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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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15

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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tyd k i f ; (9)

Ak'b< momESi @f
tm%m&Si fpepf

armifomrn

(www.maukkha.org

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

26

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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tusKd;&v'fudk axmufq+yD;=unfh&if Ak'<bmom jrefrmEdkifiHom;trsm;pktaeeJ@ txufyg
tusif@awGudk ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif rusif@oHk;ao;bl;vdk@yJ ajym&ygvdrf@r,f? ta=umufw&m;udk tajccH
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Ak'<bmom0ifawG trsm;pk aexkdif&m jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;}uD; wnf&SdaewJh
tjzpf[m r,HEk ikd f avmuf atmifjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,hf Ak'b
< mom0if jrefrmEdik if o
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ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;}uD;udk rz,f&Sm; Edkifp&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? ta=umufw&m; uif;a0;apwJ@
Ak'<bmomw&m;rsm;udk av;av; eufeuf usif@oHk;zdk@om vdktyfygw,f? o'<g oDv okw 0D&d, ynm
qdkwJ@ w&m;aumif; w&m;jrwfawGudk usif@oHk;zdk@om vdktyfygw,f?
('Drdku&ufwpf jrefrmtoH a&'D,dkwGif xkwfv$if@cJ@zl;aom aqmif;yg; jzpfygw,f?)

armifomrn

“zd w f a c:tyf y gonf ”
Edik if aH &;/vlra+ &;/pD;yGg;a&;tawG;tjrif aqmif;yg;rsm;
a0zefa&; aqmif;yg;rsm;
uAsm/0wˆKwd/k umwGe;f /yef;csD rsm;udk
rnforl qdk vGwv
f yfpmG ay;ydk Eh ikd yf gonf//
pmrlrsm;ud(k 15)&ufae h
aemufq;kH xm;jyD; ay;ydŒk }uyg&ef
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4
arwWm&yfct
H yf2y8gonf//

29

*syef {u&mZf [D&kd[DwdkESifh ynmoif
buf ol i ,f c sif ; / jyif o pf E k d i f i H aqmf b G e f ; wuU o d k v f r S
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tcsdefwdk@udk vkdufI trsKd;rsKd; ajymif;vJ wwfonf jzpf&m
aemiftESpf (50-100) t=um ordkif;wGif &Sdaernfh a'gufwm
barmf. ae&mudk rnfolrSs rodEkdif/ rcef@rSef;Ekdifyg?

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jzpf.? armfpDwkef;u 0jzdK;ol/ a'gufwmu ydefol jzpfI a0'em '%fcsufudk ykdrdkcHEkdif&nf&Sdum aemufus
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trS e f w G i f &uf a ygif ; (50) ausmf r S uG , f v G e f c J h . ? orD ; rsm;. tjyKtpk u m; tH h = ozG , f
29

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

30

aumif;rGefvSygayonf? om;orD; 0wW&m; ausyGef=uygayonf?
a'gufwm ruG,fvGefrDu “Armjynf &kef;xGufjyD” ac: pmtkyfwpftkyf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh
a&;om;&m EkdifiHjcm;Y xkwfa0cJhavonf? xdkpmtkyf. aemufqufwJG tcef;wpfckudk olu qufvuf
a&;om;jyD;pD;csdefY u|efawmfhudk ac:um xdkpmrludk pmayAdrmefodk@ wifjy&ef ckdif;apcJh.? jrefrmrsm;
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;aom pmrlrsm;udk udk,fwkdif xkwfa0jcif; rjyKEkdifI pmayAdrmefrS ulnD&ef
awmif;cHjcif; jzpfavonf? u|eaf wmfvnf; xk;H pHtwkid ;f XmerSL; OD;xif=u;D xHo@kd vGecf ahJ om ok;H av;ESpu
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xkH;pHtwkdif; arhavsmhae.? TwGif a'gufwmu u|efawmfhudk w,fvDzkef;qufum a'geSifh armESihf
=urd ;f armif;ygawmhonf? “rif;udk ig0g;pm;r,f/ owfypfr,f” [laom jcrd ;f ajcmufcsurf sm; yg&adS vonf?
TwGif olteD;Y em;axmifaeaom om;orufjzpfol 0wfvkH udk&JxGef;u tu,fyif rSwfxifum
a=umuf&ŒHG wkev
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em;aomwqifum w0g;0g; w[m;[m; oabmusvsuf &Sdavonf? “[m tefu,fuvJ/ owdxm;
rSaygh” ponfjzifh ol. a'gorD;udk u|efawmfu ,yfcyfIyif ay;aerd.? udk&JxGef;ESifh awGŒaomtcg
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t*Fvyd af cwfu yxr eef;&if;0efrmS a'guw
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(16) OD;om &Sdaomfvnf; b=uD;baz. trwf (40) ausmf &Sdaom ig;yGifhqdkiftzJGŒudk tEkdif,lum
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OD;apm. rsK;d cspt
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olonfvnf; jrefrmjynfudk 1936 ckrS 1946 cktxd q,fESpfq,frdk; v$rf;rdk;cJholyif jzpfavonf?
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t*Fvdyfacwf twGif;Y ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmudk &SKwfcsum
“a&zsef;ukvm;pyfudkjzifh/ a&$eef; rtyfEkdifygbl;” [k a&;om;cJhzl;onf?
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

