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e Business Notes

e Business Notes

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Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.



Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.College

In today's world e-business is extremely important for many reasons. Some of which is due to the fact it can speed the whole process of ordering etc. up. Thanks to the Kakatiya University for providing a

valuable and latest application in management process to the business students. The Present collection of E-Business is prepared for the

syllabi of Kakatiya University. As the data and collection includes from many of the internet sources and valuable author’s books, the data is however is made for the use of the students appearing for MBA IInd Year from Kakatiya University. This collection needs to be monitored and

valuable suggestions are always of a great help to contribute the knowledge to the future generation. This collection is dedicated to my source of inspiration. accepted. Any queries or suggestions are heartfully

Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar, Kakatiya University & Faculty in Mgt St.Joseph’s P.G.College.
E-Mail: suresh.scholar@gmail.com


Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.College

Unit I : Introduction to E-Business E-Business: Meaning, significance – Opportunities and Risks – E-Business Models: B2B: Meaning and implementation, B2C: Meaning and implementation, B2G: Meaning and implementation, C2G: Meaning and implementation and C2B: Meaning and implementation – Advantages and Limitations – Mobile Commerce: Meaning, Framework and Models – E-Business Trade: Bookshops, grocery, software, newspaper, banking auction, share dealing. Unit II : E-Business Infrastructure Internet: Meaning, Issues, Problems and Prospects, ISP – Intranets: Trends, Growth and Applications – Extranet: Applications, VPN – EDI: Definitions and Benefits – Technology and Implementation. Portals.

Unit III : E-Business Applications E-Business Strategy: Definition, Objectives, Analysis and Implementation - E-Marketing: Meaning, Areas, Planning, Strategy and implementation – Internet Advertising - E-CRM: Meaning, Technology for CRM and application – E-Procurement: Meaning, Drivers, Risks and implementation – E-SCM: Meaning, Focus and implementation – E-Payment Systems: Meaning, Pre and Post paid payments systems – E-Cash.

Unit IV : E-Security

E-Security: Meaning, Attacking methods, SET and SSL, Hacking Security Tools: Cryptology and Encryption – Password – Authentication: Keys and Kerberos – Digital Signatures – Security Protocols – Firewall Security – E-Commerce Law: Information Technology Act, 2000 – Government Policy and Recommendations.

Unit V : E-Business Web Technologies

Web site meaning – Types – Planning and Organizing – Web page Designing, Essentials in designing good web site – Web page development tools – Testing and evaluating web site – Creating Web site using MS Front Page: Using Wizard – Viewing and closing web sites – HTML: Basics, Syntax, HTML Editors – Multimedia: Graphics, web image formats, VRML.


Joseph’s P.G.Suresh Chandra. St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Ch Ph.College 4 .

College E-BUSINESS: Electronic Business. 5. ADVANTAGES OF E-BUSINESS: There are many advantages of E-Business. Some of the important advantages are: 1. . 5 . 6. 7./ 3. Wider product availability to the buyers. Increased speed and accuracy of information delivery. 2. 8.Electronic business methods enable companies to link their internal and external data processing systems more efficiently and flexibly. Simply. SIGNIFICANCE OF E-BUSINESS 1. St. processing orders electronically. to work more closely with suppliers and partners. Increased sales opportunities for seller 2. and cooperating with business partners. Data collection and customer preferences tracking is available through EBusiness. Customized and personalized information and buying options.Suresh Chandra. and to better satisfy the needs and expectations of their customers. E-business involves business processes spanning the entire value chain: electronic purchasing and supply chain management. commonly referred to as "eBusiness" or "e-Business".Joseph’s P.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. E-Business is defined as “the process of conducting business electronically or over the internet”.G. Access to global markets for sellers. may be defined as the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. E-business software solutions allow the integration of intra and inter firm business processes. Decreased costs for sellers 4. 24 hours a day. It provides advantages for sellers and buyers. 7 days a week sales for sellers and 24/7 shopping for buyers.Ch Ph. handling customer service.

but especially problematic in the developing world. intranets. E-business can be conducted using the Web. e-government. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS • Reducing costs. efficiencies in company purchasing and procurement processes for the buyers. services. business activities and their confidence will seriously affect people's awareness. including e-commerce. and information (via e-commerce). and increasing revenues for sellers are the main objectives of commercial transactions on the internet. With the development of e-business. Extranets. whether those relationships be business-to-consumer. 5. or some combination of these.Joseph’s P. and thus the impact of ebusiness development. acceptance and participation of e-business. 4. E-business includes the various terms used to express specific functions. the Internet. Their business relationships(via extranets). They are a challenge to the traditional commercial mode.Ch Ph. improving margins. 3. honesty and the evaluation method. • We use the term “e-business” to broadly describe the publishing of information and the performing of various transactions over the Internet. and The buying and selling of goods. extranets. some new problems appeared. or Intranets. Some obstacles are likely to be removed in the relatively near future.Suresh Chandra. St. the security of online business information. E-business is a mainly Internet-based commerce method.G. E-business is any internet initiative – tactical or strategic that transforms business relationships. intra business or even consumer – to – consumer. Electronic business is market place where businesses are using Internet technologies and network computing to securely transform: • • • Their internal business processes(via Intranets). and others. business-to-business. 6 .D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.College 3. but others will remain over a much longer period. The barriers to effective ebusiness are varied enough in the industrial world.

or broadcasting of data (showing visitors'' real names instead of their nicknames in a chat room or forum). increased access to customers could be dangerous to the business. For some links in the supply chain. All of these cost your business money in terms of data recovery and goodwill recovery. The new e-commerce supply concept requires every link in the supply chain to "valueadd" to it's existing features and benefits..Ch Ph. There is a chance of current industry partners could even become most "unwelcomed competitors" .. Both manufacturers and distributors can bypass retailers by using e-business to sell directly to the customers 7 . It is therefore not surprising that e-business is an important if not significant part of their business strategy. RISKS IN E-BUSINESS The traditional flow of business through the supply chain is as follows: a: Raw materials supplier b: Manufacturer c: Distributor d: Retailer e: End consumer e-Business is completely revolutionizing this linear view of the supply chain.College • A growing number of companies use computers and the Internet in their daily business.G. it will present huge risks for those who don't take advantage of it. the end-consumers. this new online marketplace can connect each participant with the end-consumer.Joseph’s P. Some of the risks involved in e-business in various stages of supply chain are: Retailers: Retailers rely on expensive real-estate locations to display and sell their products to their customers. destruction of data. St.Suresh Chandra. Instead of goods flowing from one participant to the next.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. As e-commerce evolves. distortion of data (changes to payment files or invoices so that people appear to owe you more or less than they do). • Security risks can include theft of data (credit card numbers from your database).

manufacturers need to own public mind share for their brands. The best distributors will move further ahead of the competition by using ebusiness capabilities to share product. St. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN E-BUSINESS & E-COMMERCE • • In practice. billing and availability information to their partners. E-commerce is a subset of an overall e-business strategy where as e-business is a strategic focus of all the activities involved in electronic capabilities.Suresh Chandra. E-commerce threatens this mind share ownership because consumers have a wider range of product selection and are not as influenced by physical placement of goods or packaging.College Distributors: Electronic commerce gives manufacturers the power to sell directly to consumers or to retailers.Joseph’s P. E-BUSINESS MODELS: Company’s business model is the way in which the company conducts business in order to generate to revenue. E-Commerce is a subset of E-business. That means lower costs and higher profit margins for them. Manufacturers: In order to maintain equity and prompt future sales. The important E-Business models are: The most adopted E-Business models are 8 .G.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Ch Ph. these are the risks involved in e-business especially in case of supply chain. Business involves a whole set of transactions that must be completed before actual reaching the point where goods or services change hands for the agreed consideration. e-business is more than just e-commerce. Thus.

St.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Shops • • • • • • • • • • • E.College E. the E-Business models are classified into: • • • • • • • • • Business-to-business(B2B) * Business-to-consumer (B2C) * Business-to-employee (B2E) Business-to-government (B2G) * Government-to-business(G2B) Government-to-government (G2G) Government-to-citizen (G2C) Consumer-to-government (C2G) * Consumer-to-business (C2B) * 9 .auctions Virtual communities Collaboration plotforms Third-party market places Value-chain integraters Value-chain service providers Information brokerage Telecommunications.Commerce E.Malls E.Ch Ph. E-Business Models: Based on providers (or) producer and customer(or) clients point of view.G.Joseph’s P.Procurement E.

Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. The selling business can be a wholesaler. may sometimes implement sites based on the B2B direct business model. The following diagram demonstrates a typical B2B direct business. distributors. Organizations that are not traditionally considered businesses. or information between two businesses or parties. suppliers.Ch Ph. services. businesses purchase goods or services directly from another business. such as governments. and trading partners. Typical B2B direct transactions occur between buyers. This occurs in such cases where governments provide goods and services directly to businesses. St. manufacturers. a distributor. This business model is a complete reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers. C2B BUSINESS MODEL: Consumer-to-business (C2B) is an electronic commerce business model in which consumers (individuals) offer products and services to companies and the companies pay them. or a retailer who sells to buyers from other businesses.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. In a typical B2B direct business. a manufacturer.G. resellers.College B2B direct business model B2B direct supports commerce transactions involving products. 10 .

College Consumer A consumer in the C2B business model can be any individual who has something to offer either a service or a good.Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. 11 .G. St. the "consumer" can be: • A webmaster/ blogger offering advertising service (through Google Adsense program for example or amazon. Depending on the model.com Business Business in the C2B business model represents any companies buying goods or services to individual trough intermediaries.com or h3.com affiliation program) • • Any individual answering a poll through a survey site Any individual with connections offering job hiring service by referring someone through referral hiring sites like jobster.Ch Ph. Here are some examples of potential companies which can be such clients: • • Any company which wants to fill a job (through referral hiring sites) Any company needing to advertise online (through Google Adwords program for example) • Any advertising agency which needs to buy a stock photo (through microstock sites) C2G The citizen to government (C2G) segment has become an attractive investment opportunity on the web with the government of India approving . The individual is paid for the work provided to the companies.

