You are on page 1of 49

1.Milling machine

Example of a CNC vertical milling center A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a table to which the workpiece is affixed. In contrast to drilling, where the drill is moved exclusively along its axis, the milling operation involves movement of the rotating cutter sideways as well as 'in and out'. The cutter and workpiece move relative to each other, generating a toolpath along which material is removed. The movement is precisely controlled, usually with slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Often the movement is achieved by moving the table while the cutter rotates in one place, but regardless of how the parts of the machine slide, the result that matters is the relative motion between cutter and workpiece. Milling machines may be operated manually or by CNC (computer numerical control). Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some of them with quite complex toolpaths, such as slot cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to sluice away the resulting swarf.

Types of milling machines
There are many ways to classify milling machines, depending on which criteria are the focus:
Criterion Example classification scheme Comments


Manual; In the CNC era, a very basic distinction is manual versus Mechanically automated via CNC. cams; Among manual machines, a worthwhile distinction is nonDigitally automated via NC/CNC DRO-equipped versus DRO-equipped

Control Number of axes (e.g., 3-axis, 4(specifically among axis, or more); CNC Within this scheme, also:


Pallet-changing versus non-pallet-changing Full-auto tool-changing versus semi-auto or manual tool-changing Among vertical mills, "Bridgeport-style" is a whole class of mills inspired by the Bridgeport original

Spindle axis orientation Purpose Purpose Purpose

Vertical versus horizontal; Turret versus non-turret General-purpose versus specialpurpose or single-purpose Toolroom machine versus production machine "Plain" versus "universal" Micro, mini, benchtop, standing on floor, large, very large, gigantic Line-shaft-drive versus individual electric motor drive Hand-crank-power versus electric

Overlaps with above A distinction whose meaning evolved over decades as technology progressed, and overlaps with other purpose classifications above; more historical interest than current


Power source

Most line-shaft-drive machines, ubiquitous circa 1880-1930, have been scrapped by now Hand-cranked not used in industry but suitable for hobbyist micromills

Comparing vertical with horizontal
In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill. Turret mills, like the ubiquitous Bridgeport, are generally smaller than bedmills, and are considered by some to be more versatile. In a turret mill the spindle remains stationary during cutting operations and the table is moved both perpendicular to and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. In the bedmill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Also of note is a lighter machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size and lower price. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines, however. A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor across the table. A majority of horizontal mills also feature a +15/-15 degree rotary table that allows milling at shallow angles. While endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor, quite heavy cuts can be taken, enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor

to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill.

A miniature hobbyist mill plainly showing the basic parts of a mill.

Other milling machine variants and terminology
• •

Box or column mills are very basic hobbyist bench-mounted milling machines that feature a head riding up and down on a column or box way. Turret or vertical ram mills are more commonly referred to as Bridgeport-type milling machines. The spindle can be aligned in many different positions for a very versatile, if somewhat less rigid machine. Knee mill or knee-and-column mill refers to any milling machine whose x-y table rides up and down the column on a vertically adjustable knee. This includes Bridgeports. C-Frame mills are larger, industrial production mills. They feature a knee and fixed spindle head that is only mobile vertically. They are typically much more powerful than a turret mill, featuring a separate hydraulic motor for integral hydraulic power feeds in all directions, and a twenty to fifty horsepower motor. Backlash eliminators are almost always standard equipment. They use large NMTB 40 or 50 tooling. The tables on C-frame mills are usually 18" by 68" or larger, to allow multiple parts to be machined at the same time. Planer-style mills are large mills built in the same configuration as planers except with a milling spindle instead of a planing head. This term is growing dated as planers themselves are largely a thing of the past. Bed mill refers to any milling machine where the spindle is on a pendant that moves up and down to move the cutter into the work. These are generally more rigid than a knee mill.

They are predominantly used to create large manufacturing jigs. or anywhere in between. allowing the largest and most complex custom milling operations to take place. accurate bed horizontal mills that incorporate many features from various machine tools. The spindle carriage moves to each individual table. and a horizontal pendant spindle mounted on a set of tracks that runs parallel to the table row. but some can still be found (if one can even find a used machine available) under manual control. and be between three and four feet square with a rotary table or a larger rectangle without said table. Some mills have a large (30" or more) integral facing head. performs the machining operations. They have a spindle stroke of several (usually between four and six) feet. and very light slot or face milling. but since the advent of CNC machines ram type mills are no longer made. Portical mills It has the spindle mounted in a T structure Computer numerical control Thin wall milling of aluminum using a water based coolant on the milling cutter . and moves to the next table while the previous table is being set up for the next operation. Right angle rotary tables and vertical milling attachments are available to further increase productivity. floor mills have floor units that are entirely movable. These mills have predominantly been converted to CNC. Floor mills have a row of rotary tables. Unlike any other kind of mill. A crane will drop massive rotary tables . or to modify large. Jig borers are vertical mills that are built to bore holes. and the like into position for machining. X-Y tables . high precision parts. and many are equipped with a tailstock to perform very long boring operations without losing accuracy as the bore increases in depth. A typical bed would have X and Y travel. and the handwheels are graduated down to . They are typically bed mills with a long spindle throw. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally. The beds are more accurate.0001" for precise hole placement. Van Norman specialized in ram type mills through most of the 20th century.• • • • • Ram type mill refers to a mill that has a swiveling cutting head mounted on a sliding ram. The pendant usually has between four and eight feet in vertical movement. Horizontal boring mills are large.