30

31

trSet
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aejynfawmfwGif rif;nD rif;om;wdk@. enf;jyq&m jzpfcJhonf? rif;wkef;rif;u EkdifiHjcm;odk@ oHwrefrsm;
apv$wf&mwGif bmomjyefol tjzpfESifhvnf; tr_awmfxrf;cJhonf? rtlyifjrdKŒrS axmifydkif=uD;orD;
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1339 ck (c&pf 1977) e,kev
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tm;vkH; jrefrmppfvSayonf? vufaq;cGufESifh vufokwfy0g xm;ykHwdk@rS pI jrefrmjzpf ,Gef;cGuf
tnmxnfrsm; jzpfvsuf oyf&yf usufoa& &SdvS.?
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f uf&mY vnf;aumif;/ ta&mif;t0,f vky&f mY vnf;aumif; pm;yJaG omufyEGJ iS hf {nfch EH idk rf S
wGifus,f aygufa&muf.? urBmESifh qufqHa&;wGif w&kwfqdkif/ ukvm;qdkifrsm;rSm urBmt&yf&yfwGif
vlrsKd;wkdif; vufcHEkdifaom tqifhokd@ a&muf&Sdae.? jrefrmwdk@um; jyifyudk csefvSyfvsuf jynfwGif;Yyif
urBmhtqifhtwef; rSDaom jrefrmxrif;qdkif wpfckrSs r&SdonfrSm ,ae@wkdif jzpf.? zdvpfydkifjynf/
,k;d ',m;jynfEiS hf tif'ckd sKid ;f em;wd@k u jrefrmxuf wpfqifo
h maom tajcY &Sad e.? a'guw
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vuf&mrDvu
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d nfh userf o
d m;pkw@kd u Txrif;qdik f ta&;awmfyu
Hk kd qufvuf
pOf;pm;oifh.?
a'gufwm. &ufvnfqGrf;uyfyJGodk@ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmfjidrf;/ OD;odef;azjrifh/ OD;cifarmifav;/
OD;ndKxGef;/ OD;azcif/ ocifcspfarmif (jrefatmif)/ OD;ausmfrif;/ OD;ausmfjrifh pojzifh EkdifiHa&; e,fy,frS
yk*~dKvftrsm; vma&muf=u.?
u|eaf wmfu OD;AaqGEiS hf wpfpm;yJw
G nf; usojzifh oGm;avol ta=umif; pyfrpd yf&m ajym=u.?
wpf=urd u
f td;k a0*sme,fwiG f Adv
k rf LS ;=u;D a[mif; cifnKd u ol. tawGŒt=uKrH sm;udk a&;&mwGif
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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*syefacwfu awmfveS af &;ae@udk a&$Œajymif;cJ&h jcif;rSm a'guw
f mbarmfrS wpfqifh owif;aygu=f um;oGm;I
jzpf&av[ef pGyfpJGcJhayonf? u|efawmfu a'gufwm. acsycsufudk xdkpGyfpJGcsufESifh twl yl;wJG
azmfjycJhayonf? a'gufwmu a'gESifh armESifh ajz&Sif;&mwGif twdkcsKyfrSm “igu odorSsudk [kdtcsdefu
zGifhajymcJh&if rif;wdk@ tm;vkH; acgif;jyKwfukefrSmaygh” [k yg&Sd.? oufaocH tjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
awmrcdkrD olŒxHodk@ a&;cJhaom twGif;pmudkvnf; wifjy.? jrefrmacgif;aqmifrsm; rk'kHjrdKŒodk@
wd r f ; a&S m if = u&mwG i f ol E S i f h t wl zqyv acgif ; aqmif = uD ; rsm; ppf j yD ; csd e f t xd ruJ G r uG m
vku
d yf gc=hJ uykrH sm;udv
k nf; azmfjy.?
TudpPESifh ywfoufI OD;AaqGu a'gufwm. acsycsufudk axmufcH.? olodoavmufwGif
awmfvSefa&; &ufa&$ŒcJh&jcif;rSm yJcl;&Sd jrefrmwyfom;rsm; v_yf&Sm;ykHudk *syefwdk@u &dyfrdoGm;I jzpfonf
qdk.? trSeftm;jzifh OD;AaqG udk,fwkdif *syefwdk@ zrf;qD; csKyfaESmifcJh&mrS a'gufwmyif y&d,m,f
trsKd;rsKd;okH;um u,fwifcJhonf? OD;cef@ (yef;waemf) . ajymjycsuft& ynmrif;=uD; OD;csKd. om;
pwifvDcsKdonf r[mrdwf bufawmfom; tjzpf jrefrmjynfodk@ avxD;ESifh qif;vm&m *syefwdk@
owftq
hH q
J rJ S a'guw
f myif u,fwifco
hJ nf?
xkdudpPESifh ywfoufI a'gufwmu OD;ausmfjidrf;odk@ pma&;&Sif;jy&mwGif “*syefawGu
ocifoef;xGef;udk rouFm jzpfaecsdefrSm igudk,fwkdif olŒudk awmifil ajymif;ay;cJhwm rif;todygyJ?
ocifpkd;uvnf; ol@tajctae raumif;bJ tEW&m,f &SdaejyDqdkwmudk igu tzefwvJvJ =udKwif
owday;cJw
h ,f? igu uGejf rLepfawGuakd wmif tJovdk *&kwpdu
k f u,fq,fcahJ o;&if jrefrmhwyfrawmfukd
acsmufusatmif b,frSm vkyfrvJ” [k yg&Sdavonf?
Todk@ t"dywd=uD; taejzifh =udrfzefrsm;pGm olwwftm;oa&GΠudk,fhvlrsKd;rsm; csrf;oma&;
zefwD;cJhykHwdk@rSm vSsdKŒ0Sufcsufrsm; jzpfI olu zGifhIvnf; rajym/ tom;,ljcif;/ tjrwfxkwfjcif;vnf;
r&Scd ahJ y? xdt
k csuu
f kd axmuf&KS I OD;AaqGu “a'guw
f m[m vl=u;D vlaumif; Ekid if aH &;orm;vd@k qd&k rSmy/
olŒrSm vl=uD;pdwf&Sdw,f/ pnf;urf;&Sdw,f/ vufa0S@xdk;&mrSm csufatmufxdk;jyD; tEkdif,ljcif; r&SdwJh
ormorwf vufa0S@orm;vkdaygh” [k xdkae@u tuJjzwf.?
a'gufwmuG,fvGefcsdefu xl;jcm;csufrSm ol. psmyea=umfjimudk oludk,fwdkif a&;ay;cJhjcif;
jzpf.? t*FvdyfbmomESifh a&;ay;cJh.? yxr ol@emrnf/ xdk@aemuf “wd[dwfuav;rS wd[dwf=uD;odk@
ysHoef;ol” [k yg&Sd.? xdkrSsomyg&Sdaom a=umfjimwkduav; jzpf.? xdkaqmifyk'frSm acgrynm&Sd=uD;
(yvdkwdeyf) . vuf&mudk udk;um;jcif;yif? “The flight from the alone to the Alone²Plotinus” [lI t*Fvdyfvdk vm&dS.? wd[dwfuav;rSm ol. ykxkZOfb0uav;udk qkdvdk.?
wd[w
d =f u;D um; edAmŠ efr*fzv
kd u
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kd ?
u|efawmfwdk@ jrefrmordkif;wGif tr&yl&acwfY trwf=uD; OD;ay:OD; uG,fvGef&m ol.
vufwpfbufudk acgif;tjyif xkwfum jzef@xm;ap&ef rSm=um;cJh.? arG;zGm;pOfuvnf; bmrSs r,lvm/
aooGm;aomtcgYvnf; bmrSs ygroGm;ykHudk w&m;jycsifaom oabmyif? ,ckvnf; a'gufwmonf
j*Kd vw
f ak cwfY 'k;H ysyH rm aumif;uifo@kd wuf&mwGif oHa,mZOf tnpfta=u;wd@k udk wpfcjk y;D wpfck pGe@f cJjh y[
D k
t"dy`g,f &&Sdavonf

ndKjr

pmarmfuGef;/ trSwf (2)/ Zlvdkif/ 1985
33

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

34

” Á omrp> & d , tvG e f t m;}uD ; aom
vl r sd K ;rsm;jzpf = uonf [ k
rS w f w rf ; wif x m; avowJ h ”

a&jrifhavaomtcg
t&SifoH0&mvuFm&
"rRyd,q&mawmf

bk&m;&Sif oufawmfxif&mS ; &Spd Oftcgwek ;f u wpfae@aomtcg od}um;rif;}u;D a&mufvm+y;D
"bke;f awmf}u;D awmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;......ewfawG/ vlawG/ tol&mewfawG/ e*g;awG/ *E<AeŠ wfawG/
ouf&o
dS wW0g [lor# cdu
k &f efa'go uif;yum aexdik v
f =kd uygw,f? vufeufOpPm'%fab; uif;a0;um
aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? &efol[lor# uif;pifyum aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? pdwfqif;&J uif;um ESvHk;pdwf0rf;
=unf=unfomomeJ@ aexdkif vdk=uygw,f? cdkuf&efa'go pdk;pOf;r#r&SdbJ aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
at;at;aq;aq; csr;f csr;f omom aexdik v
f =kd uayr,fh tJ'v
D kd rae&bJ cdu
k &f efa'go jzpfae=u&ygw,f?
vufeuf OpPm'%fab; oifha&mufae=u&ygw,f? &efolawG 0dkif;0dkif;vnfae=u&ygw,f? ESvHkrom
tjrJpdwfqif;&JpGm ae=u&ygw,f? b,fvdktaESmiftzGJ@rsdK;awGa=umifh tJ'Dvdk tvdkrusbJ qif;&J'kuQ
a&mufae=u&wmygvJ bk&m;" [k ar;av#mufavonf?
xdktcg bk&m;&Sifu "owW0gawG[m Áomrp>&d, taESmiftzGJ@a=umifh tJ'Dvdk yÉdyuQ
awGjzpfum qif;&J'u
k aQ wG a&mufae=u&wmyJ"[k rde@f awmfro
l nf? bk&m;&Si.
f tajzudk aus;Zl;awmf&iS f
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h nf?
xd@k tjyif "remvdu
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"rRm&H/k qGr;f ausmif; ponfh vlorl jrifEikd o
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csrf;omzdk@&m aocsmonf?
od=um;rif;u oHa,mZOf [laom a0g[m&udk oHk;Iar;ojzifh bk&m;uvnf; oHa,mZOf
[laom a0g[m&ESihf ajzawmfro
l nf? oHa,mZOf q,fyg;wGif Áomrp>&,
d oHa,mZOf ESpyf g;u tqd;k qH;k
jzpfyHkay:onf? xdka=umifh bk&m;&Sifu Áomrp>&d, oHa,mZOf taESmiftzGJ@a=umifh owW0gtm;vHk;
'kuaQ &mufae =u&onf[k ajzawmfro
l nf?
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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wwd,urBmxJu EdkifiHwpfckonf udkvdkeDatmufrS vGwfajrmufonfrSm ESpfaygif; wpf&m
em;odk@ uyfvm+yD? odk@aomf ,ckwdkif 'Hk&if; 'Hk&if; qif;&JjrJ qif;&JjrJjzpfonf? vGefcJhaomESpfwpf&mcef@u
xdEk ikd if H xdv
k rl sKd ; ta=umif;udk okawoejyK rSww
f rf;wifcahJ om pma&;q&mwpfO;D u xdv
k rl sKd ; trsm;pkonf
Áomrp>&d, tvGeftm;}uD;aom vlrsdK;rsm;jzpf=uonf[k rSwfwrf;wifxm; avowJh?
a&uefwpfuefxJY =umrsdK;ig;yg; pGifhpGifhum;um; yGifhvef;wifhqef; ae=uonf? xdk=umrsdK;
ig;yg;onf a&edrfhonfhtcg edrfhvdkufoGm;=uonf? a&jrifhonfhtcg jrifhvdkufoGm;=uonf? =umawG
jrifah ejcif;onf a&jrifah oma=umifjh zpfonf? a&jrifah vaomtcg =umawGjrif=h u&onfrmS "rRwmjzpfonf?
udk,fydkifb0wck. ppfrSefaom tedrfhtjrifh/ b0rsm;pGmwdk@. tedrfhtjrifhonf udk,f&nf
udk,faoG;/ pdwf&nfpdwfaoG;ESifh wdkuf&dkufoufqdkifonf? udk,f&nfudk,faoG;[lonf vkyf&nfudkif&nf
t&nftcsif;jzpfonf? xdkt&nftcsif;onf Om%f&nfOm%faoG; ESifhvnf;qdkifonf? rnfr#odoenf;?
rnfr#wwfoenf;? odjcif;/ wwfjcif;a=umifh Om%f&nf
Om%faoG; xufjruf&onf? Om%&nfOm%faoG; [lonfrSmvnf; Om%feDOm%feufudk rqdkvdk?
tjzLa&mifOm%f/ tvif;a&mifOm%fuo
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h #if vlawmfjzpfonf? tD;usLjrifv
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b,f[mt"du[k ajymIr&/? ESpfckvHk;uawmh t"duusonf? awmf&HkESifhvnf; rjyD;/ aumif;&kHESifhvnf;
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aumif;vnf;aumif;rSjzpfrnf?
vlawmfu tvkyfvkyfvdk@aumif;onf? vlaumif;u ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&onf? vlaumif;u
=unfndKzdk@/ vlawmfu av;pm;zdk@jzpfonf? tvkyfuvnf; vkyfae=u&OD;rnf? xdktcg awmfvnf;awmf/
aumif;vnf;aumif;rSjzpfrnf? vlawmfESifh tvkyfvkyf&onfrSm pdwfcsrf;om ouJhodk@ vlaumif;ESifh
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rnfr#aumif;onf[k 'D*&D tedrfh/ tjrifhawmh uGJygvdrfhrnf? t"duuawmh tvkyfjzpfzdk@om jzpfonf?
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pdwft&nftaoG;udk edrfhusapwm/ jrifhrm;apwmu pdwfxJrSmom&Sdonf? xdkoabmudk em;vnf&rnf?
rl&if;yifudk,fpdwfu tjzLa&mifoufouf jzpfonf? apwodwfawG a=umifh pdwfu ta&mif
trsdK;rsdK;ajymif; taumif;tqdk;jzpf&onf? tavmb/ ta'go/ tarm[/ arwWm/ u&k%m/ rk'dwm/
o'<g/ ynm paom apwodwfawGa=umifh pdwfu aumif;&onf? jrifh&onf? avmb/ a'go/ arm[/
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Áomrp>&d, paom apwodwfawGa=umifh pdwfu qdk;&onf/ ,kwf&onf/ nHh&onf/ edrfhus&onf/
ao;odrf&onf/ atmufwef;us&onf?
bk&m;&Sif. ouUyOokwWef t&=unfhv#if vlwpfOD;pD. tedrfhtjrifh/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wpf ck.
terfhtjrifh/ vlrsm;pGmwdk@. tedrfhtjrifh/ okcESifh 'kuQ jcm;em;&mY Áomrp>&d, t"duusonf[k
aumufcsufcsEdkifonf? tb,fa=umifh ,ckxd rcsrf;om&oenf;? Áomrp>&d, a=umifhjzpfonf?
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37

