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Cng ty pht trin cng ngh tin hc thin long.

Trung tm o to chuyn vin cng ngh thng tin.

180 L Thanh Ngh - Bch Khoa - H Ni. T: 6280725. Email:thienlongcom@hn.vnn.vn http://www.thienlongcomputer.com


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Gio trnh o to Qun tr vin mng Win 2000 advance server

H Ni, 15/04/2003.

M u.
H iu hnh Windows 2000 Server c pht trin t nhu cu cp thit ca cc c quan t chc mun c mt th h mi cc ng dng Client/Server, nhng ng dng s cho php h xy dng nhng u th cnh tranh mnh m. H i hi nhiu hn ch khng phi ch dn thun l vic ni cc my tnh c nhn li vi nhau hay a cc ng dng t cc my ln xung. H cn mt nn tng n nh vi my ch qun l cc b, mng din rng vi cc my ch cho cc ng dng. Xt cho cng, ngi s dng mun c ngay lp tc nhng thng tin m h cn v phc v nhng yu cu nghip v ring bit. Vi Windows 2K Server: Thng tin ngn tay ca bn. Windows 2K Server kt hp cc kh nng v tp v in n ca Novell NetWare vi nhng dch v ng dng ca UNIX trn mt h iu hnh mng a mc ch. Nh mt my ch tp v in n cc k nhanh, W2KS cho php bn chia s thng tin cng nh truy cp my in v cc thit b khc trn mng ng thi cung cp nn tng c s h tng ng dng cho php bn mua hoc xy dng cc gii php nghip v. W2KS h tr hng lot cc gii php nghip v then cht ca cc hng phn mm ni ting khc nh Oracle, Sybase...ng thi n l thnh vin ca h cc ng dng ch tch hp Microsoft BackOffice bao gm h qun tr d liu phn tn SQL Server, Email Server, qun tr cc h thng, phn cng, phn mm trong mng SMS, h kt ni cc my tnh ln v my Mini ca IBM l SNA Server, h qun l cc thng tin siu vn bn WebServer (IIS), ng dng ch v bo mt, kim sot thng tin, kinh doanh trc tuyn...

Bi 1: Nhng nhim v v cc cng c qun tr ca Windows 2K. Qun tr Windows 2K Server bao gm nhng cng vic phi tin hnh sau khi ci t mng v cc cng vic bo tr hng ngy. Nhng nhim v qun tr bao gm: Qun tr cc khon mc ngi s dng v khon mc nhm. Hoch nh, khi to v duy tr cc khon mc ngi s dng v khon mc nhm bo m cho ngi s dng c th ng nhp cng nh truy nhp c vo cc ti nguyn cn thit cho cng vic ca h. Qun tr vic bo mt. Hoch nh, trin khai v p t mt s chnh sch bo mt nhm bo v d liu cng nh cc ti nguyn dng chung trn mng bao gm cc tp, th mc hay my in... Qun tr my in. Ci t cc my in cc b, my in mng m bo cho ngi s dng c th d dng v nhanh chng truy nhp v in. Gii quyt cc s c v in n. Quan st v iu phi cc s kin, cc ti nguyn trn mng. Hoch nh v trin khai chnh sch theo di, kim sot cc s kin xy ra trn mng lin quan n cc vn bo mt. Theo di v iu khin vic s dng cc ti nguyn mng. Sao lu v phc hi d liu. Hoch nh, lp lch v thc hin vic sao lu nh k m bo phc hi nhanh chng d liu nu xy ra s c. Cc cng c qun tr (Administrative Tools) trong Windows 2KServer s gip cho ngi qun tr qun tr h thng ca h. Cc cng c qun tr c th c ci t ln my trm! Qun tr vng. Vic iu hnh, qun l vng ca ngi qun tr bao gm vic qun l cc c nhn v bo tr cc my ch lm vic trong vng . Ngi qun tr phi m bo cho ngi s dng iu kin lm vic tt nht, d dng truy nhp v khai thc cc ti nguyn dng chung trong khi 3

vn bo mt c cc ti nguyn c nhn, cc thng tin quan trng ca c quan, t chc. lm c vic ny, ngi qun tr phi c sch lc hp l trong vic to ra mi trng lm vic thch hp cho tng i tng ngi s dng, phn nhm v qun l cc nhm, gn quyn v thay i quyn cho cc nhm, cc c nhn, ng b v bo tr my ch.

Bi 2. Qun l ti nguyn. Ti nguyn tp v th mc: Cc h thng tp c Windows 2000 h tr. + H thng tp FAT + H thng tp NTFS Bo mt cc ti nguyn mng thng qua cc cho php chia s. + Chia s cc th mc. + t cho php trn cc th mc c chia s. + Ni ti cc th mc c chia s Dng ch bo mt ca NTFS. + S dng cc cho php NTFS.. + Cc mc cho php truy nhp. + Kt hp cc cho php chia s v cho php NTFS. My ch in n trn mng: Thit lp my ch in n trn mng. + In n trong mi trng Windows 2000. + Thit lp cc my ch, my trm in n. + t cu hnh my in. Qun tr my ch in n trn mng. + Nhng cng vic qun tr my ch in n. + Qun l cc ti liu in. + Qun l my in.

Bi 3. Cc cng c qun tr Cc cng c qun tr c th c ci t trn my ch hoc ci t trn my trm (Ci t Administrative Tools). Cc cng c qun tr c th khng xut hin trong nhm cng c qun tr. Chng bao gm nhng cng c thng dng v nhng cng c qun tr nng cao. Component Services. Computer Management. Configure Your Server. Data Source (ODBC). Distributed File System. Event Viewer. Internet Services Manager.

Bi 4. Cc cng c qun tr Licensing. Local Security Policy. Performance. Routing And Remote Accsess. Server Extention Administrator. Services. Telnet Server Administrator. Active Directory User And Computer. Active Directory Sites And Services. 5

Bi 5. Giao thc mng. La chn giao thc. Ci t giao thc. Cu hnh giao thc mng. Bi tp v thc hnh. Bi tp tng hp 1.

Bi 6. Windows 2KAV v Internet. Internet. Intranet. Bo mt. Webserver: + Chc nng. + Ci t. + Cu hnh. + Qun tr. Bi 7. Dch v truy nhp t xa - RAS. Kt ni mng din rng. Cc giao thc. Cc cng ni v b dn ng. Bo mt. Ci t RAS. Cu hnh RAS ch. Cu hnh RAS s dng cc giao thc ring bit. Ci t cc cho php truy nhp t xa. Bi 8. Dch v mng. Dch v cung cp a ch ng - DHCP. + C ch hot ng. + Ci t dch v. 6

+ Cu hnh dch v. + Cu hnh cc a ch IP d tr. Dch v tn Internet WINS. + C ch hot ng. + Ci t dch v. + Cu hnh dch v. + Kt hp vi DNS.

Bi 9. S c v gii quyt s c. S c ng nhp. Khng truy nhp c ti nguyn. Li in n qua mng. .....

Bi 10. Mt s phng php kim tra an ton ca mng. ng bn trong mng: Administrator. ng bn ngoi mng: Hacker.

Qun tr dch v th mc.

S dng dch v Active Directory.


Dch v Active Directory l thnh phn mu cht ca Microsoft Windows 2000. Cng ngh Active Directory da trn cc giao thc Internet chun v c kiu thit k gip ngi s dng nh r cu trc mng. Active Directory ng dng DNS, l dch v Internet chun, chu trch nhim t chc cc nhm my tnh thnh vng. Dch v th mc Active Directory cung cp c cu trc Logic v cu trc vt l cho cc thnh phn mng. Cu trc Logic bao gm: Domain (vng): Nhm cc my tnh dng chung c s d liu th mc. 7

Domain Tree (Vng phn cp): Mt hay nhiu vng dng chung khng gian tn lin tc. Domain Forest (Tp hp h vng phn cp): Mt hay nhiu h vng dng chung thng tin th mc. organizational unit (n v t chc): Nhm con gm nhng vng thng phn nh cu trc kinh doanh hoc cu trc chc nng ca mt cng ty. Cu trc Vt l bao gm: Subnet (mng con): on mng vi dy a ch IP v m n mng c th. Site (a im): Mt hoc nhiu mng con dng lp cu hnh dch v sao chp v truy cp th mc.

Qun tr dch v Active Directory.


Cng vic qun tr dch v th mc Active Directory tp trung vo nhng nhim v ch yu c ngi qun tr thi hnh thng k vi dch v th mc Active Directory, nh m ti khon my tnh hoc kt np my tnh vo vng.

Nhng cng c qun l Active Directory.

Nhng cng c qun l Active Directory thng cung cp dng Snap-in cho MMC (Microsoft Management Console). Active Directory users and Computer: Qun tr ngi dng, nhm, my tnh, v n v t chc. Active Directory and Trusts: Dng lm vic vi vng, h vng phn cp, tp hp h vng phn cp. Active Directory Sites and Services : Qun l Site v mng con.