5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. even organic geometries such as a human head can be made with relative ease with these machines. But the skill to program such geometries is beyond that of most humans. providing a costefficient alternative to most flat-surface hand-engraving work.Most CNC milling machines or machining centers are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-axis. . essentially allowing asymmetric and eccentric turning. free operating systems such as Linux. High speed steel with cobalt endmills used for cutting operations in a milling machine. When all of these axes are used in conjunction with each other. and others make desktop CNC milling machines that are affordable by hobbyists. engraving applications. 5-axis milling machines are practically always programmed with CAM. The fifth axis (B axis) controls the tilt of the tool itself. Five-axis machining center with rotating table and computer interface CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual machinery. Therefore. and 2. the 5-axis machines. it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed. Horizontal milling machines also have a C or Q axis. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking. For example. Prazi. and open source CNC software. extremely complicated geometries. With the declining price of computers. Sherline. The most advanced CNC milling-machines. like horizontal mills. add two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ). allowing the horizontally mounted workpiece to be rotated. When combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter. the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted. Milling machine tooling There is some degree of standardization of the tooling used with CNC Milling Machines and to a much lesser degree with manual milling machines.

is the oldest variation and is probably still the most common in the USA. CAT. Furthermore. Note that this affects the pull stud only. CAT-40 Toolholder An improvement on CAT Tooling is BT Tooling. The number refers to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (formerly the National Machine Tool Builders Association (NMTB)) Taper size of the tool. CAT-40. This gives BT tooling greater stability and balance at high speeds. The situation is quite different for manual milling machines — there is little standardization. which CAT tooling is not. . it does not affect the tool that they can hold. Like CAT Tooling. of Peoria. CAT tooling was invented by Caterpillar Inc. However. It is claimed that HSK tooling is even better than BT Tooling at high speeds. The holding mechanism for HSK tooling is placed within the (hollow) body of the tool and. CAT-50. while CAT tooling. CAT Tooling is all Imperial thread and BT Tooling is all Metric thread. CAT tooling comes in a range of sizes designated as CAT-30. etc. it expands. BT Tooling comes in a range of sizes and uses the same NMTB body taper. One other subtle difference between these two toolholders is the thread used to hold the pull stud. is much more common in Europe where it was invented than it is in the United States. SK tooling is the most common in Europe. Newer and larger manual machines usually use NMTB tooling. both types of tooling are sold to accept both Imperial and metric sized tools. sometimes called "Hollow Shank Tooling". sometimes called VFlange Tooling.CNC Milling machines will nearly always use SK (or ISO). there are a number of variations with NMTB tooling that make interchangeability troublesome. which looks very similar and can easily be confused with CAT tooling. as spindle speed increases. BT tooling is symmetrical about the spindle axis. This tooling is somewhat similar to CAT tooling but requires a drawbar within the milling machine. There is no pull stud with this type of tooling. Illinois in order to standardize the tooling used on their machinery. BT or HSK tooling. gripping the tool more tightly with increasing spindle speed. SK and HSK tooling.

subsequent scholars. . Such claims are perversely oversimplified. suggest that just as much credit belongs to various other inventors. a respected founding father of machine tool historians. Roe." The bulk of the machines that Bridgeport made from about 1965 onward used an R8 collet system.) The two federal armories of the U. Woodbury and others. true story of the milling machine's development will probably never be known. History 1810s-1830s Milling machines evolved from the practice of rotary filing—that is. felt certain that Eli Whitney produced the first true milling machine. is well known. circa 1760. Connecticut so dominated the milling machine market for such a long time that their machine "The Bridgeport" is virtually synonymous with "Manual milling machine. A rotary file by Jacques de Vaucanson. It is clear that milling machines as a distinct class of machine tool (separate from lathes running rotary files) first appeared between 1814 and 1818. As an historical footnote: Bridgeport is now owned by Hardinge Brothers of Elmira. Both rotary filing and later true milling were developed in order to reduce the time and effort spent on hand-filing. However. including Robert Johnson. The full. Simeon North.Boring head on Morse Taper Shank Two other tool holding systems for manual machines are worthy of note: They are the R8 collet and the Morse Taper #2 collet. running a circular cutter with file-like teeth in the headstock of a lathe. Joseph W. and Thomas Blanchard. as these technologies evolved over time among many people.S. the bulk of the machines used a Morse Taper #2 collet system. because much of the early development took place in individual shops where generally no one was taking down records for posterity. Captain John H. However. Prior to that. the broad outlines are known. Rotary filing long predated milling. including Robert S. Bridgeport Machines of Bridgeport. New York. Hall. (Several of the men mentioned above are sometimes described on the internet as "the inventor of the first milling machine" or "the inventor of interchangeable parts". (Springfield and Harpers Ferry) and the various private armories that shared turnover of skilled workmen with them were the centers of earliest development of true milling machines (as distinct from lathe headstocks tooled up for rotary filing).

