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Projected Coordinate Transforms

Projected Coordinate Transforms

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Published by Malkina Tatyana

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Published by: Malkina Tatyana on Jul 04, 2011
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  • 1 Map projections and their coordinate conversion formulas
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Map Projection parameters
  • 1.3 Map Projection formulas
  • 1.3.1 Lambert Conic Conformal
  • Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP)
  • Lambert Conic Conformal (1SP)
  • Lambert Conic Conformal (1SP West Orientated)
  • Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP Belgium)
  • Lambert Conic Near-Conformal
  • 1.3.2 Krovak
  • Krovak
  • Krovak (North Orientated)
  • Krovak Modified
  • Krovak Modified (North Orientated)
  • 1.3.3 Mercator
  • Mercator (Spherical)
  • Popular Visualisation Pseudo Mercator
  • 1.3.4 Cassini-Soldner
  • Hyperbolic Cassini-Soldner
  • 1.3.5 Transverse Mercator
  • General Case
  • 1.3.6 Oblique Mercator
  • Hotine Oblique Mercator
  • Laborde Oblique Mercator
  • 1.3.7 Stereographic
  • Oblique and Equatorial Stereographic
  • Polar Stereographic
  • 1.3.8 New Zealand Map Grid
  • 1.3.9 Tunisia Mining Grid
  • 1.3.10 American Polyconic
  • 1.3.11 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
  • Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (Spherical)
  • 1.3.12 Lambert Cylindrical Equal Area
  • Lambert Cylindrical Equal Area (Spherical)
  • 1.3.13 Albers Equal Area
  • 1.3.14 Equidistant Cylindrical
  • Equidistant Cylindrical (Spherical)
  • Pseudo Plate Carrée
  • 1.3.15 Bonne
  • Bonne (South Orientated)
  • 1.3.16 Azimuthal Equidistant
  • Modified Azimuthal Equidistant
  • Guam Projection
  • 1.3.17 Perspectives
  • Intoduction
  • Vertical Perspective
  • Vertical Perspective (orthographic case)
  • 1.3.18 Orthographic
  • 2 Formulas for Coordinate Operations other than Map Projections
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Coordinate Conversions other than Map Projections
  • 2.2.1 Geographic/Geocentric conversions
  • 2.2.2 Geocentric/topocentric conversions
  • 2.2.3 Geographic/topocentric conversions
  • 2.2.4 Geographic 3D to 2D conversions
  • 2.3 Coordinate Operation Methods that can be conversions or transformations
  • 2.3.1 Polynomial transformations
  • General case
  • Polynomial transformation with complex numbers
  • Polynomial transformation for Spain
  • 2.3.2 Miscellaneous Linear Coordinate Operations
  • Affine Parametric Transformation
  • Affine General Geometric Transformation
  • Similarity Transformation
  • UKOOA P6 Seismic Bin Grid Transformation
  • 2.4 Coordinate Transformations
  • 2.4.1 Offsets - general
  • Cartesian Grid Offsets from Form Function
  • 2.4.2 Transformations between Vertical Coordinate Reference Systems
  • Vertical Offset
  • Vertical Offset by Interpolation of Gridded Data
  • Vertical Offset and Slope
  • 2.4.3 Transformations between Geocentric Coordinate Reference Systems
  • Geocentric Translations (geocentric domain)
  • Helmert 7-parameter transformations
  • Molodensky-Badekas transformation (geocentric domain)
  • 2.4.4 Transformations between Geographic Coordinate Reference Systems
  • Transformations using geocentric methods
  • Abridged Molodensky transformation
  • Geographic Offsets
  • Geographic Offset by Interpolation of Gridded Data
  • 2.4.5 Geoid and Height Correction Models
  • Geographic3D to GravityRelatedHeight
  • Geographic3D to Geographic2D+GravityRelatedHeight
  • Geographic2D with Height Offsets

Although superficially involving a change of dimension from three to one, this transformation method is
actually one-dimensional. The transformation applies an offset to the ellipsoidal height component of a
geographic 3D coordinate reference system with the result being a gravity-related height in a vertical
coordinate reference system. However the ellipsoidal height component of a geographic 3D coordinate
reference system cannot exist without the horizontal components, i.e. it cannot exist as a one-dimensional
coordinate reference system.

Geodetic science distinguishes between geoid-ellipsoid separation models and height correction models. Geoid
separation models give the height difference between the ellipsoid and the geoid surfaces. Height correction models
give height difference between ellipsoidal a particular vertical datum surface. Because a vertical datum is a realisation
of the geoid and includes measurement errors and various constraints, a vertical datum surface will not exactly coincide
with the geoid surface. The mathematics of the application of these models is identical and for the purposes of the
EPSG dataset they are considered to be one method.

The correction value ζ5

is interpolated from a grid of height differences and the interpolation requires the
latitude and longitude components of the geographic 3D coordinate reference system as arguments.

If h is the ellipsoidal height (height of point above the ellipsoid, positive if up) in the geographic 3D CRS
and H is the gravity-related height in a vertical CRS, then

H = h – ζ

Note that unlike the general convention adopted for offsets described in 2.4.1, geoid separation and height
correction models conventionally use the true mathematical convention for sign.

The EPSG dataset differentiates between the formats of the gridded height files and distinguishes separate
coordinate operation methods for each file format. The coordinate operation method may also define the
interpolation technique to be used. However the density of grid nodes is usually sufficient for any reasonable
interpolation technique to be used, with bi-linear interpolation usually being applied.


The reverse transformation, from gravity-related height in the vertical coordinate reference system to the
ellipsoidal height component of the geographic3D coordinate reference system, requires that a horizontal
position be associated with the gravity-related height. This is indeterminate unless a compound coordinate
reference system is involved (see the Geographic3D to Geographic2D+GravityRelatedHeight method
described below). Geographic3D to GravityRelatedHeight methods therefore are not reversible.

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