"rRyd,q&mawmf
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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t&Sif^m%du
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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OD;oef h

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tjcm;ta&;=u;D aom &nf&,
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ausmif;rsm;omvSsif 1941-42 ckESpftxd toufrao usefcJ@avonf? toufrao[k qdk&mY
usef;usef;rmrm oefoefpGrf;pGrf; &Sd=uonfr[kwf? csLcsmcsnfheJ@pGm usefcJ@jcif;jzpfonf?
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wpfaomif;jzpfI ausmif;vc av;axmif&tH@/ vdkaom aiGajcmufaxmifudk t&S_Hk;[kac:ayonf?
xdak jcmufaxmifteuf tpd;k &u oH;k axmif axmufy@H I ausmif;aumfrwDu &Smay;&aom oH;k axmifonf
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trsKd;om; ausmif;rsm;omru tjcm; taxmuftyH@cH ausmif;[lorSsonf ‘rkom;ryg vuFmracsm’
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xdkudpPudk ynma&;0ef=uD;vnf; od.? ynmrif;=uD;vnf; od.? ynm0efrsm;vnf; od.?
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[laomxH;k udk ESv;kH jyK=uavonf?
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1939 ckESpfwGif taxmuftyH@ES_ef;udk tpdk;&u wpf0ufrS oHk;yHkodk@ wdk;ay;vdkufaomtcg/
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f @kd onf acwfa[mif;u
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ausmif;rsm;om jzpfvmayrnf? tpdk;&onf trsKd;om;tpdk;&jzpfI/ ynma&;0efonf trsKd;om;0ef=uD;
jzpfvsS if ausmif;rsm;tm;vH;k onf tb,fa=umif@ wd;k wufonfh trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm; rjzpfEikd &f rnfenf;?
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ynmoif=um;vsuf &So
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(‘ArmopfESif@ ynmopf’ pmwrf;rS xkwfES_wfazmfjyygonf?)
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Ref: Economist (Jan 20,2011.)

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tudkif tcGifhtvrf;udk tomxm;/ om;orD;udk ynma&;vlvm;ajrmufapcsifonf?
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Tvrf;twdkif; ynmwwf "eºu,f +rdK@}uD;jy}uD;om;wdk@twGuf jynfwGif;ynma&;udk
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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ZGef/14/2011
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0if;Edik f (Lin Po Yin)
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Ref: 1. James Barber, ‘Citizen Politics’,1786 .
2. Oxford Dictionary of Politics,2003.

jynfol@acwf twGJ1 /trSwf34 / 3rwf/ 2011 =umoyaw;
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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69

jzpfwJh ightpfreJ@ awG@+yDom rSwfayawmh? xrdefwdkwdk atmufem;updk/ xrdefwdkwdk atmufem;updk
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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jroDwm =unfjzL vdk@rqHk; =unfEl;qGwfysHΠI rqHk; awmh? wdwfwcdk; &ifckefaeavonf?
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70
5,No.4

71

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hJ nf?
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tudk&,f usef;rma&;vJ *±kpdkuftHk; [kqdkonf?
“tudkwdk@ oli,fcsif;ESpfa,muf aewJhtcefu te@Htoufraumif;bl;? wzuftdrfu
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tvif;a&mifvJr&bl;? ae@a=umifawmif arSmifrdkufaewJhtcef;[m awmom;}uD;udkrdk;jrifh&JŒ tcef;aygh”
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jroDwmudk vufy;l vufus awG@cJ&h / pum;ajymcJ&h a=umif; ajymjypOfu =um;ae&onfh em;ESpb
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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av;ESpf&Snf=umcJht+yD;jroDwmudkjyefvnfqHkawG@aomtcg olwkd@ESpfOD;pvkH;yif rwfwwfu
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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qd@k vmw,f? tud@k ud}k uw
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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79

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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tvif;puf

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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rdk;ajropf

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r+ jzpfonf?
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rkd;ajropf ( ZGef 6/ 2011)
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awZacgi;f xJrmS &Sad ew,f? bmvkd h rjzpfEidk &f rSmvnf;? vlawGaxmifEiS chf sjD y;D tusO;f xJxnfx
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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“ 'Dnae aw;qkid u
S f bmvkyaf evJ prf;&r,f? tckxufxd oDcsi;f rqkEd idk af o;bl; r[kwv
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awZ ukdcspfEkdif&J hrsufvkH;ukd =unfhvkduf&if;
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q&m0ef “ awmfavmufjyDAsm/ usaemfvnf; AkdufodyfqmaejyDAsm? tdrfjyefjyD npmxrif;
jyefpm;vkduf OD;r,f? udkcspfEkdif reufjzefusrS xyfawG h=uwmayghAsm?”
“axmif r S L ;uk d c spf E k d i f [ m tusF D t d w f u yf x J u vuf u k d i f y k 0 guk d xk w f v k d u f & if ;
rsufrSefukdyGwfvkdufw,f? rSefukd ajymifatmif yGwfowfvkdufw,f? pdwfxJrSm enf;enf;&_yfaxG;
aewm&Sw
d ,f? &Spyf g;oDvukd apmifah ew,fqdk wm awZbmvkd w
h cgrS ajymrjywmvJqw
dk m ar;csiw
f ,f?
awZpm;vkd h&atmif tm&k%frwufcif wckck vkyfay;&&if aumif;r,fqkdjyD; awG;rdw,f?
awZ rsufESmukd aoaocsmcsm =unhfvkdufw,f?
atmf h h h [kwo
f m;bJ? awZ rsuv
f ;Hk wzuf[m tnKt
d rJ qGaJ ewke;f bJ? E_wcf rf;pyfawGvnf;
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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a,mifuidk ;f aewke;f bJ? pdwx
f rJ mS raumif;yg? 'gayrJh 'Dtif;pdeaf xmifxrJ mS 'Dvydk pHk [
H m tjrw
J rf;wrf;vkv
d dk
jrifae&wJh udpjP zpfygw,f?
tckxufxd aw;qkdiSuf[m b,fta=umif;t&mrqkd rauseyfbl;qkdwm wcgrS rajymbl;?
ukdcspfEkdif [m awZukd awmfawmf tHh=ordw,f?
tdrjf zLawmf wku
d t
f rd af v;ukd ajymif;vmjy;D uwnf;u awZ[m oleJ yh &dk if;ES;D vmwm trSeb
f jJ zpf
w,f? ol hbufuvnf; awZ oufomygapqkdjyD; enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;ESifh armfzdef;xkd;ay;atmif
}uKd;pm;aqmif&Guf ay;cJhw,f? 'g[mvnf; awZtay:xm;wJh apwemtrSef jzpfygw,f?
tckawmhvnf; =unfhygOD;? armfzdef; rxkd;ygeJ h / rvkdawmhbl;qkdbJ?
axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdif “ cifAsm;ukd usaemfem;rvnfEkdifawmhbl;? b,fvkdjzpfwmvJ´
bmtcGit
hf a&;rS rvkcd siaf wmhb;l qk”d awZ pum;ajymzkd h }uK;d pm;vku
d w
f ,f/ pum;wvk;H xGuv
f mwkid ;f
ryDocJhyg? temuvnf; rusufao;yg? 5ywfausmfausmfwkH;u tokH;ruswJhq&m0efu awZt&kd;usKd;
wJhae&mu aumif;oGm;jyDvkd h ajym xm;w,f? 'gayrJh t&kd;u odyfemaewkef;bJ?
ukdcspfEkdif reufjzef olESifh vmawG hcsifw,f? reufapmapm qefjyKwfaomufjyD;&if olvnf;
tm;enf; enf; &SdvmEkdifw,f? tckavmavmq,fq,fawmh rsufvkH;rSdwfjyD; vSJtdyfvkdufcsifw,f?
axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifu awZab;rSm apmifha=umifhxkdifcsvkduf&if;
“ ukdawZ b,fvkdaeao;vJ´ oufom&J hvm;´”
tJ'DtoH[m ta0;}uD;u vmaeovkd / [kdeH&H}uD;tjyifbufu vSrf;ajymvkdufovkd
xl;qef;aew,f? awZ pOf;pm;rdwm ol hem;u wckckcsKd h,Gif;aejyDvm;qkdwmbJ? acgif;ukd }uKd;pm;xl&if;
“ OD;cspfEkdif usaemfr=um cifrSm tpmiwfcH qENjyawmhr,fvkd h qkH;jzwfxm;w,f?”
xGufouft&Snf}uD;ukd }uKd;pm;r+wfxkwfvkduf&if; “ “tJ'gukd rvkyfcifrSm cifAsm;qDu ta&;}uD;wJh
tultnDwck vkad ew,f? cifAsm; ulnED idk rf ,fxifygw,f?”
qufvufazmfjy oGm;ygrnf?
dy(c)armifarmifvwf
bmomjyefqdkol R oland Har
Hardy