Pratt. It took its name from the first company to put one on the market. and Brown & Sharpe. starting from its first sale in March 1862. (These same men during the same era were also busy developing the state of the art in turret lathes. . It solved the problem of 3-axis (XYZ) travel much more elegantly than had been done in the past. George S. These were filed by hand at the time. & Co) in the 1830s was influential because it employed a better method of vertical positioning than earlier machines. was wildly successful. Vertical positioning ideas were either absent or underdeveloped. Brown of Brown & Sharpe for a solution to the problem of milling spirals. 1840s-1860 Some of the key men in milling machine development during this era included Frederick W. and it allowed for the milling of spirals using an indexing head fed in coordination with the table feed. A milling machine built and used in the shop of Gay & Silver (aka Gay. In 1861. Francis A. longitudinal. The term "universal" was applied to it because it was ready for any kind of work and was not as limited in application as previous designs. Lincoln & Company. Howe. His machine tool designs were later built at Robbins & Lawrence. Howe. 1860s Brown & Sharpe's groundbreaking universal milling machine. Silver. traverse. while working for the Providence Tool Company. for a certain part design and successive parts would not require vertical adjustment (or at most would need only shimming). 1861. and vertical). Root. and Z—or as they were known in the past. vise. Evidently the workflow assumption behind this was that the machine would be set up with shims. Y. Frederick W. which rather than being a specific make and model of machine tool is truly a family of related tools built by various companies over several decades. During this era there was a continued blind spot in milling machine design. For example. such as the flutes of twist drills.) The most successful milling machine design to emerge during this era was the Lincoln miller.James Nasmyth built a milling machine very advanced for its time between 1829 and 1831. asked Joseph R. Brown designed a "universal milling machine" that. Elisha K. and others. Whitney's machine (the one that Roe considered the very first) and others did not make provision for vertical travel of the knee. Howe's experience at Gay & Silver in the 1840s acquainted him with early versions of both machine tools. the Providence Tool Company. as various designers failed to develop a truly simple and effective means of providing slide travel in all three of the archetypal milling axes (X. etc. It was tooled to mill the six sides of a hex nut that was mounted in a six-way indexing fixture.

such as the Cincinnati Hydro-Tel. hundreds of other firms built milling machines during this time. Air Force. The advances of the 1860s opened the floodgates and ushered in modern milling practice. L. A. This made diesinking faster and easier just as dies were in higher demand than ever before.) Brown also developed and patented (1864) the design of formed milling cutters in which successive sharpenings of the teeth do not disturb the geometry of the form. and a stout overarm to support the arbor. The jig borer popularized the ideas of coordinate dimensioning (dimensioning of all locations on the part from a single reference point). Around the end of World War I. that presaged today's CNC mills in every respect except the CNC control itself. The details have evolved immensely with every passing decade since World War II. However. De Leeuw of the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company is credited with applying scientific study to the design of milling cutters. and many were significant in one way or another. Such machines translated the tracer movements to input for servos that worked the machine leadscrews or hydraulics.C. working routinely in "tenths" (ten-thousandths of an inch. machine tool control advanced in various ways that laid the groundwork for later CNC technology. The archetypal workhorse milling machine of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a heavy knee-and-column horizontal-spindle design with power table feeds. In 1920 the new tracer design of J. and using the control to go straight from drawing to part.(Howe had designed a "universal miller" in 1852.S. circumventing jig-making. more widely spaced teeth. 1950s-1960s The application of computers to machine tool control was a revolutionary shift in human material culture. 1870s-1940s Two firms which most dominated the milling machine field during these decades were Brown & Sharpe and the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company. 0. which was interested in reducing the . By the 1930s. leading to modern practice with larger. The first numerically controlled (NC) milling machine was a Cincinnati Hydro-Tel modified in the servomechanism laboratory at MIT and completed in 1952. Shaw was applied to Keller tracer milling machines for die-sinking via the three-dimensional copying of a template. All of the above concepts were new in the 1920s but would become routine in the NC/CNC era. This development was funded by the U. incredibly large and advanced milling machines existed. and was very helpful for large steel dies such as those used to stamp sheets in automobile manufacturing. but Brown's of 1861 is the one considered groundbreakingly successful. They also spurred the development of antibacklash leadscrew nuts.0001") as an everyday machine capability. indexing head.

CAD/CAM disseminates throughout the economy. The PC revolution has a great impact on this development. e = pullies for belt drive from an external power source. f = spindle. bowls. a = bed.S. probably to limit the power of organized labor over U. NC evolved into CNC. cue sticks. Lathes can be used to shape pottery. baseball bats.Lathe A lathe from 1911 showing component parts. military readiness. (The drama and consequences of the 1952 steel strike provide some insight into the contemporary concern over this issue. 1970s-1980s Computers and CNC machine tools continue to develop rapidly. table legs. drilling. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders. metalworking. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution. A lathe (pronounced /ˈleɪð/) is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting. and NC and CNC machine tools gradually disseminated from the level of university laboratories and huge corporations to the level of medium-sized corporations.) However. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. d = geartrain to drive automatic screw shaft.need for labor in aircraft manufacture. During the 1950s and 1960s. b = toolrest. By the 1980s even mom-and-pop machine shops can have desktop computers and CNC machine tools. and (2) the technology turned out to be highly desirable for many other reasons besides increased labor productivity by itself. data storage and input media evolved. plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Lathes are used in woodturning. knurling. at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. crankshafts and camshafts. c = headstock. the best-known design being the potter's wheel. The material is held in place by either one or two centers. two things make this original motive irrelevant: (1) The technology was on the horizon anyway. 2. h = automatic screw shaft. History . computer processing power and memory capacity steadily increased. g = tailstock. sanding. and glassworking. or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. metal spinning.