. 12 . Customers have access to the internet. cyber shops.popularly known by several names such as virtual shops. Common Characteristics of the shops are. St. E-stores etc. For convenience sake.com known as dot com shops).Joseph’s P.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. They operate from the homes or work places and wish to purchase items sold by the shops. Though the I-T department is looking to simplify the tax payment process through online filing. GOVERNMENT CONSUMER B2C BUSINESS MODEL Business-to-consumer (B2C. Therefore. customer operates.Ch Ph.G. “The income tax department does not have the IT infrastructure to allow payments of taxes online directly into their system. dot-com shops.Suresh Chandra.College online filing of income tax. Through the web address of the shop9ending with. the department does not have the online infrastructure to make it possible at present. in the first stage we are looking at corporates and giving them tax software to allow all their employees to file their tax online. one can shop at any time from the house and items will be delivered to the house. connnected to the world wide web. There are several internet based shops. sometimes also called Business-to-Customer) describes activities of businesses serving end consumers with products and/or services. .

College BUSINESS CONSUMER An example of a B2C transaction would be a person buying a pair of shoes from a retailer.Suresh Chandra. branding.Ch Ph. St. and webbased communications. The transactions that led to the shoes being available for purchase.G. marcom. B2G BUSINESS MODEL Business-to-government (B2G) is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of "public sector marketing" which encompasses marketing products and services to government agencies through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. GOVERNMENT BUSINESS 13 . Public sector organizations (PSO's) post tenders in the form of RFP's. rubber. etc. advertising. RFI's. that is the purchase of the leather. B2G networks allow businesses to bid on government RFPs in a reverse auction fashion. laces. RFQ's etc.Joseph’s P.

g. 14 . E-GROCERY ˜eGrocery' is the industry term for online grocery shopping. mCommerce or U-Commerce.Joseph’s P. a mobile phone (cell phone). either economically or through planning restrictions.Suresh Chandra. which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device. Mobile Commerce (also known as M-Commerce. involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. owing to the ubiquitous nature of its services) is the ability to conduct commerce. 1. Recover business from existing eGrocery providers and protect against future losses to any online operation. The method of picking and delivery may vary. 2. a smart phone and other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. Win new business both in customer type and through the extended radius a store can cover when offering a delivery service.Ch Ph.College M-COMMERCE Mobile Commerce is any transaction.offering the customers a wide selection of products which may be purchased online and then either delivered to the customer or else stored for pick-up by the customer. where a customer selects and pays for their groceries online. using a mobile device e.G. Allow for access into geographical areas where it is not possible to build a store. but the core concept of eGrocery is always the same . a PDA.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. St.

from any computer.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.scribd. of e-book shops are: 1.ebooks.Joseph’s P. the consumers can get the following advantages: • • • To look inside a book before buying To read their books online and download the whole book To purchase or order the books online which makes available of wide range of varieties. • • To search the entire contents of every book in the catalog.www. Through e-book shops.Ch Ph.com 15 . fiction etc. Ex.com 2.G. history. E-books shops provide the books in multiple electronic formats in all categories. They can also read books online. easily through the source of internet. any where without downloading or installing anything. St. religion. the users can download books to computers.www. Through e-book shops the customers can access to the wide range of different books which may be related to science. highly scalable online business with lakhs of users around the world.Suresh Chandra. PDAs(Personal Digital Assistant or Pagers with net feaures) and mobile phones. business. Through e-book stores.College E-BOOK SHOPS e-book shops are the rapid growth. technology.

content Management System (CMS): it manages and controls dynamic web content from authorship to publication. and customer support.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. sales and accounting.Ch Ph. E-Software is the application of ebusiness which provides the customers with the latest updated software to be used for various purposes. Some of the features of e-software are: 1. St. The e-news papers provide various latest updates of news headlines.SOFTWARE Electronic business provides one of the very important features for the users in installing various software through the internet. 2. 3. payments.G.Joseph’s P. 4. It is a powerful media through which people can read 16 . the people around the world can easily access through the various happenings through internet. Customer Relationship Management (CRM): it organizes and manages interactions with customers including sales. purchasing.Suresh Chandra. E-NEWS PAPERS: Through E-news papers.College E. contents and other utilities which we get through the news papers on the internet. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): it integrates all aspects of business operations including manufacturing. Various news papers publishers are now a days providing their news through the internet source. Storefront software: It builds and maintains web pages and underlying data bases for an e-retail store.

concerned bank branch is responsible for all the transactions. 1.com 3.College the news. and Password in the respected websites. the banks will follow the following strategies to perform the e-banking auction. 3. Some of the e-news papers providers are: 1. concerned bank branch will hand over the possession of the property to the successful bidder. St.G.Suresh Chandra.Hindu – www.epaper.net 2. the banks can perform the auction in an easier manner than compared to traditional auction system.com 4.Ch Ph. It also provides the news publishers good profit by offering various ads along with the news. Through this facility. Times of India – www.com E-BANKING AUCTION Electronic Banking auction is one of the latest features provided by the e-business trade.Joseph’s P.news by creating ID. Property will be in the possession of the bank.Business standard – www.timesofindia. Hindu. Viewers can be the members to access to the e.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.eenadu – www.business-standard.eenadu. before it is put to public auction. 2. 17 . Through this system.

St. Under the Security interest enforcement rules. 6.13(2) provides banks in India are disposing properties in public auctions pledged to them. 2002. to recover their debts from the barrowers.Suresh Chandra. extending the range of added value services to the investors. The e-share dealing firms provides the features like keeping informed to the customers about the up-to-date shares information.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. 18 . the people possess the properties of their choice in a place of their choice – without the meddling of middlemen – at a price of their choice.Joseph’s P. Various private firms collect commission charges from the share holders to perform the activity of e-share dealing. 7. They provides added values to the share holders to deal online or by phone. Various service firms provide the facility of e-share dealing. 5. SHARE DEALING Electronic share dealing is one of the latest booms in E-business.Ch Ph. sec. through this the users can log in to the concerned auction section for doing the banking auction through website.College 4. Through e-banking auction. All bank sites provides a special menu bar for auction & possession options.G. This feature allows the customers to do share business with the help of internet.

G.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. St.College 19 .

D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.edu) Commercial organisations (.net) 20 . COMPONENTS OF THE INTERNET WORLD Every computer on the Internet has its own unique name. publishing. and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services. It is used to identify a collection of internet host computers. video on demand. In addition it supports popular services such as online chat. It contains two or more parts separated by a dot. are given below: • • • • • Educational institutions (. business.College UNIT – III E-BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. commerce. This is called a domain name. most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.Ch Ph. and teleconferencing and telecommunications.G. St. academic. social networking.com) Military (. Six categories of most common domain names. fiberoptic cables.gov) Networking organisations (. wireless connections. and other technologies.Suresh Chandra. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications allow person-to-person communication via voice and video.mil) Government (. gaming. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public. file transfer and file sharing.Joseph’s P.

Ch Ph. can be accessed by other people. make new friends. and a host of other entertainment software from the Internet. Any kind of information on any topic under the sun is available on the Internet. Disadvantages of the Internet There are certain cons and dangers relating to the use of Internet that can be summarized as: • Personal Information: If you use the Internet. and can be used for a variety of things. • Downloading Software: This is one of the most happening and fun things to do via the Internet. videos. you can also shop online. address.Joseph’s P. You do not need to leave your house and can do all your shopping from the convenience of your home.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.College Advantages of the Internet The Internet provides opportunities galore. most of which are free. movies. There are many online stores and sites that can be used to look for products as well as buy them using your credit card. your personal information such as your name. • Shopping: Along with getting information on the Internet. unlike traditional mail that takes a lot of time. If you use a credit card 21 . • Access Information: The Internet is a virtual treasure trove of information. which works like writing letters. as well as to stay in touch with old friends. etc. The ‘search engines’ on the Internet can help you to find data on any subject that you need.The messages are delivered instantly to people anywhere in the world. St. games.G. You can download innumerable. • Online Chat: There are many ‘chat rooms’ on the web that can be accessed to meet new people. Some of the things that you can do via the Internet are: • E-mail: E-mail is an online correspondence system. music.Suresh Chandra. With e-mail you can send and receive instant electronic messages.

Joseph’s P. St. such as universities and technology corporations. An intranet can be understood as a private version of the Internet. and FTP (file transfer).1991. such as client-server computing and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). INTRANET An intranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational systems with its employees. Although not officially noted. then your credit card information can also be ‘stolen’ which could be akin to giving someone a blank check.G. or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website. which serve no purpose and unnecessarily clog up the entire system. Intranets differ from extranets in that the former are generally restricted to employees of the organization while extranets may also be accessed by customers. SMTP (e-mail). in 1992.Ch Ph.College to shop online. The first intranet websites and home pages began to appear in organizations in 1990 . such as HTTP (web services). especially when it comes to young children. Internet technologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hosting corporate data. An intranet is built from the same concepts and technologies used for the Internet. • Pornography: This is a very serious issue concerning the Internet. 22 . Any of the well known Internet protocols may be found in an intranet. the term intranet first became common-place inside early adopters.Suresh Chandra. but often it is a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure and private websites are an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. • Spamming: This refers to sending unsolicited e-mails in bulk. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the Internet that can be easily found and can be a detriment to letting children use the Internet.