0efxrf;qdkwm
aejynfawmf&dS tpk;d & 0efxrf;tdr&f m wpfcw
k iG f arG;ae@yGw
J pfck usi;f yaeaom tcsed jf zpfonf?
trsdK;orD;i,fwpfOD; qGJvmaom qGJjudk;ukd=unfhjyD; {nfhonftm;vkH;u “vSvkdufwm/ vSvkdufwm” [k
tm;vkH; 0kdif;0ef; csD;rGrf;ae=uonf? csD;rGrf;cH&ojzifh yDwdjzpfrdaom trsdK;orD; i,fonf tm;yg;w&
=unfyh gap[laom &nf&,
G cf sujf zihf qGjJ u;kd ukcd |waf y;vku
d .
f ?qGjJ u;kd onf wpfvufrw
S pfvufo@dk ul;oGm;jy;D
aemufq;Hk wGif aysmufomG ;awmhonf?
trsdK;orD;juD;wpfOD;u pdwfraumif; jzpfrdpGmjzifhajym.? “tcsif;csif; 'Dvkdvkyfwmawmh
raumif;ygbl;? 'ga=umifh ,lxm;wm ukdvJ b,folrSrodatmif tckpm;yGJay:ukd aiGzvm;wpfvkH;
wifvkdufr,f?jyD;&ifrD;cvkwfukd ydwfjyD; wpf&mtxda&r,f? rD;jyefzGifh vkdufwJhtcsdefrSm qGJjudk;ukd
aiGzvm;xJrmS jyefawG@&vdrrhf ,fv@dk ar#mv
f ifch siyf gw,f” vk@d ajymvku
d yf gw,f?
rD;ukd ydwv
f u
dk jf y;D wpfuae wpf&txda&w,f? jy;D awmhr;D ukjd yefziG v
hf u
dk w
f ,f?
pm;yGJay:rSm aiGzvm;r&Sdawmh²²²
from burma strange news
(a&;om;ay;ykd@ol - =unf0if;)
97

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Edik if aH &; tawG;tjrif bmomjyef tcef;quf

'Da&jrifoh pf
jroef;wif h

jrefrmhq&kd ,
S v
f pf vrf;pOfygwD vufxuf/jrefrmhwyfrawmftrnfcH ppftm%m&Sirf sm;rS
h pf
xkwaf 0cGijhf yK+y;D aemuf ydwyf if wm;jrpfjcif;cH&aom q&mjroef;wifh . 'Da&jrifo
(armfpw
D ek ;f ESihf w&kwaf wmfveS af &;) pmtkyt
f m;/ tvif;tdrrf *~Zif; &Jabmfrsm; taejzifh
vufawG b
h 0 w&kwjf ynfawmfveS af &;ESihf cH,jl zwfoef;r_rsm;udk pmzwfow
l kd h avhvm
od&EdS ikd af p&ef tcef;quftjzpf azmfjyvku
d yf gonf//
(pma&;ol. rdom;pkEiS hf qufo,
G af &; cufco
J jzifh today;jcif; r&So
d nfukd
cGiv
hf w
$ af y;yg&ef awmif;yeftyfygon)f