which sits on the floor and elevates the lathe bed to a working height. . called a "great lathe". The Romans improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a turning bow. Spring pole lathes were in common use into the early 20th Century. The pedal was usually connected to a pole. The motor also produced a greater rotational speed. Early bow lathes were also developed and used in Germany. A master would cut the wood while an apprentice turned the crank.The lathe is an ancient tool. A two-person lathe. All lathes have a "bed". allowed a piece to turn continuously (like today's power lathes). allowing wooden turned items to be created in less time and allowing the working of metal on a lathe. making it easier to quickly produce high quality work. Description Parts of a lathe Parts of a wood lathe A lathe may or may not have a stand (or legs). The system today is called the "spring pole" lathe (see Polelathe). which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (although some CNC lathes have a vertical beam for a bed to ensure that swarf. France and Britain. Greece.[1] During the industrial revolution the lathe was motorized. In the Middle Ages a pedal replaced hand-operated turning. A turned wood bowl with natural edges The origin of turning dates to around 1300BC when the Egyptians first developed a twoperson lathe. the Roman and Byzantine Empires. and do not have a stand. falls free of the bed). or chips. known and used in Assyria. dating at least to the Egyptians and. Some lathes are small and sit on a workbench or table. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp tool to cut shapes in the wood. often a straight-grained sapling. freeing both the craftsman's hands to hold the woodturning tools. Today most commercial lathes are computer-operated allowing for massproduction that can be created with accurate precision and without the cost of employing craftsmen.

Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel centre. hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the workpiece.. In some modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor. and/or may have a handwheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. The barrel is hollow. Spindles are often hollow. to the left of the headstock. often either in the headstock. an accessory must be used to mount a workpiece to the spindle. or beneath the headstock. which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the workpiece. but have "banjos". and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. by undoing a locking nut. which is used to support long thin shafts while turning. and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i. Spindles are powered. facing away from the bed) end. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross slides. sometimes referred to as the loose head. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock. or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt drive to a power source. The spindle is driven.e. as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed. Ascending vertically from the banjo is a tool post. In woodturning. with an axis parallel to the bed. and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the workpiece. There may or may not be a leadscrew. concealed in the stand. but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed. and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i. no gearing is involved.e. Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle.. Sitting atop the cross slide is a toolpost. which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed.At one end of the bed (almost always the left. The tailstock contains a barrel which does not rotate. or has threads which perfectly match the external threads on the spindle (two things which almost never happen). The position of a banjo can be adjusted by hand. which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed. and directly in line with the headstock spindle. the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest. as the operator faces the lathe) is a "headstock". and then relocking it. Accessories Unless a workpiece has a taper machined onto it which perfectly matches the internal taper in the spindle. and impart motion to the workpiece. In metal spinning. . The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. sliding it to the required area. Many other uses are possible. Metalworking lathes have a "cross slide". at the top of which is a horizontal "tool rest". called the "spindle". facing to the right / towards the bed) by which accessories which hold the workpiece may be mounted to the spindle. which moves the cross slide along the bed.

a large flat disk that mounts to the spindle. Suitable collets may also be used to mount square or hexagonal workpieces. facilitating repeated auxiliary operations done to the workpiece. whereas for most repetition work the dead length variety is preferered as this ensures that the position of the workpiece does not move as the collet is tightened. cylindrical workpieces are invariably held in a collet inserted into the spindle and secured either by a drawbar. Because the centre is soft it can be trued in place before use. Traditionally a hard dead center is used together with suitable lubricant in the tailstock to support the workpiece. reducing the frictional heat. so the workpiece can be set in the lathe to a fixed position and it will not move on tightening the collet. . It can be used to rotate the spindle a precise number of degrees. A soft workpiece (wooden) may be pinched between centers by using a spur drive at the headstock.A workpiece may be bolted or screwed to a faceplate. The included angle is 60 degrees. is called an "index plate". In precision work (and in some classes of repetition work). or by a collet closing cap on the spindle. Alternatively faceplate dogs may be used to secure the work to the faceplate. In modern practice the dead center is frequently replaced by a live center or (revolving center) as it turns freely with the workpiece usually on ball bearings. one subtype of a live center is a cup center. A lathe carrier or lathe dog may also be employed when turning between two centers. In woodturning. which is a cone of metal surrounded by an annular ring of metal that decreases the chances of the workpiece splitting. A workpiece may be clamped in a three. then lock it in place. where as collet is tightened the workpiece moves slightly back into the headstock. which mounts directly to the spindle or mounted on a mandrel. which bites into the wood and imparts torque to it. which is especially important at high RPM. Live center (top) Dead center (bottom) A soft dead center is used in the headstock spindle as the work rotates with the centre. A circular metal plate with even spaced holes around the periphery. mounted to the spindle.or four-jaw chuck. In precision toolmaking work such collets are usually of the draw in variety.

Although the workpieces machined on a jeweler's lathes are metal. which are small enough that they may be held in one hand. and the continental D-style bar bed (used on both 6 mm and 8 mm lathes by firms such as Lorch and Star). via tools. etc. then remounted with a new axis of rotation. not fixed to a cross slide. Lathes that are controlled by a computer are CNC lathes. towards the headstock. but gently. namely 6 mm and 8 mm. The result is that various cross sections of the workpiece are rotationally symmetric. When a workpiece is supported at both ends. This technique is used for camshafts. When a workpiece is supported in this manner. worked. When a workpiece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end. at a right angle to the axis of rotation. but the workpiece as a whole is not rotationally symmetric. without fear that the workpiece may break loose. via tools. it is said to be "between centers". most work must be done axially. less force may be applied to the workpiece. Lathes that sit on a bench or table are called "bench lathes". a truncated triangular prism (found only on 8 mm watchmakers lathes). various types of chair legs. and more force may be applied to the workpiece. jeweler's lathes differ from all other metal working lathes in that the cutting tools (called "gravers") are hand held and supported by a T-rest. and a V-edged bed on IME's 8 mm lathes. such a triangular prism on some Boley 6. the work is said to be "face work". The work is usually held in a collet. Lathes that do not have additional integral features for repetitive production. are called screw machines. or at right angles. Two spindle bore sizes to receive the collets are common. Two patterns of bed are common: the WW (Webster Whitcomb) bed. it is more stable. lest the workpiece rip free. . employing cams and gear trains for controlled movement.Modes of use When a workpiece is fixed between the headstock and the tailstock. Varieties The smallest lathes are "jewelers lathes" or "watchmaker lathes". but rather are used for individual part production or modification as the primary role. this is referred to as "eccentric turning" or "multi axis turning". Lathes with a very large spindle bore and a chuck on both ends of the spindle are called "oil field lathes. Other bed designs have been used." Fully automatic mechanical lathes.5 mm lathes. When a workpiece is mounted with a certain axis of rotation. at a right angle to the axis of rotation. are called "engine lathes". Thus.