St. email. intranets are useful to communicate strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. McGovern says the savings from the reduction in query calls was substantially greater than the investment in the intranet. and who to speak to for more information. From a communications standpoint. users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available. A great real world example of where an intranet helped a company communicate is when Nestle had a number of food processing plants in Scandinavia. and or blogs.. With the help of a web browser interface.e. increasing employees' ability to perform their jobs faster. staff have the opportunity to keep up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization.subject to security provisions . When Nestle decided to invest in an intranet.Ch Ph. employees can link to relevant information at a time which suits them) rather than being deluged indiscriminately by emails. By providing this information on the intranet. 23 . results achieved to date. authorization and authentication. vertically and horizontally.from anywhere within the company workstations. and with confidence that they have the right information. who is driving the initiative.G.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. more accurately.[1] Extranets extend a private network onto the Internet with special provisions for access. organizations can make more information available to employees on a "pull" basis (i. Gerry). anytime and . • Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization./// The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve. BENEFITS OF INTRANETS • Workforce productivity: Intranets can also help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users. or other approved parties. Their central support system had to deal with a number of queries every day (McGovern. Some examples of communication would be chat.Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. • Time: With intranets.College suppliers. they quickly realized the savings.

• Promote common corporate culture: Every user is viewing the same information within the Intranet. the manual cost was USD17. 24 .Suresh Chandra. internal phone list and requisition forms. "PeopleSoft. • Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the internet worked enterprise. company policies.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.College • Web publishing allows 'cumbersome' corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies. can be accessed using common Internet standards (Acrobat files. The intranet reduced this cost to USD4. St. • Cost-effective: Users can view information and data via web-browser rather than maintaining physical documents such as procedure manuals. Because each business unit can update the online copy of a document. CGI applications).77. teamwork is enabled. Cisco processed 54. PeopleSoft also saved some money when they received requests for mailing address change.48 per enrollment. PeopleSoft was just one of the many companies that saved money by using an intranet. "Shifting this process to the intranet reduced the cost per enrollment to $21. duplicating documents. a saving of 80 percent" [3] . Flash files. benefits documents.G. Gerry McGovern goes on to say the manual cost of enrolling in benefits was found to be USD109.87. a large software company. newsfeeds. has derived significant cost savings by shifting HR processes to the intranet" [3] . business standards. "For an individual to request a change to their mailing address. a saving of 73 percent" [3].000 reports and the amount of dollars processed was USD19 million". This can potentially save the business money on printing.79. "In 1996. the most recent version is always available to employees using the intranet. • Enhance Collaboration: With information easily accessible by all authorised users. and even training. Another company that saved a lot of money on expense reports was Cisco. Examples include: employee manuals.Ch Ph. and the environment as well as document maintenance overhead.

Mac. laws/specifications/parameters can change.Suresh Chandra. usually via the Internet. department) or individual ("Congratulations Jane. • Supports a distributed computing architecture: The intranet can also be linked to a company’s management information system. • Built for One Audience: Many companies dictate computer specifications. which can limit a company's liability. you know exactly who you are interfacing with.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. So. vendors. • Knowledge of your Audience: Being able to specifically address your "viewer" is a great advantange. Which. on your 3rd year with our company!"). Extranet applications: • • • • Online ordering *News and content Marketing and product information 25 . customers or other businesses.Joseph’s P. for example a time keeping system. and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with suppliers. you can personalize your Intranet based on role (job title. An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols. With an Intranet and providing your audience with "live" changes. Since Intranets are user specific (requiring database/network authentication prior to access). they are never out of date.College • Cross-platform Capability: Standards-compliant web browsers are available for Windows. may allow Intranet developers to write applications that only have to work on one browser (no cross-browser compatibility issues).G. and UNIX. St. network connectivity. • Immediate Updates: When dealing with the public in any capacity. partners. in turn.Ch Ph.

policy and standards Customer service/self service E-mail and chat Bulletin boards and groups Billing and account history On-line financial transactions Advantages • • • • • Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Share product catalogs exclusively with trade partners Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies.Suresh Chandra.G. St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.College • • • • • • • • • • • Legacy database access Inventory management ERP.Joseph’s P. 26 . Collaborative research and development Collaborative scheduling Training. such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks • Share news of common interest exclusively.Ch Ph. supply chain managemt.

G.g. 27 .Ch Ph. hardware. software.. St.Joseph’s P. • Security of extranets can be a concern when hosting valuable or proprietary information.Suresh Chandra. System access must be carefully controlled to secure sensitive data.College EXTRANET STRUCTURE: Extranet Suppliers Distributors Enterprise • Knowledge Management • Internal Communication • Project Management Logistics Provider Financial Srvices Intranet Internet Electronic Storefront Business Intelligence Customer Services Information Dissemination Disadvantages • Extranets can be expensive to implement and maintain within an organization (e. employee training costs) — if hosted internally instead of via an application service provider.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.

The other important features include: 1. EDI is the direct computer to computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transaction documents such as invoices. assists in JIT(Just in Time) inventory management. 28 . HTTP. banking. FTP. utilities. pharmaceuticals. senders name. bill of lading (list of a ship’s cargo). receiving advices and invoices. EDI differs from electronic mail in that it transmits an actual structured transaction (fields like transaction date/amount. St.Ch Ph.Suresh Chandra.Joseph’s P. construction. insurance. Email. fewer errors in data. EDI can be transmitted using any methodology agreed to by the sender and recipient. Improvements in overall quality: By better record keeping. etc. petroleum. reductions in processing time. APPLICATIONS OF EDI: EDI is used in manufacturing . government. for business documents such as requests for quotations. bills of lading. purchase change orders. AS2. The major benefits of EDI is cost reduction by eliminating paper document handling and with faster electronic document transmission. AS1.College EDI EDI refers to Electronic Data Interchange. purchase orders. minimised unproductive time. retailing . EDI consists of standardised electronic message formats.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. It saves money and time because transactions can be transmitted form one information system to another through a tele-communications network. shipping. purchase orders . warehousing. 2. This includes a variety of technologies. metals. including modem (asynchronous. and textiles among others. healthcare. Inventory reduction: it permits faster and more accurate filling of orders . eliminating the printing and handling of paper at one end and the inputting of data at the other. less reliance on human interpretation of data. helps reduce inventory. The EDI standards were designed to be independent of communication and software technologies. recipient’s name etc) in contrast to an unstructured text message such as a letter. and bisynchronous).G.

shipping notices and other types of business documents in a fast and expensive method.Ch Ph.Applications of EDI costs very high to develop and operate. 5.Joseph’s P. 2.G. enabling business to identify areas offering the greater potential for efficiency improvement or cost reduction. Sending invoices: It can be used for sending invoices. 3. custom documents. St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. previously established arrangement. Specially new entrants find this more difficult to use or have the EDI. 7.Suresh Chandra. It does not allow consumers to communicate or transact with vendors in an easy way. 6. Provides better information: It provides accurate information and audit trails for transactions. 29 . It eliminates the errors introduced by rekeying.College 3. purchase orders. Saves time: It saves time and manpower by avoiding the need to rekey data. It need highly structure protocols. and there is an automatic acknowledgement. unique proprietary bilateral information exchanges. Hence it provides limited accessibility to the consumers and the subscribers must subscribe to an online service called Value added network(VAN). 4. Limitations: EDI provides lot of benefits to the organizations and suppliers and some limitations are also restricts to use the Electronic Data Interchange. They are: 1. Data arrives much faster than it could be by mail.

for instance. arranged in a way that is most convenient for the user to access. Apart from the standard search engine feature. stock prices.Joseph’s P. iGoogle and Netvibes. AOL.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Generally. A portal is a web site that acts as a single source for all information on a specific domain. implemented and maintained correctly a web portal becomes the starting or entry point of a web user introducing him into various information. When designed. The links between nodes of a virtual private network are formed over logical connections or virtual circuits between hosts of the larger network.G. VPNs are often installed by organizations to provide remote access to a secure organizational network. resources and other sites in the internet. The Link Layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the underlying transport network.Ch Ph. news. VPNs are also used to mask the IP address of individual computers within the Internet in order. web portals offer other services such as e-mail. a VPN has a network topology more complex than a point-to-point connection. profession. also known as a links page. Examples of public web portals are MSNBC. information. An effective Web portal offers the user a broad array of information. It has the power to draw together a common group of people. which otherwise would have been different entities altogether.College VPN A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network that is implemented in an additional software layer (overlay) on top of an existing larger network for the purpose of creating a private scope of computer communications or providing a secure extension of a private network into an insecure network such as the Internet. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases. to surf the World Wide Web anonymously or to access location restricted services. 30 . databases and entertainment.Suresh Chandra. such as Internet television. Yahoo!. St. location etc. PORTALS A web portal. common on the basis of their age. presents information from diverse sources in a unified way.

As the website is now a standardized tool for business. Yahoo. vertical or domain. They focus on general public and try to present something for each one.College Different Types of Portals: The portals are classified on the basis of content and intended users as follows: • Vertical Portals (Vortals) These portals focus only on a specific industry.G.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. articles. information. vortals offer the right gateway for businesses to promote their products and services to get exposure within their vertical.com and 31 . mp3.Ch Ph. St. Cnet. Vortals or portals just offer tools.B2B and B2C • Horizontal Portals These portals focus on a wide range of topics and interests. msn. offering content on the subject of interest and guides towards a direction to fetch more resources and related information.Commerce Portals: This supports e-commerce i.com which focuses only on computer and related issues.Corporate Portals: This offers access to chosen information of a specific company 2.com. The solutions can be divided into 2 groups. 1. Vortals mostly provide customized information and services to niche audiences having a special area of interest. research and statistics on one specific industry. There are endless possibilities for establishing vertical portals.e.com only on mp3 audio etc are the best examples of vortals. This portal act as an entry point of a web surfer into the internet.Joseph’s P.

