D Y(./,N]508P
K [087d;>?$;>=(0G XR0@P>KO.1. D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q(2

 > DG344 JU"W


  &$4

$=(0^GOY5K D Y3 GOJ ,/QRB(PC0$i2 ^,1?cPA0@_`B(,/PC08E3;>G D KO,1U+;:KO,1Ua0@_ B(KO.IE(PAKO,/UaXRGR.N;:KOQR0@?bKO7@PAGR?C?
;>=I0 #  #  KOUIE #  #  ;>PC,/G E(0 PA0@QR,/GRU 78B(PCPA08U+; D ,1PAPCGRP82 .N;>=(GRBIQR= ;>=(0 ) KOUIE -,/EI;A=
PA0@_`B(,/PC0 D 08U+;HJ\GRP ;>=(0 GRY5K D Y ,/? U(GM;W?;>PC,/U(QR0@U+; 6BI?A,/UIQ ;A=(0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= 7eKM./78BI.ZKM;A,/GRU(?aJ\PAG D
" =5KOY;>08 P ;>=(037@B(PAPC08U+;?A0@U(?A0HK D Y(.1,1]50@P D B(?C;=5KeXR0HK D KO;, D B D ,1U(Y(BI;G
[?A0@;XRGR.N;:KOQR0aGOJ
iOhRh    ;>G KO7:=(,/0dXR0 ;A=(0FPA0@_ BI,/PA0@E 78B(PCPA0@U`; D ,/PCPAGRP KO7@78B(PAKO7 * 2 E(E(,N;>,1GRU5KO.1. * ,1; D B(?;
=5KeXR0K 7@G DWD GRU D G E(0,/U(YIBI;P>KOU(QO0;>=(KM;,/? -,1;>=I,/U gRi D  ;AG R2 gRi  GOJ BIY(Y[0@P ?CB(Y(Y(. * P>KO,1. 2

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) 087eKMB(?A0 ;>=(0  #   E(0@X ,17808?a,/U ;>=I,/?Y(PAG 780@?A? ?A,N;a,1U % ; * Y 0 ?AB ) ?;>PAKM;>0  -=(,17:= ,1?;A,/0@E ;AG
;>=I0./G 60@?C;$Y GO;A08U+;>,/KO.  ;>=(0=I,/QR=(0@?C;$XOGR.1;>KOQR0KMU * ;>=(,17:9 Q+K ;>0 #  E(0@X ,/7@07eKOU ?C080,/UW;>=(,1?
Y(PCG7@08?A?,/? 
M L?C080
cK ) ./0 g2  = 2
c,1QRB(PA0 i2
?C=(G -? KOUa,/U(,N;>,ZKM.RE(08?C,/QRUa78GRUI?A,/EI08P>K ;>,/GOUaJ\GRP ;>=I06?A0@U(?A0^K D YI./,1](08P B(?A,1U(Q
PA0@?A,1?C;>GOPA? KOU(E   ;AG E(,NX,1E(0 E(G -U ;>=(03,1U(Y(BI;;>G K ?>KMJ\0aGRY 08P>K ;>,/UIQ KOPC0eKI20@?A,1?C;>GOPA? 
KOU(E   KOPC0 eh ;A, D 08? ) ,1QRQR08P3;A=5KOU  KOU(E   KOU(E KOPA0 B(?C08E ;AG QO08U(0@P>KM;A0&;A=(0 78GRPCPA087d;
J\080@E ) KO7:9 XRGO.1;:KMQR0O26G 60dXR0@P;>=(0 D ,/? D KM;A7:= GOJ ;>=(0 ,/UIY(BI;PA0@?A,/?;>GRPC? -,1./. KOEIE ;>GH;>=I0
G [?A0d;
GOJ;A=(0 ?C08U(?C0 K D Y(./,N]508P@2 EIE(,1;A,/GRU5KM./. *  ;>=(0 PA08?C,/?;>GRPC?WPC08_`B(,/PC0 7@B(PAPC08U+; Y(PCG X,1E(08E )`* ;>=I0
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K PA0@E(B(780@E ?CB(Y(Y(. * XRGO.1;:KMQR0 
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i2 ?A=(G -?$;>=I0U(0 ?A0@U(?A0aK D Y(./,N]508P -,1;A= ;>=(0, D Y(PCG XR08EF,1U(Y(BI;^?C;:KMQR0O2
$=(0Q+K ;>08?6GOJ,/U(Y(B;
E(0dX,1780@? #
'KOU(E # KMPA0 ) ,ZKO?C08E ?AG;>=5KM;c;>=(0 E(0@X ,/7@08? GRY 08PAKM;>0 ,/U3?;>PCGRU(Q,1U`XO08PC?A,/GOUHKOU(E3;>=I0
) B(.19 ;>0@P D ,/U5KO.1?-KOPA0B(?C08E KM?,1U(Y(BI;A?82$!U ;A=(,/? 6K * [;A=(0 ,/U(Y(B;EI, [08PA0@U+;>,ZKM. Y5KO,/P$;AP>KOU(?C,/?;>GRPC?


VDD

M30 M31
M32

R5 R7
VP M28 M29 VP
OUT

R6 R8

VSS

c,1QRB(PC0 i2
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$=(,/?aKO.1./G -?;>=(0 K D Y(./,N]508P;AG
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,/UIY(BI;^PAKOU(QR0M2'460878KOB(?C0;>=(0XRGR.N;:KOQR0?AB(YIY(./,108E ;AG ;>=(0?A0@U(?AGRP$GOU(. * XMKOPC,/08?J\PAG D gOi D 
;>G R2 gRi  I;>=I0 ) B(./9 !?CB ) ?;>P>K ;>0 CB(U(7@;A,/GRU E(G 08?-U(GM;-78GRU(EIB(7@;?A,1QRU(,1](7eKOU+;-78BIPAPA0@U+;e2
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;:KMU(780- Q   -=(,/7:= 6GOB(./EHPA0@?AB(.N;',/U K?A,1QRU(,1](7eKOU+; Q+KM,/U PA0@E(B(7d;>,/GOUHJ\GOP GRB(P'K D Y(./,N]508P@2 5GRP ;>=(,1?
Y(PCG7@08?A?KM?E(,/?C78B(?C?A0@E ,1U " =5KOYI;A08P
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?C;>KOQR0^=(K XO0^XR0@P * =I,/QR=aGRBI;>YIBI; , D Y 08E5KOUI780 O?AG;A=(0$K D Y(./,N]508PQ+KO,1U PC0 D KO,/U(? =(,/QO= E(0@?AY(,N;>0^;>=I0
) B(.19 !E(PC,1XR0@UW,1U(Y(BI;A?82b " ?A, D B(.ZKM;A,/GRUI?b?A=(G -U ,1U c,/QRBIPA0i2 iEI0 D GRU(?C;AP>KM;A0K./G  J\PA08_`B(0@U(7 *
Q+KO,1U GOJ \
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KO7d;>08PC,/?;>,/7@? 7@G D Y(KOPA0@E ;>G ;A=(08,1P .1G  XRGR.N;:KOQO0W7@GRB(U+;>0@PAY5KOP;> ?  ;>=IPA08?C=(GR.1E XRGR.N;:KOQO0 D ,/? D KM;A7:=
7:=5KOPAKO7@;A08PC, eK ;>,/GOU J\GRP;A=(,/?Y(PAG 780@?A?PC0@XO0eKO.1? ^Y5KMP>K D 0@;A08PA?;>=5KM;KOPA0 ;>=(PC0803;AG J\GRB(P;>, D 08?
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+i
VDD

M14 M15
M16 M18

M17 M19 M24 M25


VB3
R3 R4
VP VGB VN
M11 OUT
M10

VB1
VB2 M26 M27
M20 M21

M12 M13

VB1
M22 M23

VSS

c,/QRBIPA0 i2 '46B(.19!E(PC,1XR0@U 78B(PCPA08U+;?A0@U(?A0 K D YI./,1](08P82

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) 0PA0@Y(.ZKO7@08E -,N;>= .1G  XRGO.1;:KMQR0EI0@X ,/7@08?82'
$=(0BI?A0GOJ ,1U(Y(BI;67eKO?C78G E(0;>PAKOU(?C,/?C;AGRPA?6KO./.1G -? ;>=I0
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$=(07@PA,1;A,
7eKM.[E(0dX ,/780@? J\GRP D KM;>7:=(,1U(QaKOPA0;>=(0,/U(Y(B;>? #
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KOU(E # 2
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#  #   KOU(E #  PC08?AY 087d;>,NXR08. * 2 V?A,1U(Q
;>=I,/?KOY(Y(PCG+KO7:= [K =I,/QR= XRGR.N;:KOQO0 .1G !G
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=(,1QR=H?A,/EI0$? -,1;A7:= 7@GRB(./EH?C=(GRPC;';AG;A=(0-7eKOP ) K ;A;>0@P * 2b
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G3E(0@;A087d;6;>=I,/?78GRU(EI,1;>,1GRUWK ) B(.19 E(PA,NXR0@U 78G D Y5KMP>KM;AGRP'?A=(G -UF,/U c,/QOB(PA0i2 a,/?B(?C08E
-=(0@PA0GRU(0$,/UIY(BI;',/?b;A,/0@EH;AG;>=(0$?CB(Y(Y(. * XRGR.N;:KOQO0-KOU(E ;>=(0-GO;A=(08P',1U(Y(BI; ,1?b;>,108E ;>G;>=I0GOBI;>Y(B;



0.00
-100 B

Phase (deg)
-200
-300
-400
-500
-600
-700
100
80.0
60.0

Gain (dB)
40.0
20.0
0.00 A
-20.0
-40.0
-60.0
1m 10m 100m 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G
freq (Hz)

c,/QRBIPA0i2 i " ?C, D BI.ZKM;A,/GRU(?J\GRP^;>=I0 7@B(PAPC08U+;?A08UI?A0aK D YI./,1](08P82

OG J;>=(0=(,1QR= ?A,/EI0? -,1;A7:=f2 ) B(./9!EIPA,1XO08U&,/U(YIBI;-?C;>KOQR0,/?$PC08_`B(,/PC08E J\GRP$;>=(0?AK D 0PC0eKO?CGRU KM?