vkyf[efjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_
1941 - 1944
ygwDvkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_. &nf&G,fcsufudk armfu Todk@xkwfajymcJhonf?
“trsdK;om; twdkif;twm&Sd+yD; vlxk vuQ%maqmifwJh ygwD}uD;w&yf jzpfvm atmif
ygwu
D kd u|eaf wmfw@kd b,fvkd wnfaqmuf=urvJ? awmfveS af &; v_y&f mS ;r_}u;D w&yfukd !$e=f um;aewJh
EdkifiHa&;ygwD[m awmfvSefa&; oabmw&m;r&Sd&i/f ordkif; A[kokw r&Sd&if/ vufawG@ vkyfudkifaewJh
v_yf&Sm;r_udk eufeufeJeJ em;rvnf&if/ atmifyGJ&vdrfhr,f r[kwf” ( “trsdK;om; ppfyGJtwGif;
w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD. tqifhae&m” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 2)
ordkif;a=umif;udk ajymwdkif;/ w&kwfjynf. ordkif;wckwnf;udk armf qdkvdkjcif;r[kwf?
xdktxJwGif w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD. ordkif;vnf;ygaeonf? w&kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. ordkif;udk
em;vnfa&;on/f qGe,
f u
D eG zf &ifu
h wnf;u ay:aygucf ahJ om/ t+y;D rowfao;o!fh t,l 0g'a&;&m
wdu
k yf jJG y\em jzpfonf?
armfu jy\emw&yfudk udk,fwG,f+yDqdkv#if b,fawmhrS tay:,H udkifwG,fjcif;rjyK?
Zpfjrpfxad tmif vku
d o
f nf? twlvyk zf uf ausmif;q&m wa,muf jy\em w&yfEiS hf &ifqikd af ev#i/f
xdkausmif;q&mudk ausmif;tkyfq&m}uD;&Hk;cef;wGif;odk@ twif;qGJac:um/ jy\emudk yGifhyGihfvif;vif;
&ifqikd af pyHrk sKd ; jzpfonf? ,ckygwx
D w
J iG f t,ltq &_waf xG;ae+y?D r&d;k ajzmifrh a_ wG ay:ae+y?D xdt
k cgY
armfonf ygw.
D twdwo
f rdik ;f udk jyefI wl;az:onf? xd@k aemuf ordik ;f . w&m;cGio
f @kd wifjyonf?
Tenf;tm;jzifh tem*gwf atmifyGJtwGuf twdwfudk toHk;csonf?
ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf ygwD0ifwdkif;ESifh qdkifonf? ygwD tzGJ@tpnf;
tm;vHk;ESihfvnf; qdkifonf? xdk@a=umifh ygwDordkif;/ ygwD0ifwdk@. ordkif;rsm;udk/ =unfvifyDo atmif
cGjJ crf;pdwjf zm =u!fzh @kd vdo
k nf[k armf ,lqonf? w&kwu
f eG jf rLepfygw.
D ygw0D ifz@JG pnf; r_ukd =u!fv
h #i/f
ygwD 0 if trsm;pk (70-&mE_ e f ; ) onf / v,f o rm; vl w ef ; pm;rS vmol r sm; jzpf = uonf ?
usefygwD0ifrsm;rSm/ a'ojzLrSvmaom "e&Sif aygufprsm;ESifh ynmwwfrsm; jzpf=uonf? ygwDESifh
tpd;k & ,EW&m;rsm;wGi/f ynmwwfrsm;u wm0ef}u;D }u;D ae&mrsm;wGif a&mufae=uonf? tcsKd @aom
a'orsm;wGif 0g&ifhawmfvSefa&; wyfom;}uD;rsm;onf/ 0gEk ygwD au'grsm;. trdef@udk
emcHae=u&onf? Todk@jzihf ygwDxJwGif v,form;vlwef;pm;u vmo!fh au'gESifh ynmwwf
au'g/ 0g&ifh au'gESifh 0gEk au'gwdk@ yËdyuQ jzpfvm=uonf?
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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au'g ESpfrsdK;pvHk;udk *syefckcHa&; wuUodkvfodk@ wufapI/ ygwD0ifrsm;=um;u/ uGm[r_udk
acszsuf&ef armfu }udK;pm;onf? ,cifuuJhodk@/ ynmwwfrsm;udk &k&Sm;odk@ oifwef; wuf&ef
apv$wfo!fh pepfudk/ armfu qef@usifonf? w&kwf- *syef ppfyGJ jzpfvm o!fhtwGuf/ &k&Sm;odk@
rv$wfEdkifawmhaomfvnf; ynmwwfrsm;ESifh &k&Sm;jyefrsm; ygwDxJwGif ae&mwum}uD;pdk;ae=uonf?
AsK&u
kd a&pDpepf/ t&m&Spd epf v$r;f rd;k vmonf? tkycf sKyaf &;wGif vlyakd wG rsm;aeonf? ukex
f w
k v
f yk jf cif;
rjyKo!fh tpd;k & Xmersm;u/ vlyrkd sm;a=umihf vlxw
k iG f 0efwufvmonf? jcpm;r_/ tusiphf m&dwyW surf /_
tacsmiform; 0g' usio
fh ;kH r_w@kd ay:ayguv
f m onf? ygwu
D kd oef@&Si;f atmif vkyzf @kd vkad e+y?D Tjy\emudk
pwifvmolrsm;rSm &dk;om;I tvkyfvkyfo!fh tvkyform;/ v,form; vlwef;pm;uvmo!fh
au'grsm;r[kwf? rwf0g' pum;vHk;rsm;rsm;udk &Gwfzwfo&ZÇ,f=uo!fh ynmwwfrsm; jzpf=uonf?
todnmOf jzpfvm onf? ynmwwfvlwef;pm;. jy\em jzpfonf?
,iftef;odk@ a&mufvmo!fh ynmwwftrsm;pkonf &dk;om;=uonf? xufoef
=uonf? vkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_a=umihf tcsdK@onf awmfvSefa&; wyfom;aumif;rsm;
jzpfvmcJ=h uonf? od@k &mwGif ygwx
D YJ rajymif;vJo!fh ynmwwftcsKd @ useaf eao;onf? tcsKd @onf
awmfveS af &;udk oHo,&Sad e=uonf? pdwyf suaf e=uonf? tqd;k jrif 0g' 0ifae =uonf? TonfrmS
tcuftcJrsm;/ ulrifwefydwfqdk@r_rsm;/ taetxdkif qif;&Jr_rsm;/ pnf;urf;ESifh ae&jcif;rsm;a=umihf
jzpfonf? ygwDvrf;pOfudk rav;eufjcif;a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf? ,iftef;odk@ a&mufvmo!fh
ynmwwfrsm;udk omrefvlxkxuf tcGifhta&; ay;xm;o!fhwdki/f aexdkifr_ tqifhjrihfonfwdkif/
Tr#ESihf rauseyf=u? ydkI tcGifhta&; vdkcsif=uonf? ydkI Zdrfusus aevdk=uonf? TonfrSm
ynmwwfvlwef;pm; nOfa=umihf jzpfonf? ynmwwfvlwef;pm;onf yifyifyef;yef; vkyf&rnfudk
a=umufonf? vufeufuikd f wdu
k yf .
JG tcuftcJrsm;udk a=umufonf? pnf;urf;udk a=umufonf?
=urf;wrf;cJah om w&kwf v,form;rsm;. b0udk a=umufonf? vpfb&,f 0g' tavsmuf/
twif;ajym wwfonf? a&&Snfoabmudk rjrifojzifh pdwf"gwfuswwfonf? tjrif&_wfaxG;ojzihf
*dk%f; *% 0g'ESifh taumuf}uHr_rsm; 0ifwwfonf? TonfrSm oabmxm; jy\em jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&; jy\em jzpfonf?
ygwD0iftopfESifh ta[mif;=um;u uGm[csufuvnf; }uD;onf? wHwm;cif;&ef rvG,f?
wOD;udk wOD; oHo, 0ifae=uonf? ynmwwf vli,f au'gopfrsm;u/ 0g&ifh ynmrJh
au'ga[mif;}uD;rsm;udk txifao;onf? vlxkESihf cyfuif;uif; aeonf? a'ocH vlxk.
bmompum;udk em;rvnf? em;vnfatmifvnf; oif=um;jcif; rjyK? +rdK@}uD; rsm;uvmo!fh/
xif&Sm;o!fh vuf0J pma&;q&m wpkqdkv#if/ ,iftef;wGif rxifr&Sm; tnw&rsm; tjzpf
ae&onf? TwGif yk*~dKvfa&; cHpm;csufrsm;/ rauseyfcsufrsm; ay:vm onf? Tyk*~dKvfa&;
rauseyfcsufrsm;onf xkxnf }uD;vmum/ awmfvSefa&; tusdK;pD;yGm;udk zHk;tkyfypfvdkufonf?
xdkr#ru +rdK@rsm;rS a&mufvmo!fh ynmwwf au'gopfrsm;onf/ ygwDta=umif;udk
aumif;aumif; rod=u? usefpDjynfe,f uGefz&ifh/ qGef,D uGefz&ifh ponfwdk@wGif bmjzpfcJh=u
onfudk rod=u? Tynmwwfrsm;udk 0rfrif;*dk%f;uvnf; tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufjyKae=uonf?
vkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk tpysdK;o!fhtaejzifh 1941 ckESpf rwfvwGif/ armfu
“aus;vuf ta=umif; pl;prf;avhvmcsuf. ed'gef;ESifh ed*Hk;” [laom pmwrf;wapmifudk a&;onf?
Tpmwrf;udk ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ pmwrf; tjzpf avhvm&ef ausnmvdkufonf?
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“atmufvuf tajctaersm;udk vHk;0em;rvnfyJ/ acgif;aqmifvkyfae=ujcif;onf/
tvGeftEW&m,f}uD;aom tcsif;t&m w&yfjzpfonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;/ vlwef;pm; toD;oD; .
tajctaerSefudk wu,fwrf; tcdkiftrmusus em;vnf;jcif;r&Sdygu/ wu,hfacgif;aqmif aumif;
jzpfEdkifvdrhfrnf r[kwf?”
“vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm; pl;prf;avhvmjcif;/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;/ vlwef;pm; toD;oD;.