This are not just intranet portals as the former are supposed to offer extra functionality like collaboration services. availability of applications on demand. They aim at providing a virtual workplace for employees. 32 . customers. • Intranet Portals (Enterprise Portals) The enterprise portals focus on offering staff members with information which is regularly updated along with system of document management.Joseph’s P.G.Suresh Chandra.College Google etc which offers visitors with information on a wide area of subjects and topics. • Enterprise Portals An enterprise portal offers access to the right range of information about a particular company. St. online training courses and web casts etc. This portal target the whole Internet community.Ch Ph. suppliers etc. • Knowledge Portals: Knowledge portals provides easy access to information necessary or helpful to them in specific roles. discovery services and a knowledge map.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. sophisticated information. This portals have become the hot favorite technologies of the Internet.

Joseph’s P.College 33 . St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Suresh Chandra.G.Ch Ph.

Various business models of E-business provide the companies to achieve the higher benefits with less cost and labour.G. E-business strategy also defines how an organization gains value internally from using electronic networks.Cash 34 .College UNIT-III E-BUSINESS APPLICATIONS E-BUSINESS STRATEGY: E-business strategy is defined as the strategy for the companies using the internet to conduct the business or trade. such as through sharing employee knowledge and improving process efficiencies through intranets. E-business strategies help the business organizations to do the businesses on to the international scene at minimal cost but with maximum efficiency. St.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. E-payment system & E. Online-advertising 2.Suresh Chandra.” TYPES IN E-BUSINESS STRATEGY: The important E-Business Strategies are: • Electronic Supply Chain management( e-scm) • Electronic marketing(E-Marketing) • Electronic Customer Service and CRM( e-CRM) • Inventory and Service management • Tactical operations alignment 1. E-Business strategies are based on achieving the following objectives : • Is based on current performance in marketplace” • “Defines how we will meet our objectives” • “Sets allocation of resources to meet goals” • “Selects preferred strategic options to compete within a market” • “Provides a long-term plan for the development of the organisation.Joseph’s P.

College E-MARKETING: E-Marketing is defined as the marketing of products or services over the internet. Some of them are: pay per impression. the inability of shoppers to touch.Ch Ph. These digital technologies include Internet media such as web sites and e-mail as well as other digital media such as wireless or mobile and media for delivering digital Television such as cable and satellite. ADVANTAGES OF E-MARKETING: E-marketing or Internet marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the ratio of cost against the reach of the target audience.Suresh Chandra. If companies build large or overly-complicated websites. the companies can reach a wide audience for a small cost than compared to the traditional advertising budgets. From the buyer's perspective. The advertisers can use a variety of methods to attract the customers.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. With the help of E-business. pay per play. taste or "try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting. E-marketing has the advantage of measuring the statistics easily and inexpensively. or pay per action. LIMITATIONS: Internet marketing requires customers to use newer technologies rather than traditional media. pay per click. St. eMarketing is achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology or digital technology. there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services 35 . However. Low-speed Internet connections are another barrier. smell. E-marketing is also called as Internet marketing or i-marketing or web marketing or online marketing.Joseph’s P.G. individuals connected to the Internet via dial-up connections or mobile devices experience significant delays in content delivery. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and purchase products and services at their own convenience.

co. St. Leads can be generated by attracting potential customers to sign-up for short periods of time.com. Social network advertising. Amazon. INTERNET ADVERTISING: Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. E-marketing has the following applications like: 1. Online shopping 5. A company can distribute via the Internet e. 36 . Online purchasing 6. Rich Media Ads.g.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Internet advertising 3. advertising networks and e-mail marketing. E.Auction. A company can use the Internet as a way of building and maintaining a customer relationship e. The Internet could be used for advertising e.G.uk. 4.College IMPLEMENTATION OF E-MARKETING: The E-marketing can be implemented by the following ways.g. before signing up for the long-term e. which. electricity and telephone bills. E-Customer relationship management 2. Finally.g.g. as part of a voting system for a game show. Dell. E-Supply chain management.com. online classified advertising. Google Adwords.g.Suresh Chandra.Joseph’s P.Ch Ph. the web can be used as a way of collecting direct responses e. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search engine results pages.g. including e-mail spam. banner ads. The money collection part of a transaction could be done online e.

With the Internet. but there are still those few that are just meant to be seen. The CRM is considered as the “A holistic process of identifying. The ad owner has the option of either promoting their product or service through survey based contests on our site. E-CRM: Customer relationship management refers to Process of creating and maintaining relationships with business customers or consumers”. The ad owner pays a fixed rate to have his advertisement posted for a specified duration. with the costs defrayed by advertising. eCRM (Electronic Customer Relationship Management) expands the traditional CRM techniques by integrating new electronic channels. Electronic Customer relationship management refers to the process of creating and maintaining relationships with business customers or consumers through using an electronic sources such as wireless.Ch Ph.G. and voice technologies.College Internet advertising is very similar to TV and radio advertising. The ad owner pays a fixed amount for each person who visits the page with the ad. The ad owner pays a fixed amount for each click on an ad that links to the advertisers' web site. How Internet Advertising works? There are various Internet advertising techniques: 1. Virtually all banners are links to other sites. St. The programs are offered as a free service. and retaining customers”. web. such as Web. Internet ads are known as banners.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. commercial advertising pays the expenses. and 37 . This advantage is limited or nonexistent in other forms of media advertising. A major advantage of Internet advertising is the ability to attract a specific target audience.Joseph’s P. like billboards. The same is true of Internet advertising. 3.Suresh Chandra. 2. One advantage of Internet advertising is that it opens new possibilities to spread messages to a targeted audience. differentiating. By advertising to a particular group. The information is free. attracting. wireless. ads are directed towards the right group of people. chance of success are indeed great. 4.

College voice technologies and combines it with e-business applications into the overall enterprise CRM strategy. the interaction between the customers/ consumer with the company made easy. BENEFITS OF e-CRM: Some of the important benefits include: 1. 2. 5. Perfecting customer segmentation: Through e-CRM.income) can be made easily. feeling with the organizations on any day any hour.Suresh Chandra. 3. With the advancement in the technology. the customer segmentation(dividing the customer groups based on customer’s interests. the customers are benefited with 24/7(24 hours. St. Through e-CRM. Enables 24/7 customers interaction: With the advancement in the technology. It will make the company to respond quickly and provide more benefits to the customers and consumers. 4. Through web and internet applications.through out the week) interaction with the organization.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. A unified view of customer: e-CRM is considered as the co-ordinated(Unified) view of customer. the organizations maintains the harmony with the customers as the customers are gods and they decides the success or failures of the products and services. the interactions between the customers and the organizations are building towards trusted relationships. The customers can express their perceptions.desires. And the customers can express the perception of products and services directly with the company.Ch Ph. 38 . Interactions lead to trusted relationships: Through e-CRM. With this the customers gets the privacy and the information is not having a chance of going leak.Joseph’s P. habits. Personalization through technology: The internet provides a convenient way to the customers to directly interact with the organizations.G. the customers are provided with more technology with privacy.

• e-MRO (Maintenance. placing purchase orders and receiving goods and services by using a software system based on Internet technology. invoices etc. Depending on the approach. 39 . e-procurement Web sites allow qualified and registered users to look for buyers or sellers of goods and services.It Covers full life cycle of purchasing (indent to receipt of goods). • e-sourcing: Identifying new suppliers for a specific category of purchasing requirements using Internet technology. Repair and Overhaul): The same as web-based ERP except that the goods and services ordered are non-product related MRO supplies. St. Typically. TYPES OF e-PROCUREMENT: There are seven main types of e-procurement: • Web-based ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning): Creating and approving purchasing requisitions. Pos. • e-tendering: Sending requests for information and prices to suppliers and receiving the responses of suppliers using Internet technology.College NEED OF e-CRM IMPLEMENTATION: Traditional CRM approach: call centers Rapid growth of customer base Sharp increase in service inquiries Adding more customer service representatives would be costly To improve customer’s experience in doing business with Sprint Core differentiator in the industry/competitive advantage.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.Ch Ph. e-PROCUREMENT: E-Procurement is the purchasing of goods and services using the internet.Suresh Chandra. catalogs. e-procurement connects buyers and suppliers through electronic exchange of Tenders. contracats. buyers or sellers may specify costs or invite bids.G.

information. materials management.Suresh Chandra. eSupply Chain Management refers to the flow of physical goods and associated information from the source to the consumer. It involves the flow of product. and inventory forecasting.gov. create requisition. providing real time information to the vendor as to the status of a customer's needs. • e-marketsites: Expands on Web-based ERP to open up value chains. a vendor may have an agreement with a customer to automatically ship materials when the customer's stock level reaches a low point. St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.G.Joseph’s P. Effectively managing these processes is critical to the success of any online operation. customer service. seek approval. Key eSupply chain activities include purchasing. and money between the ‘trading partners’ of a company’s “supply chain”. ADVANTAGES OF e-PROCUREMENT: In reality e-procurement has the advantage of taking supply chain management to the next level. add to shopping carts. Buying communities can access preferred suppliers' products and services. distribution. Eg: the e-procurement website of Government of Andhra Pradesh is: www. thus bypassing the need for the customer to ask for it.Ch Ph. E-supply chain management is fast emerging as a core strategy that organizations world wide are adopting for sustainable business advantage.College • e-reverse auctioning: Using Internet technology to buy goods and services from a number of known or unknown suppliers. 40 .eprocurement.in E-SCM: Supply chain managmenet consists of the coordination of demand and supply of products and services between a suppliers’ supplier and a customers’ customer. For example. receipt purchase orders and process electronic invoices with integration to suppliers' supply chains and buyers' financial systems. • e-informing: Gathering and distributing purchasing information both from and to internal and external parties using Internet technology.

Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.College

E-PAYMENT SYSTEM Today, many users make payments electronically rather than in person. Hundreds of electronic payment systems have been developed to provide secure Internet transactions. Electronic payment systems are generally classified into four categories: credit card and debit cards; electronic cash; micropayment systems; and session-level protocols for secure communications.


1.CREDIT CARD: A credit card is part of a system of payments named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. It is a card entitling its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services. The issuer of the card grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user.


Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.College

2.DEBIT CARD: A debit card (also known as a bank card or check card) is a plastic card that provides an alternative payment method to cash when making purchases. Functionally, it can be called an electronic cheque, as the funds are withdrawn directly from either the bank account, or from the remaining balance on the card. In some cases, the cards are designed exclusively for use on the Internet, and so there is no physical card.[1][2] The use of debit cards has become widespread in many countries and has overtaken the cheque, and in some instances cash transactions by volume. Like credit cards, debit cards are used widely for telephone and Internet purchases, and unlike credit cards the funds are transferred from the bearer's bank account instead of having the bearer to pay back on a later date. Debit cards can also allow for instant withdrawal of cash, acting as the ATM card for withdrawing cash and as a cheque guarantee card. Merchants can also offer "cashback"/"cashout" facilities to customers, where a customer can withdraw cash along with their purchase. 3. e-CASH: Electronic Cash (also known as e-money, , electronic currency, digital money, digital cash or digital currency) refers to money or scrip which is exchanged only electronically. Typically, this involves use of computer networks, the internet and digital store value systems. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and direct deposit are examples of electronic money. Also, it is a collective term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it. 4.MICRO PAYMENT SYSTEMS: Micropayments are financial transactions involving very small sums of money. PayPal defines a micropayment as a transaction of less than 12 USD and offers less expensive fees for micropayment transactions. A problem that has prevented the emergence of feasible micropayment systems that allow payments of less than a dollar is a need to keep costs for individual transactions low,[2] which is impractical when transacting such small sums,[3] even if the transaction fee is just a few cents.


Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt, St.Joseph’s P.G.College

5.SESSIONAL LEVEL PROTOCOLS: Sessional level protocols include a set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing endpoints. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behavior of a hardware connection.

e-CASH: Electronic Cash (also known as electronic money, electronic currency, digital money, digital cash or digital currency) refers to money or scrip which is exchanged only electronically. Typically, this involves use of computer networks, the internet and digital store value systems. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and direct deposit are examples of electronic money. Also, it is a collective term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it. ECash is a legal form of computer-based currency that can be securely purchased and withdrawn by credit card, Cheque, certified cheques, wire transfer, money order and Electronic Cheque Processing (ECP). Users can also deposit to and withdraw from their ECash Direct account using several third-party merchants' payment solutions.

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The individual hosts can access the former in a variety of ways.G. ATTACKING METHODS The attacking methods are the sources to the intruders to misuse the most valuable information in the internet. The basic security concepts in E-security are: 1. Causing danger in less than 45 seconds A decrease in productivity 45 .Ch Ph. Confidentiality 2. CONCEPT OF E-SECURITY: E-Security refers to the protection of electronic applications like software. programs. hardware. mails and other features from unauthorized persons to access. There are so many variety of hosts available to the hackers such as Gateways. Availability E-security is very important because as the internet is a collection of loosely connected networks . Integrity 3. Some of the important attacking methods are: • • • • • Gaining access to user’s account Gaining privileged(confidential) access Using the victim’s system as a launch platform for attacks on other sites. communication device or network from unauthorized access to data. dial-up connections and Internet service providers. viruses etc.College UNIT – IV E-SECURITY Security is the protection of any computer device.Suresh Chandra. St. share or to use without a proper identity. routers. the intruders (who misuse the confidential information) can access to the variety of information like: • • • • • Hardware and software System configuration Type of network connections Phone numbers used Access and authentication procedures.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.

• • Provide authentication that a merchant can accept bank card payments Ensure the use of the best security practices and design techniques to protect all legitimate nor prevents their use.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. The customer needs to have a valid account set-up. SSL(SECURITY SOCKET LAYER) SSL is a technology that encrypts or codes the packets of information sent over the internet so that only the sending and receiving computer can reassemble and read the information. St. 46 . Ex: A bank card account .G. designed to allow merchant transactions to occur across the internet comparing to traditional transaction.Joseph’s P.College • • • • A significant loss of credibility or market opportunity A business no longer able to compete Legal liability and Loss of life SECURE ELECTRONIC TRANSACTION (SET) SET is a standard. • • The combination of SSL and certificates make transactions very secure. Many companies use the SSL method developed by Netscape Communication. merchants and the financial institutions each retain SET certificates that identify them and the public keys associated with their digital identities.Ch Ph. they would thereafter receive a valid certificate with a public key to authenticate the transaction. FUNCTIONS OF SET: The important functions of SET are: • • • Provide for confidential payment information and enable confidentiality Ensure integrity for all transmitted data. credit card transactions etc. SET offers buyers more security than is available in the commercial market. Provide authentication that a buyer is a legitimate user of a branded bank card account.Suresh Chandra. Cardholders.

Suresh Chandra. or a legitimate utility that can also be used for hacking.Ch Ph. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. – One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations. Cryptology and Encryption 2. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities. A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around.College • Netscape communications proposed a protocol for providing data security layered between high-level application protocols and TCP/IP HACKER: The Hacker is a computer enthusiast who gains unauthorized access to a computer or network. Hence "password hacker". "network hacker". who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Security protocols 4.G. A hacking tool is a program designed to assist with hacking.Joseph’s P. – An expert at a particular program. as opposed to most users. The important hacking security tools are: 1. HACKING SECURITY TOOLS Hacking refers to the hobby/ profession of working with computers. St. Firewall security 47 . Digital signatures 5. Hacking is defined as “ the unauthorized or illegal process of breaking into computer systems. – One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. – A person who is good at programming quickly. Kerberos 3.

St. ENCRYPTION: In cryptography. encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge. computer science and engineering. CRYPTOLOGY: Cryptography or cryptology is a protection method that secures information by its confidentiality. It is used to protect information about the integrity and authentication of data. usually referred to as a key.Joseph’s P.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. in 2007 the U. Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. For example. referred to as ciphertext).S.G. information from the internet. to make it unencrypted). messages. • Cryptology is the interdisciplinary of mathematics. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography. government reported that 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit. • • Encryption is the powerful tool of cryptography which is used for ensurity. decryption to make the encrypted information readable again (i. • The applications of cryptography include ATM cards.College 6. • Cryptography is used to prevent from unauthorized view of mails. such as files on computers and storage 48 .e. and electronic commerce.[1] Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest". UNIX security etc. computer passwords. The word encryption also refers to the reverse process. Encryption is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems.Suresh Chandra. Cryptography is used in the second world war-II period also to send highly secured messages to the very high level general staff messages by the Germany.Ch Ph.

known in Greek mythology as being the monstrous three-headed guard dog of Hades. Encrypting data in transit also helps to secure it as it is often difficult to physically secure all access to networks. Banks. The password must be kept secret from those not allowed access. St. Free e-mail sites. KERBEROS MIT(Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)) developed Kerberos to protect network services provided by Project Athena. USB flash drives). wireless intercom systems. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. for example data being transferred via networks (e.Suresh Chandra.Joseph’s P. The protocol was named after the Greek mythological character Kerberos (or Cerberus). Kerberos is a popular third-party authentication protocol. It is an encryptionbased system that uses secret key encryption designed to authenticate users and network connections.g. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail.g. the Internet. wireless microphones. newspapers and even game sites require 49 . In recent years there have been numerous reports of confidential data such as customers' personal records being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives.College devices (e. Digital rights management systems which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection) are another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. It provides an authentication means in an open network.G.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Ch Ph. hospitals. e-commerce). PASSWORD A password is a secret word or string of characters that is used for authentication. Encryption is also used to protect data in transit. Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. to prove identity or gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password). and other businesses are requiring usernames and passwords to gain access to their sites. mobile telephones.

Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures. DIGITAL SIGNATURE A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature. Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution. and 50 . and that it was not altered in transit. Without a key.Joseph’s P. passwords. In encryption.College usernames and passwords. or vice versa during decryption. and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. the algorithm would have no result.G. Once a password is encrypted. such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.Ch Ph. unless the administrator has set up password aging mechanisms.[2][3][4] In some countries. Often the requirement to use usernames and passwords is imposed to gain marketing data. KEYS: In cryptography. A user can change passwords at his will periodically or as necessary. financial transactions.[1] but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. Passwords are not displayed on the screen. Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms. a key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext.Suresh Chandra. This helps to prevent hackers from reading the password file and stealing Users have the responsibility for the maintenance of their passwords.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender. which forces the user to change the password at regular intervals. User passwords are generally encrypted using the DES algorithm. St. when they are typed into prevent anyone else from reading them. including the United States. it cannot be decrypted back to its text format.

G.College members of the European Union.Joseph’s P. Two main properties are required. somewhat confused. Secondly. • A signing algorithm which. For messages sent through an insecure channel. and so their importance. produces a signature. a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender. St. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects. 51 . it should be computationally infeasible to generate a valid signature for a party who does not possess the private key. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key. leaving the legal definition. properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph. SECURED PROTOCOLS Security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. First. a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key should verify the authenticity of that message by using the corresponding public key. electronic signatures have legal significance. A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms: • A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. given a message and a private key. Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography. laws concerning electronic signatures do not always make clear whether they are digital cryptographic signatures in the sense used here. public key and a signature. • A signature verifying algorithm which given a message. either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity. However.

Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software.Ch Ph. using a firewall is the most effective and important first step you can take to help protect your computer.College A protocol describes how the algorithms should be used. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. decrypt. deny. and worms that try to reach your computer over the Internet.Joseph’s P. which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria 52 . encrypt. interoperable versions of a program.G. Secure sockets layer(SSL) 2. The prominent secure transmission protocols to secure web communications are: 1. St. viruses. A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. Secure HTTP(S-HTTP) FIREWALL A firewall is a piece of software or hardware that helps screen out hackers. If you are a home user or smallbusiness user. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit. A sufficiently detailed protocol includes details about data structures and representations.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Suresh Chandra. or a combination of both. or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. Cryptographic protocols are widely used for secure application-level data transport. at which point it can be used to implement multiple. It is important to turn on your firewall and antivirus software before you connect to the Internet. especially intranets.

Suresh Chandra. St. And the cyber laws have a major impact for e-businesses and the new economy in India.College EXAMPLES OF FIREWALL USAGE IT ACT.2000 The Information Technology Act bill was presented in the year 1999 and was passed in the year 2000. It is extended to the whole of india and it applies to any offence or contravention there under committed outside india by any person.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.Ch Ph. The Information Technology Act. 2000 also aims to provide for the legal framework so that legal sanctity is accorded to all electronic records and other activities carried out by 53 . This Act aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India.G.

College electronic means. It further states that any person can verify an electronic record by use of a public key of the subscriber. an acceptance of contract may be expressed by electronic means of communication and the same shall have legal validity and enforceability. then.Suresh Chandra. The Act states that unless otherwise agreed. Chapter-VII of the Act details about the scheme of things relating to Digital Signature 54 . St. The Act recognizes the need for recognizing foreign Certifying Authorities and it further details the various provisions for the issue of license to issue Digital Signature Certificates.G. notwithstanding anything contained in such law. addressee. Chapter-III of the Act details about Electronic Governance and provides that where any law provides that information or any other matter shall be in writing or in the typewritten or printed form. The important frame work of the Information Technology act.2000 are: Chapter-I of the IT act specifies the basic definitions on IT terms like Computer.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. The Act envisages a Controller of Certifying Authorities who shall perform the function of exercising supervision over the activities of the Certifying Authorities as also laying down standards and conditions governing the Certifying Authorities as also specifying the various forms and content of Digital Signature Certificates. access. Chapter-II of the Act specifically stipulates that any subscriber may authenticate an electronic record by affixing his digital signature. and accessible so as to be usable for a subsequent reference. Chapter-IV of the IT Act gives a scheme for Regulation of Certifying Authorities.Joseph’s P. such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such information or matter is rendered or made available in an electronic form. appropriate government. This chapter also details the legal recognition of Digital Signatures. asymmetric crypto system etc. digital signature.Ch Ph.

2000: The IT Act 2000 attempts to change outdated laws and provides ways to deal with cyber crimes. We need such laws so that people can perform purchase transactions over the Net through credit cards without fear of misuse.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Suresh Chandra.G. Chapter-XI of the Act talks about various offences and the said offences shall be investigated only by a Police Officer not below the rank of the Deputy Superintendent of Police. Chapter-IX of the IT Act talks about penalties and adjudication for various offences. Advantages of IT Act. The Reserve Bank of India Act. 1934 to make them in tune with the provisions of the IT Act. 1891. and hacking. 1872.00. or for any other purpose connected with the said act. The said Adjudicating Officer has been given the powers of a civil court. The penalties for damage to computer. which shall advice the government as regards any rules. The Bankers' Books Evidence Act. 1.Ch Ph. Chapter-X of the Act talks of the establishment of the Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal. The duties of subscribers are also enshrined in the said Act. The Act 55 . These offences include tampering with computer source documents. publishing of information. The Act talks of appointment of any officers not below the rank of a Director to the Government of India or an equivalent officer of state government as an Adjudicating Officer who shall adjudicate whether any person has made a contravention of any of the provisions of the said Act or rules framed there under.College Certificates.00. The Act also provides for the constitution of the Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee.000 to affected persons. 1860. computer systems etc. St. which is obscene in electronic form. The said Act also proposes to amend the Indian Penal Code. the Indian Evidence Act. has been fixed as damages by way of compensation not exceeding Rs.Joseph’s P. which shall be an appellate body where appeals against the orders passed by the adjudicating officers should be preferred.

In view of the growth in transactions and communications carried out through electronic records. at the discretion of government personnel appointed for the purpose.G. nonadherence would attract severe monetary penalties.Ch Ph. solely on the ground that it is in the form of electronic records. creating and retention of official documents in the digital format. The Act has also proposed a legal framework for the authentication and origin of electronic records / communications through digital signature.College offers the much-needed legal framework so that information is not denied legal effect. the implications of these provisions for the e-businesses would be that email would now be a valid and legal form of communication in our country that can be duly produced and approved in a court of law. The necessity of e-surveillance to ensure information security and keep unlawful activities conducted via the virtual world in check cannot be argued. the Act seeks to empower government departments to accept filing. While freeing organizations from any responsibility regarding third-party data on their websites. the IT Act 2000 and its provisions contain many positive aspects. St. validity or enforceability. Companies shall now be able to carry out electronic commerce using the legal infrastructure provided by the act.Joseph’s P.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. regardless of encryption.2000 allow for unrestricted e-surveillance and lawful interception of data. From the perspective of e-commerce in India. and facilitates the blocking of content deemed disrespectful or objectionable towards national sentiments.Suresh Chandra. 56 . Provisions within the amendments of Information Technology Act. The amendments also make it mandatory for organizations in India to maintain reasonable security practices for protection of third-party data from unauthorized access. the amendments enlist data retention requirements for such third-party data. Firstly.

St. it shall now be possible for corporates to have a statutory remedy in case if anyone breaks into their computer systems or network and causes damages or copies data.Joseph’s P. application or any other document with any office. The IT Act also addresses the important issues of security. 1 crore.Ch Ph. as stipulated by the Government at a later date. which are so critical to the success of electronic transactions.Suresh Chandra. body or agency owned or controlled by the appropriate Government in electronic form by means of such electronic form as may be prescribed by the appropriate government. Under the IT Act. 2000. 57 . authority. not exceeding Rs. The remedy provided by the Act is in the form of monetary damages.G. The Act has given a legal definition to the concept of secure digital signatures that would be required to have been passed through a system of a security procedure.College The Act enables the companies to file any form.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.

College 58 . St.G.Ch Ph.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Joseph’s P.

HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the web page content. A web page is a document. videos or other digital assets that are addressed with a common domain name or IP address in an Internet Protocol-based network. and sites providing real-time stock market data.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).G. academic journal sites. often a web browser. message boards.Joseph’s P. services. The user's application. A web site is hosted on at least one web server. renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.Suresh Chandra. 59 . which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the homepage. although hyperlinking between them conveys the reader's perceived site structure and guides the reader's navigation of the site. St. accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network.College WEBSITE A website (also spelled web site) is a collection of related web pages. typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. social networking websites. web-based e-mail. Examples of subscription sites include many business sites. A web page may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. XHTML). Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content.Ch Ph. gaming sites. images. parts of many news sites.

They can be classified in various categories.Corporate Websites: this is the first step for most companies when they decide to build their home on the internet. Personal web sites are quite easy to put together and you can even do it yourself with the help of some web sites. St. Flash web sites tend to be rich with graphics and effects and a well designed flash web site is bound to impress the user and create the desired effect.Personal Websites: as the name suggests. They provide information to users about the company and also provide contact information. 3. 2. Corporate web sites are pretty much like corporate presentation in a web friendly form. but there are some special types of web sites which also exist on the internet today.Flash Websites: Flash as you might already know is one of the leading web technologies which exist today. These sites are actually sales pages or landing pages of products or services which are sold online. Many people relate flash to digital format of television and in a way it is true.Suresh Chandra. Flash allows you to make an audio video friendly web site which can act as a great way to advertise a product or a service. A personal web site is usually targeted to a person’s friends and family and has limited viewer ship. 4. personal web sites are web sites which belong to individuals and they have their personal profile featured on it along with any thing that they have an active interest in. E-books and online courses have sales pages which help promote them online and these cannot be clubbed with the conventional types of web sites.Joseph’s P.G.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. The common websites are: 1. Flash web sites are deployed by luxury product companies and consumer product companies to create a lasting impression on the users. Some of the categories are common such as ecommerce web sites and corporate web sites.Sales pages: Occasionally you would come across a web site which has just a couple of long pages which has a lot of client comments and information about a product.Ch Ph. The corporate web site is useful for companies who are planning to use the web site as a marketing tool. 60 .College TYPES OF WEBSITES There are a few million active web sites on the internet today.

PLANNING AND ORGANISING OF A WEBSITE Purposing or planning of a web design is a complex. just as a book. are extremely important. Before creating and uploading a website.College 5. However. the idea is that you should. The above listed types are the common types of websites and though they might be some specialization within these categories. Ecommerce web sites are those which allow you to buy something online and complete a transaction by paying for it online as well.Suresh Chandra. web design uses a framework based on digital code and display 61 . Ecommerce web sites require interaction with some third party web sites to be able to provide you this service and can be complicated to create but a good ecommerce web site has the potential to provide an excellent revenue stream for a business. If you have a product which you can sell online. but essential ongoing activity. Thoroughly considering the audience or target market. they more or less cover the entire gamut of web sites which exist today.Ch Ph.E-commerce Websites: More and more corporate web sites are moving towards the ecommerce direction.G. Web apps are very useful and are likely to become a common thing on the internet in the very near future. St. it is important to take the time to plan exactly what is needed in the website. 6.Joseph’s P. transact with world wide customers and even bank online. These web applications or intranet systems are complicated web sites which are supported with elaborate back end systems. Every website is an information display container. and every web page is like the page in a book.Web Apps and Intranets: A number of online entities are now turning into web based applications which allow you to perform business critical activities such as have online meetings. as well as defining the purpose and deciding what content will be developed. Online sales are increasing at a good pace and many offline retailers are venturing into online modes. Context Web design is similar (in a very simplistic way) to traditional print publishing.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.