etc. are called vertical lathes or vertical boring machines. profile cutters. there is very little restriction to the width of the piece being turned. such as a drill press or vertical milling machine. A lathe with a cylindrical tailstock that can rotate around a vertical axis. instead of horizontal configuration. it is common practice to press and slide sandpaper against the stillspinning object after shaping to smooth the surface made with the metal shaping tools. All other varieties are descended from these simple lathes.g.. etc. one could have a vertical CNC lathe (such as a CNC VTL). Major categories of lathes Woodworking lathes A modern woodworking lathe. Woodworking lathes are the oldest variety. spiral or helical guides. so as to enable ornamental turning is an ornamental lathe. There are also woodworking lathes for making bowls and plates. With wood.Lathes with the spindle mounted in a vertical configuration. These are usually referred to as combination lathes. They are used where very large diameters must be turned. which have no horizontal metal rail. A lathe equipped with indexing plates. An adjustable horizontal metal rail . Without this rail. which are usually handheld. Various combinations are possible: e. Lathes can be combined with other machine tools. and the workpiece (comparatively) is not very long. as the bowl or plate needs only to be held by one side from a metal face plate. Metalworking lathes A metalworking lathe Main article: Lathe (metal) .between the material and the operator accommodates the positioning of shaping tools. so as to present different facets towards the headstock (and the workpiece) are turret lathes. Further detail can be found on the woodturning page.the tool rest .

A chuck has movable jaws that can grip the workpiece securely. arranged so that they both rotate together in unison. and subject to forming either by inflation ("glassblowing").UNC). determined by the pitch of the leadscrew: A lathe with a metric leadscrew will readily cut metric threads (including BA). This enables different pitches of threads to be cut. Cutting fluid may also be pumped to the cutting site to provide cooling. which is then moved against the workpiece using handwheels and/or computer controlled motors. The workpiece may be supported between a pair of points called centres. which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting called the "toolpost". while more modern or elaborate lathes have a quick change box to provide commonly used ratios by the operation of a lever. or for cutting threads. or by deformation with a heat resistant tool. or mounted to a banjo/cross slide that can be moved along the lathe bed. The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a variety of planes. Such lathes usually have two headstocks with chucks holding the work. while one with an imperial leadscrew will readily cut imperial unit based threads such as BSW or UTS (UNF. Some lathes may be operated under control of a computer for mass production of parts (see "Computer Numerical Control"). They can also be used to refinish cues that have been worn over the years. The flame serves to soften the glass being worked. Air can be introduced through the headstock chuck spindle for glassblowing. Metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear train to drive the main leadscrew.In a metalworking lathe. . Cue lathes Cue lathes function similar to turning and spinning lathes allowing for a perfectly radially-symmetrical cut for billiard cues. etc. The tools to deform the glass and tubes to blow (inflate) the glass are usually handheld. The threads that can be cut are. Glassworking lathes Glassworking lathes are similar in design to other lathes. or it may be bolted to a faceplate or held in a chuck. Some older gear trains are changed manually by using interchangeable gears with various numbers of teeth. The toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to produce the roughing and finishing cuts required to turn the workpiece to the desired shape and dimensions. The source of the flame may be either hand-held. metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cutting tool. Glassworking lathes slowly rotate a hollow glass vessel over a fixed or variable temperature flame. but differ markedly in how the workpiece is modified. lubrication and clearing of swarf from the workpiece. so that the glass in a specific area of the workpiece becomes malleable. worm gears. in some ways.

in particular for engine turning. Metal spinning lathes Main article: metal spinning In metal spinning. the ways typically float on air bearings and the position of the tool is measured by optical interferometry to achieve the necessary standard of precision for optical work. industrial die forming. Typically. high pressure. such as wood or ivory. A special purpose lathe. complex aspheric surfaces can be machined easily. As well as a wide range of accessories. solids of extraordinary complexity may be produced by various generative procedures.In diamond turning. the materials turned. at this point. Ornamental turning lathes The ornamental turning lathe was developed around the same time as the industrial screwcutting lathe in the nineteenth century. but the rough grinding time is significantly reduced for complex lenses. a computer-controlled lathe with a diamond-tipped tool is used to make precision optical surfaces in glass or other optical materials. are usually quite soft. you need a solid template of a vase. but still a valuable technique for producing one-off prototypes or small batches where die forming would be uneconomical. if you want to make a sheet metal bowl. Given the advent of high speed. but for decorative work . rather than directly by the rotation of the work itself. these lathes usually have complex dividing arrangements to allow the exact rotation of the mandrel. The finest ornamental lathes are generally considered to be those made by Holtzapffel around the turn of the 19th century. a disk of sheet metal is held perpendicularly to the main axis of the lathe. and the cutter has to be exceptionally sharp. the Rose engine lathe is also used for ornamental turning. for example to decorate pocket watch cases. and tools with polished tips (spoons) are hand held. metal spinning is less common now than it once was. but levered by hand against fixed posts. etc.ornamental turning. to develop large amounts of torque/pressure that deform the spinning sheet of metal. . you need a solid chunk of wood in the shape of the bowl. By using accessories such as the horizontal and vertical cutting frames. usually made of wood. Because of the difficulty of polishing such work. eccentric chuck and elliptical chuck. Instead of the dovetailed ways used on the tool slide of a metal turning lathe. It was used not for making practical objects. The finished work piece usually requires a small amount subsequent polishing by conventional techniques to achieve a finished surface suitably smooth for use in a lens. but it is a very advanced technique). if you want to make a vase. metal spinning lathes require a user-supplied rotationally symmetric mandrel. lathes being used for metal spinning almost always are woodworking lathes). For example. Metal spinning lathes are almost as simple as woodturning lathes (and. Cutting is usually carried out by rotating cutters. Unlike conventional optical grinding. typically in precious metals. which serves as a template onto which the workpiece is moulded (nonsymmetric shapes can be done.