v_yf&Sm;aeaom tajctaeudk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;on/f tajctaeudk od&Sdem;vnfzdk@twGuf
wckwnf;aom enf;vrf;jzpfonf?--TudpPudk vkyfrnfqdkv#if yxrtm;jzifh atmufajcodk@
rsufESmrl&rnf? acgif;armhaeI rjzpf?” (“aus;vuf ta=umif; pHkprf;avhvmcsuf? ed'gef;ESifh ed*Hk;”
vufa&G;pifusrf; twGJ 3)
“vufawG@ vkyfief;vkyfolrSefor#[m atmufajcta=umif;udk pHkprf;&r,f? oabm
w&m;udkom em;vnf+yD;/ vufawG@ tajctaeudk em;rvnfolrsm;[m pHkprf;a&; vkyfief; vkyfzdk@
txl;vdt
k yfw,f? 'Dvrkd vky&f if olw@kd [m oabmw&m;eJ@ vufawG@udk aygi;f pyfay; Edik rf mS r[kwb
f ;l ?
‘pHkprf;r_r&Sd&if pum;ajymcGifhr&Sd’ qdkwmudk wcsdK@u ‘usOf;ajrmif;wJh tawG@ t}uHK 0g'’ [k
oa&mf=uayr,hf usKyfuawmh rSm;w,fvdk@ ckxdrxifbl;? rSm;w,fvdk@ rxif&Hk ru pHkprf;r_ r&Sd&if
pum;ajymcGifh r&Sdbl;vdk@ pGJpGJ+rJ+rJ ,Hk=unfw,f” ( 4if;usrf;)?
armfu vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf pmwrf; (18) apmif jyXmef;o!fhtxJwGif
“yÉdyuQusr;f ”vnf; ygonf? vky[
f efjyK jyifa&; v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f xdu
k sr;f udk avhvm&ef jyXmef;cJo
h nf?
armfu-“u|efawmfwdk@. w&m;ao0g'Drsm; rSm;,Gif;=uonfrSm-- eufeJpGm ravhvm&ao;aom
od@k r[kwf topfay:xGuv
f maom vufawG@t&m udprP sm;udk rkcs qufvufavhvm&OD;rnfjzpfa=umif;
em;rvnfjcif;yif jzpfonf? u|eaf wmfw@kd . w&m;ao0g'rD sm;onf vlzsi;f rsm; jzpf=uonf? olw@kd onf
vufawG@t&m udpPrsm;ESifh ywfoufI/ rnfo!fh cufcJ yifyef;aom avhvma&; vkyfief;rsdK;udkrqdk
vkyf&ef jiif;qef=uonf? a,bk,s trSefw&m;udk rdk;ay:u usvmo!fh t&m[k ,lq=uonf?
4if;udk vlorl sm; rvkyu
f ikd Ef ikd o
f !fh taumiftxnfrhJ yHak oenf;oufouf jzpfatmif vkyw
f wf=uonf?”
(“yÉdyuQusrf;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 1)
armfu ygwDvkyfief; jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk ta,mifjyum ygwDtqifh toD;oD;wGif
udk,fESifh rw!fhol/ udk,fht,ltqudk qef@usifol rSefor#udk/ tjyKwf jzKwfypf&ef jzpfonf? pifppf
vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk vkyf&mwGif/ armhf &nf&G,fcsufrSm ygwD xdyfweff; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk
&nf&G,fjcif; jzpfonf? odk@&mwGif xkdolwdk@u wygwDvHk;udk pdwfwdkif;us yHkoGif;&ef &nf&G,fonf?
xdkolrsm;rSm “vuf0JtvGeftu|H” orm;rsm; jzpfonf? tjcm; t,ltq wckrSm vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&;
v_yf&Sm;r_udk wHk@aES;atmif uysuf ,ysuf jzpfatmif vkyfcsifolrsm; jzpfonf? xdkolrsm;rSm vufsm
tacsmif 0g'orm;rsm; jzpf=uonf?
1941 ck arvwGif ygwaD u'grsm;udk ajymo!f/h “u|eaf wmfw@kd . avhvmr_ukd jyK jyifa&;”
[lo!fh rde@f cGe;f wGif armfu “u|eaf wmfw@kd wygwv
D ;kH taeeJ@ avhvmwJeh nf;eJ@ avhvmwJph epfukd jyK
jyif=uzd@k wdu
k w
f eG ;f w,f” [k ajymcJo
h nf/ armfu ygwx
D w
J iG f avhvmr_EiS hf pl;prf;r_ tm;enf;ao;a=umif;/
pum;}u;D pum;us,f ajymo!fh vky[
f efukd jyifoifah =umif;jzifh tus,w
f 0ifh axmufjyonf? vky[
f ef
jyK jyifa&;wGif avhvmenf;/ tvkyfvkyf[efESihf pma&;[efwdk@ jyif&ef armfu t"duxm;onf?
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au'grsm;onf “ud,
k Ohf ;D aESmuf ud,
k o
f ;kH um” jywfjywf&iS ;f &Si;f pOf;pm;wwf&rnf? pdwyf g
vufyg aphaphpyfpyf tvkyf vkyf&rnf? yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajym&rnf[k awmif;qkdonf? pma&;&mwGif
ud,
k rf S vG+J y;D wjcm;vl em;rvnfo!fh Edik if aH &; pum;vH;k }u;D awG/ 0gus&n
S }f u;D awG a&;jcif;udk a&Smif&
rnf? tESpfrygo!fh Avmpum;vHk;rsm;/ vlem;rvnfo!fh EdkifiHa&; a0g[m&rsm;udk/ wwfEdkifor#
a&Smif&rnf[k wdkufwGef;onf? armfonf pum;}uD; pum;us,foHk;jcif;udk enf;enf;r# r}udKuf?
“u|eaf wmfw@kd . avhvmr_ukd jyK jyifa&;/” “ygwv
D yk [
f ef jyK jyifa&;” ESihf “wefygu
h u
l kd qef@usi=f u”
po!fh pmwrf;rsm;Y Tudpu
P kd tus,w
f 0ifh aqG;aEG;onf? rvdt
k yfyJ aqmif;yg;&Sn}f u;D rsm;a&;jcif;/
0gus&Snf}uD;rsm; oHk;jcif;onf vlxkudk em;&_wfaponf? 4if;wdk@onf “tysif;xlaom ajcao;
w&kwrf . ajcywfvkd eHvnf;eH &Snv
f nf; &Sno
f nf ”[k armfu a0zefonf? armf. Tpmwrf;rsm;
onf tawG;&Si;f ol ta&;&Si;f ol/ ud,
k v
hf yk if ef;ud,
k f em;vnfow
l OD;. aqmif;yg;aumif;rsm; jzpfonf[k
qdkxdkufonf? *EW0ifajrmuf pmwrf;rsm;[k qdkxdkufonf?
armfonf jiif;ckejf cif;jzifh t,ltqudk wdu
k o
f nf? jiif;ckejf cif;jzifh ud,
k t
hf ,ltqudk xlaxmif
onf? a0zefa&;ESifh udk,fhudk,fudk a0zefa&;udk usihfoHk;jcif;jzifh (8) odef;r# &Sdaom ygwDau'grsm;udk
udk,fhbufodk@ygatmif odrf;oGif;onf? au'grsm;tm; tvkyfvkyf&if;jzifh w&kwfjynf ta=umif;
odem;vnfaponf? Tvkyfief;rsmtwGuf yxrqHk; wm0ef&Sdolrsm;rSm ygwDoifwef;ausmif;u
q&mrsm; jzpfonf?
“ausmif;wGif ynmay;&mrSma&m/ wm0efvuf&dS au'gawGukd ynmay;&rSmyg tbd"rRmoif
ay;wJh q&mu w&kwjf ynf awmfveS af &;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ avm*spu
f kd pl;prf;avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd
a&S@aqmif!e$ jf y ray;bl;? abm*aA' oifwq
hJ &mu w&kwjf ynfp;D yGm;a&; xl;jcm;csurf sm;udk pl;prf;avh
vmzdk@ ausmif;om;awGudk a&S@aqmif !$efjyray;bl;? EdkifiHa&;ynmoifay;wJh q&mu/ w&kwfjynf
awmfveS af &; enf;y&d,m,frsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd !$ejf yray;bl;? ppfynmoifay;
wJh q&mu w&kwjf ynf&@J xl;jcm;csuef @J udu
k n
f w
D hJ aoe*FAsL[menf;eJ@ enf;y&d,m,fawGukd pl;prf;
avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd !$ejf yray;bl;?--'gawGukd aygah ygw
h efwef vufyu
kd =f u!fah evd@k rjzpfawmh
bl;?” ( “u|efawmfwdk@. avhvmr_udk jyK jyifa&;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3)
1941 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f (1) &ufae@wGif A[dak umfrwDu “ygwD pdw"f mwf }ucH ikd af &;”
qdo
k !fh qH;k jzwfcsuf w&yf csonf? xkq
d ;kH jzwfcsuu
f kd armfa&;jcif; jzpfonf? ygww
D iG ;f wGif “woD;yk*v
~
0g'”ESihf “ol&Jaumif; 0g'” ay:ayguf xGef;um;aeyHk/ udk,fhqEN tavsmuf xif&mpdkif;ae=uyHk/
vdrfaumufr_rsm; ay:aygufaeyHk/ *dk%f;rsm; tpkrsm; ay:aygufaeyHkwdk@udk axmufjyonf?
armf. ygwDvkyf[ef jy Kjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ 1941 ckrS 1944 ck txd oHk;ESpf=umonf?
Tv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh wygwnf;/ ukefxkwfvkyfa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ESihf vlxkynma&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkvnf; vkyf
onf? tusKd ;quftm;jzifh vufawG@ESihf oabmw&m;/ cGet
f m;pdu
k f tvkyEf iS fh Om%ftm;pdu
k f tvkyw
f @kd udk
aygif;pyfay;EdkifcJhonf? ynmwwfrsm;udk vlxkESifh aygif;pnf;atmif vkyfEdkifcJhonf? w+yd KifeufxJwGif
tajccHa'ou tpd;k &tzG@J udv
k nf; jyifz@JG onf? “oH;k š oH;k ” tcsKd ; Edik if aH &;tm%mudk xlaxmifonf?
