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mode operation. Power switches have to cut off the load current within the turn-on and turn-off times under the hard switching conditions. Hard switching refers to the stressful switching behavior of the power electronic devices. The switching trajectory of a hard-switched power device is shown in Fig.1. During the turn-on and turn-off processes, the power device has to withstand high voltage and current simultaneously, resulting in high switching losses and stress. Dissipative passive snubbers are usually added to the power circuits so that the dv/dt and di/dt of the power devices could be reduced, and the switching loss and stress be diverted to the passive snubber circuits. However, the switching loss is proportional to the switching frequency, thus limiting the maximum switching frequency of the power converters. Typical converter switching frequency was limited to a few tens of kilo-Hertz (typically 20kHz to 50kHz) in early 1980’s. The stray inductive and capacitive components in the power circuits and power devices still cause considerable transient effects, which in turn give rise to electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems. Fig.2 shows ideal switching waveforms and typical practical waveforms of the switch voltage. The transient ringing effects are major causes of EMI. In the 1980’s, lots of research efforts were diverted towards the use of resonant converters. The concept was to incorporate resonant tanks in the converters to create oscillatory (usually sinusoidal) voltage and/or current waveforms so that zero voltage switching (ZVS) or zero current switching (ZCS) conditions can be created for the power switches. The reduction of switching loss and the continual improvement of power switches allow the switching frequency of the resonant converters to reach hundreds of kilo-Hertz (typically 100kHz to 500kHz).
With simple modifications. Because the switching loss and stress have been reduced. the resonant current and voltage of resonant converters have high peak values. many customized control integrated control (IC) circuits designed for conventional converters can be employed for soft-switched converters. ZCS. New generations of soft-switched converters that combine the advantages of conventional PWM converters and resonant converters have been developed. Other than that. These soft-switched converters have switching waveforms similar to those of conventional PWM converters except that the rising and falling edges of the waveforms are ‘smoothed’ with no transient spikes. further improvements have been made in converter technology. In late 1980’s and throughout 1990’s. many resonant converters require frequency modulation (FM) for output regulation. magnetic sizes can be reduced and the power density of the converters increased. most of the resonant converters suffer several problems. Various forms of soft-switching techniques such as ZVS. soft-switched converter can be operated at the very high frequency (typically 500kHz to a few Mega-Hertz). When compared with the conventional PWM converters. However. Resonance is allowed to occur just before and during the turn-on and turn-off processes so as to create ZVS and ZCS conditions. Variable switching frequency operation makes the filter design and control more complicated. AC-DC and DC-AC converters. leading to higher conduction loss and higher V and I ratings requirements for the power devices. 2 . This chapter covers the basic technology of resonant and softswitching converters. Also. they behave just like conventional PWM converters.Consequently. Soft-switching converters also provide an effective solution to suppress EMI and have been applied to DC-DC. new soft-switched converters usually utilize the resonance in a controlled manner. Various forms of resonant converters have been proposed and developed. Unlike the resonant converters.
I O n S a f e O p e r a t in g A r e a H a r d . zero transition methods etc.s w it c h in g s n u b b e re d S o f t-s w itc h in g O ff V Fig. Typical switching waveforms of (a) hard-switched and (b) soft-switched devices 3 .voltage clamping. are addressed.1 Typical switching trajectories of power switches. Fig.2. The emphasis is placed on the basic operating principle and practicality of the converters without using much mathematical analysis.
which usually consists of a LC resonant circuit. thyristors were the major power devices used in power electronic circuits. However. for forcing the current to zero in the turn-off process. With the recent advancement in semiconductor technology. and the switching speed of fully controllable switches have significantly been improved. controllable switches such as GTOs and IGBTs have replaced thyristors. Each thyristor requires a commutation circuit. This mechanism is in fact a type of zerocurrent turn-off process. In many high power applications.Classification R e s o n a n t-ty p e D C -D C C o n v e rte rs C o n v e n tio n a l R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs Q u a s i-R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte r s M u lti-R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs P h a s e S h if t-m o d u la te d C o n s ta n t F re q u e n c y O p e ra tio n L o a d -R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs C o n s ta n t F re q u e n c y O p e ra tio n V a ria b le F re q u e n c y O p e ra tio n V a ria b le F re q u e n c y O p e ra tio n S e rie s R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs P a ra lle l R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs S e r ie s -P a r a lle l R e s o n a n t C o n v e rte rs Resonant Switch Prior to the availability of fully controllable power switches. the use of resonant circuit for achieving zero-current-switching (ZCS) 4 . the voltage and current handling capability.