The audience is the group of people who are expected to visit your website – the market being targeted. Setting short and long term goals for the website will help make the purpose clear and plan for the future when expansion.College technology to construct and maintain an environment to distribute information in multiple formats. Audience Defining the audience is a key step in the website planning process.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. and improvement will take place. Purpose It is essential to define the purpose of the website as one of the first steps in the planning process. A clearly defined purpose will help the rest of the planning process as the audience is identified and the content of the site is developed.Ch Ph.G. These people will be viewing the website for a specific reason and it is important to know exactly what they are looking for when they visit the site. 62 .Joseph’s P. The list of characteristics common to the users such as: • • • • Audience Characteristics Information Preferences Computer Specifications Web Experience Taking into account the characteristics of the audience will allow an effective website to be created that will deliver the desired content to the target audience. modification. A purpose statement should show focus based on what the website will accomplish and what the users will get from it. St.Suresh Chandra.

The only way to be certain a website will work on a particular platform is to test it on that platform. the compatibility of your website with the viewers is restricted.G. Many website incompatibilities go unnoticed by the designer and unreported by the users. Again Internet Explorer is the major restriction here.Ch Ph. 63 . not fully supporting PNG's advanced transparency features. any items that do not support the defined purpose or accomplish target audience objectives should be removed. Planning for the site's content ensures that the wants or needs of the target audience and the purpose of the site will be fulfilled. JPEG. content and interactions that are most suitable for the website. The majority of users can support GIF. St. In the process of gathering the content being offered.Joseph’s P. resulting in suggested changes. Collecting a list of the necessary content then organizing it according to the audience's needs is a key step in website planning. and PNG (with restrictions).College Content Content evaluation and organization requires that the purpose of the website be clearly defined. Another restriction on webpage design is the use of different image file formats.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.Suresh Chandra. audience and content. to design the site structure. Compatibility and restrictions Because of the market share of modern browsers (depending on your target market). Documentation may be considered a prototype for the website – a model which allows the website layout to be reviewed. Each category should be named with a concise and descriptive title that will become a link on the website. The next step is to organize the basic information structure by categorizing the content and organizing it according to user needs. Planning documentation Documentation is used to visually plan the site while taking into account the purpose. resulting in the GIF format still being the most widely used graphic file format for transparent images.

microblogging clients and RSS readers. by way of a Web browser or other Web-enabled software like Internet television clients. bit-mapped images (GIFs. forms can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. The intent of web design.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user's computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript.G.Ch Ph. etc. JScript. Improvements in browsers' compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects.Joseph’s P. etc. Java run-time environment. etc. WEBPAGE DESIGN Web design is the skill of creating presentations of content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web. videos. Actionscript. [1] is to create a web site -. Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic.) to alter DOM 64 . sounds) requires plug-ins such as Flash. Plug-ins are also embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags. Displaying more complex media (vector graphics. St. Latest standards and proposals aim at leading to browsers' ability to deliver a wide variety of media and accessibility options to the client possibly without employing plug-ins. animations. time. JPEGs.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Such elements as text. Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. gifs).College improvements and/or enhancements. database modifications. This review process increases the likelihood of success of the website. QuickTime.a collection of electronic files that reside on a web server/servers and present content and interactive features/interfaces to the end user in form of Web pages once requested. Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user.

D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. The offered definition separates web design from web programming. or can be programmed to be dynamic pages that automatically adapt content or visual appearance depending on a variety of factors. as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design. St. • • • • • • Markup languages (such as HTML. graphic design. With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to draw a clear line between web design and web development. web sites. PHP. ASP. ColdFusion. Both approaches are usually used in complex applications. photography.G. 65 .[2] The process of designing web pages. interaction design. authoring. such as animation.Ch Ph. such as input from the end-user. JSP. marketing. XHTML and XML) Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL) Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript) Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP) Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL) Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight) Web pages and web sites can be static pages.Joseph’s P. corporate identity. information architecture. human-computer interaction. etc.Suresh Chandra. input from the Webmaster or changes in the computing environment (such as the site's associated database having been modified). Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing serverside scripting languages (Perl. search engine optimization and typography. communication design.). emphasizing the functional features of a web site. web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines.College elements (DHTML).

links to other interesting sites.Joseph’s P.College With growing specialization within communication design and information technology fields. If the web site should offer one or more of the following: Entertainment Information Advice Helpful tips Contact with people who share same interests. create a negative effect on the visitors mindset. there is a strong tendency to draw a clear line between web design specifically for web pages and web development for the overall logistics of all web-based services. Over crowded websites.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.G. 2. A business site should be simple to navigate and offer products and services that located in a simple way and ordered quickly.Ch Ph. ESSENTIALS IN DESIGNING GOOD WEBSITE Essentials Of Good Web Design 1. The corporate site should provide information about the business and products and services. Message The first question that visitors ask themselves when coming to the web site is "What can I gain from here?" Visitors are not impressed that much by promotional offers of free goods and services. If the impression that it creates is not good enough visitors will simply leave from the website. with too many flashy elements. They are looking for ways in which the web site can be useful to them. 3. General Impression The web site is like a window that displays the objective of the business. Web site must be: Neat Organized Attractive Professional It is better that the site shows less than too much. St. Fast download 66 .

5. but they can be a good choice for an entertainment one. Dark backgrounds make visitors feel confined and depressed. Graphics and Design The graphical design of a website is crucial for a positive first impression. Every graphic element should help present the main idea of your site. Many Internet sites offer advice on how to increase the download speed of your site. The text color choosed is equally important. the overall size of a good website’s web pages should be around 30k. Bright backgrounds make texts difficult to read and red. The page 67 .College The web site should load as quickly as possible. Use dark texts on light backgrounds (preferably white). Easy Page Flow The page should contain sufficient information. Graphics load slowly so use them sparingly and efficiently. Readable texts To impress word should be surrounded by sufficient white space. 4.Ch Ph.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. different browsers interpret colors in different ways.G.Joseph’s P. Right-click on an image and check its properties to find out its size. Funny images are not appropriate for a business site. Cold colors like blue and green have the opposite effect. Too much of information makes the readers not to spend long time as the seeing of visuals is also a hard thing. A text that looks fine on your browser may be illegible on a different one 6. Yellow is considered a happy color because it reminds us of the sun. Individual pictures should be about 6-8k. orange and purple backgrounds can be dazzling. For a dial-up modem that means a maximum of 56 kilobytes. Market research shows that the average surfer leaves a site that fails to load in 7 seconds. The choice of colors is also significant since different colors provoke different feelings. Additional 2k adds about one second to download time. So avoid large graphics and flash animations. The opening page of the site should not overwhelm your visitors with too much information or you risk loosing them.Suresh Chandra. St. The warm colors like orange and red increase the pulse rate and stimulate the senses.

College should follow with simple answer to the point information and should be carried interestingly to the next page.G. Poor spelling and careless grammar and punctuation are the easiest way to lose visitors. all our efforts are in vain. When you create a page design that you like use it on every page of your web site.Suresh Chandra. Use this page as a template for all pages that you create for your web site and just fill in the content that you like. careless. alt tags and navigation bars built in. Grammar and Word Choice These are of crucial importance. People like to know what the customers think of your products and services. If we are not careful here. standardized graphics. they would love to know that it is appreciated. It is a good idea to put a button at the bottom of a long text that would allow the visitor to return to the beginning of the text. Spelling and grammar mistakes tell that the site owner is lazy. logos. how you keep their e-mail address. Navigation People read from left to right and from top to bottom. Set a privacy page that explicitly lists how and what information you collect from your visitors. who has access to this information and what precautions you take with information collected from minors. it will make your web site predictable and will help your visitors find the information they need.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. columns.Joseph’s P. and unprofessional. Web surfers expect to find navigation bars on the left of web pages. 68 . Invite your customers to share their opinion. St. Make a dedicated page with the opinions of your customers 9. 8. Privacy and Customer Opinions It is invaluable to get prospective customers to trust you. Save a blank page with the layout. 7. if you run a corporate site.Ch Ph. Spelling. how you accept and process their orders.

and web server configuration. However.College WEBPAGE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS Web development is a broad term for any activity to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an internet.g.G. Here are some common measures: • Timeliness: WebSites change often and rapidly. writing markup and coding. "web development" usually refers only to the non-design aspects of building web sites. web design. how is 69 . web content development.Joseph’s P. among web professionals.Suresh Chandra.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. There are many dimensions of quality. TESTING AND EVALUTING WEBSITE The website is tested with the following characteristics. How much has a WebSite changed since the last upgrade? How do you highlight the parts that have changed? • Structural Quality: How well do all of the parts of the WebSite hold together? Are all links inside and outside the WebSite working? Do all of the images work? Are there parts of the WebSite that are not connected? • Content: Does the content of critical pages match what is supposed to be there? Do key phrases exist continually in highly-changeable pages? Do critical pages maintain quality content from version to version? What about dynamically generated HTML (DHTML) pages? • Accuracy and Consistency: Are today's copies of the pages downloaded the same as yesterday's? Close enough? Is the data presented to the user accurate enough? How do you know? • Response Time and Latency: Does the WebSite server respond to a browser request within certain performance parameters? In an e-commerce context. each measure will pertain to a particular WebSite in varying degrees. This can include e-commerce business development. They are: Dimensions of Quality. electronic businesses. client-side/server-side scripting. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications. or social network services. St. e.Ch Ph.

or maybe even only 1 minute -.to respond to an e-commerce purchase may be unacceptable! Impact of Quality. lost corporate image.Suresh Chandra.Ch Ph. St. disorganized WebSites can sometimes overload the user.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. and even in lost sales revenue.G. etc. they probably won't leave with a good impression. with Cgi-Bin error messages. may cost a lot in poor customer relations. Very complex. Quality remains is in the mind of the WebSite user. A poor quality WebSite. The combination of WebSite complexity and low quality is potentially lethal to Company goals. and. by load and usage? Is performance adequate for e-commerce applications? Taking 10 minutes -. Unhappy users will quickly depart for a different site. CREATION OF WEB PAGE USING MS-FONT: • a computer with Internet access and FrontPage 2003 Prior to beginning this tutorial you should be able to perform the following basic tasks on your computer: • • • • • • • Be able to turn on the computer Be aware of basic navigation using the keyboard and mouse Know the meanings of some basic computer terms Locate 'Start' on the desktop and be able to navigate to the desktop Be able to open programs by using the mouse and clicking Be able to use a search engine such as Google Be able to select text and graphics by highlighting 70 . one with many broken pages and faulty images.College the end-to-end response time after a SUBMIT? Are there parts of a site that are so slow the user discontinues working? • Performance: Is the Browser --> Web --> ebSite --> Web --> Browser connection quick enough? How does the performance vary by time of day.Joseph’s P..