xdkpepft& tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rsm;wGif ygwD0ifOD;a& oHk;csdK; wcsdK;om ygonf? ygwD tjyifbufu
vlxrk sm;xH t}uH Om%fawmif;&ef/ 4if;wd@k . t}uaH y;csuu
f kd em;axmif&ef armfu wdu
k w
f eG ;f onf?
ppfwyfudk ydkI aumif;&efESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rsm;udk eJeJESifh }uJ }uJ 0dkif;&ef t}uHudk
ygwD0if r[kwfo!fh/ vDwifrif;u t}uHay;cJhonf? 1941 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif csefau&Sdwfu
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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pwkwˆ wyfrawmfopfukd wdu
k o
f !ft
h cgY vDwifrif;onf cseaf u&Sw
d .
f vky&f yfukd rauseyfjzpfum
uGejf rLepfw@kd e,fo@kd ajymif;vmcJo
h nf? armfu vDwifrif;. t}uaH y;csuu
f kd vufco
H nf? ppfwyfEiS hf
tpdk;&&Hk;rsm;rS (70) &mE_ef;udk ukefxkwfvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;wGif yg0ifaponf?
1942 ck 'DZifbmvwGif armfu ,iftef;tajccHa'o pD;yGm;a&;/ b¾ma&;wd@k ESifh ywfoufI
tpD&ifccH suw
f apmifwif&mY/ ukex
f w
k v
f yk af &;udk wGe;f wif&ef aqmf=oonf? w&kwjf ynf. pD;yGm;a&;
ay:vpDonf tjrwfxw
k &f efr[kw?f ukex
f w
k v
f yk af &; wd;k wuf&ef jzpfonf[k axmufjyonf? “oD;pm;c
avsmhaygha&;/ ukefxkwfvkyfa&;/ tpdk;&udk axmufcHa&;ESifh vlxkrsm;. aysmf&$ifa&;” wdk@twGuf v_yf
&Sm;r_rsm; vkyfonf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf/ atmifjrifcJh=uonf? vlxkudk &$ifvef;wuf=uGaeatmif
vkyfa&;onf/ awmfvSefa&;wcktwGuf ta&;}uD;a=umif; armf oabmaygufonf?
xdt
k csed w
f iG f ppfa&;Yvnf; w&kww
f yfeaD wmfonf atmifyrJG sm;&aeonf? 1942-43 ckEpS f
rsm;Y *syefonf ta&S@tm&Sawmifyikd ;f ppfyu
JG kd tm&Hpk u
kd af e&o!ft
h wGuf w&kwjf ynfwiG f xk;d ppfrsm;
rqifEdkif? Ttcsdefudk tcGifhaumif;,lum/ armfu *syefwyfrsm;udk xdk;ppfqifonf? *syefwdk@u
w&kyf &kyfao;wyfrsm;udk oHk;aomfvnf;/ r,SOfEdkif? csefau&Sdwf. ulrifwefwyf ppfrsufESmrsm;wGif
ppftDvsuf &Sdaomfvnf;/ wyfeDawmf ppfrsufESmwGif wyfeDawmfonf *syefwdk@udk tEdkif&vsuf&Sdonf?
1944 ckESpf tukefwGif uGefjrLepfwdk@u e,fajropfrsm; tajccHa'oopfrsm; awmfawmf odrf;rdae+yD?
pwk&ef;rdkif woef;/ vlOD;a& oef; (100) &Sdo!fh/ tajccHa'o (19) ckudk odrf;rdae+yD?
pmay tEkynm e,fy,fEiS fh ygwo
D rdik ;f a&;&mwGif vky[
f ef jyK jyifa&; v_y&f mS ;r_ jyKvyk o
f nf?
armf. “,iftef; pmay tEkynm rdef@cGef;” onf txyfxyf taqmufttHku
jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;a&;wGif aomhwacsmif; jzpfonf? armfu 1942 ck arvwGif pma&;q&mrsm;/
tEkynmonfrsm; ESifh tEkynme,fyg,u
f tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. uGezf &ifw
h &yfukd usi;f yonf? arv
(2) &ufae@u usi;f yo!fh uGezf &iho
f @kd ynmwwfaygi;f &S,q
f ,f wufonf? armfonf uGezf &ifw
h iG f
oludk,fwdkif yg0ifaqG;aEG;onf? tEkynmonfrsm;. xifjrifcsufudk wav;wpm; em;axmifonf?
rSwfpkrsm; rSwfonf?
“wcsdK@ pma&;q&mawGu olwdk@tcsuftvufudk udk;um;jyzdk@ pmtkyfawGudk
,lvm=uw,f? pmay ‘tEkynm’ qdkwJh pum;awGudk teufzGifhzdk@ tbd"mef pmtkyfawGawmif
,lvm=uw,f?” [k xdk uGefz&ifhudk wufcJho!fh wyfom;a[mif;}uD; wOD;u ajymjyonf?
xdkpum;vHk;rsm. teufudk pma&;q&m tcsif;csif; jiif;ckef=uonf? aqG;aEG;=uonf? "e&Sif
&yfwnfr_jzifh teufzGifh=uonf? olwdk. teuf t"dy`g,frsm;onf w&kwf,Ofaus;r_/ w&kwfjynfol/
w&kwaf wmfveS af &;ESifh enfenf;r# pyf[yf jcif; r&S?d armfu +yKH ;I em;axmifum/ vlxx
k J qif;avhvmzd@k
t}uaH y;onf?
“arv (10) &ufae@ aqG;aEG;yGJuawmh wae@vHk;yJ? nrdk;csKyfwJhtxd r+yD;ao;bl;?
‘b,fol@udk tusdK;jyKrvJ’ qdkwJh jy\emrSm u|efawmfwdk@ awmfawmf jiif;vdkuf=uw,f? arv 23
&uf uGefz&ifh aemufqHk;ae@usawmhvJ waeukefwmyJ? aemufqHk;ae@rSm pma&;q&mawG/
tEkynmonfawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm; wuf=uw,f? OuUX armfuawmh olwum ajymor#
pm&Gufw&GufeJ@ vdkufrSwfae wmyJ? tJ'Dwkef;u u|efawmfwdk@rSm puULodyf&Sm;aew,f? wzufvGwf
puULawGudk toHk;jyK&w,f? *syefav,mOfysHawG vm+yD; pm&GufawG usJ&if odyf0rf;omwmyJ?
u|efawmfwdk@ vdkufaumuf+yD; oHk;& wmaygh? aemufqHk;ae@rSm OuUXarmfu ed*Hk;csKyf rdef@cGef;ajymw,f?
Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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pma&;q&mawG tEkynmonfawGvJ trsm;}uD; tm;wufoGm;w,f? vlxkxJ qif;+yD;/ vlxktwGuf
pmayawGudk jyKpk=uw,f? ‘ta&S@ wcGifvHk;eD’ qdkwJh oDcsif;[m tJ'Dwkef;u a&;wmaygh?” [k
wyfom;a[mif;}uD; wOD;u ajymonf?
armf. “,iftef;pmayESihf tEkynmrde@f cGe;f ” onf pma&;q&m trsm;pkukd ajymif;vJomG ;ap
onfrmS rSeo
f nf? od@k &mwGif tm;vH;k r[kw?f tcsKd @aom pma&;q&mrsm;onf rdrw
d @kd . urBmt
h jrifukd
rajymif;cJh=u? Ttcsufudk ypPnf;rJh ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;}uD;u oufaojycJh+yD?
,iftef;aqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f ajymo!fh armf. rde@f cGe;f onf pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;onf? xdrk ed @f cGe;f
xJwGif wifjycJho!fh pmay tEkynm jy\emrsm;onf rsufarSmufacwfpmay tEkynmqdkif&m
jy\emrsm;yif jzpfaeao;onf? xdkrdef@cGef;wGif armfu arv (4) &uf ta&;awmfyHk +yD;o!fhaemuf
ay:ayguv
f mo!fh “,Ofaus;r_ wyfrawmfopf ” ta=umif;udk &Si;f jyonf? pma&;q&mrsm; vlxEk iS fh
wom;wnf;jzpfatmif aygi;f pyfz@kd aqmf=oonf? vlwef;pm; &yfwnfr_ jy\em/ oabmxm; jy\em/
y&d\wf jy\em/ vky[
f ef jy\emESihf avhvma&; jy\em po!fh tEkynmonf. jy\em ig;&yf
udk wifjyoGm;onf? y&d\wfonf tvkyo
f rm;/ v,form;/ ppfom;ESihf tajccHa'owGif awmfveS f
aom au'grsm; jzpfonf? od@k &mwGif pma&;q&mrsm;onf +rd K@jy y&d\wf usO;f usO;f uav;twGuo
f m
a&;=uonf? "e&Sif pmzwf y&d\wftwGufom a&;=uonf[k armfu a0zefonf? xdkr#ru pma&;
q&mrsm;onf jynforl sm; ta=umif;udk aumif;pGm rod=u? vlx.
k &Sio
f ef=u,
G 0f aom a0g[m&rsm;udk
toHk;rjyK=u / xdk@a=umifh olwdk@. ayghysufaom pmayrsm;udk jynfolrsm;u r}ud Kuf? udk,hfpmudk
vlxku em;vnfapvdkv#if/ }ud Kufapvdkv#if pma&;q&monf emusif &Snf=umo!fh jzpfpOfw&yfudk
jzwfoef; &vdrfhrnf[k armfu axmufjyonf? tcuftcJwGif oHcJwifcHEkdif&rnf[k qdkonf?
“cifAsm; ta=umif;udk vlxkodapcsif&if vlxkeJ@ wom;wnf; jzpfcsif&if xkom;/ awom;
&atmif a&&Snaf vhusizhf @kd omru tqif;&J tyifyef;cH+y;D / avhusizhf @kd pdwyf ikd ;f jzwf&r,f? pum;pyfrv
d @kd
u|eaf wmh pdwo
f abmajymif;vmyHu
k kd ajym&tH;k r,f? u|eaf wmf[m ausmif;om;b0uae+y;D / awmfveS af &;
xJ0ifco
hJ l jzpfw,f? ausmif;aewke;f u ausmif;om;tusiahf wG &cJw
h ,f? bmudrk S rxrf;Edik f ro,fEikd f
wJh ausmif;om;awGa&S@rSm udk,fh0efpnf pv,f udk,fydk;wJh[mudk/ um,tvkyf vkyf&wmudk tawmf
