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This paper presents an insight into the speed control of D.C motor using a fuzzy logic controller to meet the desired speed. Fuzzy logic is one of the most successful applications of fuzzy set in which the variables are linguistic rather than numeric. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is based on a set of control rules (fuzzy rules) among linguistic variables. The personal computer provides the necessary flexibility in setting any speed profile with the use of fuzzy packages. Basically a D.C shunt motor has drooping speed-torque characteristics. The proposed fuzzy controller results in a better response compared to the basic fuzzy controller and normal response of D.C motor. The step response parameters can be closely controlled with the help of simple operations within the controller. The simulation is carried out and the simulation results present the flexibility of the motor speed control.
KEY WORDS: fuzzy controller, speed-torque characteristics, fuzzification, De- fuzzification.
Hence. = k. zϕ ϕ P Flux/pole (ϕ ). thereby decreasing the armature speed. the speed can be increased and vive versa. As supply voltage is normally constant. armature voltage is decreased. the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a variable resistance in series with the armature circuit. Armature Control Method. As resistance is increased. The execution of these rules is given by the . DC motor is used in applications where wide speed ranges are required. DC shunt motor exhibits a drooping speed-torque characteristic. ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD: This method is used when speeds below base speed are required.INTRODUCTION: DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. by varying Ra. The flux of the DC motor is changed by changing field current with help of a shunt field rheostat. By decreasing the flux. Field Control Method Voltage of armature circuit. The speed of the DC motor is given by N= V − Ia R a V − Ia R a A . FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM: A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is based on a set of control rules (fuzzy rules) among linguistic variables. i) ii) FIELD CONTROL METHOD: The speed is inversely proportional to flux. the speed can be controlled by varying. then y is large). Usually these rules are expression in the form of conditional statements (if x is small.
A basic architecture of FLC is shown in Fig 1. This structure consists of following four modules: Knowledge base Fuzzifier Decision making logic Plant Fig1: Basic structure of Fuzzy logic controller THE COMPLETE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM: The block diagram of the dc motor speed control system is as shown in Fig2. Negative Small (NS). ZERO.+3 for NL. The basic location of the singletons which are at the centre of gravity of the triangular sets are –3.+1.0.-1. and PL respectively. NS.compositional title. Error Ref Speed Computer e de/dt Fuzzy Logic Controller DC motor Vc Defuzzifier Actual Speed Fig2: Block Diagram of speed control system Fig(a) Derivative of Speed error . Positive Small (PS) and Positive Large (PL). The Rule Base used in the design of the fuzzy logic controller is shown in Fig 4. The output of the controller is the change in the motor voltage ∆ V. The linguistic variables for the input and output sets are Negative Large (NL). PS. The shapes of the fuzzy sets are isosceles triangles and trapezoid for large term sets (NL. The inputs for the proposed fuzzy logic controller are the speed error (e) and the derivative of the speed error (de/dt). PL) as shown in Fig 3. ZERO.
The block diagram of the system with the proposed FLC is shown in Fig 5. In the scheme proposed. The defuzzified output of controller is given by Vc = PLVC . In this method. identify its ranges. And determine the location of the singletons.NS + NLVC .PL + PSVC . the error and error rate are used to change the supporters in the motor voltage singletons.NL PL + PS + NS + NL . Also it is possible to regulate the parameters of the time – domain response.The function of the block is to sense the error. A new functional block called the Error Interpreter is added to the basic system of Fig 2.Fig(b) Speed error Fig 3: Fuzzy sets used NL PS PL PL PL PL PS ZERO NS NS PL ZERO PS PL PL ZERO NS ZERO PS PS NL NL NS ZERO PS NL NL NL NS PL NL Fig 4: Fuzzy control rules PROPOSED FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER: In most of the adaptive fuzzy controllers. such a result is achieved by adjusting the defuzzifier as a function of the system response.PS + NSVC . attempt is made to change the Rule Base to make the system adaptive.
If the coefficients are larger. and NLVC are the corresponding supports of change in the motor voltage singletons. A scale factor ‘a’ is used for changing the location of the singletons which in turn changes the value of the supports.(40 . If the coefficient of supports is increased. Range 2: (40 .0) percent of the maximum output. (20 . For a lower range of error. PS. And NL is the inference membership values and PLVC. The coefficient of this range has the maximum effect on the steady state oscillations. This range is used to effectively control the rise time and to obtain maximum overshoot.20). NSVC. The variation of the coefficient during this range will affect the maximum overshoot by about 80% and the variation in each of ranges 1 and 3 will affect by about 10%.20). the supports are multiplied by a coefficient greater than unity. The following method is suggested for controlling the time – response parameters: Range 1: (100 – 40). Each time the error is sampled the specified range is determined and the location of the singleton corresponding to that range is obtained. NS. and (5 . the supports are multiplied by a coefficient less than unity (around set point) and for higher ranges. the rise time is decreased and vice versa. Range 3 and 4: (20 – 5) (5 – 0). PSVC.5). KNOWLEDGE BASE Fuzzifier Interference Engine Defuzzifier Error Interpreter Dc motor Fig 5: Block diagram of system with proposed FLC . the error signal is fed to an interface that changes the value of the supports. the oscillations will persist for a longer time and thus the setting time will be more.Where PL. In the new method. The magnitude of output error is divided into ranges covering (100 – 40 ).
3. 2. Apply defuzzification to form a crisp output. fuzzy subsets on the one hand and the outputs fuzzy subsets on the other hand.1] or [-1.1] interval. 6. Partition the universe of discourse or the internal spanned by each variable into a number of fuzzy subsets. Thus based upon these rules fuzzy logic controller is designed and can be suitable for any kind of control applications. Aggregate the fuzzy outputs recommended by each rule.The steps in designing the controller are : 1. states and outputs of the) of the plant. thus forming the rule base. SIMULINK ROOT BLOCK DIAGRAM: . 5. 7. assigning each a linguistic label. Fuzzify the inputs to the controller. Use fuzzy approximate reasoning to infer the output contributed from each rule. 4. Choose appropriate sealing factors for the input and output variables in order to normalize the variables to the [0. 8. 9. Assign the fuzzy relationship between the inputs or states. Assign or determine a membership function for each fuzzy subset. Identify the variables (inputs.
. The proposed fuzzy controller gives better response compared to the basic fuzzy controller. The step response parameters can be closely controlled with the help of simple operations within the controller. The personal computer provides the necessary flexibility in setting any speed profile with the use of fuzzy packages.8 OUTPUT: CONCLUSIONS: The proposed fuzzy logic controller is suitable for speed control of a DC motor.PARAMETERS: Source type: DC Amplitude: 220V Rated speed: 1500 rpm Signal generator Amplitude: 1. Frequency: 1 Gain=9.
s.REFERENCES:    C. Sept-Oct 1996 Pages: 1063-1068. issue 5.IEEE Trans Power Electronics.Lee.. IEEE Trans nsystems Man & Cybernatics. Zigliotto. Fuzzy Logic Control of a Switched reluctance motor drive. General purpose Fuzzy Control for DC to DC converter.C. computer simulation & experimental evaluation IEEE trans on Power Electronics .  W So . Industry Applications. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic control part-1&2. Mattavelli. M.C Tse & Y Lee development of Fuzzy Logic Control for DC to DC converter design. IEEE transactions on volume 32. Bolognani.
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