Nhng cng c h tr trong vic qun tr :


Active Directory Administration Tool: Thi hnh giao thc LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) trn Active Directory. Active Directory Replication Monitor: Qun l v gim st hot ng sao chp thng qua giao din ngi s dng dng ho. ADSI Edit: Qun l i tng cha trong th mc bao gm c s th mc. n nh danh sch iu khin truy nhp. 8

Cng c Active Directory users and Computer. Active Directory users and Computer l cng c qun tr ch yu qun l Active Directory, c th l thi hnh mi nhim v qun tr, bao gm qun tr ngi s dng, my tnh trong vng,... Mc nh, Active Directory s lm vic vi vng ang c kt ni, c th truy cp v qun l cc i tng ngi s dng, my tnh trong vng ny thng qua vng phn cp. Nu khng tm thy my iu khin vng hoc vng tham gia khng kh dng, phi kt ni ti my iu khin vng hin hnh hoc my iu khin vng khc. C th truy cp n Active Directory users and Computer bng nhiu cch khc nhau nh: + Truy nhp thng qua cng c qun tr nh sau: Tr vo Start / Programs / Administrative Tools / Active Directory users and Computer. + Truy nhp thng qua giao din MMC: Tr ti Start / Run, g lnh mmc. B xung Active Directory users and Computer vo giao din. Sau khi kch hot, ca s Active Directory users and Computer s xut hin nh sau:

Active Directory c nhng c tnh, nhng tc v nng cao nh xem cc tu chn nng cao hay tm kim i tng. Khi truy cp vng trong Active Directory users and Computer, nhng tp hp th mc chun sau y kh dng: Builin: Danh sch ti khon ngi dng ci sn. Computers: Cha ti khon my tnh theo mc nh. Domain Controlers: Cha my iu khin vng theo mc nh. ForeignSecurityPrincipanls: Cha thng tin v i tng t vng ngoi c u quyn. * Kt ni ti my iu khin vng: Trong ca s Active Directory users and Computer, khung bn tri bm chut phi vo Active Directory users and Computer, chn Connect To Domain Conntroler. Vng hin hnh v my ch iu khin vng s hin th. Chn ti my ch iu khin vng cn kt ni. * Kt ni ti vng: Cng trong ca s Active Directory users and Computer, trong bn tri, bm chut phi vo Active Directory users and Computer, chn Connect To Domain.

Tm kim ti khon v ti nguyn dng chung.


Active Directory users and Computer c c tnh tm kim ci sn, cho php ngi qun tr tm ra ti khon, ti nguyn dng chung v cc i tng khc trong th mc. Phng php tm kim nh sau: - Trong ca s Active Directory users and Computer, nhy phi chut vo vng cn tm kim v chn Find, Ca s tm kim xut hin. - Trong hp Find, chn yu cu tm kim: Users, Contacts, and Groups: Tm kim ti khon ngi s dng, ti khon nhm. Computers: Tm ti khon my tnh theo tn, loi, ch s hu. Printer: Tm my in theo tn, kiu hoc c tnh. 10

Shared Folder: Tm th mc dng chung theo tn hay t kho Organization Units: Tm n v t chc theo tn. Custom Search: Thc hin tm kim nng cao.

- Trong hp In, chn phm vi tm kim. - Sau khi nhp xong yu cu v phm vi tm kim, Bm nt lnh FindNow.

Qun l ti khon my tnh.


Ti khon my tnh c lu trong Active Directory dng i tng, dng chi phi hot ng truy cp mng v ti nguyn mng. Ngi qun tr mng c th b xung ti khon vo th mc bt k hin th trong Active Directory Users and Computers.

To ti khon my tnh trong Active Directory Users and Computers.


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to ti khon my tnh trong Active Directory Users and Computers, ta cn thc hin cc bc sau: Trong ca s Active Directory Users and Computers, khung bn phi trong Console Active Directory Users and Computers, nhp phi chut vo th mc s cha ti khon my tnh sp to ra. Chn New | Computer m hp thoi New object Computer. Nhp tn cho may khch. Theo mc nh, ch c thnh vin nhm Domain Admins mi c php kt np (to) my tnh vo vng. cho ngi s dng khc hoc nhm khc c th kt np my tnh vo vng, bm vo nt Change v chn trong danh sch.

Xo, v hiu ho v kch hot ti khon my tnh.


Khi khng cn dng n ti khon my tnh no , ngi qun tr c th xo b ti khon trong Active Directory, hoc v hiu ho mt ti khon my tnh no v cng c th sau khi v hiu ho mt ti khon, ngi qun tr c th 12

kch hot ti khon b kho. thc hin c nhng cng vic c th trn, ta thc hin nh sau: Trong ca s Active Directory Users and Computers, chuyn n th mc cha ti khon my tnh cn thao tc, chn ti khon my tnh cn thc hin xo, v hiu ho, kch hot. Bm chut phi vo ti khon my tnh v chn Disable Account (V hiu ho ), Enable Account (Kch hot), Reset Account (t li), Delete (Xo b). Di di mt ti khon my tnh. Nu mun di di mt ti khon my tnh n mt v tr khc, ta thc hin nh sau: Trong ca s Active Directory Users and Computers, chn thnh phn cha ti khon my tnh cn di ri. Bm chut phi, chn Move, v chn v tr mi cn t v bm nt lnh OK.

Xem v chuyn giao vai tr trong phm vi vng.


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Trn cp vng, ngi qun tr lm vic vi vai tr ch (Relative ID - RID), my iu khin vng (PDC), v ch Infrastructure. c th xem v chuyn giao vai tr trong phm vi vng, thc hin cc bc nh sau: Trong ca s Active Directory Users and Computers, nhy phi chut vo Active Directory Users and Computers v chn Operration Master . Trong Tab RID ch ra v tr ca ch ID hin hnh, bm vo nt lnh Change, chn my iu khin vng mi s m nhn vai tr ny. Trong Tab PDC, nu r v tr ca my PDC, bm vo nt lnh Change v ch ra my s m nhn vai tr mi ny. Trong Tab Infrastructure, nu r v tr ca my ch Infrastructure t u, nu mun thay i nhn vo nt lnh Change v ch ra my no s m nhn vai tr mi ny.

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Xem v chuyn giao vai tr ch tn vng.


Cng c Active Directory Domain And Trusts cho php xem hoc thay i v tr ca ch tn vng trong tp hp h vng. Active Directory Domain And Trusts, cp cao nht ca h vng ch r vng hin c chn. thc hin chuyn giao vai tr ch tn vng, thc hin cc th tc sau: Kch hot Active Directory Domain And Trusts. Trong ca s Active Directory Domain And Trusts, chn khung bn tri, bm chut phi vo Active Directory Domain And Trusts v chn Operation Master:

Ca s Change Operation Master xut hin nh sau:

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Trong trng Domain Naming Operation Master hin th ch tn vng hin hnh. thay i, bm vo nt lnh Change v chn my iu khin vng mi. Close.

Qun l n v t chc - Organization Unit - OU.


Organization Unit gip cho ngi qun tr mng sp xp i tng, ban hnh chnh sch cho nhm (Group Policy) trong phm vi gii hn. Thit lp: Mc ch ca vic thit lp OU l phn nh cu trc chc nng hoc kinh doanh ca cng ty. Ngi qun tr thit lp OU dng nhm con ca vng, hoc n v con. thit lp OU cn thc hin nhng th tc sau: Khi ng Active Directory Users and Computers. Trong khung bn tri, m rng tn vng. Bm chut phi vo tn vng hoc th mc n v c sn ni mun b xung n v, t chc, trn Menu tt chn New | OU.

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Ca s New Object - Organization Unit xut hin nh sau:

Nhp tn cho n v, t chc mi ri bm OK. Mt OU sau khi c to ra c th c xo, i tn, v di chuyn!!!

Ti khon ngi s dng v ti khon nhm.


Mt s khi nim c bn.
* M hnh bo mt ca Windows 2K. + Giao thc chng thc: Chng thc trong Windows 2K l quy trnh gm 2 giai on: ng nhp tng tc v chng thc mng. 17

Khi ngi s dng ng nhp my tnh, quy trnh ng nhp tng tc ph chun yu cu ng nhp ca ngi dng (Xc nhn nhn dng ca nhi s dng trc my tnh cc b, ri cp quyn truy nhp dch v th mc). Sau , mi lc ngi dng truy nhp ti nguyn mng, quy trnh chng thc mng li c dng nhm xc nh xem ngi dng c quyn hay khng.

Cc giao thc chng thc mng bao gm: Kerberos V5: Giao thc chun Internet dng chng thc ngi dng v h thng. (2K) NTLM - NT LAN Manager: Chng thc my tnh trong vng ca Windows NT. SSL/TLS - Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security Kim sot hot ng truy cp: Active Directory l dch v da trn i tng. Ngi dng, my tnh, nhm, ti nguyn dng chung v nhiu thc th khc u c nh ngha dng i tng v c kim sot hot ng truy cp da vo m t bo mt. Chc nng ca b m t bo mt bao gm: Lit k ngi dng v nhm no c cp quyn truy nhp i tng. nh r quyn truy nhp cp cho ngi dng v nhm. Theo di cc s kin phi c kim ton cho i tng. nh r quyn s hu i tng.

S khc nhau gia ti khon ngi dng v ti khon nhm.


Windows 2000 cung cp ti khon ngi dng v ti khon nhm. Ti khon ngi dng c thit k cho tng c nhn. Ti khon nhm gip cho ngi qun tr qun tr c nhiu 18

ngi dng hn. Tuy c th ng nhp vi ti khon ngi dng, nhng li khng c ng nhp vi ti khon nhm. Ti khon ngi dng: Ti khon ngi dng vng (Domain user Account): L ti khon ngi dng c nh ngha trong Active Directory. Ti khon ngi dng c th truy cp ti nguyn qua vng. Ti khon ngi dng c nh ngha thng qua Active Directory Users And Computer. Ti khon ngi dng cc b (Local User Account): L ti khon ngi dng c nh ngha trn ti khon ngi dng ch cc b. Ti khon ngi dng cc b ch c quyn truy cp my tnh cc b v phi t chng thc mnh trc khi c th truy cp mng. Ti khon ngi s dung cc b c tao trong cng c Local User And Group.