The first such lathes were set up in the United States in the mid19th century Watchmaker's lathes Watchmaker's lathe Watchmakers lathes are delicate but precise metalworking lathes. and which incorporates a mechanism similar to a pantograph.Reducing Lathe Many types of lathes can be equipped with accessory components to allow them to reproduce an item: the original item is mounted on one spindle. the cutting end of the arm creates an analogous detail that is (for example) one quarter of an inch (a 4:1 reduction. Rotary lathes A lathe in which softwood logs are turned against a very sharp blade and peeled off in one continuous or semi-continuous roll. or a copper shelled master made from the plaster original. and are still used by horologists for work such as the turning of balance shafts. The original watchmaker's turns was a simple dead-centre lathe with a moveable rest and two loose headstocks. typically of horsehair. one end of an arm "reads" the original and the other end of the arm "carves" the duplicate. generating a master die. Invented by Immanuel Nobel (father of the more famous Alfred Nobel). etc. A reducing lathe is a specialized lathe that is designed with this feature. The workpiece would be rotated by a bow. so that when the "reading" end of the arm reads a detail that measures one inch (for example). any reduction ratio is possible). the blank is mounted on another. where a plaster original (or an epoxy master made from the plaster original. . and as both turn in synchronized manner. usually without provision for screwcutting. wrapped around it. Reducing lathes are used in coin-making. A handheld tool called a graver is often used in preference to a slide mounted tool. although given appropriate machinery and appropriate settings.) is duplicated and reduced on the reducing lathe.

such as wood or metal. Avoiding burning is a question of using sharp bits and the appropriate cutting speed. Straight fluting is used for copper or brass. For heavy feeds and comparatively deep holes oil-hole drills can be used.e. see Borehole. This continues until the chips pack too tightly. either because of deeper than normal holes or insufficient backing off (removing the drill slightly or totally from the hole while drilling). Drill bits can tear out chips of wood around the top and bottom of the hole and this is undesirable in fine woodworking applications.Drilling Look up drilling in Wiktionary. For agricultural usage. For drilling in the earth. Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce cylindrical holes in solid materials. the number of holes. If a helical drill (twist drill) is used then the same effect can be achieved by stoning a small flat parallel with the axis of the drill bit. This article is about making holes in solid materials. The main issue in drilling wood is assuring clean entry and exit holes and preventing burning. but it is more commonly seen in automatic drilling machinery in which it is the workpiece that rotates rather than the drill bit. Drilling in metal Under normal usage. see combination gun. with a lubricant pumped to the drill head through a small hole in the bit and flowing out along the fluting. drilling in wood is considerably easier and faster than drilling in metal. cutting fluid) are sometimes used to ease this problem and to prolong the tools life by cooling and lubricating the tip and chip flow. Different tools and methods are used for drilling depending on the type of material. swarf is carried up and away from the tip of the drill bit by the fluting of the drill bit. Coolant is introduced via holes through the drill shank (see gun drill). For firearm type. the free dictionary. A conventional drill press arrangement can be used in oil-hole drilling. see seed drill. . Lubricants and coolants (i. and the time to complete the operation. as this exhibits less tendency to "dig in" or grab the material. For data processing usage. Cutting fluids are not used or needed. The continued production of chips from the cutting edges produces more chips which continue the movement of the chips outwards from the hole. the size of the hole. see data drilling.3. Drilling in wood Wood being softer than most metals.