;>=I0378B(PCPA0@U`;?A08UI?A0HK D Y(./,N]508P  -=(,/7:= ,1?;AGFKO7:=(,10@XR03K 78G D D GRU D GEI0 ,/UIY(BI;P>KOU(QO0a;>=(KM;,1?
-,1;A=(,/U K % #  ;>=IPA08?C=(GR.1E XOGR.1;>KOQR0GMJ+2 !U&KOE(EI,1;>,1GRU KMU * ./0@XO08.f?C=(,1J ;A,/U(Q GOJ ;>=(0,1U(Y(BI;A?
-,1;A= PA0@?A,/?;>GRPC?;>GFQRPCGRB(U(E 78PC0eKM;A08?./08KO9 KOQR0a78B(PCPA08U+; GRU ;>=I0 GRBI;>YIBI;  -=(,17:= 7eKOB(?C08?aK Q+KO,1U
08PCPAGRP$,1UF;>=(0?A0@U(?A0a78B(PCPA0@U`;KM;=(,1QR=(0@P$?AB(Y(YI. * XOGR.1;>KOQR08?@2
 =(0@U&;A=(0?A=(GRP;$;>G ) KM;C;>0@P * 7@GRU(E(,N;>,1GRUF,/?$E(0d;>0@7@;>0@E K37@GRU+;>PAGO. ?A,/QOU5KO. ,1?$QR08UI08P>K ;>08E 
-=(,17:= ?A=`BI;>? G  ;A=(0 .10@XR0@.6?C=(,1J ;A08PA?a;>=5KM; E(PA,NXR0 ;A=(0 Q+K ;>0 GMJ$;>=(0W=(,/QR= !?A,1E(0 ? -,1;A7:= ?A=(G -U
,/U c,1QRB(PC0 i2 = 2
$=I,/?78GRU+;APAGR.'?A,1QRU5KO.c78./GO?A08?;A=(0W? -,1;A7:= ?C=(G -U ,/U c,1QRB(PA0 i 2 \  -=(,17:= ;A,/0@?
;>=I0 Q+KM;A08?GOJ # KMU(E # ;AGW;A=(0 E(PAKO,/U&GOJ #  2
$=I,/?0  0@7@;A,1XR0@. * ?A=`BI;A?
G  ;>=I0 7:=5KOUIU(08.GOJ
E(0dX,1780@? # ^KOU(E # Y(PA0dXR0@U`;A,/U(Q ;>=(07@B(PAPC08U+;J\PCG D J\0@08E(,1U(Q ) KO7:9F,1U`;AG   O2


=
VDD

M35
R9

R10
VGB
OUT
M33 M34
STB_TRIP

STB
VDD_REF

R11 R12

VSS

c,/QRBIPA0i2=IGRPC;-;>G ) K ;A;>0@P * 7@G D Y5KOP>K ;>GRP@2

$
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Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>,1GRU 7@,/PC78B(,N;>P * 2-!U c,/QOB(PA0ai2 3GOJb;A=(0 =(KO./. ?C08U(?CGRP,/U+;A08PCJLKM780 ) ./G 7:9FE(,ZKOQOP>K D E(0dX ,/780@?
# KOUIE #   -=(,17:= 78GOU(?A,1?C;GOJ ;A=(03=(,1QR= ?A,/EI0a? -,1;>7:= KMPA0 7@GRU(U(0@7@;A08E -,1;A= ;>=(0@,/P 60@./.bKMU(E
?AGOB(PA7@08?;A,/0@E&;AGRQR0@;A=(08P@2-U(0 E(P>KO,1U ,1?$;>,/0@E&;AG ;A=(0 ?AB(Y(YI. * XRGR.N;:KOQO0 -=I,/./0;A=(0 GM;>=(0@P,1?$;>,/0@E
;>G;A=(0$GRBI;AY(BI;e2c
$=(0$Q+KM;A0$,/?bE(PC,1XO08U )`* ;>=(0$.10@XR0@.(?A=I,1J ;>0@P D 0@U+;>,/GOU(08EHK ) G XR0  -=I,/7:= `08UI?AB(PC08?
;>=(KM;b;>=I0^Q+KM;A08?'KOPC06J\B(U(7d;>,/GOU(,/U(Q,/UHK?AKMJ\0$GRY 08PAKM;>,1U(QKOPC0eKI2  ,1;>= # cKOU(E # '?A0d;'B(Y ,/Ua;>=(,1?
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Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>,1GRU -,1;A=(GRBI;$;A=(0KOE(E(,N;>,1GRUFGOJcKH?C08PC,/08?-E(,1GEI0;>=5KM; GRB(.1E B(?A0 KOY(YIPAG ;, D KM;>0@. * hI2  
GOJ ;A=(0HKO./.1G ^K ) ./0 E(PAGRY 2
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;>=(KM;6,1?'08_`B5KO. ;>G ;>=(0E(P>KM,/U ?AGRB(PC780 ) PA08KO9`E(G -UFGOJfEI0@X ,/7@0 # d2b J +hM 7eKOY5K ) ,/.1,1; * ,1?'U(080@E(08E
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XRGO.1;:KMQR0-GOJ 8\ ,1?UI0808EI08EFKOUW0 ; ;>0@U(E(0@E E(P>KM,/U E(0@X ,/7@07@GRB(.1E ) 0B(?C08E J\GRP #  -=I,/7:= GRB(.1E
?A,1QRU(,N]57eKOU+;A. * PA08EIB(780;>=(0 KOPC0eKHGOJ;>=(0=(,1QR= ?A,/EI0E(PA,NXR08P@2
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  :2 i  KOU(E ;>=(0@U ?ABIE(E(08UI. * CB D Y(?'B(YW;AG
g I2 i  2+
$=(0GRB;>Y(BI; 78BIPAPA0@U+; \   ,/? D GOU(,1;AGRPA0@E

V\

VDD
M39 M41
M36

M40 M42

M37

VLS

ENN M38 EN M43

VSS

c,1QRB(PA0 i 2 = ',1GEI078GRUIU(087d;>08E ./0dXR08. ?C=(,1J ;A08P82

OK U(E -=(0@U ;>=(0- U5K ) ./0^?C,/QRU5KM.I,/?cE(PA,NXR08UH=(,1QR=3;>=I0^GRBI;AY(BI;'78BIPAPA0@U+; PC0eKO7:=I08? =2 i9\ D E(BIPA,/UIQ


U(GRP D KM. GOY[0@P>KM;A,/GRUf2  =(0@U3;>=(06XOGR.1;>KOQR0 GRUHV
?C=(GRPC;A?c;>Gg
I2 i  K7@B(PAPC08U+; ?CY(,/9M0$GOJ g 2 Y

78KOU ) 03?A0@08U ,/U ;A=(03GRB;>Y(BI;78B(PCPA0@U`; -=I,/7:= 0@XO08U+;>B(KO./. * ?C0@;A;A./0@?;>G
8\ 2  =(08U ;>=I0
) KM;C;>0@P * XOGR.1;>KOQR0^,1? PA0 D G XR0@E KOUIEW.1G 08PC08EH;>G :2 i  R   PC0@;>BIPAU(?';>G;>=I0$?>K D 0$GRY 08P>K ;>,/UIQ
./0dXR0@. 2

 H #! 4 'DG34O4KP   98$!B-/ DG34O4 % $& $5$


$
=(0HE(0@?A,/QOU D B(?C; KO.1?AG EI0@;>0@7@; ,1J';A=(0 V
Y(,/U ,/?78GRU(UI087@;A08E ;>G QRPCGRB(U(E GRP?CG D 0
GO;A=(08P ./G+KME ;A=5KM;WPA08?CB(.1;A?W,1U K ?AB(YIY(. * 78BIPAPA0@U+; GRBI;WGOJ,1;>? D KO;, D B D 78B(PCPA0@U`; GRY 08P>K ;>,/UIQ
P>KMU(QR0O2<!U;A=(,/?W78GRUIE(,1;A,/GRU ;>=(0 =I,/QR= ?A,1E(0 ? -,1;A7:= D B(?C;F.1, D ,1;H,N;>? ?CB(Y(Y(.1,/0@E78B(PCPA0@U`;&KMU(E
0@XO08U+;>B(KO./. * Y[G 08PE(G -Uf2
$=(,1? -,/./. Y(PAGM;>087d;;>=(0 ?C08U(?CGRPa,1U+;>08PJLKO7803J\PCG D 0 ;7808?C?A,NXR0 Y G 60@P
E(,1?A?A,1Y5KM;A,/GRU KOU(E ;>=(0@P D KO.Y(PAG ) ./0 D ?82
G E(0@;A087d; ;>=(,1? 78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU  K ?A0@78GRU(E hI2  PC08Y(.1,/78K
78BIPAPA0@U+;$./0@Q ,/? KOE(EI08E ;>G ;>=(0=(,/QR=W?A,1E(0? -,1;>7:= (KO? ?A=(G -UF,/U c,/QOB(PA0i2 B(?C,/U(Q3EI0@X ,/7@08? # 
#  `KOUIE #  2c
$=(0 D ,/PAPCGRPA0@E 78B(PCPA0@U`;,1? KOY(Y(.1,/0@E3;>G; GaPC08?A,1?C;AGRPA? GOJ ;>=I0$?>K D 0^; * Y[0 bKMU(E

 a;>=(KM;3QR0@U(08PAKM;>0HXRGO.1;:KMQR08?  -=(,17:= KOPA0W78G D Y5KOPC08E ;>G KMU ,/U+;A08PAU(KO.'PA0@J\0@PA0@U(780M2
$=(0WG XR08P
78BIPAPA0@U+; ) ./G 7:9B(?C08? K7@G D Y5KOP>K ;>GRP ;>GE(0@;A087d; -=(08U3;A=(067@B(PAPC08U+; =5KM?cPA08KO7:=(0@EHK=(,1QR= 7@B(PAPC08U+;

VY

VLS

M44

R13

M45

M46 OUT
STB

R14

VSS

c,/QOB(PA0 i2 \=IGRPC;$;AG ) K ;A;>0@P * ? -,1;A7:=f2


500m

0.0 Iout = 17.58m Iout = 17.58m


Iout = -318uA
-500m
( A)

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0
IoutPk = -2.496A
-2.5 Iout1
30 Vout1

25

20
( V)