Hoch nh v to ti khon ngi dng: Hoch nh: y l kha cnh quan trng nht ca th tc to ti khon, hoch nh bao gm nhng cng vic sau y: Chnh sch tn ti khon: bao gm tn hin th v tn ng nhp. Mt khu v chnh sch ti khon: Phng php thit lp chnh sch ti khon. To ti khon cho ngi s dng vng: Ti khon ngi s dng cho php ngi qun tr theo di v qun l thng tin v ngi dng bao gm quyn truy nhp v c quyn. Khi to ti khon ngi s dng, cng c qun tr ti khon sau y s c s dng: *Active Directory Users And Computer: Qun tr ti khon khp vng Active Directory. * Local Users And Group: Qun tr ti khon trn my tnh cc b. to ti khon ngi s dng trong vng, ta thc hin nh sau: 19

Kch hot cng c Active Directory Users And Computer trong nhm cng c qun tr hoc trong Snapin.

Nhy phi chut vo ni s tip nhn ti khon mi, bm chut phi v chn New User t Menu tt. Ca s New Object - User s xut hin, nhp tn cho ngi s dng sau bm Next.

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Sau khi Next, vn trong ca s New Object - User, nhp mt khu cho ngi s dng. Bm Next v kt thc qu trnh to.

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Thit lp ti khon nhm.


thit lp ti khon nhm, cn thc hin cc th tc sau: Kch hot cng c qun tr Active Directory Users And Coputer trong nhm cng c qun tr hoc t Snapin. Bm chut phi vo ni s tip nhn ti khon nhm mi v chn New | Group t Menu tt. Trong ca s New Object - Group va xut hin, t tn cho nhm, chn phm vi cho nhm v loi nhm sau OK.

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Qun l ti khon nhm v ti khon ngi dng hin c.


Qun l thng tin lin h.
Thng tin lin h l thng tin lin h cho ti khon ngi s dng. i vi mi ngi s dng s c thng tin lin h ring. Sau khi to ra ti khon ngi s dng, c th b xung cc thng tin lin h vi ngi s dng . n nh, b xung thng tin ngi s dng cn thc hin nhng th tc sau:

Kch hot cng c qun tr Active Directory Users And Coputer Qun l ti khon ngi dng. Computer Management - Cc ti khon cc b.
Trong nhng t chc, c quan nh n gin trong cng vic qun tr c th khng dng AD th vic to cc ti khon ngi s dng cc b c th dng Computer Management. Tuy nhin Computer Management c th to ra v qun l cc ti khon ngi dng v nhm t xa trong mt Server thnh vin xa trong mt Domain. Ca s Computer Management nh sau:

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c th to v qun l cc ti khon ngi dng v nhm t xa trong mt Server thnh vin xa trong mt Domain ta thc hin nh sau: Trong ca s Computer Management | menu Action chn Connect to another Computer chn my cn ni ti to ti khon, nhm ri OK.

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Vic to ti khon ngi s dng trn mt Server khng ci t AD trn Windows 2000 Server s thc hin bng cng c Computer Management. Trong ca s Computer Management, m SystemTools, m Local Users and Groups. Thc hin cng vic to ti khon ngi s dng gn nh to trong AD. Cc ti khon cc b to trn mt Server c lp. Server thnh vin c lu tr trong c s d liu SAM trong \WINNT\SYSTEM32\CONFIG.

Qun l ti khon ngi s dng trong AD.


* Cc c tnh ca ti khon ngi s dng. Mun bit ti khon ca ngi s dng c cc c tnh nh th no, ta thc hin nh sau: 25

Chn ti khon ngi s dng mun xem c tnh. Bm chut phi v chn Properties, ca s Properties xut hin. Trong ca s ny, ta c th xem chi tit v ti khon .

* Cc thit lp v ti khon ngi s dng. 26

Cc thit lp cho ti khon ngi dng s c t trong Tab Account.

Theo mc nh, ngi s dng c th ng nhp vo min t bt k my trm no, nhng vn c th ch nh cc my trm ng nhp bng tn NetBIOS ca chng (Khi trn mng vn phi dng NetBIOS th ch nh trn mi c hiu lc.)

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ch nh ngi s dng c th truy nhp vo mng t nhng my no trn mng ta cn thit lp li thuc tnh ca ti khon ca ngi s dng : Chn ti khon ngi s dng cn thay i thuc tnh, bm chut phi chn Properties. Chn Tab Account. Chn nt lnh Logon to... v chn cc my trm m ngi s dng c th ng nhp. Nhp tn cho my trm v nhn Add.

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t thi gian truy nhp cho ti khon ngi s dng: Theo mc nh, ngi s dng s khng b t ng ng xut khi ht gi ng nhp. t thi gian ngi s dng c php ng nhp mng, ta thc hin nh sau: Trong ca s User Properties chn Tab Account. Bm chn nt lnh Logon Hours... Trong ca s Logon Hours chn ngy v gi khong cho ngi s dng ng nhp sau bm chn Logon Denied.

* Thng tin bin dng - Profile. Profile l ni ch nh ng dn tp tin bin dng v mt kch bn ng nhp. Cc tu chn ny phn ln l dnh cho cc phn mm my khch trc Windows 2K (Trong mi trng mng khng thun nht). Cc thit lp cho mn hnh Destop ca ngi dng t ni dung ca menu Start cho cho ti mu sc, cch nh hng chut c th lu tr mt ni no trn mng ngi dng c th ng nhp t mt my no trn mng m vn thy c mn hnh ng nhp ging nhau. Profile c nhiu loi: Loi bt buc ngi s dng dng n v khng bt buc. 29

Logon Script l kch bn c chy vo lc ng nhp nh hnh mi trng lm vic cho ngi s dng v cp pht cc ti nguyn mng m ngi s dng s c php truy nhp.

nhp vo Profile v Logon Script cn thc hin nhng thao tc sau:

Mt Home Folder hoc`Home Directory l mt th mc c cp cho ngi s dng h s dng ring. Chng ta c th ch nh mt th mc cc b lm Home Folder khi ngi s dng ng nhp trn my cc b. Khi ngi s dng ng nhp t mng th ngi qun tr cn ch ra ng dn cho Home Folder ca ngi . 30

Mt iu quan trng l ngi qun tr phi ch r rng rng Home Folder ca ngi s dng s c dung lng l bao nhiu.

Vai tr ca ngi dng trn mng. Trong mng hin nhin l c nhiu ngi s dng, vy mi ngi dng trn mng s c nhng vai tr nh th no, h c nhng quyn g trn mng. i vi mi ngi s dng trn mng, ngi qun tr mng cn ch ra vai tr ca h bng cch trong ca s User Properties chn Tab Member of v sau c th b xung hoc loi b vai tr m ngi dng thuc vo.

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Cc chnh sch nhm - Group Policy


Vic a ra mt chun mc dnh cho mng l cng vic phc tp, ng thi vic trin khai cc ng dng mi ra ton b mng l cng vic rt kh. Sau khi to ra nhm, ngi qun tr s dng cng c Group Policy qun l. Nhng rt ch l Group Policy khng qun l c nhm m ch c kh nng qun l OU, Site. 32

Vi Group Policy, ngi qun tr c th thc hin c nhng cng vic sau: Phn phi cc gi phn mm ti cc my tnh trm hoc ngi s dng. Phn phi cc kch bn (ng nhp, ng xut, tt my) Quy nh cc chnh sch mt khu, kho chn ti khon v kim sot cho min. Nhn bn mt lot cc thit nh bo mt cho cc my tnh xa. p t cc t cch thnh vin nhm v nh cu hnh cc dch v. Quy nh, thit t nhng thng s dnh cho Internet Explorer. Quy nh v thit t nhng hn ch trn Destop ca my ngi s dng. nh hng li mt s th mc trong khi lc ngi s dng. Thng thng cc qun tr vin nh cu hnh v trin khai cc chnh sch nhm bng cch xy dng cc i tng chnh sch nhm GPO - Group Policy Object. Cc GPO l ni cha cc thit nh (cc chnh sch ) c th p dng cho cc ti khon ngi dng v ti khon my trn ton mng. Ch cn mt GPO l c th ch nh ci t mt m ng dng trn my trm ca tt c ngi s dng nh cc thit lp bo mt, cc chnh sch ti khon... trn ton min. C th to ra mt GPO cha tt c mi thit nh hoc nhiu GPO mi ci dnh cho mt chc nng no .

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Chia s d liu, bo mt v kim ton. C ch chia s d liu (data sharing) cho php ngi dng truy cp ti nguyn mng t xa, nh truy cp tin, th mc, a. khi chia s th mc hay a, tt c cc tp tin v th mc con trc thuc s kh dng cho(nhng) ngi dng nh r. Nu mun kim sot hot ng truy cp tin hay th mc con c th cha trong th mc dng chung, bn ch c th da vo volume NTFS. Trn volume NTFS, bn cp hoc t chi cp quyn truy cp tp tin, th mc thng qua ACL(Access Control List) C ch bo mt i tng p dng cho ton b ti nguyn trn volume NTFS, bao gm tp tin, th mc, v cc i tng ca dch v Active Directory. Thng th ch nh qun tr c php u quyn cho ngi dng qun l cc i tng Active Directory. Khi lm th ngi dng c u quyn c th xem v hiu chnh thng tin trong Active Directory. Bng cch kim sot hot ng truy cp i tng, bn (tc nh qun tr) c th gim st cht ch hot ng mng v m bo rng ch nhng ngi c thm quyn mi c php truy cp ti nguyn.