D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Unordered list. usually followed by one or more <li> tags. Underline the text within the tag. <h1>. Specifies information about this HTML page.Suresh Chandra. Itemized list.G. New paragraph. Center the text within the tag. and color for the text within the tag. The text within this tag specifies the title of the HTML document. St. Specifies column properties in a table. Specify the font type. Ordered list. Specifies row properties in a table. size. 71 . usually followed by one or more <li> tags. Specifies the image to be shown on the HTML document. Line break. This information is not displayed on the browser but may be used by search engines.Ch Ph. <head> <i> <img> <li> <meta> <ol> <p> <table> <td> <tr> <title> <u> <ul> The text within this tag specifies the header information for the HTML document. Italicize the text within the tag..Joseph’s P.College Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Create and name a folder on the desktop Open FrontPage and create a new blank page Rename the webpage and save it in a folder on the desktop Choosing the background of the page and view in a browser Inserting and modifying a table Modifying cells Modifying font Inserting and modifying graphics Creating hyperlinks Create the page HTML SYNTAX Tag Name <a> <b> <body> <br> <center> <font> <frame> Link. The information within this tag is the body of the HTML document. Signifies the presence of an HTML table. Bold the text within the tag.<h6> The text within these tags are treated as headers.. Specifies the properties within each frame. Usage <frameset> Signifies that this HTML page is composed of frame(s).

Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. Attributes may be combined under style="" of the SPAN tag and seperated by a semicolon as such: Text Description Underlined Text Font Color Aligned Text Change the Font Font Size Attribute Syntax textdecoration:underline color:red textalign:left/right/center font-family:fontname font-size:200% Result Underlined Text Red Text Text will be aligned to the left. St.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. or center Text will be in style "fontname" 2x Size Text Self-closing Tags Tags that.Ch Ph. contain nothing between the opening and closing tags must selfclose with a space and forward slash: Images Carriage Return Horizontal Breaking Line 72 . right.College Simple Text Formatting CSS Text Formatting These features must be used as arguments of the "style" argument of a "span" or "div" tag surrounding the text. by definition.G.

HTML is a language for describing web pages. St. XML and JavaScript or ECMAScript. the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags HTML Documents = Web Pages • • • HTML documents describe web pages HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages Website Design . specialized HTML editors can offer convenience and added functionality.G.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt.College HTML EDITOR An HTML editor is a software application for creating web pages.html basics <html></html> Creates an HTML document 73 . but also with related technologies such as CSS. For example. • • • • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language. Although the HTML markup of a web page can be written with any text editor.Ch Ph. it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages HTML Tags HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags • • • • HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag.Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. many HTML editors work not only with HTML.

Suresh Chandra. right. usually italic <em></em> Emphasizes a word (with italic or bold) <strong></strong> Emphasizes a word (with italic or bold) <font size=?></font> Sets size of font. centered text) <table border=#> Sets width of border around table cells <table cellspacing=#> Sets amount of space between table cells <table cellpadding=#> Sets amount of space between a cell's border and its 74 . St.College <head></head> Sets off the title and other information that isn't displayed on the Web page itself <body></body> Sets off the visible portion of the document <title></title> Positions the name of the document in the title bar <body bgcolor=?> Sets the background color.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. from 1 to 7 <font color=?></font> Sets font color. center.G.Ch Ph. also used for stylesheets <img src="name"> Adds an image <img src="name" align=?> Aligns an image: left. middle <img src="name" width=?> Sets the width of the image <img src="name" height=?> Sets the height of the image <img src="name" border=?> Sets size of border around an image <hr> Inserts a horizontal rule <table></table> Creates a table <tr></tr> Sets off each row in a table <td></td> Sets off each cell in a row <th></th> Sets off the table header (a normal cell with bold. using name or hex value <body alink=?> Sets the color of links on click <pre></pre> Creates preformatted text <hl></hl> Creates the largest headline <h6></h6> Creates the smallest headline <b></b> Creates bold text <i></i> Creates italic text <tt></tt> Creates teletype. or typewriter-style text <cite></cite> Creates a citation. using name or hex value <body link=?> Sets the color of links. bottom. using name or hex value <body vlink=?> Sets the color of followed links. right. or center <br> Inserts a line break <blockquote> </blockquote> Indents text from both sides <div align=?> A generic tag used to format large blocks of HTML. top. using name or hex value (web safe color #) <body text=?> Sets the text color.Joseph’s P. using name or hex value <a href="URL"></a> Creates a hyperlink <a href="mailto:EMAIL"></a> Creates a mailto link (for email) <a name="NAME"></a> Creates a target location within a document <a href="#NAME"></a> Links to that target location from elsewhere in the document <p></p> Creates a new paragraph <p align=?> Aligns a paragraph to the left.

VRML(VIRTUAL REALITY MODELING LANGUAGE) VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language. Multimedia is the encompass of all media used in electronics. particularly with computers. The use of computers to present text. displayed or accessed by information content processing devices. center. middle. animation.Ch Ph. multimedia applications were. however. Nearly all Personal Computers are capable of displaying video. or right) <tr valign=?> or <td valign=?> Sets vertical alignment for cell(s) (top.Joseph’s P. though the resolution available depends on the power of the computer's video adapter and microprocessor. With increases in performance and decreases in price. 75 . St. graphics.in pixels or as a percentage of document width <tr align=?> or <td align=?> Sets alignment for cell(s) (left. or bottom) <td colspan=#> Sets number of columns a cell should span <td rowspan=#> Sets number of rows a cell should span (default=1) <td nowrap> Prevents the lines within a cell from being broken to fit MULTIMEDIA Multimedia is usually recorded and played.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. until the mid-90s. originally — before 1995 — known as the Virtual Reality Markup Language) is a standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive vector graphics.Suresh Chandra. such as computerized and electronic devices. Long touted as the future revolution in computing. video. uncommon due to the expensive hardware required. but can also be part of a live performance.G. pronounced vermal or by its initials.College contents <table width=# or %> Sets width of table . designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. It has been superseded by X3D. and sound in an integrated way. multimedia is now commonplace.

2.wrl extension (for example island. and first discussed at the WWW94 VRML BOF established by Tim Berners-Lee.0). a new version of the format was finalized. Explain EDI and its implementation.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. particularly from CAD systems. where Mark Pesce presented the Labyrinth demo he developed with Tony Parisi & Peter Kennard. Explain the applications of e-business trade Unit 2 1. VRML is also widely used as a file format for interchange of 3D models. as VRML97 (also known as VRML2 or VRML 2. VRML97 was used on the Internet on some personal homepages and sites such as "CyberTown".College The term VRML was coined by Dave Raggett in a paper submitted to The First International Conference on the World-Wide Web in 1994. It has now been re-engineered as X3D. which offered 3D chat using Blaxxun Software. The MPEG-4 Interactive Profile (ISO/IEC 14496) was based on VRML (now on X3D).Ch Ph. In 1997. X3D).G. VRML (and its successor.Joseph’s P.Suresh Chandra. VRML files are commonly called "worlds" and have the *. Define E-Business and explain its models. and became an ISO standard. St. Define Internet and explain various applications of internet. Applications of Intranet and Extranet 3. 2. VRML experimentation was primarily in education and research where an open specification is most valued.wrl). 76 . LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS EXPECTED UNIT – I 1. have been accepted as international standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). and X3D is largely backward-compatible with it. IMP. The Web3D Consortium has been formed to further the collective development of the format.

Digital Signature 13. Kerberos 14. Mobile commerce 4. Short answer Questions: 1. VRML 18. E-Payment system 10. Attacking methods 11. E-grocery 5.D Research Scholar(KU) & Faculty in Mgt. Concept of E-Business 2. E-SCM implementation Unit IV 1.Joseph’s P. Website 15. E-Business strategy 8. Unit – V 1.Ch Ph. Explain HTML and its applications 3. Multimedia 17.G. Information Technology Act. Cryptology and Encryption. SET and SSL 12.College Unit 3 1. E-CRM 9.Suresh Chandra. Multimedia and its applications. *****ALL THE BEST ***** 77 . Intranet and extranet difference 6. EDI &VPN 7. Difference between B2B and B2C model 3. 2. St. Strategies of E-Business 2.2000 and its impact.Hacking Security tools 2. Development of webpage or creation of web page. HTML Editors 16. E-Marketing implementation 3.

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