respectively.4. ZC resonant switch In a ZC resonant switch. Lr Cr S (a ) S Cr (b ) Lr Fig. are shown in Fig. including zero-current (ZC) resonant switch and zero-voltage (ZV) resonant switches. The concept of resonant switch that replaces conventional power switch is introduced in this section.and/or zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) has also emerged as a new technology for power converters.3 Zero-current (ZC) resonant switch. If the switch S is a unidirectional switch. Lr and Cr. A resonant switch is a sub-circuit comprising a semiconductor switch S and resonant elements.4 Zero-voltage (ZV) resonant switch. Lr Lr S (a ) Cr S Cr (b ) Fig.3 and Fig. Two types of resonant switches. which determines the operation mode of the resonant switch. the switch current is allowed to resonate in the positive half 5 . The switch S can be implemented by a unidirectional or bidirectional switch. an inductor Lr is connected in series with a power switch S in order to achieve zero-current-switching (ZCS).
If a diode is connected in anti-parallel with the unidirectional switch. Thus. Quasi-resonant Converters Quasi-resonant converters (QRCs) can be considered as a hybrid of resonant and PWM converters. because of the resonance between Lr and Cr. If the switch S is a unidirectional switch. the switch current can flow in both directions. ZV resonant switch In a ZV resonant switch. The switch 6 . It will then oscillate. the resonant capacitor voltage is clamped by the diode to zero during the negative halfcycle. the resonant switch can operate in full-wave mode. the resonant switch can operate in full-wave mode. the voltage across the capacitor Cr can oscillate freely in both positive and negative half-cycle. The underlying principle is to replace the power switch in PWM converters with the resonant switch. The resonant switch is said to operate in half-wave mode. In this case.cycle only. Finally. At turn-on. The objective of a ZV switch is to use the resonant circuit to shape the switch voltage waveform during the off time in order to create a zero-voltage condition for the switch to turn on. The objective of this type of switch is to shape the switch current waveform during conduction time in order to create a zero-current condition for the switch to turn off. the switch current will rise slowly from zero. A large family of conventional converter circuits can be transformed into their resonant converter counterparts. If a diode is connected in anti-parallel with the unidirectional switch. The resonant switch will then operate in half-wave mode. the switch can be commutated at the next zero current duration. a capacitor Cr is connected in parallel with the switch S for achieving zero-voltage-switching (ZVS).
The circuit waveforms in steady state are shown in Fig. the resonant capacitor voltage VCr rises and then decays at a rate depending on the output current. Both ZCS-QRCs and ZVS-QRCs have half-wave and full-wave mode of operations. At t0. characteristic impedance Zr. Operation and characteristics of the converter depend mainly on the design of the resonant circuit Lr . normalized switching frequency γ . The schematic is shown in Fig. The output filter inductor Lf is sufficiently large so that its current is approximately constant. It is formed by replacing the power switch in conventional PWM buck converter with the ZC resonant switch in Fig. S is then softly commutated at t2 with ZCS again.5(b). The resonant capacitor voltage VCr equals zero.current and/or voltage waveforms are forced to oscillate in a quasi-sinusoidal manner. the switch is turned on with ZCS. Prior to turning the switch on. so that ZCS and/or ZVS can be achieved. During and after the gate pulse. Output voltage regulation is achieved by controlling the switching frequency. The following parameters are defined: voltage conversion ratio M. ZCS-QRCs A ZCS-QRC designed for half-wave operation is illustrated with a buck type dc-dc converter. M = Vo Vi Lr Cr (1a) Zr = (1b) 7 . normalized load resistance r. resonant frequency fr. the output filter. the output current Io freewheels through the output diode Df.Cr.3(a). and the load.5(a). A quasi-sinusoidal current IS flows through Lr and Cr.
g a t e s ig n a l to S V i/ Z IL r V IO t0 D S r t1 T V V C r i i V (b) Circuits waveforms.5(c). 8 . thus resulting in turn-off losses. leading to an increase in the output voltage.fr = 1 2 π Lr C r (1c) r= RL Zr fs fr (1d) γ= (1e) It can be seen from the waveforms that if Io > Vi / Zr. At light load conditions. the switching frequency has to be controlled. the unused energy is stored in Cr. S C R1 iL r V C r Lr Lf Io Cf RL Vo Vi Cr Df (a) Schematic diagram. in order to regulate the output voltage. IS will not come back to zero naturally and the switch will have to be forced off. It can be seen that M is sensitive to the load variation. The relationships between M and γ at different r are shown in Fig. Thus.