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Chia s th mc trn h thng cc b v xa


Quyn truy cp th mc dng chung( tc th mc c chia sSharing folder) khng tc ng n nhng ngi ang truy cp cc b vo trm lm vic hay my phc v, hin cha th mc dng chung. Bn cp quyn truy cp cho ngi dng xa ngang qua mng, da vo c ch chia se th mc chun. p dng c ch chia s Web cp quyn truy cp tp tin t Web cho ngi dng t xa. Tu chn ny ch kh dng nu h thng c ci t Internet Information Services bn c th xem th mc dng chung trn trn my tnh cc b hoc my tnh xa, bng cch: 1. Trong Computer Management, ni kt vi my tnh cn lm vic 2. T khung bn tri, m rng System Tools v Shared Folders, ri chn Shares. Cc th mc dng chung hin c trn h thng s hin th.

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3. Cc ct ca th mc Shares cung cp thng tin sau y: Shared Folder: tn ca th mc dng chung Shared Path: ng dn hon chnh n n th mc trn h thng cc b Type: Loi my tnh c th s dng th mc dng chung.

To th mc dng chung
Microsoft Windows 2000 cung cp hai cch chia s th mc: chia s th mc cc b thng qua Windows Explorer, hoc chia s th mc cc b v t xa bng Computer Management Do computer Management cho php bn lm vic v qun l ti nguyn dng chung trn my tnh mng bt k, nn r rng y l cng c rt l tng. Vic chia s th mc trn my phc v Windows 2000 i hi bn phi l thnh vin nhm Administrator hoc Power Users Trong computer Management, theo cc bc sau chia s th mc: Nhp nt phi mouse vo khung bn tri, chn Connect To Another Computer. Chn my

36

T khung tri m rng System Tools v Shared Folder. Sau chn Shares. Cc th mc dng chung hin c trn h thng hin th Nhp nt phi mouse vo Shares, chn New File Share khi ng Creat Shared Folder Wizard Ti trng Folder To Share, g ng dn tp tin cc b n th mc cn chia s. ng dn phi tht chnh xc, nh C:\Data\CorpDocuments. Nu khng nh r ng dn, hy nhp chut Browse, duyt tm th mc vi hp thoi Browse For Folder. G tn cho th mc dng chung. y l tn th mc m ngi dng s kt ni. Tn th mc dng chung khng c php trng lp i vi tng h thng Nu thch, c vic g thng tin m t cho th mc dng chung. Sau ny khi xem th mc dng chung trn my tnh c th, thng tin m t s hin th trong Computer Management nh r loi my tnh khch s truy cp , my tnh ny( khng bt buc) o Microsoft Windows o Novell Netware o Apple Macintosh Chn loi my khch l Apple Macintosh, bn thay i tn dng chung mc nh cho ngi dng Macintosh, bng cch g tn mi vo trng Macintosh Share Name Nhp Next, n nh cp truy cp cbn cho th mc dng chung. Nh minh ho hnh 13.3, nhng tu chn kh dng bao gm: o All Users Have Full Control: Cho php ngi dng ton quyn chi phi nh th mc dng chung, c ngha ngi dng c th thi hnh mi tc v cn thit vi tp tin v th mc dng chung, nh to, sa i, xo b. Trn NTFS, tu chn ny cn cho nfi dng quyn thay i cp truy cp v ginh quyn s hu tp tin, th mc o Administrators Have Full Control:Other users Have Read-Only Access: Cho php nh qun tr c ton quyn chi phi th mc dng chung. Ngi dng khc ch c php xem tp tin v c d liu, ch khng th to, sa i, hay xo b tp tin, th mc 37

o Adminstrators Have Full Control: Other Users Have no Access Cho php nh qun tr c ton quyn chi phi th mc dng chung, nhngi dng t chi cp quyn truy cp cho ngi dng khc. Nhp chn tu chn ny nu mun to th mc dng chung v sau mi cp quyn truy cp cho Ngi dng hoc khi bn nh to th mc qun tr dng chung o Customize Share And Folder Permissions: Cho php n nh quyn truy cp cho Ngi dng v nhm c th. Xem thng tin chi tit mc Management Share Permissions Nhp Finish, v kt thc cng vic.

To thm thnh phn dng chung trn th mc dng chung hin c


Mt th mc c kh nng cha nhiu thnh phn dng chung c tn gi khc nhau v c n nh tp hp cp truy cp cng khc nhau. to thm thnh phn dng chung trn th mc dng chung hin c, ch vic thc hin theo th tc to th mc dng chung trnh by nay trc vi mt s thay i. q Bc 3: Khi t tn thnh phn dng chung nh chn tn hon ton khc. q Bc 6: Lc g thng tin m t, hy giI thch mc ch s dng thnh phn dng chung ang to(v mc ch ny khc bit nh th no vi nhng thnh phn dng chung cn li trong cng th mc). To th mc Web dng chung. Nu h thng bn ang ng nhp c ci Internet Information Services, bn c th to th mc dng chung truy cp t trnh duyt Web. Di y l cch to th mc Web dng chung. 1. Trong Windows Explorer nhn nt phi mouse vo th mc cc b cn chia s, chn Properties t menu tt. 2. Chuyn sang trang Web Sharing

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3. Chn Web site cc b, ni bn mun chia s th mc, t danh sch Share On. 4. Nu y l th mc dng chung u tin, hy nht nt Share This Folder m hp hi thoi Edit Alias, bng ngcli nhp Add. 5. G b danh vo trng Alias. B danh l tn bn s dng truy cp th mc trn mu phc v Web. Trn ny khng c php trng lp vi cc th mc hin ang c my phc v Web s dng. V d, nu g b danh MyDir, bn c th truy cp th mc theo ng dn http: / / locahost/MyDir. 6. n nh cp truy cp th mc: Nhng tu chn kh dng gm c. o Read: cho php ngi dng Web c tp tin cha trong th mc. o Write: cho php ngi dng Web ghi d liu vo th mc. o Seript Souree Access: cho php ngi dng Web truy cp m ngun cho kch bn. 39

o Directory Browsing: Cho php ngi dng Web duyt th mc v cc th mc con trc thuc. 7. n nh cp truy cp chng trnh cho th mc. Bn c c thy ba tu chn: o None: Cm thi hnh chng trnh v kch bn. o Scripts Cho hp chy kch bn trong thmc t Web. o Excute (Includes Scrpt) Cho php thi hnh chng trnh v kch bn trong th mc t Web. 8 Nhp OK khi hon tt. 9. Mun gii hn truy cp ni dung ca th mc dng chung trn Volume NTFS, bn n nh quyn truy cp tp tin v th mc nh c hng dn mc " Quyn truy cp tp tin, th mc" Qun l cp truy cp th mc dng chung. Cp truy cp th mc dng chung n nh nhng hnh ng c php thc hin trong phm vi th mc. Mc nh, khi bn to th mc dng chung, h ai c th truy cp mng l mc nhin c ton quyn truy phi ni dung th mc ny . Vi volume NTFS, bn da vo quyn truy vp tp tin v th mc hu tng cng gii hn nhng hnh ng c php thc hin trong phm vi th mc dng chung. Cn vi volume FAT, quyn truy cp th mc dng chung ch cho php kim sot hot ng truy cp.

Nhng cp truy cp th mc dng chung khc nhau Cp truy cp th mc dng chung kh dng, t gii hn nht nh n t do nht, bao gm: o No Access: khng ai c quyn truy cp th mc ang dng chung ny. o Read: Cho php ngi dng. o Change: Ngi dng c quyn truy cp cp Read v c thm kh nng,to tp tin v th mc con, Hiu chnh tp tin, thay i thuc tnh ca tp tin v th mc con, xo b tp tin va th mc con. 40

o Full Control: Ngi dng c quyn Read v Change, cng thm nhng kh nng sau y trn Volume NTFS.

Qun tr dch v in v my in mng. In n l mt phn quan trng trong mt trng mng, vic dng chung my in ch l mt phn nh. Tng t nh trong vic dng chung tp tin, th mc. Ngi s dng khng cn bit l cng ty, t chc c bao nhiu my in, t u v cu hnh ra sao m h ch cn bit rng khi h mun in l in c ngay v in d rng khng ch trn mt kh giy m l nhiu kh giy. 41

Nh vy, ngi qun tr mng cn thit lp mi trng in n sao cho ph hp khng ch to thun li cho ngi s dng khi h mun in m cn m bo tnh bo mt ca ti liu in. Thng thng trong mt cng ty, mt t chc tng i ln h s c mt phng in n ring. Trong c cc thit b in n v c cc my ch in n. Thit b in n: L thit b vt l dng thc hin cng vic in n. Chng l cc my in cc loi. My ch in n: L my tnh cha trnh iu khin thit b in ca mt hoc nhiu thit b in. Cc trnh iu khin thit b in n - Printer Driver Printer Driver l nhng phn mm cho php h iu hnh lin lc trao i thng tin vi my in. B tp hp in - Printer Spooler Printer Spooler L mt tp hp cc th vin lin kt ng v trnh iu khin thit b in. Printer Spooler c chc nng nhn v x l, lp lch biu v phn phi cc cng vic in n. N c thc hin bng dch v tp hp in Spooler Service bt buc phi c th mi in n c, bao gm cc thnh phn sau y: B tip vn in - Print Router. B cung cp in ti ch. B cung cp in t xa. Cc b x l in. B gim st in.