Many types of specialised drill bits for boring clean holes in wood have been developed. . This also helps to reduce 'walking' of the drill bit over the workpiece surface. Drilling as a Manufacturing Process OPERATION DEFINITION Hole making is one of the most important machining operations in the manufacturing process. y. but they tend to chip wood out at the entry and exit of the hole. When possible drilled holes should be located perpendicular to the workpiece surface. As mentioned before the hole and drill motion should be perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece to reduce the tendency to fatigue or break the drill bit. as in rough holes for carpentry. access to other parts. Microdrilling Microdrilling refers to the drilling of holes less than 0. Because there are so many types of production operations that involve making a variety of holes in countless different materials. or the drill bit to break or fatigue. In metal working. including spade bits and self-feeding auger bits. CONSIDERATION FOR DRILLING Because drilling can often be such a critical process there are a number of considerations that should be taken in order to ensure the most accurate drill hole possible. In some cases. The bit will thus have little tendency to wander. weight reduction. Drilling of holes at this small diameter presents greater problems since coolant fed drills cannot be used and high spindle speeds are required. or simply for aesthetics. Holes are easier to start in wood as the drill bit can be accurately positioned by pushing it into the wood and creating a dimple. ventilation. Hole making or drilling is used in the production of almost any part conceivable and those that aren't drilled are made with machines that have been drilled. and the same technique is sometimes used to keep the hole entry neat.The ubiquitous twist drill bits used in metalworking also work well in wood. including brad-point bits. Chipping on exit can be minimized by using a piece of wood as backing behind the work piece. Forstner bits and hole saws. This is due to the large lengthto-diameter ratio which causes the drill bit to be easily deflected which can cause the hole to be misplaced. an accurate position needs to be marked with a punch to avoid the bit wandering from the desired position of the hole. z-axes. there are many methods for hole making.5 mm. and a number of bits for fast cutting in wood exist. HOLE MAKING OPERATIONS On most workpieces it is vitally important that the hole be drilled precisely in reference to the x. Holes serve a variety of functions including but not limited to: fasteners for assembly. the quality of the hole does not matter.

Punching can be cost effective because labor costs are low. This also reduces production time and overall cost. masonry. Creating a centering dimple with a centering punch will also reduce the tendency to 'walk'. it uses a punch that pushes the material through a die. Some materials like plastics as well as other non-metals and some metals have a tendency to heat up enough to expand making the hole smaller than desired. GUN DRILLING Another type of drilling operation is called gun drilling. This type of drilling can often cause burrs at both the entrance and the exit of the hole and parts will often need a subsequent deburring operation to smooth out the holes. the bits are designed with bearing pads that slide along the surface of the hole keeping the drill bit on center. Gun drilling is usually done at high speeds and low feed rates. This type of drill is versatile and can be used on a variety of materials such as wood. • If a blind hole must be drilled and tapped. It is advantageous to create a centering mark or feature during the casting or forging process. The bits use a rotary motion similar to a twist drill however. The key feature of gun drilling is that the bits are self-centering. .• 'Walk' is common when drilling small diameter holes. and metal. the equipment costs can be high making punching most cost effective for high production parts that don't require high tolerances. • Holes that need to be reamed must also be initially drilled deeper than the reamed hole depth. Avoid flat bottom hole or odd shapes. plastic. • Drill speed should be another consideration. • A part should be designed such that it won't need to be repositioned or manually moved during the drilling process. it should be drilled deeper than the tapped depth. These grooves aid in transporting cutting fluid to the drill tip and in removing the chips from the hole. These types of drill bits are held in chucks or collets on machines that are either hand-held or automated. • The bottoms of the hole should match the standard drill point angles. These drill bits have two spiral grooves running the length of the drill. however. ceramic. TWIST DRILL The most common type of drill is a standard-point twist drill. Punching essentially works just like a paper punch. This depth-to-diameter ratio can be even more than 300:1. This method was originally developed to drill out gun barrels and is used commonly for drilling smaller diameter deep holes. The punch and die set can be in almost any shape. • Create through holes instead of blind holes when possible. PUNCHING AND TREPANNING These operations involve drilling but there are other methods such as punching and trepanning which don't necessarily use common drill bits. this is what allows for such deep accurate holes.

30 (0.001) 0.060 12.001) 0. 20-60 0.012) 500-1.300 1. 60-100 0. Trepanning is performed on flat products such as sheet metal.025 (0.001) 0.5 in) Aluminum Alloys Magnesium Alloys 6. Trepanning removes the desired diameter by cutting out a solid disk similar to the workings of a drafting compass.010 (0.010) 400-1. mm/rev (in/rev) Workpiece Material Surface Speed Feed. plates.400 2. ft/min) (in/rev) rpm rpm 1.40025.500 Steels 20-30.025 (0. or structural members like I-beams.30 (0. Trepanning can also be useful to make grooves for inserting seals like O-rings.25 (0.012) 800-3.000 9.5 mm (0.1003.1004.007) 250-500 Titanium Alloys 6-20.300- 30-120.060 in) (0.5 1.025 (0.500 .15 (0.000 Copper Alloys 15-60.5 mm 12.5 mm (0. 60-100 0.30 (0. 100-400 0.001) 0.025 (0.30 (0.18 (0.0004) 0.3006.012) 1.000 45-120. mm/rev (m/min.001) 0.300 4. 150-400 0.000 3.025 (0.60025.000 4.5 mm in) in) (0.3004.012) 500-800 Stainless Steels 10-20. 50-200 0.20012.025 (0. GENERAL RECOMMENDATION FOR SPEEDS AND FEEDS IN DRILLING [1] Feed. 60-200 0.Trepanning is commonly used for creating larger diameter holes (up to 250mm or 10in) where a standard drill bit is not feasible or economical.001) 0.006) 150-500 Cast Irons 20-60.