6(a).5 γ (c) Relationship between M and γ . the inductor current is allowed to reverse through the anti-parallel diode and the duration for the resonant stage is lengthened.6(c).8 0.1 0.1 0 0 0. This permits excess energy in the resonant circuit at light loads to be transferred back to the voltage source Vi. The relationships between M and γ at different r are shown in Fig. The circuit waveforms in steady state are shown in Fig.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.9 1 10 5 r =2 1 M 0.7 0.5 0. the converter will be operating in full-wave mode. quasi-resonant buck converter with ZCS. S iLr Lr Lf Io Cf RL Vo Vi V C r Cr Df (a) Schematic diagram. The circuit schematic is shown in Fig. 9 . This significantly reduces the dependence of Vo on the output load.3 0. The operation is similar to the one in half-wave mode.5 0.7 0. It can be seen that M is insensitive to load variation. If an anti-parallel diode is connected across the switch.9 0.1 0.6(b).6 0.5 Half-wave. However.4 0.8 0. Fig.
5 0. By replacing the switch in the conventional converters.3 0.5 0. 10 .9 0. 1 0. a family of QRC with ZCS is shown in Fig.g a t e s ig n a l to S V i/ Z IL r IO t0 V V t1 T r D S C r (b) Circuit waveforms.2 0.6 r =1-10 M 0.7 0. quasi-resonant buck converter with ZCS.6 Full-wave.1 0.6 0.9 1 γ (c) Relationship between M and γ .4 0.8 0.4 0. Fig.3 0.8 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.7 0.7.
ZVS-QRC 11 .C 1 D1 BUC K S1 L1 C 1 S1 D1 L1 C1 L1 BO O ST D 1 C 1 L1 D1 C 1 D1 BUC K/ BO O ST S1 L1 C 1 S1 D1 L1 C1 L1 C UK D1 C1 L1 D 1 C1 L1 S E P IC D1 C1 L1 D 1 C1 FLY BA C K L1 D1 L1 D1 C1 C1 FO RW ARD L1 D1 L1 D1 C1 Fig.7 A family of quasi-resonant converter with ZCS.
The resonant inductor current ILr increases linearly until it reaches Io. When VCr equals zero. 12 .using a ZV resonant switch in Fig. It can be seen from the waveforms that the peak amplitude of the resonant capacitor voltage should be greater or equal to the input voltage (i. In order to achieve ZVS. IL r D V i Io Lf + v oi D f L r r C C f r + Vo - + vc - (a) Schematic diagram. When the switch S is turned on.4(b). This starts the resonant stage. When the switch is zerovoltage (ZV) turned off. Io Zr > Vin). Basic relations of ZVS-QRCs are given in Equations (1a-1e). Df turns on.8(a) . Then Df turns off. S should be triggered during the time when the anti-parallel diode conducts. it can be seen that the voltage conversion ratio is load-sensitive. the output current starts to flow through the resonant capacitor Cr.8(b). The steady-state circuit waveforms are shown in Fig..In these converters.8(c). The supply voltage Vi reverse-biases the diode Df.e. The resonant capacitor is shorted and the source voltage is applied to the resonant inductor Lr. When the resonant capacitor voltage VCr is equal to Vi. the switching frequency should also be changed accordingly. A quasi-resonant buck converter designed for halfwave operation is shown in Fig. From Fig. the anti-parallel diode turns on. In order to regulate the output voltage for different loads r. the resonant capacitor provides a zero-voltage condition for the switch to turn on and off. it carries the output current Io.
5 0. at 13 .1 0 0 0.2 0.9 0. The circuit schematic is shown in Fig.9(c).1 0. The operation is similar to half-wave mode of operation. Fig.2 0.1 c y c le ILr IO 0 t0 t1 t1 ' t1" t2 t2 ' t3 t4 t v c Z rI O v 0 i t t0 t1 t1 ' t1" t2 t2 ' t3 t4 (b) Circuit waveforms. except that VCr can swing between positive and negative voltages. ZVS converters can be operated in full-wave mode.8 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.9(b).9 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.8 M 0.6 0.8 Half-wave.9 1 γ (c) Relationship between M and γ .9(a). quasi-resonant buck converter with ZVS.8 0.6 0. The circuit waveforms in steady state are shown in Fig.4 0.4 0.7 0.3 0. The relationships between M and γ different r are shown in Fig. 1 0.