Qu trnh in n. Qu trnh in n c thc hin theo nhng th t sau: Ngi s dng chn in t mt ng dng, lm cho ng dng gi n GDI, GDI gi n Printer Driver c lin kt vi thit b in ch. 42

Cng vic in n c chuyn tip ti b tp hp in. Thnh phn pha my khch ca b tp hp in thc hin mt cuc gi th tc t xa n thnh phn pha Server ca chng. Thnh phn pha Server gi n b tip vn in. B tip vn in chuyn cng vic in n n b cung cp in ti ch. B cung cp in ti ch chuyn giao vi cc b x l in. Triu gi trang phn cch. Cng vic in n c b gim st in gim st. Cng vic in n c chuyn n thit b in v in ra. Ci t my in. thc hin ci t mt my in ta thc hin nh sau: * Tr vo Start | Setting | Printers m ca s Printer. * Nhy kp vo biu tng Add Printer triu gi chng trnh Add Printer Wizard. Mn hnh Welcome xut hin, bm vo Next.

Trong ca s Add Printer Wizard, chn kt ni vi my in. 43

Nu my in c ni trc tip vi my tnh ang c thc hin ci t th chn Local Printer. Nu dng my in mng th chn Network Printer. Sau Next. * My tnh s kim tra xem c my in c kt ni khng (Local). Nu chn Network Printer th phi nhp tn hoc ng n ca my in. * Chn cng kt ni cho my in ri Next.

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* Chn nh sn xut v i ca my in nu c trong danh sch nu khng c, chn Have Disk... v a ng dn ti v tr ca Driver.

* Nhp tn cho my in v quyt nh c chn my in ang c ci t c l my in mc nh khng. Ri Next. * Quyt nh my in ang ci t c c dng chung hay khng. Nu khng cho dng chung th chn Do not share this Printer. Nu cho php dng chung my in th chn Share as v nhp tn dng chung cho my in. Sau bm Next. * Nhp thng tin m t v tr v ch thch cho my in nu thy cn thit. Next. * Nu mun in th th chn yes v nu khng th chn No ri Next. Chn Finish hon tt qa trnh ci t.

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nh cu hnh my in. cu hnh mt my in sau khi ci t ta lm nh sau: * Trong ca s Printer, chn my in cn cu hnh, bm chut phi chn Properties m ca s Properties.

Trong ca s ny, ngi qun tr mng s cu hnh cho my in nh sau: Tab Genaral: t cc thng s nh kh giy, form in, tn my in, hng in... Tab Sharing: Quyt nh c cho php my in c dng chung hay khng. Tab Port: B xung thm cng in, loi b cng in, t thng s cho cng in v to ra b tp hp in. Nu khng 46

to ra b tp hp in th ch c th chn ring bit cho tng cng in cho mi my in ring bit. Nu to ra b tp hp in n, ta c th to ra mt tp hp hng i in, ngi s dng khi in mt ti liu t mt ng dng bt k h khng cn bit ti liu s c in nh th no khi b tp hp in s kim tra xem ti liu in c gi ti c ph hp khng nu ph hp trn my in no th ti liu s c in trn thit b in ph hp. to ra b tp hp in ta lm nh sau: Trong Tab Port, chn Enable Printer Pooling, khi ta chn Enable Printer Pooling th ta c th chn ng thi nhiu thit b in trn cc cng ring bit. iu ny c ngha nh sau: Khi ngi s dng gi mt lnh in, ti liu s c gi ti b tp hp in. B tp hp in s kim tra xem cng in no cn ri. Nu c cng ri ph hp vi ti liu in th ti liu in s c in trn cng . Nu c cng nhiu thit b in n ( c nhiu cng in - s cng in s bng s thit b in n) th kh nng sn sng in s cao. Khi lu thot trong mng s cao v ti liu s c in nhanh chng

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Tab Advanced: y l mt tab quan trng trong cc mng ln c yu cu v in n cao. Trong tab Advanced ngi qun tr mng s xem xt t k hoch sao cho ti liu in s ph hp vi my in, ph hp vi thi gian in v u tin ca ti liu. Cc thng s la chn nh sau: Always available: My in lun sn sng in (24/24). Available from ... To... : My in c th in t gi no ti gi no. 48

Priority: u tin ca ti liu in. Ti liu in no c u tin cao hn s c x l trc. u tin c nh s t 1 ti 99.

Spool Print Document so Program Finishes Printing Faster: Dng b tp hp in cho cc ti liu in. Print Directly to the Printer: In trc tip ra my in, khi la chn ny s loi b b tp hp in. Trang phn cch - Serparator Space: 49

Khi c nhiu ti liu ca nhiu ngi s dng cng in th phi c mt c ch phn loi ti liu in ca tng ngi. c th phn loi ti liu in ca tng ngi ta dng trang phn cch Serparator Space. Trong ca s Properites chn Tab Advanced v chn nt lnh Serparator Page.

Trong ca s Separator Page bm vo nt lnh Browse chn trang phn cch cn su dng ri OK. B x l in: Print Procceser: Print Procceser s quyt nh ti liu in gi t my khch ti b tp hp in c cn x l khng. Trong ca Print Properties chn tab Advanced v chn nt lnh Print Procceser.

Trong ca s Print Processor chn kiu d liu v OK. Tab Security: y l tab rt quan trng v bo mt. Trong Tab ny ngi qun tr s ch r rng vai tr ca ngi 50

s dng trong mng. Ngi no l ngi c quyn qun l ti liu in, qun l thit b in, v qun l my in. b xung ngi s dng hoc nhm no vo trong danh sch ta bm vo nt lnh Add, v loi b ngi s dng, nhm no ta chn trong danh sch v nhn vo nt Remove. Trong khung Permission: C hai la chn: Allow: Cho php v Deny: Khng cho php Mun cp quyn hay khng cp quyn no cho ngi s dng, nhm ngi s dng ta nh du vo ngi s dng v trong khung Permission ta cp quyn cho ngi s dng hoc nhm ngi s dng .

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Tab Device Setting:

Windows Terminal Services

Vn hnh mt mng Windows 2K ln.


Trong phn ny, chng ta s cp nhng khi nim v Win 2K rng hn mc mt server v vi my trm, n phm vi mng dnh cho ton b mt danh nghip ln. Tc l, cho n nay bn c v Active Directory, cc chnh sch nhm site, v vic sao chp folder SYSVOL..., th nhng nhng khi nim v Win 2K trong phn trc s thay i ra sao khi bt u m rng cc dch v ra? Thc ra, Win 2K ni chung v Active Directory ni ring, c thit k ch yu dnh cho cc nh doanh nghip ln. Do s lng ca cc c s h tng mi qu nhiu, nn chng trnh ny ch bn v mt s iu cn suy ngh khi mun 52

trin khai rng khp Win 2K trong mi trng mng doanh nghip.

Cc vn v thit k Active Directory.


Khi bt u suy ngh v cch trin khai Win 2K v Active Directory, nhng mi quan tm u tin hn l xung quanh vic hoch nh NameSpace AD . Ngi qun tr s phi d tr c bao nhiu min Win 2K, bao nhiu cy, bao nhiu rng. Tiu chun b sung thm min, cy, v rng mi l g? Kh c th nhn mnh y tm quan trng ca vic hoch nh cn thn nhng g bn s c c khi bn chuyn t mi trng mng hin ti ca bn - c th l NT 4, NDS, hay mt th g hon ton khcsang mt c s h tng da trn Win 2K. y i hi khng ch phi suy tnh v mc tiu ti hu (chng hn: cui cng phi hp nht li thnh mt min duy nht), m cn phi suy ngh v cch thc c iu , qu trnh s din ra trong bao lu, v lm cch no bn chp nhn c nhng trng hp ngoi l i vi cch thit lp AD .

Rng ca ton doanh nghip


bt u, chng ta hy lm quen mt s vn m ngi qun tr chc chn s gp khi xy dng c s h tng AD ln. Chng ta bt u t phn trn cng: gc ca rng (forest root). Khi xy dng my DC Win 2K u tin trong min Win 2K u tin, ngi qun tr c hi rng y c phi l DC u tin trong cy c min (gi tt l cy min-domain tree), v cy ny c phi l cy u tin trong rng hay khng. Nu tr li Yes cho hai cu hi ny, ngi qun tr v tnh thc hin vi quyt nh quan trng v tng lai Active Directory mng. Bt lun ngi qun tr a bao nhiu cy min vo trong rng, min u tin ny, c gi l gc rng, cng ng vai tr c bit trong c s h tng AD. Vi Active Directory trong Win 2K, ngi qun tr khng th g b hoc i tn gc ca rng bn trong AD. Do bi vai tr quan trng ca n, n phi c gi nguyn nh th trong sut cuc i ca rng. V vy, hy xem min gc ca rng ny nh mt "khong cha nn tng" i vi t chc AD. Tc l, ngi qun tr ch nn dng min ny cha cc phn t nn tng 53

thi. cha nhng i tng lm vic ca ngi qun tr, chng hn nh User, cc Computer, cc Printer, v v.v..., Hy xy dng cc min con di cc min . Trong min gc , ngi qun tr ch d li mt nhm qun tr vin c quyn hnh trn ton mng, c quyn trc hin nhng thay i vi cc phn t nn tng, nh cc site v gin (schema) ca AD chng hn, v b sung thm cc cy min khc.

