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9: Star And
Stars and Galaxies
i) The Sun…..
- the centre of our solar system - The Sun is actually a star of moderate size - The Sun takes 25 and half days to rotate on its axis from west to east
Photograph 9.1: The Sun
.The Sun’s diameter is 109 times the diameter of the Earth - The Sun’s mass is 330 thousand times the mass of the Earth - The density of the material that forms the sun is one over four times that of the Earth Structure of the Sun….1: Characteristics of the Sun Notes: .41 g cm 30compared with density of ( water ) 6000 degree Celsius 15 million degree Celsius Table 9.4 million km 1. .Characteristics of The Sun Size ( diameter) Mass Density Surface temperature Temperature of Sun’s Core Measurement 1.989 x 10 kg 1.
Figure 9. i) ii) iii) corona chromosphere photosphere Characteristic of… . The parts are.1: The structure of the Sun The Sun’s atmosphere consists of three parts.
compact layer of gas seen to be shining with yellow light from Earth - Photosphere’s surface appears turbulent because gas from the Sun’s core is release to its surface . .temperature is about 1.Corona… .temperature varies between 10 000 and 500 000 degree Celsius Photosphere….only visible during eclipse of the Sun .bright red layer of gas below the corona .5 million degree Celsius Chromosphere… .outer most layer of gas in the Sun’s atmosphere - corona forms a circle of white light around the Sun .only visible during eclipse of the Sun just like the corona .
nuclear reaction occurs in the core all the time to generate and release heat and light energy - The core’s temperature is extremely high.consist of hydrogen and helium gases .. It’s about 15 million degree Celsius Photograph 9.2: corona and chromosphere can only during an eclipse of the Sun be seen .This layer is responsible for radiating heat and light from the Sun Sun’s Core… .
solar flare and sunspot .2: Figure above shown prominence.Phenomena of that occur at the Sun’s atmosphere… Few of phenomena that occur at the Sun’s atmosphere are i) ii) iii) prominences Solar flares Sunspots Figure 9.
2: Description of phenomena of that occur at the Sun’s atmosphere .Phenomena - Descriptions an explosion of hot gas that shoots out from the Sun’s chromosphere with shiny bright Prominence - light can been seen near the edge of the Sun during an eclipse of the Sun prominence emits charged particles and ultraviolet rays into outer space a strong explosion of gases that happen suddenly into outer space Solar layer - also emit rays like gamma rays and X-rays this phenomena occurs for only a few minutes or a few hours but it release a great Sunspot - deal of energy dark spots on the surface of the Sun’s Photosphere - has a lower temperature ( 4000 degree Celsius ) than its surroundings ( 6000 degree Celsius ) Table 9.
X-rays and gamma rays will collide with particles in the Earth’s atmosphere this causes disturbance to the communications system like television and radio broadcast. colorful light that consist of green.The effect of the phenomena on the surface of the Sun on Earth… charged particles as a result of solar flares reach the North Pole or the South Pole of the Earth and collide with gas molecules in the atmosphere as a result.3: Aurora that happen on Earth . telegraph transmissions and telephone calls. These light that can be seen at night are called aurora the charged particles and radiation from the Sun like cosmic rays. yellow and red lights are produced. Photograph 9.
during a nuclear reaction. 2 hydrogen atoms fuse to form one helium atom.consist of hydrogen and helium gases . Heat and light energy are released Figure 9.3: Nuclear reaction that occur in the Sun’s core .nuclear reaction that takes place in the Sun’s core generates energy .Generation of energy by the Sun… .
a natural object in outer space that can release heat and light energy .Alpha Proxima is the second nearest star to earth.Sirius and Rigel are situated 8. There are bright stars in the sky can been seen by naked eye at night such as the Sirius and Rigel.generates energy through nuclear reactions Sun is… .Stars and Galaxies in the Universe… Star is… .6 and 900 light years respectively from Earth .2 light years from Earth . Science Corridor: . This star is situated about 4. distance traveled by light in a year.a star that is nearest to Earth Distance of a star from the Earth is measured in units of light year.
very small star.tens of times bigger than the Sun Supergiant star .very big star.measurement of the brightness of object in the sky that can be seen from Earth. The lower the magnitude value. A star that very hot is blue in colour.4: Apparent magnitude reading .Classification of stars Stars need to be classified to facilitate research and classified according to characteristics such as i) ii) iii) temperature size brightness A star with very lo temperature is red in colour. smaller than Earth . Dwarf star Giant star . 100 times bigger than the Sun Apparent magnitude . the brighter the object Figure 9.
born from nebula Nebula . the core shines and a star is born. .when temperature and pressure in the core become very high.a large cloud that consist of dust and gases - gases and particles in the nebula are pulled by strong gravitational force to form a lump and causes the lump of gases to shirk and is compressed until it becomes very compact to form a core . The star will die when all hydrogen gas in its core is used up in nuclear reaction.Birth and death of star… Star . nuclear reaction occurs and hydrogen gas is turned into helium. A lot of heat and light energy are released the.
the outer parts of the star drift out into space leaving the extremely hot white core called the white dwarf 4. the.The star will undergo death in by following stages with… A star of moderate size like Sun: 1. compact and becoming increasingly cold 5. the with dwarf is a star that is dense. the hydrogen atoms in the star are used up and nuclear reaction stops 2. the star expands because its gravitational force has decreased and forms a red giant 3. its continues to become colder and eventually leaves a black body or black dwarf (looks dark in outer space) .