15

10

5.0

0.0
0.0 2.0m 4.0m 6.0m 8.0m 10m
time (ms)

c,1QRB(PA0i2 Y =(GRP;;AG ) KM;A;A08P * ?A, D B(.ZK ;>,/GOUf2

78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU 2c
$=(,1?7@G D Y5KOP>K ;>GRP'?A,1QRU5KO.I,/?'Y(PAG 780@?A?C08E )+* K EI08.ZK *H) .1G7:9  -=(,17:=W]5.N;>08PC?'QR./,N;>7:=(0@?
KOU(E&JLKO./?C0aG XO08P 78B(PCPA0@U`;78GRU(EI,1;>,1GRU(?@2$
* Y(,17eKO.?A=`BI;AE(G -U J\GRPKMU G XR0@P !7@B(PAPC08U+;78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU ,1?
iOhR h f?^;>G  D ?82
?A08Y(KOP>KM;A0 $7@B(PAPC08U+; ./, D ,1; ) ./G 7:9 ^KM?WE(0@?A,1QRU(08E ;>G YIPA0@XO08U+;F=(,1QR= 78B(PCPA08U+; ./0@XO08.1?
J\PAG D E5K D KOQO,/U(Q;A=(0$,/U+;A08QRPAKM;>0@E 78,/PC78B(,N;e2 " B(PAPC08U+;'./, D ,N;>,/UIQ,1? ,/U(7@GRPAY GRPAKM;>0@E3,/U 7@GRU CB(U(7d;>,1GRU
-,1;A=;>=(0 G XO08P 78B(PCPA0@U`;&E(0d;>0@7@;>,1GRU ) .1G7:9 2V?A,1U(Q ;>=I0 hI2  PA0@Y(./,17eK ?C08U(?C0 7@B(PAPC08U+; -,1;A=
K D Y(./,N]508P6  KMU(E E(0dX ,/780  #  J\PCG D c,1QRB(PC0 i2  [K J\080@E ) KO7:9 D 087:=5KMU(,/? D ,/?-78PC0eKM;A08 E -=I,/7:=
-,/.1. 0  0@7@;A,1XR0@. * ./, D ,N;;A=(037@B(PAPC08U+; ) KO?C08E GRU ;>=I0 ./0@XO08. GOJ';>=(03,1U+;>08PCU5KO. PA0@J\0@PA0@U(7803XOGR.1;>KOQR0O2

$=(0 78B(PCPA0@U`; !.1, D ,1; ) ./G 7:9 PA0@QRB(./KM;>0@? )`* ,1U C087d;>,1U(Q 78B(PCPA0@U`;,/U+;AG3;>=(0./0dXR0@.?C=(,1J ;A08P ) .1G7:9 2

+h
 B(0 ;>G ;>=(0 JLKO7d;W;A=5KM;H;>=(0&G XR0@P !7@B(PAPC08U+; KOUIE 78BIPAPA0@U+; !.1, D ,1;A,/U(Q EI0@;>0@7@;A,/GRU ) ./G 7:9`?

B(?C03;>=(03?AK D 0 E(0d;>087d;>,1GRU 78B(PCPA0@U`;;A=(03G XR0@P 78B(PCPA08U+; 78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU ?A=(GOB(./E KO. ^K * ? ) 0308U(K ) ./0@E
) 0@J\GRPC0;A=(0 7@B(PAPC08U+; ./, D ,1;A,/U(Q ,/?KO7d;>,1XMKM;A08Ef2
$=(0 ,/U(7@./B(?C,/GRUGOJ;>=(078B(PCPA0@U`; !.1, D ,1; ) .1G7:9KOE(E(? K
U(0@Q+KM;>,NXR0J\0@08E ) KM7:9 78G D Y GRU(08U+;-,1U`;AG3;>=(0EI08?A,1QRUf2
$=(,1?$PA0@_ BI,/PA0@?$;>=5KM;^7eKOPC0@J\B(.f " KOU5KO. * ?A,/?
GOJ;A=(0&?C;:K ) ,/.1,1; * GOJ;>=(0 -=(GR.10 ? * ?;>0 D ) 0 0dXMKO./B5K ;>08E 2 c,/QRBIPA0 i2  h ?C=(G -?FKOU " Y(./GO;
?A=IG -,1U(Q3;>=I0Q+KO,1U  ) KOU(E -,1EI;>= (KOU(EFY(=5KM?A0 D KOPAQO,/U GMJ;A=(07@B(PAPC08U+; ./, D ,1; K D Y(.1,1]50@P E(BIPA,/UIQ
KW7@B(PAPC08U+;.1, D ,1;$7@GRU(E(,N;>,/GOU ,1U&;A=(03KO./. 0@U(?AGRP!U+;>08PJLKO780M2
* Y(,/78KO. ?C, D BI.ZKM;A,/GRU(?$?C=(G 60@E K
Q+KO,1U GM,J =Oh E54 -,1;A= K Y(=(KO?A0 D KOPCQR,/U GOJ Ri KOUIE K Q+KM,/U ) KOU(E -,1EI;>= YIPAG E(B(7@;aGOJ-K ) GRB;
 # O2

0.00
-50.0
Phase (deg)

-100 B
-150
-200
-250
-300
-350
-400
80
60
Gain(dB)

40
20
0.0 A

-20
-40
-60
100m 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G
freq (Hz)

c,/QOB(PA0i 2  h " ?A, D B(./KM;>,1GRU GOJ 78B(PCPA0@U`; !.1, D ,1;$K D Y(.1,1]50@P^E(B(PC,/U(Q GOY[0@P>KM;A,/GRUf2


  12$5# AC5 J "WDG:-N 

$
=(0 GRBI;>YIBI;cGMJ(;>=(0 ?A0@U(?A0^7@B(PAPC08U+;b,1?; * Y(,17eKO.1. * 7@GRU(U(0@7@;A08E3;>G-;>=I06PA0@?A,1?C;>GOPc 2  =I08U
;>=I0^?A0@U(?AGRPc,/U+;>0@PCJLKO7@06,/? PAB(UIU(,/U(QKM;bK=(,/QR=I08P ^;A=(0 XOGR.1;>KOQR067@PA08KM;>0@E )`* ;>=I0^?A0@U(?A0$7@B(PAPC08U+;
KOU(E PC08?C,/?C;AGRP7@GRB(./E QR08U(0@P>KM;A0HKWXRGO.1;:KMQR0 ;>=(KM;,1?QRPA08KM;>0@P;A=5KM;;A=(03E(,1QR,1;>KO. XRGR.N;:KOQR0a?AB(YIY(. * 2

G .1, D ,1; ;>=(0 XOGR.1;>KOQR0FGRU ;A=(0&I'I YI,/U KOU ,/U+;A08QRPAKM;>0@E XOGR.1;>KOQR0 7@.ZK D Y ,/? BI?A08E 2
$=(0
XRGO.1;:KMQR0$78./K D Y 78KOU ) 0-?A0@08UW,/U c,/QOB(PA0-i 2 R2c ; ,1? D KME(0$B(Y GOJfK D Y(.1,1]50@Pb  KOU(E ;A=(0 # 
E(0dX,1780 #  2
$=(0 Y GR?A,N;>,1XO0F,/U(YIBI; GOJ;A=(0&K D Y(./,N]508Pa,/? 78GOU(U(087d;>0@E ;>G ;>=I0&EI,/QR,N;:KO.XRGR.N;:KOQR0
?ABIY(Y(. *  KOU(E ;>=(0WU(08QRKM;>,NXR0 ,/U(Y(B; ,1? ;A,/08E ;>G&;>=(0 I'I<Y(,1Uf2
$=(0WJ\0@08E ) KM7:9 E(0dX ,/780 #

) .10808EI?6K 6K * ;A=(00 ;780@?A?^7@B(PAPC08U+; ;A=5KM;78GOB(./E 7eKOBI?A0-;>=(0-XRGR.N;:KOQO0GOUW?C08U(?C0 \
 
b;>G 0 ;780@08E
;>=I0E(,/QO,1;:KM. XOGR.1;>KOQR0?CB(Y(Y(. * 2
$=(0XOGR.1;>KOQR07@.ZK D Y KM./?AG 08U5K ) ./08?^;A=(0G XR0@P 78B(PCPA08U+;E(0d;>087d;>,1GRU
;>G ) 008U5K ) ./08E -,1;A=(GRBI;-7@G D Y(./0d;>,/UIQ ;>=(0J\0@08E ) KM7:9 ;A=(PAGOB(QR=F;>=(0aI'IY(,/U 2
c,1QRB(PA0 i2  ?A=(G -?F;>=(0 GOY[0@P>KM;A,/GRUGMJ ;A=(0 78BIPAPA0@U+; !.1, D ,1;$G XO08P !78BIPAPA0@U+; EI0@;>0@7@;AGRP
KOU(E i ?C08U(?C0378./K D Y E(BIPA,/UIQ K ?C=(GRPC;;>GWQRPAGOB(U(E 7@GRU(E(,N;>,/GOUf2$!U ;>=I0 ?A, D B(./KM;>,1GRU    6KO?
78GOU(U(087d;>0@E ;>G K  PC08?A,1?C;AGRP  -=(,/7:= ,1?a7@GRU(U(0@7@;A08E ;>G QRPAGOB(U(Ef2  =(0@U ;>=(0 08U(K ) ./0W?A,1QRU5KO.
,/?E(PC,1XO08U =(,/QR= ;A=(0WGOBI;>Y(B;a7@B(PAPC08U+; ;>PA,108?;>G&?AGOB(PA7@0 R2 h  GOJ67@B(PAPC08U+;  ) BI;;>=I0W7@B(PAPC08U+;
./, D ,N;>,1U(Q ) .1G7:9 ?A0@;H;A=(0 GOBI;>Y(B;W7@B(PAPC08U+; .10@XO08.^;> G \+g2 `i D 2'460@7eKOB(?C 0 0 =(K XO0 0@U+;>08PC08E
KOU G XR0@P !7@B(PAPC08U+;a78GRU(EI,1;>,1GRU ;>=I0 GOBI;>Y(B;a?C=`BI;>? E(G -U K J ;>08PK ;A, D 03E(08./K * GOJ \  h f?@2
$=(0
?A0@U(?A0-7@.ZK D Y3KO.1?AG.1, D ,1;A? ;A=(06XOGR.1;>KOQR0^GRU3;A=(0-0@U(?A0$YI,/U3;>Gi2 hOh MEIB(PA,1U(Q;>=(06=(,/QR= !78BIPAPA0@U+;
78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU 2

6.0
4.0
(V)

2.0
0.0
6.0
4.0 Vsense2 =5.006V
(V)

2.0
0.0
Vsense2
Enable2
4.0m Isense2
Iout2
2.0m A B
(A)

Tdel = 810.251us
0.0
-2.0m
100m
(A)