Vic sa i gin , hp nht cc rng


Khi bnh trng mi trng AD, mt vn khc khng th khng quan tm l gin t chc(schema) ca n. Schema ca mt AD l kin trc v mi quan h gia cc lp v thuc tnh ca c s d liu ny.Win 2K c bn ra vi mt schema km sn, nhng ngi qun tr c th m rng n ra p ng nhu cu ca mnh. Bng cch dng cng c snap-in Schema AD MMC, hoc thng qua Active Directory Sevices Interface (ADSI)mt b cc API truy cp vo Active Directory v cc h dch v danh b khc bng cch lp trnh, ngi qun tr c th t do a cc lp v thuc tnh theo mun ca ring mnh vo Active Directory ca c quan . tng ny rt c ch nu ngi qun tr c ton quyn kim sot mi trng AD , nhng n gy ra khng t vn khi c quan bn phnh to ln hoc teo nh li. l v , hin gi, i vi mi rng, ngi qun tr ch c p dng mt Schema m thi. Khi ngi qun tr nh r rng ca mnh, Schema t ti min u tin s c sao chp vo tt c cc min khc trong cy v tt c cc cy sau tham gia vo vng y. By gi, chng ta th xem xt mt kch bn, trong c quan bn va mua li mt cng ty mi, hoc mt chi nhnh c sn trong c quan bn va xy dng c s h tng AD ring ca h. Trong c hai trng hp y, hn l phi c mt rng c sn nhng ring bit vi rng ( c hoc chnh) ca c quan bn ( bi v cng ty mua c kia khi ci t min AD u tin ca h, hn cng xy dng rng ring ca h ri). Hn na, mi th rng ring bit nay c th thc hin nhng thay i schema di vi n, khin n khng tng thch vi rng ca bn na. Trong phin bn Win 2K hin ti, khng c cng c no c th dng hp nht cc rng hoc cc schema c . iu c 54

ngha l, ngi qun tr ch c hai iu chn. Chn la th nht l , ngi qun tr c th to ra nhng mi quan h u quyn khng bc cu( Nontranstive Trus Relationship) tng minh gia cc min trong rng cho cc truy cp trong 1 vng cho php truy cp cc min trong rng kia ( theo kiu cc quan h u quyn ca NT 4 ). Trong trng hp ny, ngi qun tr c th duy tr nhiu rng bn trong mng ca c quan. Gii php ny c nhng u v khuyt im ca n, thc ra khng c gii php no ti u qun tr nhiu rng c. Trong mt mi trng a rng, khng c quyn lc qun tr chung u. Cc thnh vin ca Enterprise Admins t mt rng khng c quyn lc g trn mt rng khc, tr khi c ch nh mt cch tng minh thng qua cc mi quan h u quyn. Mt chn la khc gii quyt vn nhiu rng l ngi qun tr c th quyt nh gi li mt rng trong s , ri dng cc cng c c Microsoft ( hoc mt hng khc ) cung cp chuyn (Migrate) cc i tng t cc i tng t cc rng cn li. Trong cc trng hp sau ny, ngi qun tr s c th hnh x vi cc rng khc "ngoi lai" y nh th chng l cc min NT 4 i c cn c chuyn vo cc min Win2K vy. D nhin, tt c nhng thay i v Schema c thc hin trong cc vng ngoi lai y s b mt i khi ngi qun tr chuyn i i tng vo rng ca c quan.

Cc site
Cc site l cc danh gii i vi ba khung cnh nh danh (naming context ) c m t bn di. Bn trong mt site, s sao chp cc khung cnh nh danh ny l t ng, v theo mc nh s din ra nm pht mt ln. Ngi ta c th to ra site lin kt cc nhm cc mng con (subnet), nhm i din cho mt nhm cc mi ni lin kt c bandwidth cao. Cc site cng c th bng ngang qua cc ranh gii min - ngi qun tr c th nhm hai DC t nhng min khc nhau vo trong cng mt site. Cc site cn c mt vai tr khc, ch khng phi ch kim sot v sao chp thng tin nh danh. V d, ngi qun tr c th to ra cc i tng chnh nhm (GPO) trn cc site, cho php ngi qun tr lin kt vic qun l cc my trm vi mt mng con c th trn mng. Khi mng Win2K n tng trng, vic duy tr bo qun cc site cng tng theo. Cc site c t tay ngi qun tr mng xy dng ln. Nhng ch rng, ngi qun tr ch c th quy nh cc site khi bn trong min gc ca rng. Cho d bn c th np cng c snap-in 55

ca MMC tn l AD Sites v Services vi trng tm t tn my DC ca mt min con, nhng ngi qun tr khng th quy nh cc site c u. iu ny ngn khng cho cc qun tr vin trong cc min con ngu nhin quy nh cc site nh hng khng tt n Topology sao chp ca ngi qun tr. i i vi cc site l cc i tng mng con. Ngi qun tr phi t tay quy nh mi mng con IP lun l bn trong c s h tng Active Directory, ri lin kt cc mng con vi i tng site ph hp. Hn na, ngi qun tr phi lin kt cc site m h quy nh vi mt lin kt site (site link) inh. Cc site link cho php ngi qun tr n nhm cc site c cng chi ph hay gi (cost) theo quan im truyn d liu trn mng. Qu trnh va t tay quy nh cc site v site link, va t tay lin kt cc mng con vi chng trong mt c s h tng AD ln c th rt nng nhc! Mi site link v mi i tng mi ni kt NTDS gia cc server trong mi site cn i hi ngi qun tr phi quy nh lch biu sao chp na. Khi ngi qun tr bnh chng c s h tng AD ca h ra hng trm site v hng chc site link, cng vic chm sc bo tr lch biu s ny c th nhanh chng chim ht thi gian lm vic ca ngi qun tr. Hin nay, cng c duy nht m ngi qun tr c th tu ghi s dng l cng c snap-in cho MMC tn l AD sites and Servicer. R rng Microsoft phi mau mau cung cp mt giao in tt hn qun l cc site trong mt c s h tng Win2K ln.

Cc Organizational Unit - OU.


i vi cc OU trong mt co s h tng AD ln, nguyn tc cn ch l: Gi cho chng n gin thi! s kin c th xy dng cc OU trong AD v c c mt ch tin li u thc quyn qun tr c th b lm dng qu ng. Microsoft khuyn co rng khng nn nhiu hn 10 cp OU, nhng thc ra m ni, kh m kim sot c s phc tp ca mt h thng cp bc su n vy. Cn c vo m hnh k tha (inheritance) bn trong AD, nu ngi qun tr qun l 10 cp OU lng nhau mi cp thng i km mt mc bo mt, mt kiu cch c qun tr c u quyn, v cc GPO ca n, hn ngi qun tr s gp nhiu kh khn! Cch tip cn tt nht khi c s h tng AD ca bn tng trng l bt u bng mt cu trc OU cng phng cng tt. (Phng c ngha l c t tng lp thi ). 56

Sau , lc no bn cng c th di cc i tng t ch ny sang ch khc bn trong ,khi bn tm ra nhng kiu cch tt hn tp h ngi dng. Trong khi thit k AD, bn thng phi cn nhc, chn la gia cc yu t mu thun (trale-off) nh sau: trong nhiu trng hp ngi qun tr c th nhm cc i tng li bng cc OU hoc bng cc nhm bo mt (security group) u c. V d, ngi qun tr c th rng buc mt nhm ngi dng trong b phn ti chnh ca c quan bng cch to ra mt OU tn l Finance hoc bng cch to ra mt nhm bo mt tn l Finance bn trong mt OU ln hn. Chn con ng no l tu mc tiu ca ngi qun tr. Khi tri buc mt nhm ngi bn trong mt OU, ngi qun tr lm cho vic tch ring nhng ngi dng u thc quyn kim sot v p t cc chnh sch nhm tr nn d dng hn. Tuy nhin, nu nhng ngi dng trong OU cng nhn c chnh sch nhm ging y nh bn hay nm OU khc, vi nhng nhu cu tng t thi, khi chia OU ch l chuyn v ch. Trong trng hp ngi qun tr phi hoc to thm nhng GPO khc, hoc lin kt nhng GPO c sn t mt OU khc vo GPO mi ca h. Nu phn chia ngi bo mt thng qua cc nhm ngi bo mt bn trong cu trc OU chung hn, ln hn, ngi qun tr c th thy rng khi n lc phi qun l nhu cu c bit ca nhng ngi dng no , s kh hn chon lc c h ra khi m ng mt cch m xui. Rt cuc, nhm c c mc kim sot cu hnh v qun tr thch hp i vi ngi dng ca mnh, chc hn phi chn mt s kt hp no ca cc nhm OU v cc nhm bo mt qun l v cch ly h.