*k%fi,fwJh tvkyfrsdK;vdk@ xifcJhw,f? urBmay:rSm ynmwwfawG[m oef@&Sif;w,f? tvkyform;
v,form;awGuawmh roef@&Si;f bl;vd@k tJ'w
D ek ;f u u|eaf wmf xifcw
hJ ,f? ynmwwfawG&@J t0wftpm;
qd&k if olrsm;[m jzpfayrJ/h u|eaf wmf 0wf&w
J ,f? oef@&Si;f w,fv@kd yJ xifw,f? tvkyo
f rm;/ v,form;
awG&@J t0wftpm;qd&k ifawmh npfywfw,f xifv@kd r0wfcsib
f ;l ? awmfveS af &;xJ 0if+y;D / tvkyo
f rm;/
v,form;awG/ awmfveS af &; wyfrawmfom;awGe@J twlaevmwJt
h cgrmS olw@kd ta=umif;udk wajz;ajz;
odvmw,f? tJ'DawmhrS tJ'DtcsdefusawmhrS u|efawmf[m "e&Sifaygufp vlwef;pm;awG&J@ pdwfae
pdwfxm;rsdK;udk t&if;tjrpfuae+yD; jyK jyifajymif;vJvmEdkifcJhawmhw,f? tJ'DtcgrSm rjyK jyif&ao;wJh
ynmwwfawGudk tvkyform;/ v,form;eJ@ ,SOf=u !fhvdkuf&if/ ynmwwfawGudk oef@&Sif;w,fvdk@
rxifawmhb;l ?--'g[m pdwaf epdwx
f m; ajymif;vmwmyJ? vlwef;pm;wckuae tjcm;vlwef;pm;wckukd
ajymif;oGm;wmyJ? ynmwwf b0u ajymif;vmwJh u|eaf wmhw
f @kd &J@ pmay tEkynm&Siaf wG[m/ ud,
k v
hf uf
&mawGudk vlxu
k ESpo
f ufvv
kd m;vmapcsi&f if ud,
k t
hf awG;tac:eJ@ pdwaf epdwx
f m;awGukd ajymif;ypf&
r,f?” ( “,iftef;pmay tEkynm aqG;aEG;yGJwGif ajym=um;aom rdefcGef;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3)
armfu ynmwwf vlwef;pm;rsm;/ tawG;tac: ajymif;vJa&;/ urBm@ tjrifajymif;vJa&;udk
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ta&;w}uD;xm;I wdkufwGef;onf? odk@&mwGif ynmwwfrsm; tawG;ac: ajymif;vJa&; jy\emudk
w&kwjf ynfwiG f ,ckxd t+y;D wdik f rajz&Si;f Edik af o;? awmfveS af &; +y;D aomfvnf; w&kwf atmfy&monf
1964 ck ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;umvtxd e*dktwdkif;&Sdao;onf? armf. ZeD; csefcsif;onf/ w&kwf
atmfy&m jyK jyif ajymif;vJa&;udk xdkaemufusrSom twm;tqD;r&Sd vkyfEdkifcJhonf? pmayESihf tEk
ynme,fy,fYvnf; w&kwfjynfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ armf. =o0g'udk aumif;pGm vufrcH=u?
armfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ emusifcufcJI &Snf=umo!fh jzpfpOfudk jzwfoef;&rnf[k ajymcJhonf?
tvkyform;/ v,form;rsm;ESifh wom;wnf; jzpfatmif aygif;pnf;&rnf[k ajymcJhonf? odk@&mwGif
w&kwfjynfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ armf. =o0g'udk yg;pyfuom vkdufemaomfvnf; vufu
vkdufrvkyf=u? tvHeDudk udkif+yD; tvHeDudk qef@usif=uonf? olwdk@onf armf qef@usifa&; pmay
t&m&Sdrsm; jzpf=uonf? yg;pyfu rwf0g' pum;rsm;udk ajym+yD;/ vufawG@u uGefjzL;&Syf ref'&if;
ynmwwf vlwef;pm;opfukd zefw;D ae=uonf? w&kwt
f vkyo
f rm;/ v,form;rsm;. pmay tEkynm
opfukd vnfrsKd !Spo
f wfae=uonf? vl&e$ ;f u qef@usicf o
hJ !f/h xdpk ma&;q&mrsm;onf w&kwjf ynfopf
pmayavmuwGif xdyfwef;ae&mudk wuf,lxm;=uonf? urBm@tjrifudk ajymif;&ef pdwfrul;? }udK;
pm;jcif; r&SdwJh tcGifhta&;udk tvGJoHk;pm; vkyf=uonf?
“ppfajr jyifxu
G +f y;D a'oeDawGrmS ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGm tvkyv
f yk af e=uwJh &JabmfawGtzd@k awmif
b,fo@l twGuf pma&;rvJqw
kd hJ jy\emawGukd ajz&Si;f zd@k twGuf teJq;kH ud;k ESp/f q,fEpS f =umvdrrhf ,f?
b,fol@twGufvJqdkwJh jy\em[m/ t&if;cH jy\emjzpfw,f? rljy\emjzpfw,f? jynfolawG&J@
b0xJrmS pmaytEkynm vuf&mawG zefw;D zd@k twGuf o,HZmw ypPn;f awG rlvuwnf;u ude;f atmif;
aew,f? tacsmrudik &f ao;wJh t&mawG jzpfw,f? 'gayr,hf touftygq;kH tajccHtusq;kH t&mawG
jzpfw,f? --pmay tEkynm tm;vH;k twGu/f oH;k vd@k ruke/f ,lv@kd rcef;wJh wckwnf;aom a&aomuf
jrpf jzpfw,f?--tvm;tvm&SdwJh pmay tEkynm&SifawG[m vlxkxJudk oGm;=u&r,f? jyif;xefwJh
wdkufyGJrSm yg0if=u&r,f?--tJ'DvdkoGm;+yD;/ vltm;vHk;/ vlwef;pm;tm;vHk;/ vlxktm;vHk;eJ@ &Sd&Sdor#
touf0if v_yf&Sm;aewJh b0o¾efeJ@ wdkufyGJo¾efawG/ &Sd&Sdor# pmay tEkynm ukef=urf;awGudk
tuJcwf&r,f? udk,fwdkif cHpm;=u!fh&r,f? avhvm qef;ppf&r,f? cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&r,f? tJ'Dvdk
vkyf+yD;rSom/ pmay tEkynmvuf&mawGudk zefwD;Edkifvdrfhr,f? ” ( “,iftef; pmaytEkynm
aqG;aEG;yGJwGif ajym=um; aom rdef@cGef;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3)
armf ajymo!fh tcsurf sm;udk &d;k om;o!fh pma&;q&mwdik ;f / tEkynm&Siw
f ikd ;f jiif;zG,rf &S?D
jiif;p&m ta=umif;r&Sd? armf ajymo!fhtcsufrsm;udk &dk;om;o!fh rnfo!fh pma&;q&m/ rnfo!fh
tEkynmonfur# jiif;p&m ta=umif;r&Sd? odk@&mwGif tvkyform;/ v,form;wdk@. ol&Jaumif;
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zefw;D cJ=h uonf? armfueG ;f (acwf) }u;D rsm;onf/ t[kww
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wnfaxmifzdk@ awmfvSefa&;. pGrf;yum;udk zGJ@qdkzdk@ aqmf=oonf? odk@&mwGif Todk@a&;Edkif zGJ@Edkifzdk@
twGuf pma&;q&monf/ urBm@tjrifudk ajymif;&vdrfhrnf? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk ZwfcHkay:wifI ol&J
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aumif; vkyfcdkif;I rjzpf? ulrifwefwa,mufudk tvkyform; wa,mufvdk csD;usL;p&mjzpfaeatmif/
ESpfoufzG,f jzpfaeatmif Zmwfvdkufxm;a&;I rjzpf? tEkynmonf r#wpGm azmfjy&rnf[kqdkum/
vlq;kd ESifh vlaumif;udk wef;wlxm;a&;I rjzpf? tEkynmopfukd zefw;D Edik zf @kd twGuf pma&;q&monf
vlwef;pm;tjrif ajymif;&vdrfhrnf? Todk@ rajymif;Edkifao;oa&G@ jy\emonf ajyvnfOD;rnfr[kwf?
ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ 1943 ckESpfwGif txGwftxdyfodk@ a&mufonf?
armfu w&kwjf ynf. pD;yGm;a&;/ Edik if aH &;/ ppfa&;ESifh ordik ;f ponfw@kd udk okawoevky&f ef/ ygw0D ifxu
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f eG ;f onf? w&kwjf ynf. ordik ;f a=umif;udk okawoevky&f ef/ w&kwf tvkyo
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tm%modrf;yGJ ponfwdk@ESihf ywfoufI/ tcsuftvufrsm; &SmazG pkaqmif;onf? 1931 rS 1941
ckESpf 0rfrif;vrf;pOf }uD;pdk;cJho!fh umvtwGif; ygwDorkdif;udk tus,fw0ifh aqG;aEG;onf?
xdkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;Y csLtifvdkif;onf/ ta&;}uD;aom tcef;rSygonf? ygwD tpOftvm/
ygwD0ifxk. ,Hk=unfr_/ ol. udk,fusdK;riJhr_wdk@a=umifh csLtifvdkif;onf ygwDwGif;wGif ta&;ygol
jzpfonf? xkdpOfu csLtifvdkif;onf ulrifwefESifh qufoG,f&eftwGuf/ wm0efcHtjzpf csHKuif;+rd k@odk@
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“&Jabmf armfpDwkef;&J@ tjrifrsm;[m ordkif;a&; tajrmftjrif&Sdw,f? w&kwfjynf
awmfveS af &; udk OD;wnfw,fqw
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armfu ol@vrf;pOfudk vlxkvrf;pOf jzpfatmif vkyfonf? vlxkvrf;pOfwGif 'Drdkua&pD
uso!fh vrf;pOf/ vltrsm; em;vnfo!fh vrf;pOfjzpfatmif }udK;yrf;onf? 1943 ckESpfwGif a&;o!fh
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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

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