50.0m IOUT2 = 82.45mA

0.00
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
Time (ms)

c,1QRB(PC0 i2  " B(PA0@U+; !.1, D ,1;^KOU(E G XR08P !7@B(PAPC08U+;E(0d;>0@7@;>,1GRU ?A, D B(.ZK ;>,/GOUf2


 H #! 4  AC!: -/* SC4ON8 9$:!
" KOP ) KM;C;>08PC,/0@?&78KOU ) 0 0 ; Y GR?A0@E;>G OK U0@./0@7@;>PC,/78KO.78GRUIE(,1;A,/GRU 7eKM././0@E ./G+KOE E(B D Yf2
G+KOEWE(B D Y G 7878BIPA? -=(0@U ;>=I0,/QOU(,1;A,/GRUH,/??C;>KOPC;A08EFKMU(E ,1U(E(B(7d;>,1XO09`,/7:9 ) KM7:9W78KOB(?A0@?6;>=I07eKMP
) KM;C;>0@P * ;AG CB D Y B(Y ;>G K Y GO;>0@U+;>,ZKM. GOJ +h 32c
G Y(PCGO;>0@7@; J\GRP ;A=(,/? 78GRU(EI,1;>,1GRU K ) ./G 7:9 ,1?
E(0@?A,/QOU(08E ;>=(KM;E(0@;A087d;>? -=(08U ;>=I0 7eKOP ) K ;A;>0@P * 0 ;780@08E(? +hM KOUIE ?C=`BI;>?
G  Y[G 08P;>GF;>=I0
KM./. 0[087d;$?A0@U(?AGRP@2
`g
$
=(0-G XR0@P XOGR.1;>KOQR0 ) .1G7:9 B(?C08? KPA08?C,/?;>GRP ?;>PA,1U(Q;>G.10@XR0@.(?A=I,1J ;b;A=(0-?AB(Y(YI. * XOGR.1;>KOQR06;AG
;>=I06,/UIY(BI;bGMJ Ki  78G D Y5KOPAKM;>GOP82
$=(0^GO;A=(08P ,/U(Y(B;cGOJ5;A=(067@G D Y5KOP>K ;>GRP ,/?;>,108Ea;AGKPC0@J\0@PA08UI780
XRGO.1;:KMQR0 QR0@U(08PAKM;>0@E )`* ;>=(0 PC0@J\0@PA08UI780 ) .1G7:9 2
$=(,/? ) ./G 7:9 -,1./.-E(0d;>087d;F;>=(0 G XO08P XRGR.N;:KOQO0
78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRU&KOUIE QR0@U(08PAKM;>0aK 7@GRU+;>PCGR. ?A,/QOU5KO. ;A=5KM;78./GO?A08?$;A=(0a=I,/QR=&?A,1E(0? -,1;A7:= 78GOU(?A,1?C;>,1U(QHGOJ
E(0dX,1780@? # KOU(E #  2c
$=I,/?c?C=(,/0@./E(?;>=(06KO.1. 0 [087@;?C08U(?CGRPcJ\PAG D ;>=(0^G XO08P XRGR.N;:KOQO0 7@GRU(E(,N;>,/GOU
KOU(EaKO.1?AGKO./.1G -?f;>=(0',/U+;A08PCJLKM780 ;>G-08U(K ) ./0',N;>?A0@.1J,/U+;>GK ) ,/KO? ?C;:K ;>0 ;>=5K ; -,/./.OY(PAGO;A087d;cKM./.R7@,/PA7@B(,1;
U(G E(08?$J\PCG D ;>=I0 0 ; ;>PA0 D 0 ) K ;A;>0@P * XOGR.1;>KOQR0M2


  / 

  

6 H(3*JU"W  :  O
$
=(0 78PC,1;>,17eKO..ZK * GOBI;&78GRU(?C,/E(0@P>KM;A,/GRU J\GRP ;A=(0 KO.1. [087d;F?A0@U(?AGRP&,/U+;A08PCJLKM780 ,/?F;>=I0
.ZK * GRBI;HGOJ;>=(0F=I,/QR= ?A,1E(0F? -,N;>7:= ,/U PA0@.ZKM;A,/GRU ;>G ;>=(0
;A= ?C08U(?C0 KOUIE 7@B(PAPC08U+; Y(PAGM;>087d;>,1GRU
D ,/PAPCGRPA?@2cBI0;AG ;A=(0$;>,/QO=`; i  D KM;>7:=I,/U(Q ?AY 087,1;',1?7@PA,N;>,/78KO.I;A=5KM;E(0@X ,17808? # KOU(E #  ) 0
KOPCP>KOU(QO08E ,1U ;>=(0 ?>K D 0 GRPC,/0@U`;>KM;>,1GRU KO?  #   #  KOU(E #   # 2 ? D 08U+;>,1GRU(08E ,/U " =(KOYI;>0@P
g  =(,/QO= XRGO.1;:KMQR0aEI0@X ,/7@08?KOPC0aUIGO;?C08.1J !KO./,1QRU(0@E&EIB(0a;AG ;>=(0 KOE(E(0@E PA0@?A,1?C;:KMU(7803GMJb;>=(0aE(P>KM,/Uf2

$=(,1?7eKOB(?C08?;>=I08?A0HE(0dX ,/780@?;>G ) 03XR08P * E(08Y 08UIE(08U+; GRU GRPA,108U+;:K ;>,/GOUf2 ;,/?7@PA,1;A,/78KO.;A=5KM;,1U
GRPCE(08P ;AG KO7:=(,10@XO0 ;>=(0 ) 08?; Y GR?A?C, ) .10 D KM;>7:=(,1U(Q c;A=(08?C0 E(0dX,1780@? D B(?C; ) 0 GOPA,/0@U+;>08E ,1U ;>=I0
?>K D 0E(,1PA0@7@;>,1GRU&KO? 60@./. KM??C=5KOPC0;A=(0?>K D 0 ) GOB(U(E5KOP * 78GOU(E(,1;A,/GRUI?82
U KOEIE(,1;A,/GRU5KM.I.ZK * GRBI; 7@GRU(?A,1E(08PAKM;>,1GRUH,/?c;A=(0KOE(E(,N;>,1GRU3GOJ[Y5KOPAKO?A,N;>,/7 D 0d;:KO.PA08?C,/?;:KOU(7@0
,/Ua;>=(0 =(,/QR= !?A,1E(0? -,1;A7:=HKO? 08.1.IKO? ;>=(0^7@B(PAPC08U+; ?C08U(?C0 D ,1PAPAGOP82 c,/QOB(PA0 I2 ^?A=(G -?'KEI,ZKOQRPAK D
GOJ ;>=I0BI; R0@U(?A0-78BIPAPA0@U+; .108Q -,N;>=3;>=I0KME(E(,1;A,/GRU GOJ PA08?C,/?;:KOU(7@0 ;AG;>=(0-GRBI;AY(BI;'7@B(PAPC08U+;
./0@Q KMU(E   ;>G;>=(078B(PCPA0@U`;6?A0@U(?A0 D ,1PAPAGOP82 460878KOB(?A0;>=(0% # H;AP>KOU(?C,/?;>GRPC?,1U ;A=(,/?'7@,/PA7@B(,1;
KOPC0GOY[0@P>KM;A,/U(Q,/U ;A=(0$;>PA,1GEI0$PA08QO,/GRU ;>=I0 * 7eKMU ) 0$;>PA08KM;>0@E KO?'PC08?A,1?C;AGRPA?'?A=IG -U KO?    
    KOU(E   e2W
G E(0@;A08P D ,1U(0H=(G   KOU(E   3 K [087d;a;A=(0 Y[0@PCJ\GRP D KOUI780HGOJ6;A=(0 ?A08UI?A0
78BIPAPA0@U+;KO7@78B(PAKO7 * K ?C0@;GOJ 08_`B5KM;A,/GRU(?-78KOU ) 0B(?A0@E&;AGWEI0@;>0@P D ,/U(0K     PA08./KM;>,1GRU(?C=(,/Yf2
   
?C?AB D ,/UIQW;>=(KM;GOY5K D Y $E(G0@?U(GM;KOE(E KOU * KME(E(,1;A,/GRU(KO.f
G [?A0d;;>GW  

 
KMU(E
;>=(KM;E(0@X ,17808? # KOUIE #  D KM;>7:= KM? 60@./. KO? #  KOUIE # f;>=(0@U ;>=(0 J\GR.1./G -,/U(QW08_`B5KM;A,/GRUI?
KOPC0 9`U(G
   
   h

  I2  

    e h   I2 g

`i
VDD

M1 M3
Rm1 Rm3

Rm2 Rm4
M2 M4

Rp1 Rp2

A1

OUT SENSE

 
ect Sensor Rsense

c,/QOB(PA0 I2  'KO./.!0[087d;$?A0@U(?AGOP,1U`;A08PJLKO780 -,N;>=&Y5KOP>KM?A,1;A,/7 D 0@;>KO.fPC08?A,1?C;>KOU(780M2

  
    I2


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K ) G XR0 0@_`B5KO. ;>G @08PCG KWPC08./KM;>,1GRU(?A=I,/Y ) 0d; 60@08U  KOU(E  ,/?E(0@PA,1XO08E ?C=(G -,/U(QW;>=5KM;  
U(0@08E(?-;>G ) 0 0@_`B5KO. ;>G  hR J\GRP^;A=(08PC0 ;AG ) 0 80@PAG D ,1? D KM;>7:=f2
4^KO?C08E GRU;>=(0 E(0@PA,NXOK ;>,/GOUK ) G XO0 ,N; ,/? 7@PA,1;A,/78KO.M;A=5KM; ;>=I0EI08?A,1QRU D K ;>7:=(0@? ;A=(0'Y5KOPAKO?A,N;>,/7
PA0@?A,1?C;:KMU(780 ;>G ;>=(0 J\GR.1./G -,/U(Q 08_`B5KM;A,/GRU   ehR  2 # 0@;:KM. PC08?C,/?C;>KOU(7@0 ,1? ; * YI,/7eKM./. * K
Y5KOPAK D ;A08P;>=5K ; ,1? UIGO; D KOYIY[0@E ,/U D GR?C; Y(PCG7@08?A?C08?@2F
$=(0 PC08?A,1?C;>KOU(780 XMKO./B(0@?J\GRP D 0d;:KO. ,1?
?AG D 0 -=5KM;bBIU(Y(PA0@E(,/7d;:K ) ./0 KOU(Ea;A=(0 * =5KeXR06KXO08P * Y GGRP ;>0 D Y 78GGOJ RhRhRhYIY D 2 B(0;>G;A=(08?C0
./, D ,N;:KM;A,/GRUI?c;>=(0,/E(08KO. .ZK * GRB; GRB(./E D ,1U(, D , @06;>=(0 K  0@7@;6GOJ  KO? D BI7:=FKO?6Y GR?C?A, ) ./0KMU(E
;>P * ;>G D KM;>7:=   a;AG ) 0  hF;>, D 08?;A=(0 XMKO./B(0 GMJ^ d2H
$=(,/?78KOU ) 0HE(GRU(0H;>=IPAGRB(QO= =5KMU(E
7eKM./78BI.ZKM;A,/GRU(?aGOJ-;>=(0 D 0@;>KO. ) BI?A,/UIQ GOP K D GRPC0 Y(PC0878,1?A0 D 0@;A=(GE GRB(.1E ) 0 ;AG EI08PA,NXR0F;>=I0
XMKO./BI08? -,1;A= K Y5KMP>KO?C,1;>70 ; ;>P>KM7@;>,1GRUF;>G GR.f?CB(7:= KO?- ?A?ABIP>K  " 32