1 0.6 0.5 0. 14 .9 0. quasi-resonant buck converter with ZVS.8 0.2 1 0.4 0.3 0.9 1 γ (c) Relationship between M and γ .9 0.5 0. Fig.9 Full-wave.8 M 0. 1 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.8 0.ILr C D r r Io Lf + v oi D f L r + vc - C f + Vo - (a) Schematic diagram.6 0.4 0.7 0.7 0. 1 c y c le IL r IO 0 t0 t1 t1' t1 " t2 t2' t3 t4 t v c Z rIO v 0 i t t0 t1 t1' t1 " t2 t2' t3 t4 (b) Circuit waveforms.
Hence.10.8(c) with Fig. However. the full-wave mode has the problem of capacitive turn-on loss. ZVS-QRCs are usually operated in half-wave mode rather than full-wave mode. various ZVS-QRCs can be derived. and is less practical in high frequency operation. 15 . as the series diode limits the direction of the switch current. it can be seen that M is load-insensitive in full-wave mode. This is a desirable feature. They are shown in Fig.Comparing Fig. By replacing the ZV resonant switch in the conventional converters. energy will be stored in the output capacitance of the switch and will dissipate in the switch during turn-on.9(c). In practice.
10 A family of quasi-resonant converter with ZVS. Comparisons between ZCS and ZVS ZCS can eliminate the switching losses at turn-off and reduce the switching losses at turn-on. the converter operation becomes insensitive to the diode’s junction capacitance. As a relatively large capacitor is connected across the output diode during resonance. The major limitations associated with ZCS when power mosfets are used 16 .Buck Boost B u c k -b o o s t Cuk F ly b a c k S e p ic Fig.
which is proportional to the load. ZVS eliminates the capacitive turn-on loss. the switches could suffer from excessive voltage stress. while ZVS operates with constant off-time control. 17 . Another limitation is that the switches are under high current stress. thus increasing switching loss and noise. considerable rate of change of voltage can be coupled to the gate drive circuit through the Miller capacitor. It should be noted that ZCS is particularly effective in reducing switching loss for power devices (such as IGBT) with large tail current in the turn-off process. the switching loss is proportional to the switching frequency. resulting in high conduction loss. various control integrated circuits (ICs) for resonant converters have been developed.are the capacitive turn-on losses.5 that the maximum voltage across switches in half-bridge and full-bridge configurations is clamped to the input voltage. Some common ICs for different converters are described as in this section. During turn-on. For both ZCS and ZVS. It is suitable for high-frequency operation. Thus. For single-ended configuration. output regulation of the resonant converters can be achieved by variable frequency control. With a wide input and load range. both techniques have to operate with a wide switching frequency range. Control Circuits for Resonant Converters Since the 1985s. ZCS operates with constant on-time control. making it not easy to design resonant converters optimally. It will be shown in Section 15.
6 3. are achieved by controlling the switching frequency. one shot generator with a zero wave-crossing detection comparator.. fmax and fmin can be expressed as f max = ( Range 3 . voltage-controlledoscillator (VCO).6 and f min = R C // Rmin ) CVCO m in VCO (2) 18 .e. ZCS applications require controlled switch-on times while ZVS applications require controlled switch-off times.QRCs Output regulations in many resonant-type converters. Typical ICs include UC1861-UC1864 for ZVS applications and UC 1865-UC 1868 for ZCS applications. The fundamental control blocks in the IC include an error amplifier.11 Controller block diagram of UC1864 (Courtesy of Unitrode Corp.11 shows the controller block diagram of UC 1864. fmax and fmin) are controlled by the resistors Range and Rmin and the capacitor Cvco. such as QRCs. Fig. and an output stage to drive the active switch. Fig. The maximum and minimum switching frequencies (i. and Texas Instruments).
6 Range CVCO (3) The frequency range of the ICs is from 10kHz to 1MHz. The output frequency of the oscillator is controlled by the error amplifier (E/A) output. and Texas Instruments) 19 .The frequency range ∆ f is then equal to ∆f = f max − f min = 3. (Courtesy of Unitrode Corp. Fig.12 ZV-MR Forward Converter.12. An example of a ZVS-MR forward converter is shown in Fig.