Cc GPO
S dng cc i tng chnh sch nhm (GPO) l mt tnh nng mnh m trong Win2K, nhng n cng l tnh nng d gy ra cho ngi qun tr nhng cn c mng qun tr nht khi ngi qun tr m rng h tng c s AD ca h. Mt phn do ngi qun tr c th quy nh cc GPO qu nhiu cp khc nhau, v mt phn l do Microsoft cung cp qu t nhng cng c gii quyt trc trc xc nh nhng g ang din ra trong qu trnh x l cc GPO. Xin nhc li, cc GPO c th c quy nh cc cp: my ti ch, site, min, v OU; chng c truyn hay tha hng (inherit) t cp trn xung cp di, v tc dng ca 57

chng c th c lc chn thng qua cc nhm bo mt. Ngoi ra, cc GPO ch c s l bng cc i tng my hoc i tng ngi dng thi. Ngi qun tr c th quy nh nhiu GPO mi cp trong h thng cp bc ca AD. Ngi qun tr c th cho mt s GPO ph quyt (override) mt cch th bo cc GPO khc, hoc ngc li, ngi qun tr c th ngn chn vic ph quyt mt GPO no . Cui cng, mi GPO cha mt s t (node) chc nng khc nhau, mi t cung cp mt mc kim sot i khi chng c lin quan g vi nhau c i vi ngi dng v my tnh c p dng chnh sch . Tt c nhng chuyn ny c to ra nhm c c mt mi trng nhiu kh nng v phc tp i vi ngi kim sot i vi ngi dng v my thng qua cc GPO. Vy th, ngi qun tr c th lm g trong vic qun l cc GPO thu c li ch t nhng kh nng quan trng ca chng ? Cu tr li cng nh cu tr li i vi vic qun l nhiu khi nim ca c s h tng AD - gi cho n cng n gin cng tt. Chuyn c th quy nh nhiu GPO nhiu cp trong h thng bc AD khng c ngha ngi qun tr phi lm nh th? V d, mi GPO c cha nhiu t chc nng chng hn, Software Installation, Security, Logon/Logoff Scripts, Folder Redirection, Administrative Templates, ; ti sao chng ta khng nhm mt s t y li trong GPO cho d qun l v s dng? V d, ngi qun tr c th quy nh mt GPO " security", ch c chc nng duy nht l trin khai cc nhm chn la v bo mt i vi ngi dng v my thi . Bng cch ny, ngi qun tr c th d dng u quyn qun tr GPO cho nhng qun tr vin chuyn v bo mt v phn mm khin khng khai trin c Microsoft Word ra ton x nghip . Tng t, ngoi vic quy nh cc GPO c chc nng duy nht hoc hn ch, ngi qun tr nn tnh ti vic hn ch s lng GPO c quy nh bi cc cp site, min, v OU. Vic quy nh cc GPO cp min ch nn dnh cho chnh sch no c nh hng trn ton min thi, nh chnh sch bo mt chng hn. Hy li cc chnh sch ci t phn mm hoc khun mu qun tr cho cc OU. Li ch ca chin lc ny s tr nn r rng khi tnh ti b chnh sch tng hp (Resultant Set of Policy_ RSOP). RSOP thc cht l chnh sch hiu dng (tc l hiu qu thc t khi p dng nhiu chnh sch) trn mt ngi dng hoc mt my tnh bn trong container nh trong c s h tng AD. v 58

lnh vc ny, Microsoft ch cung cp t cng c tr gip. Tuy nhin, mt s hng phn mm qun tr khc, nhu Full Armor chng hn (www. full armor. com) d dnh cung cp cc cng c RSOP gip ngi qun tr qun l vic trin khai cc GPO trn mng. Nu d nh trin khai cc GPO mt cch quy m trong Win2K, ngi qun tr nn tm cch c c cc cng c ny. Mt im khc cn quan tm l thi gian tiu tn cho vic s dng cc GPO vo lc ngi dng ng nhp hoc my khi ng. Ngi dng hoc my phi x l nhiu GPO, th thi gian tr hon lc ng nhp hoc khi ng. iu ny ng ch vo lc ngi dng ng nhp, bi v cc GPO bnh thng c x l trc lc shell cu ngi dng c np . Ngi qun tr c th sa i kiu ny thng qua mt chnh sch khun mu qun tr, nh trong nhiu trng hp, c th ngi qun tr khng mun lm nh vy. Cn c theo kiu hnh s ny, ngi qun tr nn lm bt c iu g c th lm c nhm ti thiu ho thi gian x l cc GPO. Microsoft c gng sp xp hp l ho vic x l cc GPO theo nhiu cch. Trc ht, h cho php ngi qun tr chn v hiu ho cc thit nh cu hnh ca ngi dng hoc cc thit nh cu hnh ca my trong GPO c th. Nu ngi qun tr quy nh mt GPO c chc nng duy nht l n nh chnh sch trn mt i tng no , th bn nn duyt vo thch hp trong trang c tnh Group Poliry v hiu ho vic x l i vi phn ca GPO. Nh th s lm gim mt cch ng k thi gian tiu tn cho vic x l cc GPO. Ngoi ra, phin bn ca GPO cng s c theo di st sao vo mi lc x l. Nu khng c thay i no xy ra vo khong thi gian gia cc ngi dng ng nhp hoc my khi ng, th GPO s khng c x l. C mt khun mu qun tr c th dng c ph quyt li hnh x ny, nhng n s lm tng thm thi gian x l mt cch ng k.

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Vic sa i cc GPO
Mt vn na cn khi trin khai cc GPO: bi v cc GPO cng l mt i tng trong Active Directory, nn chng cng phi chu tc ng ca nhiu qu trnh sao chp multimaster (ngha l sao chp t DC ny sang DC khc, khp cc min trong mng) nhng cc i tng AD khc. V th, vo mt lc no y, rt c th c hai ngi chnh sa mt GPO. D nhin, hu qu c th rt nghim trng nu nh nhng sa i ca h i nghch ln nhau vo lc sao chp. ngn nga vin cnh ny, cng c snap-in Group Policy theo mc nh s lun lun t trng tm tc ng (focus) vo DC no hin ng vai tr PDC ca min AD ng chnh sa GPO. Ngi qun tr c th thy c iu ny bng cch chn menu View trong khi ang lm ni bt mt GPO t bn trong snap-in Group Policy ca ca MMC. Bn s thy mt mc chn tn l DC Options. mc chn la v tr mc nh ca n s bo m rng cc thay i GPO lun lun c thc hin cng mt server, v lm gim nguy c c hai ngi cng chnh sa mt GPO trn hai my khc nhau.

Nhng vn v sao chp trong Win2K


Vic sao chp (replication) cc b phn ca c s h tng liu Win2K c mt nh hng ln i vi tnh kh thi ( reliability) v tnh sn dng ( availability) khi m rng mng. Vic sao chp Active Directory, danh mc ton rng ( global catalog), d liu SYSVOL, v Dfs tt c u nh hng i vi hiu nng hot ng, tnh sn dng v kinh nghim s dng mng. Trong mc ny, chng ta s bn v mt s th thch chnh ngi qun tr s gp phi khi trin khai nhng dch v a dng . Tuy nhin, trc ht, chng ta lm r khi nim khung cnh nh danh ( naming context).Trong Win2K, c ba naming context c sao chp: min (donain), gin t chc AD (AD schema), v cu hnh ( configuration). Ngi qun tr c th xem cc naming context nh l cc l trnh (path) hoc vng ( loop) sao chp i xuyn qua mi trng mng Win2k ca . Domain naming cotext l l trnh sao chp m ch i qua cc my DC bn trong trong mt min. N chu rch nhim v vic 60

sao chp nhng thay i v c s d liu AD i vi mt min nht nh.

Th mc dng chung Sysvol

sysvol c sao chp ra tt c cc my DC trong mt min. Bn di sysvol c hu ht nhng d liu lin kt vi cc GPO. sysvol dng dch v sao chp tp tin sao chp ni dung ca n gia tt c cc DC trong mt min. Bn di SYSYVOL c hu ht cc d liu lin kt vi cc GPO, cng nh mi thng tin theo kiu NETLOGON c k dnh cho cc my i c NT 4 hoc Win 9x. SYSVOL ng dch v sao chp tp tin (File Replication Server _ FRS) mi m ca NT sao chp ni dung ca n gia tt c ccmy DC trong mt min. Theo mc nh FRS sao chp theo cng mt lch biu nh Active Directory, v tn trng cc danh gii site ging ht nh vic so chp ca AD vy. Ngi qun tr c th thay i lch biu sao chp ca FRS. T cng c snap-in AD Users and Computer, chn mc lnh View/ AD advanced Features ri tm n tnh nng System\ File Replication Service. T , nu lm ni bt Domain System Volume (tc share SYSVOL), nhp phi, chn Properties t menu ng cnh, ri nhp nt Change schedule trong khung thoi c tnh hin ra lc ngi qun tr s c vic sao chp qua danh gii site s mt nhiu thi gian hn l sao chp ch bn trong site; v d, nu ngi qun tr a mt kch bn ng nhp mi vo GPO vn c t trng tm tc ng trn mt my DC c th th c th mt nhiu thi gian kch bn c sao chp ra ht tt c cc share SYSVOL trn tt c cc DC bn trong min .