$=(0&.ZK * GOBI;HGOJ;A=(0 BI; R 08U(?C0 46.1G7:9 ,/? ?A=IG -U ,/U c,/QOB(PA0 2 g2 B(0F;AG ;A=(0 GRU
PA0@?A,1?C;:KMU(780 XOKM./B(0 GOJ$GRBIPa=(,1QR= ?A,/EI0 ? -,1;A7:= 78GRBIY(./0@E -,1;A= ;>=I0 KOEIE(08E ) ./G 7:9 ,1U(Q ;>P>KMU(?A,1?C;>GOP
J\GRP?A=IGRPC; ;>G ) KM;C;>08P * Y(PAGM;>087d;>,1GRU EI0@X ,/7@08? # KOU(E #  J\PAG D c,1QRB(PC0 I2 H;:KM9O0 B(M Y =Oh  GOJ
;>=I0 ./K * GRBI;82
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XRGO.1;:KMQR0 ;>P>KMU(?A,1?C;>GOPA?0@XO08P * gOhO
h D ;AG =I08./Y QRPCGRB(U(E ;>=(0 ?AB ) ?C;AP>KM;A0W;>=IPAGRB(QO=(GRBI;;>=I0 =I,/QR=
?A,1E(06? -,1;A7:=f2 0@X ,1780 # ^KO?cY(.ZKO7@08E3,1U ;>=I06?>K D 0 GRPA,108U+;:KM;A,/GRU KO? #  KOU(E3E(0dX ,/780 #  ,/?cKO./?CG
GRPC,/08U+;A08EaKO? #  2 U ,/E(08KO.R.ZK * GRBI; GRB(./E=5KeXO0 ,1U`;A08PC./0eKeXO08E E(0@X ,/7@08? J\GRP , D Y(PCG XO08E D KM;>7:=(,1U(Q 
) BI;E(B(0 ;AG ;>=(0aJLKO7@;;A=5KM; D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ E(0@X ,17808?KMPA0 ,1U ?A0@Y5KOPAKM;>0 08.1./?;A=(,/?7eKOUIU(GO; ) 0 E(GOU(0
78GOPAPA0@7@;A. * -,N;>=(GRB; BI?A,/UIQ ?C,/QRUI,1]578KOU+; K D GRBIU`;A? GOJ3KMPA0eK2 5GRP ;A=(0 ) B(?A,1U(Q ,/U+;>0@PA78GOU(U(087d;
) 0@; 0808U E(0@X ,/7@08? # KMU(E #  D 0@;:KM. g KOU(E D 0@;:KM.
08PA0WB(?A0@E ,1U Y(KOP>KO.1./0@.c;>G PA0@E(B(7@0W;>=I0
Y5KOPAKO?A,N;>,17PA0@?A,/?;:KOUI780 GOJb  2
V?C,/U(QF;A=(0WY(KOP>KO?C,1;A,/73./K * GRBI;;>G GR.b ?A?CB(P>K& " KOU 0 ; ;AP>KO7d;>08E .ZK * GOBI;U(0@;A./,1?C; 6KO?
QR0@U(08PAKM;>0@E ;AG 78KO./7@B(.ZK ;>0W;A=(0 78B(PCPA0@U`; ?C08U(?C0 D ,/? D KM;A7:= E(B(0 ;AG ;A=(0&KOE(E(,N;>,1GRU GOJ  KMU(E
  e2 c,1QRB(PC0 I2
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78BIPAPA0@U+;    G XO08Pb;A=(067@B(PAPC08U+; P>KMU(QR06GMJ[g;>G
+i D 2
$=(0 e?; 0 ; ;AP>KO7d;>,/GOU3PA0@?AB(.N;>08E ,/U3K?A08UI?A0
D ,/? D KM;A7:= GOJ = TKOUIE B(Y GRUFK 7@G D YI./0@;A08E GOYI;>, D , eKM;A,/GRU GOJ ;A=(0./K * GRBI; ;>=(0gMU(E 0 ;;AP>KO7d;>,1GRU
=
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PA0@E(B(7@08E ;A=(0 D ,1? D KM;>7:= ) 08.1GhI2 i 2'


$=(0a?C9O0 ^KM?U(GM;7@G D (Y ./0d;>08. * 0@./, D 1, U5KM;>0@E  ) BI;-,1;A?
0[087d; 6KO? D ,1U(, D , @08E )+* PA0@E(B(7@,/U(QH;>=(0 PA0@?A,1?C;>GOP $KO? D B(7:= MK ?Y GR?A?C, ) .10 OK U(E D KMA; 7:=(,/UIQ
  ;AG ) 0  h3;>, D 0@?^;>=(0XMKO.1B(0GOJc :2

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D KOE(0;>=5K ;;A=(0a,1U(Y(BI;G
[?A0d;XOGR.1;>KOQR0J\PAG D K D Y(.1,1]50@P^ ^KO?hM325
$=I,/?,/E(08KO.KO?A?CB D Y;>,/GOU
,/? U(GO;aXMKO./,1E  -=I,/7:= D KO9O0@? ;>=I0 .ZK * GRBI;3GMJ^;>=(0 78B(PCPA08U+; ?C08U(?C0FK D Y(./,N]508P7@PAB(7@,ZKO.';>G ?A08UI?A0
78BIPAPA0@U+; D K ;>7:=(,1U(Q3Y 08PCJ\GOP D KOU(780M2'U(0GOJ ;>=(0 D GRPC0, D Y GRPC;>KOU+;6KMPA0eKM? J\GRP D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ GOJ GRBIP
GRY5K D Y ,1? ;>=(0 ) BI./9 !E(PC,1XO08U E(, [08PC08U+;>,/KO.6,1U(Y(BI;3?C;:KMQR0O2 5GRPa;>=(,1? PA0eKM?AGRU  ;A=(0 E(0@X ,/7@08? KOPC0
Y(./KO780@E ,/U K 78G D D GOU 7@08U+;>PCGR,/E KOPAPAKOU(QR0 D 0@U+;;AGa=I08./YW, D Y(PAG XO0 D KM;A7:=(,/U(QI2c!UW;A=(078G D D GOU
780@U+;>PAGO,/E ?C;>PCB(7@;AB(PA0F;A=(0F; 6G E(0@X ,/7@08? KOPC0&YI.ZKO7@08E ,/U E(, [08PC08U+;H_`B5KOE(PAKOU+;>?82
$=(,1? =I08./YI?
D ,/U(, D , 80-;>=(00 [087d;>?GOJ Y(PAG 780@?A?QRP>KOEI,/08U+;A?82

\
7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

Percent Mismatch (%)


3.0

2.0 No Extract
1st R Extract
2nd R Extract
1.0

0.0

-1.0

-2.0

-3.0

-4.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0
Sense Current (mA)

c,/QRBIPA0 I2
0@U(?A0 ?A9M0 <E(BI0 ;AGW ^KOU(E&  2

c,1QRB(PA0 I2 C? =(G -? ;>=(0 .ZK * GRB; GOJ$;A=(0 ) B(./9!EIPA,1XO08U 7@B(PAPC08U+;3?C08U(?C0 K D Y(./,N]508P@2F
$=(0
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PA,1U(QF,/?BI?A08E ;>G =(0@./Y ,/?CGR.ZK ;>0 ;A=(0H,/U(Y(B;E(0@X ,/7@08?@2W%  ?AB ) ?;>PAKM;>0 ;>,108? KOPC0HKO./?CG KOY(Y(.1,/08E ;AG
;>=I0 D ,/E(EI./0 GOJ ;>=(0WE(0@X ,/7@0 ;AG =I08./Y Y(PA0dXR0@U`;3.ZKM;A7:=!B(Y 0[087d;>?@2F ./. D KM;A7:=(,/U(Q&E(0dX,1780@?3KOPC0
GRPC,/08U+;A08E ,/U ;A=(0?>K D 0E(,1PA087d;>,1GRU KOU(E&KOPC0U(0 ; ;-;>GH0eKM7:=&GM;>=(0@P82 " ]5.1;A08PA? 08PC0 KOY(Y(.1,/08E ;AG
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$=(0.ZK * GRBI;-GOJ =(,/QO= XOGR.1;>KOQR0EI0@X ,/7@08?PA08_`B(,1PA0@?-;A=(0B(?A0GOJ ,/?CGR.ZK ;>,/GOU D 0@;>=IGE(GO./GRQR,108?
-=(,17:= YIPA0@XO08U+; Y5KOP>KM?A,1;A,/7 ](08./E;AP>KOUI?A,/?;>GRPC? J\PAG D ;>B(PCU(,/UIQ GRU K  0@7@;A,/U(Q Y 08PJ\GRP D KOU(7@0 GOJ
;>=I08?A0WE(0@X ,17808?@2
$=(0@?A0 EI0@X ,/7@08? D KM;A08PA,/KO./, 80aE(B(0W;AG&;A=(0 ,/U(7@PA0eKM?A08E 08.1087@;APA,17H](08./EI? YIPA08?C08U+;
-,1;A= ;>=I03=(,/QO=(08PXRGR.N;:KOQR0@?82
$=(0@?A0 ,1?AGR./KM;>,1GRU D 0@;A=(G E(GR./GOQR,/0@?-; * Y(,17eKO.1. * 0 D Y(.1G * ;A=(03B(?C03GOJ
%  ?AB ) ?C;AP>KM;A0 ;A,/08?$?CB(PAPCGRB(U(EI,/U(QH0eKM7:= E(0dX,1780M2