. Neutron star . very strong gravitational force in the core of the star converts it into either a neutron star or black hole. to it. including light. Black hole . Black hole also can’t be seen in outer space. that is close by.A star that is bigger than the Sun: 1. it continues to expand and finally explodes as supernova. the outer layer of the star expands as a result of decreasing gravitational force to form a red giant 2. A great deal of heat and light energy are produced 3.a very small and dense star as it consist mainly of neutron particles.an object that is very dense and has strong gravitational force that pulls all surrounding materials.
a group of stars that forms a certain pattern in the sky .Constellation… Constellation .5: Example of constellations .in ancient times. knowledge of the constellation were used as a calendar and compass Figure 9.
spiral galaxies .our solar is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.The Sun is one of the millions of stars in the Milky Way.elliptical galaxies .3: Shows the shape and example of galaxy .Types of galaxy… Classified according to: . .irregular galaxies Shape of galaxy Elliptical Spiral Irregular Example of galaxy Galaxy M87 in Virgo Milky Way and Andromeda Magellan Cloud Table 9. .
During the explosion. the Universe expanded from nothing to become a huge space measuring 2 billion billion kilometers in width.iii) Existence of the Universe as a Gift from God… Many scientist believe in the theory that the Universe begins with a huge explosion. beauty and harmony in the Universe as a sing Of the glory of God. scientists still can’t explain why the Big Bang occur. in a single second. We should appreciate the uniqueness. . the Big Bang. At present. orderliness.
The _____________ is the nearest star to Earth Sirius and Rigel are examples of ________ stars in the sky. _______ is the beginning stage in the death of a star. viii) In ancient times. iv) v) Stars produce energy through __________________. vii) A ______ is a group of stars that form a certain pattern in the sky. vi) _________ are natural objects in outer space that release heat and light energy.Questions… i) The distance of stars from Earth is measured in units of ii) iii) ______________. constellations were used as _____ and ______ ix) x) ________ which is our solar system found. A very hot star is _______ in colour while a very cold star is ________ in colour. .
is the field of study about natural objects in the sky Photograph 10.Chapter 10: Space Exploration Development in the field of astronomy and space exploration… Astronomy .1: Galileo Galilei Photograph: 10.2 Isaac Newton .
4: Measat 3 is heading to space . Rockets. man-made satellites.Development in space exploration… Space exploration is the investigation of the Universe beyond the atmosphere of the Earth by using spacecraft. Photograph 10. space stations and space shuttles were later invented to continue the efforts of space exploration. Space exploration was first done from Earth with the use of a telescope.3: a spacecraft Photograph 10.
Sputnik 1. was launched.1: Some of the development in space exploration Photograph 10.5: Man has successfully landed on the surface of the Moon.Year 1957 1961 1969 1981 Development The world’s first artificial satellite. . the Space Shuttle. Sputnik 2. Four months later. was launched Table 10. carrying a dog named Laika was launched Yuri Gagarin became the first person to orbit the Earth Man first landed on the Earth The first reusable names spacecraft.
Application of technology related to pace exploration and astronomy… A few types of modern technological instruments have been inverted for outer space exploration. .refracting telescope .spaceship Telescope are three types of telescope used for outer space exploration: . Spaceships have been launched into outer space to obtain various information.radio telescope Refracting telescope .telescope . Among them are the: . Radio telescope .reflecting telescope .used to received electric signals and radiation from outer space. Spaceships that carry astronauts are launched by rockets into outer space but probe is a spaceship that doesn’t carry humans.uses lens while reflecting telescope uses mirrors to take and send photographs on outer space.
space and energy? x) Who discovered Pluto? .Questions… i) Who said that the Earth’s orbit is elliptical in shape? ii) iii) iv) Who is invented the first astronomical telescope? Who introduced the law of gravity? Who suggested that the Earth was the centre of the solar system? v) vi) Who suggested that the Earth rotates on its axis? Who suggested that the Sun is the centre of the solar? vii) Who is the first person to walk on the Moon? viii) Who discovered Halley’s Comet? ix) Who advanced the idea about the relationship between time.
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