H thng tp tin phn tn (Dfs)


H thng tp tin phn tn (Ditributed File System_ tc Dfs) tng trng cho mt lat th thch khc bit nhau nh u quan trng SYSVOL. Chng ta nghin cu th mt s kh nng ca Dfs trong Win2K, xem bn c th gp rc ri nh th no trong vic trin khai n ra trong mt c s h tng ln. Vi Dfs, ngi qun tr c th quy nh mt share gc chu li (fault-tolerat root gi tt l FT root), tc l Dfs root, bn trong mt min nh. ch rng ch c th quy nh cho mi server mt dfs root c tham chiu theo tn min ch khng phi theo tn server.V d, nu tn min ca l vn. mycomputer, ngi qun tr c th nh x mt a n share 61

\ \vn. mycomputer. com\dfs root. Bn di mt Dfs root c th, c mt s lin kt Dfs (Dfs link) no . Cc Dfs link xut hin di dng nh cc th mc con l lun i vi Dfs root, nh thc cht th tr n mt s share no nm trn cc server khc (Win2K, NT 4, v thm ch c cc server NetWare v Unix na). Mi Dfs link cng c mt bn sao (replica) lin kt vi n. V d, bn di mt share Dfs root tn dfsroot (gi d nh vy), c th to ra mt Dfs link tn l apps, ni bn lu gi ct gi chng trnh ci t ng dng trn mng ca bn. Bn di mi Dfs root, ngi qun tr c th a vo cc thnh vin bn sao. Cc bn sao ny i din cho cc share nm trn cc server khc nhng c ni dung ging nhau. ngi qun tr. V d, Dfs link tn apps chng ta c th c hai thnh vin bn sao l cc share cng c tn apps nhng nm trn \ \servera v\ \serverb. Cc thnh vin bn sao thng thng c dng khi bn c nhng ni dung read only no , nh cc tp tin nh phn ca mt ng dng chng hn, v ngi qun tr mun chng c th c truy cp t nhiu server trong mng. Trong v d ny, gi s servera nm trong site X v serverb nm trong site Y. Cc khch hng trong site X ni kt vo share \ \mycompany.com\ dfsroot\ apps s c chuyn hng ti \ \servera\apps, cn cc khch hng trong Site Y ni kt vo cng share s c chuyn hng ti \ \ serverb \apps. Nh vy, Dfs mang li mt mc hp lc server (server affinity) no , da theo topology ca cc site. Mt c im khc ca Dfs l cung cp kh nng sao chp tp tin (file replication, nu hiu rng hn th l directory replication) i vi tt c cc thnh vin bn sao . vic sao chp ca Dfs thc cht l dng dch v FileReplication Service ca NT, nhng n to ra topology sao chp ring ca n m ngi qun tr khng kim sot c. Theo mc nh Dfs to ra mt topology hnh sao gia tt c nhng thnh vin bn sao m ngi qun tr ch nh. Khng c cch no d dng bit khi no th cc bn sao ca Dfs 'ng quy" (converge, tc l nhng thay i v ni dung c sao chp n tt c nhng bn sao ). i vi nhng mng ln, vi nhiu thnh vin bn sao khc t ri rc trong cc site, ngang qua cc ng lin kt WAN a dng, chc hn ngi qun tr s thy rng c ch sao chp ca Dfs qu l khng tho ng. C ch sao chp c trong dfs thc ra ch c ngha i vi mng nh 62

hn, ni dung ca read- only c sao chp ra mt t server thi. Thc t, nu ngi qun tr chn s dng c ch sao chp t ng c trong dfs, l ngi qun tr b hn ch ch c php c 32 thnh vin bn sao i vi mt t lin kt con!!!. Cn nu khi chn Dfs link m ngi qun tr chn phng n sao chp th cng (manual replication), th ngi qun tr c th an ton ym tr n 1000 thnh vin bn sao. ch rng khi chn sao chp th cng l ngi qun tr ang cho dfs bit rng ngi qun tr d nh cung cp c ch ring ca mnh sao chp ni dung ra mi thnh vin bn sao ngoi phm vi c s h tng Dfs. Ngoi ra, cng c th ngi qun tr b cm d bi ngh l dng c ch sao chp ca dfs sao chp nhng d liu khng read- only, nh cc home folder ca ngi dng chng hn. Nn bit rng, bn Dfs hin nay khng thc s ph hp vi kiu tip cn nh th u. iu ny ch yu l v ,bn thc s khng c cch no kim sot c khi no dfs s"quy ng" cc bn sao c. (Nu mt ngi dung thc hin mt thay i vi home folder ca mnh trn mt bn sao sau khi thc hin mt thay i khc trn mt bn sao khc, th thay i trc c th b mt i, do n cha kp ph bin rng ri). Vi Dfs, ngi qun tr ch nn dng tnh nng chu li nh mt cch tm tm ra v tr thc (vt l) t cc tn share lun l . Hy Dfs to ra mt cy tp tin phn tn m vic sao chp l thuc vo topology ca cacsite . Nu phi dng c ch sao chp ca Dfs, ngi qun tr ch nn p dng Dfs vi nhng ni dung read- only, cn khng th phi sm mt phn mm sao chp near-real- time ( ngha l vic sao chp ra khp mng c thc hu nh tc thi, hu nh khng c tr hon no c) no d thc hin vic sao chp ni dung thc s.

Vic sao chp GPO


Trng hp c bit ca cc GPO v cch thc sao chp chng bn trong c s h tng mng Win2K. Kiu cch sao chp ny c th tr thnh mt vn quan trong trong nhng mi trng mng ln, c nhiu GPO c trin khai khp cc site vi nhng ng lin kt WAN c tc khc nhau. Nn bit rng mi GPO thc ra c to ln bi hai thnh phn: Group Policy Container (GPC) v Group Policy Template (GPT). GPC l mt i tng bn trong Active Directory, cha thng tin tham chiu n mt GPO c th. GPC c sao chp ging ht nh nhng i tng AD khc, theo kiu 63

multimaster,trn c s tng c tnh mt. Thnh phn GPT thc ra mi l thnh phn chnh ca GPO. N l cc tp tin thc s to nn mt GPO. Cc kch bn tt my v khi ng, kch bn ng nhp v ng xut, cc khun mu qun tr v tp tin h qu ca n l registry.pol v cc khun mu bo mt du c cha trong GPT, vn c sao chp bn trong share SYSYVOL. Do hai thnh phn ny l nhng thc th phn bit, c kiu cch sao chp hon ton khc bit, nn c kh nng l mt GPC c sao chp trc khi GPT lin kt vi n c sao chp nht l trong mt mng ln.

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Trin khai cc dch v c s h tng.


Khi sn sng vic trin khai mt c s h tng mng Win2K c ln, ngi qun tr cn ci t v cu hnh mt s dch v c s h tng cho php AD v cc phn mm my khch c th lm vic. Cc dch v c s h tng lm nn tng cho vic pht trin mt mng my tnh.

DNS

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DHCP. * Nguyn tc hot ng. * Ci t: * Cu hnh: - To mt Scope:

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Giao thc mng.


* Cc khi nim c bn: nh ngha: Giao thc mng l tp hp cc quy tc, quy c sao cho cc thc th tham gia truyn thng trn mng c th lin lc c vi nhau. Hay ni cch khc, giao thc mng l ngn ng chung cho cc my tnh lm vic c vi nhau. Lp mng: Mng con: Giao thc dn ng. * La chn: Vic la chn giao thc mng ph thuc vo mc ch s dng c th trong tng mng. i vi mi tiu chun a ra ta c th c cc la chn giao thc mng khc nhau: Giao thc NetBEUI - NetBIOS Extention User Interface: Giao thc TCP/ IP. Giao thc IPX/SPX * Ci t: * Cu hnh:

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Cc lnh c dng trong Windows 2K


A Append Arp Assoc At Atmadm Attrib B Batch commands Break Buffers C Cacls Call Chcp Chdir (cd) Chkdsk Chkntfs Cipher Cls Cluster

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Cluster commands overview Cluster group Cluster node Cluster netinterface Cluster network Cluster resource Cluster resourcetype Cmd Codepage Color Command symbols and filter commands Comp Compact Conditional processing symbols Convert Copy Country D Date Debug Debug subcommands Del (Erase) Device Devicehigh (dh)

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Devinfo Dir Diskcomp Diskcopy Diskperf Dos Doskey Dosonly Driveparm E Echo Echoconfig Edit Edlin Edlin subcommands Endlocal Evntcmd Exe2bin Exit Expand F Fastopen Fc Fcbs

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Files Filter commands Find Findstr Finger For Forcedos Format Ftp Ftp commands Ftype G Goto Graftabl Graphics H Help Hostname I If Install Ipconfig Ipxroute Irftp

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L Label Lastdrive Libpath Loadfix Loadhigh (lh) Lpq Lpr M Mem Mkdir (md) Mode More Mountvol Move MS-DOS configuration commands MS-DOS subsystem commands N Nbtstat Net (command options) Net accounts Net computer Net config Net config server

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Net config workstation Net continue Net file Net group Net help Net helpmsg Net localgroup Net name Net pause Net print Net send Net session Net share Net start Net start Alerter Net start Client Service for NetWare Net start ClipBook Server Net start Computer Browser Net start DHCP Client Net start Directory Replicator Net start Eventlog Net start File Server for Macintosh Net start FTP Publishing Service Net start Gateway Service for NetWare

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Net start Lpdsvc Net start Messenger Net start Microsoft DHCP Service Net start Net Logon Net start Network DDE Net start NT LM Security Support Provider Net start OLE Net start Print Server for Macintosh Net start Remote Access Connection Manager Net start Remote Access ISNSAP Service Net start Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Locator Net start Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Service Net start Schedule Net start Server Net start Simple TCP/IP Services Net start Site Server LDAP Service Net start SNMP Net start Spooler Net start TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper Net start UPS Net start Windows Internet Name Service Net start Workstation Net statistics Net stop

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Net time Net use Net user Net view Netsh Netstat Nlsfunc Nslookup Nslookup subcommands Ntcmdprompt O OS/2 configuration command P Path PathPing Pause Pax Pentnt Ping Popd Portuas Print Prompt Protshell

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Pushd Q QBasic R Rcp Recover Redirection Rem Rename (ren) Replace % (Replaceable parameter) Rexec Rmdir (rd) Route Rsh Runas S Set Setlocal Setver Share Shell Shift Sort

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Stacks Start Subst Switches T Tcmsetup TCP/IP Utilities Tftp Time Title Tracert Tree Type V Ver Verify Vol W Winnt Winnt32 X Xcopy

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