$=(0;>GO;>KO. KOPC0eK GOJ;>=(0 " B(PCPA0@U`;0@U(?A0 D Y(./,N]508P6,/? i
=  iOhRh D 

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P  8 98*4
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;>=I0 GOBI;>Y(B; ,1? ?A=IG-U ,/U c,1QRB(PC0 I2 i2
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,/UIY(BI; ?;:KOQR0  -=(,/7:= =5KM? ) 0@08U Y(./KO780@E ,/U K 7@G DWD GRU 7@08U+;>PCGR,/E ?;>PCB(7@;AB(PA0M2
$=(0F.1G+KOE J\GOP
;>=I0 E(, [08PC08U+;>,/KO.,/U(Y(B; ?C;>KOQR0 ,1?W; G ?A08Q D 0@U`;A08E PA0@?A,1?C;>GOPA? -=(,17:= KOPA0 ,/U K PAKM;>,1G D 0d;>PC,/7
E(0@?A,/QOUf2
G =I08./Y , D Y(PCG XR0 ;>=I0 D KM;A7:=(,/U(Q  PA08?C,/?;>GRPC?W KOU(E  H?C=(G -U ,/U ,/QRB(PC0 i2
08PA0,1U`;A08PC./0eKeXO08E&?AG ;>G D ,/U(, D , 80-;>=(00  0@7@;>?GOJ?AY(KM;>,/KO.fQRPAKOE(,/0@U+;>?82
$=I0aKeXO08P>KMQR,/U(QHGOJ;>=I0

Y
c,1QRB(PC0 I2  # KO?A9FEI08?A,1QRU GOJ;>=(078BIPAPA0@U+;?C08U(?C03K D Y(./,N]508P@2

PA0@?A,1?C;>GOPA? -,/.1. PA0@E(B(7@0 KOU * 0  0@7@;A?E(BI0 ;AG YIPAG 7808?C?GOP$./,1;A=(GRQRPAKOY(= * 08PAPCGRPA?@2



$=(0;>GO;>KO. KOPC0eK GOJ;>=(0a=IGRPC;-;>G 4^K ;A;>0@P * 0d;>0@7@;>GOP$,/? = V\RhRh D  2

H #! 4 'DG34O4KP   9 !4(-N D 344! % $ $:8$&


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PA0dJ\08PC08U(7@0 XRGR.N;:KOQR0 KOU(E ;>=(KM;3;>=I0 * KO./?CG D GOU(,1;AGRPaEI,[08PA0@U+;3XRGR.N;:KOQO0 ;:KOYI?3G
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PA0@?A,1?C;>GOP678G D3) ,/U(KM;>,1GRUHGOJ KOU(EF  -,N;>= ;A=(07@B(PAPC08U+;$Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>,1GRU D ,/PCPAGRP@2
$=I0.ZK * GOBI; J\GOP
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,/?-?C=(G -U ,/U c,1QRB(PA0 2 =26460878KOB(?C0a;>=I03XR0@P " B(PAPC08U+;0d;>087d;>GRP ) .1G7:9 B(?A0@?KH78G D Y5KOPAKM;>GRP
KOU(E ;>=I0 " BIPAPA0@U+;3 , D ,1;A,/U(Q ) ./G 7:9 B(?C08?aKOU K D YI./,1](08P;A=(0H.ZK * GOBI; Y(P>KO7d;>,17808?E(,1?A7@B(?A?C08E J\GOP
;>=I0 " B(PAPC08U+;08UI?A0 D Y(./,N]508P ,/UF?C087@;A,/GRU 2 g 78KOU ) 0BI?A08E 2 !U&KOE(EI,1;>,1GRU `PA0@?A,1?C;>GOPA?- ^KMU(E
  B(?A0@E ;AGQR08UI08P>K ;>0$78G D Y5KMPA06XOGR.1;>KOQR08? J\GRP ;A=(08?C0 ) ./G 7:9 ?cB(?A0^;A=(0$PA0@?A,/?;>GRPc.ZK * GRB; Y(P>KM7@;>,1780@?
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I2

$=(0;>GO;>KO. KOPC0eK GOJ;>=(0aXR0@P " B(PAPC08U+;0d;>0@7@;>GOP,1? Y
 +hRh D  2

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c,/QOB(PA0 2 i  K * GRB;GMJ ;A=(0?A=(GRP;-;>G ) KM;C;>08P * E(0d;>087d;>GRP@2


  A J "'D :-N 

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) B(?7@GRU(U(0@7@;>,1U(QF;>GFE(0dX ,/780 #
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;>=(KM;^=5KM?^K E(B; * 7 * 7@./0GMJ iOh  2 V?C,/U(Qa;>=(0    D 0@;>KO. D ,/QOP>KM;A,/GRUHPABI./0-J\GRP ;A=(,/? Y(PAG 780@?A? 0
7eKMU 78G D 0-;>Ga;A=(078GRU(7@./B(?C,/GRU ;>=5K ; ;A=(0 D 0@;>KO. 78GRU(UI087@;A,/U(Q ;>=(0GRBI;AY(BI; GOJ GRB(P60@U(?A0 " ./K D Y
;>G ;>=I0 0@U(?A0 Y(,/U D B(?; ) 0WKM; .10eKO?; i -,1E(0H;>G&Y(PA0dXR08U+; D 0d;:KO. D ,/QRPAKM;>,1GRU 0 [087d;>?@2F
$=(0
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+  %  #! % -
!3

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c,1QRB(PA0 I2 YI2
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,/?c./G 7eKM;A08E3GRU ;A=(06JLKOPb.10@J ; -=I,/./0^BI; R 08U(?C0 gG7@78B(YI,/08?b;A=(0$780@U+;>08P'GOJ ;A=(0^7:=(,1Yf2b
$=(0$E(,1QR,1;>KO.
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G

i 
c,1QRB(PA0 2 XO08P 78B(PCPA0@U`;E(0d;>087d;>GRP.ZK * GRBI;e2

OK E(EI,1;>,1GRU5KO. 780@././?9`U(G -U KO?;A=(0 I GOP \./G !?C,/E(0HPC0@;>BIPAU(? G 787@B(Y * ;A=(0 JLKOPPA,1QR=+;aGMJ6;>=I0
E(0@?A,/QOUf2
$=(0@?A0 ) .1G7:9`? =5KeXR0WU(GO; ) 0@08U EI,/?A7@B(?A?C08E ,1U ;A=(,/?;>=(0@?A,1?82
$=(0WB(Y(Y 08P ) B(? GOJ^;>=I0
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I2 i   -=(,1./0 ;>=(0 ) GO;A;AG D ,/?;>=I0WPC08QRB(./KM;>0@E
./G XRGR.N;:KOQO0?AB(Y(YI. *  (2 i ;AG i2 i  d2

$=(0;>GO;>KO. KOPC0eK GOJ;>=(0
08?; " =(,1Y ,/?   =Ri  hRhRh D  2

iRg
c,1QRB(PC0 I2 = " B(PAPC08U+;./, D ,1;A08P.ZK * GOBI;e2

\
,/QRB(PC0 I2 i  ?A0@U(?A0 78./K D YF.ZK * GRB;e2

i

Y
,/QRB(PC0 I2  5B(./.!7:=(,1Y D KM?A9 E(0@?A,1QRU GOJ ;A08?;7:=I,/Yf2

i
  / 

 Q  

 6 +"' J  83 


$=(0HKO./.  0@7@;08U(?CGRP!U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0 ^KO?XO08PC,1]50@E BI?A,/UIQ # 0 D ,178GRU(EIB(7@;AGRP ?hI2
D +hM "$#  Y(PAG 780@?A?@2 ./.KOU(KO./GRQWE(08?C,/QRU ?AY 0878,N]57eK ;>,/GOU(? 08PC0 D 08KO?ABIPA08E ,1U KW?C, D Y(./0
) 08U(7:=H;>0@?C;?A0d;>B(YWKO? 60@./.5KM?,1UHKOUH
- L BI;>G D KM;A,/7^
08?; 'U+X ,/PCGRU D 08U+;  2'gOhRhY(KOPC;A? 08PC0
;>0@?C;A08E3G XR0@Pc;>=I0608U+;A,/PA0?ABIY(Y(. * &=-;>G
g I2 i   KOUIE ;>0 D Y 08PAKM;>B(PC0  +h$;>G 
Rh "  PAKOU(QR0M2bKM;>K
B(?C08E ;>GW0 ; ;>PAKOY GR.ZKM;A0 ;A=(0 ,1U(Y(BI;
G [?A0d;XRGO.1;:KMQR0aGMJb;>=(0a78B(PCPA0@U`;?A08UI?A0 K D Y(.1,1]50@P ^KO?;:KO9M08U
KM; +h " -=(,/7:= ,/?';>=(0 6GRPC?C;67eKO?C0 D KM;>7:=(,1U(Q 7@GRU(E(,N;>,1GRUWEIB(0;AGa;>=I0./G 08P GRU PC08?A,1?C;>KOU(780GOJ
;>=I0 =I,/QR= ?A,1E(0? -,N;>7:=f2

 > DG344 JU"W


  &$4
B(0 ;AG ;>=(0 ,1U`;A08QRPAKM;>,1GRUGOJ;A=(0 " B(PAPC08U+; 08UI?A0 D Y(./,N]508PW,/U+;>G ;A=(0 BI; O08U(?C0
46.1G7:9&K ;A08?;;>=(KM;E(,1PA0@7@;>. * D 08KO?ABIPA08?;>=(0a,/U(Y(B;G
[?A0d;XRGO.1;:KMQR0a78KOU(U(GM; ) 0 PA08KO./,80@Ef2-
$=(0
KM./. !U+;>08PJLKO780 EIG0@?QR0@U(08PAKM;>0 KW?A08UI?A0 78BIPAPA0@U+;  -=(,17:= 7eKOU ) 0 7@G D Y5KOPA0@E E(,1PA087d;>. * ;AG ;>=I0
=5KO.1. ?C08U(?CGRP ) ,ZKM? 78BIPAPA0@U+;e2
$=I0F78B(PCPA08U+; ?A0@U(?A0 D ,/? D KM;A7:= E5KM;>K ./,1?C;A08E ,/U
cK ) ./0R=2  6KO?
;:KM9O08U&J\PAG D gOhRh Y5KOP;>?-G XR0@P-;A=(0?AY 087@,1]50@E GRBI;AY(BI;-7@B(PAPC08U+;  KOU(E&?ABIY(Y(. * P>KOU(QO0O2
-0@X ,/0 -,/U(Q ;>=(0a78B(PCPA08U+;?A08UI?A0 D ,/? D KM;A7:= 0@_`B5KM;>,1GRU(?QR08U(0@P>KM;A08E ,1U " =5KMYI;>0@ P KMU(E
B(?C,/U(Q 0@_ B(KM;>,1GRU (2  KO? 08.1.^KO? ;A=(0 U(GOP D KO./, 808E ?A,1Q D K&XOKM./B(0@?aJ\GRP # 
=2 \ D   D 
KOU(E #   i R2
D   D b,/U c,/QRBIPA0 (2 ;A=(0  ,1U(Y(BI;
G [?A0d; XOGR.1;>KOQR0-GOJ ;A=(078B(PCPA08U+;6?A08UI?A0
K D Y(./,N]508P78KOU ) 0 0 ; ;>PAKOY[GO.ZKM;A08E J\PCG D ;>=(0 7@B(PAPC08U+; D ,/? D KM;A7:= E5KM;>KI2
K ) .1 0 =2 g ./,1?C;A?a;>=I0
7eKM./78BI.ZKM;A08E  ,1U(Y(BI;
G [?A0d;XOGR.1;>KOQR07eKM./78BI.ZKM;A,/GRUFJ\GRP$;>=I0a?AK D 07@B(PAPC08U+;  ;>0 D Y 08PAKM;>B(PC0 KMU(E
XRGO.1;:KMQR078GRPCU(08PC?.1,/?;>08EF,1U
cK ) ./C 0 =2 R2

iRi

cK ) ./0C=2  " B(PCPA0@U`;?A0@U(?A0 D ,/? D KM;A7:=&E(KM;:KI2
   D    \   D   f 

+i =
I2 i
\2 h+g
= = R2 =  I2 \VY
\ = hI2 \Rh I2 h+g
i = hI2 iOh
2 Y

g = hI2 gOh
2 Y


+i
g I2 i
I2 iRg \2 h+g
=
g I2 i R2 =  I2 Y+i
\
g I2 i hI2 \Rh I2
h
i
g I2 i hI2 iOh
2 Y =
g
g I2 i hI2 gOh
2 Y

cK ) ./0 = 2 g '<; ;>P>KMY[GR./KM;>0@E  ,/U(Y(B;-G


 ?C0@;-XRGO.1;:KMQR0J\GRP^;>=I0 7@B(PAPC08U+;?A08UI?A0aK D YI./,1](08P82
   D   \   ?C0@;   

+i = 
+i2 =
= = 
`i2 Y
\ =  i2 Y
i =
V\
I2 \
g =
VY
I2 h

+i g I2 i 
+i2 =
= g I2 i V\ R2 Y
\ g I2 i `g R2 h
i g I2 i
VYV\I2 
g g I2 i + h
I2 =

i

$
=(0 KeXR0@P>KOQR0XMKO.1B(0J\GRP6;A=(0G
[?A0d;>?-./,1?C;>0@EF,/UF
K ) .10 =2 g 0 ;78./BIE(,/U(Q3;A=(0
+i D D 0eK
?ABIPA0 D 08U+;A?,/?i

(2 \   -=(,/7:= KOY(Y(PCG ;I, D K ;>08?^;A=(0 Y(PA0@E(,/7d;>08E ,/U(YIBI;G


 ?C0@;-XRGO.1;:KMQR0GOJ RhOh
 2
$=(0W?A9M0 ,/U ;A=(0 D 0eKOU GOJ^;A=(0 ?A0@U(?A0 78B(PCPA08U+; 7@G D Y5KOPA0@E ;>G&;>=(0WGRBI;AY(BI;37@B(PAPC08U+; ,1?
K E(,1PA087d;PC08?ABI.1;GOJ';A=(03Y5KOPAKO?A,N;>,17 D 0@;:KM. PC08?A,1?C;>KOU(780 D 08U+;A,/GRU(0@E ,/U ?A087d;>,1GRU =2 R2
$=(03XMKO./B(0
7eKM./78BI.ZKM;A08E3J\GRPc  ,1U3;>=(0$Y(PC0@X ,/GOB(? E(08?C,/QRUHKMY(Y(PAG ;, D KM;A08E gRiOh D 2c
$=I0 D KM;A7:=(,/UIQ0 [087@;A?
) 0@; 0808U  KOU(E    60@PA0 U(GO; ,/U(7@./B(EI08E ,/U ;>=I0 ?C08U(?C0 D ,/? D K ;>7:= KOU5KO. * ?A,/?  E(B(0 ;>G ;>=I0
D ,/U(, D , eKM;A,/GRU GOJ ,1;>?$0  0@7@;E(,1?A78BI?A?A0@E ,/UF?C087d;>,/GOU I2 R2

 Z JU@*48   - 4
  " 35"
$
=(PC080HB(U(,1_ BI0 ,1U+;>08QOP>KM;A08E ?A=(GOPC;;>G ) KM;C;>0@P * KMPA7:=(,N;>087d;>B(PC08? 60@PA0H, D Y(.10 D 08U+;>0@E GRU
K ;A08?;7:=(,1Y ;>GW0@XMKO.1B5KM;>0;A=(08,1PY 08PJ\GRP D KOU(7@0O2^
$=(0 ]5PA?;E(0@?A,1QRU ?C=(G -U ,/U c,/QRBIPA0 =2  B(?C08E
; G % # WE(0@X ,17808? ) KO7:9 ;>G ) KO7:9 -,1;A=W;A=(08,1P 08.1./? KOU(EW?AGRB(PC780@?6;>,108EH;>GRQR0d;>0@P82'0@X ,1780 # h
,/?-KH%
EI0@X ,/7@0 -,N;>=&K gRg2 hME(PAKO,/U ) B(.19 ) PC0eKO9`E(G -U KOU(E ;>=(0GO;A=(08P-K +h  % #   25
$=(0
?A0@78GRUIE 7@,/PC78B(,N; ?C=(G -U ,1U c,1QRB(PA0 =2 g Y(.ZKM7808E K PA0@?A,/?;>GRP ,/U ) 0@; 080@U ;A=(0 E(PAKO,/U KOU(E 08./.
GOJ ;>=(0W%
E(0@X ,1780O2
$=(0W;A=(,/PCE 7@,/PA7@B(,1;?C=(G -U ,/U c,1QRB(PA( 0 = 2
, D Y(./0 D 0@U+;>08E K ?A,/UIQR./0 +h 
% #  EI0@X ,/7@0 ;A=5KM;-=5KOE K ,/U(7@PA08KO?A0@E ?CGRB(PA7@0 ;AG ) B(./9 ) PA08KO9`E(G -U GOJbgOhM 2


cK ) /. 0 =2
=(GRP;$;>G ) KM;C;>08P * Y 08PCJ\GOP D KOU(780M2
PA7:=(,N;>087d;>B(PC0 
-4 <;IY 087d;>0@E 
-4
08?;>08E  B ) ?C;AP>KM;A0 " BIPAPA0@U+;
=2  gRg2 hM gRg2 hM  D
=2 g gRg2 hM gRg2 hM `i D
=2
gOhI2 hM gRg2 hM   D


K ) ./0 =2
a?A=IG-?$=IG 08KO7:=FGOJ ;A=(0?C=(GRPC; ;>G ) KM;A;A08P * KOPC7:=(,1;A087d;>B(PC08?$Y 08PCJ\GOP D 08Ef2b ./.
;>=IPA080&78,1PA7@B(,1;A? 08PC0 K ) ./0F;>G -,1;>=I?C;:KMU(E K ?A=(GOPC; ;>G ) KM;A;A08P * 78GRU(EI,1;>,1GRU GOJQOPA0eK ;>08PH;>=(KOU
gRg2 hM 2
$=I0 ) ,1QRQR08?;E(,[08PC08U+;>,/KM;>GRP ) 0@; 080@U ;>=(0 ;>=(PC080aKOPA7:=(,N;>0@7@;>BIPA08? ^KO?;>=(0aK D GRB(U+;GOJ
?AB ) ?C;AP>KM;A0 78BIPAPA0@U+;;A=5KM; ^KM? D 0eKO?CB(PA0@Ef2 " B(PCPA0@U`;,/?-,/UC087@;A08E ,/U+;>G ;>=I0a?CB ) ?C;AP>KM;A0a;A=(PAGRBIQR=
;>=I0 Y5KMP>KO?C,1;>,17&%% ;>=5KM;W78GOPAPA0@?AY GRU(E(? ;>G ;>=(0&E(P>KM,/U 60@./. ?AB ) ?C;>PAKM;>0 7@GRU(U(0@7@;>,1GRU(?WGOJ;>=I0
% #  E(0@X ,1780O2 ? ;A=(0 ',1?J\GRP ^KMPAE ) ,/KO?A0@E ;>=I,/?67@PA08KM;>0@?$K ) KM?A07@B(PAPC08U+;^;>=(KM;6,1?6Q+KM,/U(0@E
B(Y )+* ;>=(0 GOJf;A=(0%'% KOU(E Y5KO?A?C08?6;A=(PAGOB(QR= ;A=(07@GR./.1087@;AGRP'?AB ) ?C;>PAKM;>0;>Ga

C2 c,/QOB(PA0 =2 g
iV=
VDD
Blocking Diode
M1
D1

VLS

D2
M2

OUT

    
ect Sensor

c,1QRB(PC0 =2  '% #  ) KO7:9W;>G ) KO7:9 ?C=(GRPC;-;AG ) KM;A;A08P * KOPA7:=(,N;>0@7@;>BIPA0O2

VDD

R1
M1

D1
Current Limiting Resistor
VLS

D2
M2

OUT

     
ect Sensor

c,/QRBIPA0C=2 g gRg  % #  -,1;A=&PC08?C,/?C;AGRP-?A=(GOPC;-;>G ) KM;C;>0@P * KOPC7:=(,1;A087d;>B(PC0O2

,/UC087@;A08E ;A=(0 D GR?C;6?AB ) ?C;>PAKM;>078B(PCPA08U+;$EIB(0;>Ga;>=(0KOPA.1,/U(QO;AGRU 78GRU(UI087@;A,/GRU GOJ ;>=(0Y5KOPAKO?A,N;>,/7


%'% ? -=(,17:= PC08?CB(.1;A?,/U KFg  7@B(PAPC08U+;Q+KO,1Uf2 c,/QOB(PA0 =2  ^KO?;A=(0 ) 08?C;Y[0@PCJ\GRP D 0@PE(B(0 ;AG
;>=I0 ? D KM././0@P$K D GRB(U+;-GOJ ) KO?C0 7@B(PAPC08U+;e2

 ? -/&2JU"W*4 7 !8 4O) -N VE+"'  " 35"



K ) ./0 = 2 ./,1?C;A?W?CG D 0 GOJ;>=I0 9O0 * Y 08PJ\GRP D KOU(7@0 Y5KOPAK D 0@;>0@PA? J\GRP ;A=(0 KO./. [ 087@;
0@U(?AGRP-!U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0O2

i9\
Regulated Supply = 5V

High Side Switch

VLS
M0

Short To Battery OUT

Vbattery = 12V Current Load

c,/QRBIPA0C=2
 +hM % #  -,1;A=&PC08?C,/?C;AGRP-?A=(GOPC;-;>G ) KM;C;>0@P * KOPC7:=(,1;A087d;>B(PC0O2


cK ) ./0 = 2 0 * Y(KOP>K D 0@;APA,178?^J\GRP-KO./.!0[087d;$?A0@U(?AGOP,1U+;>08PJLKO780M2
% KOP>K D 0@;A08P , D B(.ZK ;>,/GOU
08?C;A08E
U -08?A,1?C;>KOU(780 g I2   D KO;  8\I2 Y  D KO; 
=(GOPC;-;>G 4^KM;C;>0@P * gRg2 hM gOg2 h 
0@U(?A0 # KM;A7:=(,/U(Q = 2 i G=2 
XR08P " B(PCPA0@U`;
PA,/Y iRi  hRh D i YI2 i = (2 i D
" B(PAPC08U+; ! , D ,1;  Y D ,Y2 \ D
XR0@P 'GR.1;>KOQR0
PA,/Y 9g \I2
3;>G
RhI2 8 g I2 \ ;AG
OhI2 Y 

i9Y
Rh
  / 

   

$
=(,1?-;A=(08?C,/?$Y(PC08?C08U+;>?;>087:=IU(,/_`B(0@?KOUIE D 0@;A=(GEI?^J\GRP$E(08?C,/QRUI,/U(Q =(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR0Y(PA0@78,
?A,1GRU KOU5KO.1GRQ 7@,/PA7@B(,1;A?,/U KF?C;>KOU(E5KMPAE E(,/QR,N;:KO. "$#  Y(PAG 780@?A? D G E(,N]508E J\GRP,/QO= 'GR.N;:KOQO0O2
.1?AGWE(,/?C78B(?C?A08E ,1U ;>=I0a;>=I08?A,1?,1?;A=(0 E(0@?A,1QRU GOJ'KW=(,/QR= XRGO.1;:KMQR0Y(PA0@78,/?C,/GRU ?A0@U(?AGRP,/U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0
E(0@?A,/QOU(08E ,1U #   0 D ,/78GOU(E(B(7d;>GR P ? hI2  D "$#  Y(PAG 780@?A?82
$=(0F?A0@U(?AGRP ,/U+;>0@PCJLKO7@0 6KO?
E(0@?A,/QOU(08E KM? K&?C;:KMU(E KM./GRU(0HE(0dX ,/780  ) B;3,1J6,1; 08PA0 ;>G ) 0 ,/U+;>0@QRP>K ;>08E ,/U+;>G KOU 0 D3) 08E(EI08E
? * ?;>0 D -,N;>= K D ,/7@PAGRYIPAG 7808?C?AGRP'KMU(E KMU KOU(KO./GRQ;AGE(,/QR,N;:KO.E5KM;>K 7@GRU+XR08P;>0@P  ?A,/QOU(,1]578KOU+;'78GR?;
?>KeX ,/UIQR? 6GRBI./E ) 0KO7:=I,/0@XO08Ef2

G KM7:=(,/0dXR0 K =(,/QO= KO787@B(P>KO7 * ,1U;>=(0 ?C08U(?C0 7@B(PAPC08U+; K ) B(./9 E(PA,NXR08U ,1U(Y(BI; ?;:KOQO0
6KO? B(?A0@E ;>G KO7:=I,/0@XO0 K =(,1QR=(0@PF78G D D GOU D GEI0 ,/UIY(BI; P>KMU(QR0 -,1;A=(GRBI;F;A=(0 KOE(E(,N;>,/GOUGOJ
./0dXR0@.?C=(,1J ;A08PC?GRPK ; -,/U 60@./. Y(PAG 780@?A?@2$
$=(0 .1G 08PQ+KO,1U GOJc;A=(0 ) BI./9 !E(PC,1XO08U K D YI./,1](08P 6KO?
G XR0@PA78G D 0 -,1;A= 7eKO?C78G E(0E(0@X ,/7@08?  -=I,/7:= KO./?CGHKO./.1G 08E ;A=(0B(?A0GOJ ./G XRGR.N;:KOQO0 #  b
$?
J\GRP-KO7@78B(PAKO7 * ,1U 78PA,N;>,17eKO. D KM;A7:=(,/UIQHKOPA08KO?82
U(0 ?A=(GOPC;-;>G ) KM;C;>08P * KOPC7:=(,1;A087@;AB(PA0J\GRP$=I,/QR= ?A,1E(0? -,N;>7:=&78,/PC78B(,N;>? 6KO?KO./?CG EI,/?
78BI?A?A0@E ;>=(KM;3KM././G -??C=(GRPC; ;>G ) KM;C;>0@P * Y(PCGO;>0@7@;>,1GRU -,1;>=IGRBI;aKOE(E(,1U(Q K&?C08PA,108? E(,/G E(0H,/U ;>=I0
GRU PA0@?A,/?;:KOUI780HY5KM;A=f2
$=(,1? KO./.1G -?J\GOPaK D GRPA0H0 W7@,/0@U`;a=(,1QR= !?C,/E(0 ? -,1;A7:= ;A=5KM; =5KO? K PA0
E(B(7@08E XOGR.1;>KOQR0E(PAGOY ,/U KOE(E(,N;>,1GRUF;>G K 78GR?;?AK X ,1U(QR?PC0eKO.1, @08E )`* ,1U`;A08QRPAKM;>,1U(QH;>=(0a?A=(GRP;;AG
) KM;C;>0@P * Y(PCGO;>0@7@;A,/GRU GRU&7:=(,/Y 2

 
6 JU3**"'$:" ) *4 1348@ 4   "W -/4O O@
EIE(,1;A,/GRU5KM.aPC08?A08KOPA7:=;>=(KM; 78GOB(./EJ\B(P;>=(0@P ;>=(0 E(0@XO08./GOY D 0@U+; GMJHY(PA0@78,/?C,/GRU<=I,/QR=

XRGO.1;:KMQR0KOU5KO.1GRQ E(0@?A,/QOU(?


$=(0KOU5KO. * ?C,/? KOU(E D ,/UI, D , eK ;>,/GOU GOJ D ,/? D KM;A7:=W,1U =(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR0-E(0dX ,/780@?^U(0@08E(?6;AG ) 0
) 0@;C;>08P-B(UIE(08PC?C;>G G Ef2
  N, ;>= ;A=(0^KOEIE(,1;A,/GRUaGOJ U(0 =(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR0Y(PCG7@08?A?C08? -,N;>=3? D KO.1./0@PQRKM;>0 /. 08UIQO;>=(? hI2 gRi 
hI2 8\ D  UI0 E(08?C,/QRU ;>0@7:=(U(,1_ BI08? -,/.1.U(0@08E ;>G ) 0 (E 0@XO08.1GRY[0@E ;>G G RX 0@PA78G D 0 ;>=I0
Y(PCG7@08?C?.1, D ,1;:K ;>,/GOU(?82

$=(0PC08./,/K ) ,1./,1; * GMJc=(,1QR= XRGR.N;:KOQR0E(0@X ,/7@08?,/U&K ?C;>KOU(E5KOPCE "$#   Y(PAG 780@?A?@2

$=(0 ?;>B(E * GOJ'./KM;>7:= B(Y KO?C?AG 78,ZK >; 08E -,N;>= =I,/QR= XRGR.N;:KOQO03KOU5KM./GRQ KOU(E D 0@;>=IGE(?GOJ'PA0
E(BI78,/UIQ ?C08U(?C,1;A,1X ,1; * ;AGH.ZKM;A7:=!B(Y 0  0@7@;>?@2

+g
      

  # 2 0878.108PC78_  62 " ./0 D 0@U+;  # 2b7:=`B ) 08P;  a2cKOP ) cKOU(E # 2cBI;AGR,1;R08?A,1QRU KMU(E
YI;>, D ,eKM;A,/GRUFGOJ,/QR= 'GR.N;:KOQR0 "$#  0dX,1780@? " G D Y5KM;>, ) ./0  ,N;>= KF`;:KOU(E(KOPAE i 
"$# 
0@7:=(U(GR.1GRQ *  " B(?;>G D !U`;A08QRPAKM;>0@E " ,1PA7@B(,1;A? " GRUIJ\0@PA08UI780  8Y9Y
 YIYf2 g (2 2 
g (2 I2 (% PAG 780@08E(,1U(QR?GOJ;>=(0'' 8YVY
NY  g # K * 8YVY
I2
g32cKM./08UI78,/7 'a2 64 KO././KOU  %2 0@XMKO. '42 G 7:=(0d;  KOU(E # 2 0@78./0@PA7@_ `iOh  PA,NXR0@P
!U+;>08QOP>KM;A08E ,/U  ;>KOU(E5KOPCE i  "$#  %'PCG7@08?C? " B(?C;AG D !U+;>0@QRP>K ;>08E " ,/PC78B(,N;>? " GRU
J\08PC08U(7@0  8YVY (Y(Yf2 9i =9\ i \  (% PCG7@0808EI,/U(QR?-GOJ;>=I0 '' 8YVY   # K * 8YVY
(2

 [ 2  GRU(Q   '0@U(9`,1;:KM?AB ) PAKO= D OK U(,/KOU  # 2 , D OKOU(E I2 S RG BIU(Q +08?C,/QRU GOJ[K Rh   h
!U`;A08.1./,/QO08U+;% G 60@P -,N;>7:= VA? ,1U(Q `;:KOU(E(KOPAE " 08./.1? ' ' ORG B(PAU(KO. GOJ'GO./,/E  ;>KM;>0
" ,/PC78B(,N;>? 'GR. 2(Vg = 5G(2
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