000 6.2000 Thermoplastics 30-60.001) 0. There are many instances when drilling is the only option for making hole and hollow features.10 (0.005) 800-1. 100-200 0. and small precise venting holes. Drilling however isn’t something that is optional in most cases. These include gun barrels.Shaper .004) 500-1. In order to determine the best and most profitable method some considerations need to be taken. Kalpakjian. machining. 60-200 0. For example forming a part can be done forging.025 (0. 4.000 43001. fastener holes. Schmid.12.025 (0. 2006 HOW THIS VALUE-ADDING OPERATION HELPS ACHIEVE WORKPIECE FUNCTION Drilling and hole making is an indispensable step in the manufacturing process. Many other steps in the process can be done using a variety of methods. Anytime a fastener needs to be used a hole must be drilled and tapped.500 Thermosets 20-60.001) 0. it can be shaped in a die or by other methods.500 -Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Sometimes a hole may be built into a die or a casting mold but these features can’t usually meet tight tolerances and can’t be very complex.13 (0. casting.40012.

making their repair and upkeep easily achievable. The mechanically operated machines are simple and robust in construction. clapper box and cutting tool A shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other materials. universal. contour and travelling head. hydraulic. The vertical shaper differs from a slotter (slotting machine). vertical. They can be invaluable for jobbing or repair shops where only one or a few pieces are required to be produced and the alternative methods are cost or tooling intensive. Once size increases. A slotter is fixed in the vertical plane. resulting in a quicker return stroke and more powerful cutting stroke. Types Shapers are mainly classified as standard. Note the drive arm revolves less for the return stroke than for the cutting stroke. the power needs increase and it becomes necessary to use an electric motor. Introduction Shapers have been largely superseded by milling machines or grinding machines in modern industrial practice. Operation Shaper linkage. Very small machines have been successfully made to operate by hand power. This motor drives a mechanical arrangement (using a pinion gear. crank. bull gear and crank) or a hydraulic motor which supplies the necessary movement via hydraulic cylinders. as the slide can be moved from the vertical. draw-cut. The horizontal arrangement is the most common. horizontal. Vertical shapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined. . up to a potential 36 inch stroke. The basic function of the machine is still sound and tooling for them is minimal and very cheap to reproduce.Shaper tool slide. geared.

The work table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by mechanical means. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to put on a cut it or may be set away from the vertical plane. The ram is adjustable for stroke and. This action is via a slotted link or whitworth link. Cutting fluid may be employed to improve the finish and prolong the tool's life. it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward. due to the geometry of the linkage. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece. at the front end of the ram is a vertical tool-slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this workpiece. instead of the cutter moving above a stationary workpiece. such as a rack and pinion gear. flat surfaces but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. as required. but larger. cutting stroke. because milling machines have eclipsed them as the machine tools of choice for doing . The ram slides back and forth above the work. or by a hydraulic cylinder. Dovetail slides Internal splines Keyway cutting in blind holes 5.Planer (metalworking) A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that is analogous to a shaper. the table motion is usually under the control of an automatic feed mechanism which acts on the feedscrew. The workpiece mounts on a rigid. Other examples of its use are: • • • • Keyways in the boss of a pulley or gear can be machined without resorting to a dedicated broaching setup. Planers and shapers are now obsolescent. and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool which is mounted on the ram. Uses The most common use is to machine straight. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and toolpost from where the tool can be positioned to cut the straight. and with the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter.A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the workpiece. box shaped table in front of the machine. Planers and shapers were used generally for two types of work: generating accurate flat surfaces and cutting slots (such as keyways). reducing the cutting action to one direction only. flat surface on the top of the workpiece.

000. one of the most important material removal methods. they have not yet entirely disappeared from the metalworking world. Metal planers can vary in size from a table size of 30"×72" to 20'×62'. and drill presses are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. allowing the workpiece to extend beyond the bed. milling machines. such as lathes. However. a planer can remove a tremendous amount of material in one pass and still maintain a high degree of accuracy.such work. Conventional machining. and in weight from around 20. Metal planers come in two kinds: double-housing and open-side. 6. Additional uses include any other task where an abnormally large (usually in the range of 4'×8' or more) block of metal must be squared when a (quite massive) horizontal grinder or floor mill is not available.Machining A modern CNC machine can perform most machining operations with high precision.000 lbs to over 1. While not as precise as grinding. Machining is a part of the . too expensive. Modern planers are used by smaller tool and die shops within larger production facilities to maintain and repair large stamping dies and plastic injection molds. is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools. the open-side variety has a vertical support on only one side.000 lbs. or unpractical for the situation. The double-housing variety has vertical supports on both sides of its long bed.

Although a machine shop can be a stand alone operation. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Machining is also a hobby. which consists of one or more workrooms containing major machine tools. or drill press. machining is generally performed in a machine shop. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but not uncommon on the lathes or mills. Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be chip producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. and grinding tools. a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A room. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. For example. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping. drilling and milling. Machining requires attention to many details for a workpiece to meet the specifications set out in the engineering drawings or blueprints. laser. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. so that a cutting tool can cut metal away. More recent. Beside the obvious problems related to correct dimensions. dull tool. broaching and sawing. or water jet cutting to shape metal workpieces. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines.manufacture of almost all metal products. many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Machining operations The three principal machining processes are classified as turning. Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. It is not uncommon for other materials to be machined. mill. or company where machining is done is called a machine shop. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking. An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. electro-chemical erosion. Burnishing produces no chips but can be performed at a lathe. advanced machining techniques include electrical discharge machining (EDM). building. or inappropriate presentation . As a commercial venture. saws. planing. The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by incorrect clamping. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. creating a smooth. there is the problem of achieving the correct finish or surface smoothness on the workpiece.

In milling. combined with these motions. a rotating tool with multiple cutting edges is moved slowly relative to the material to generate a plane or straight surface. it is a group of processes. is evident by an undulating or irregular finish. The tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation into the workpart to form the round hole. relative motion is required between the tool and work. Drilling is used to create a round hole. The speed motion in turning is provided by the rotating workpart. a cutting tool with a single cutting edge is used to remove material from a rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape. Types of machining operation There are many kinds of machining operations. In boring. It is a fine finishing operation used in the final stages of product manufacture. This relative motion is achieved in most machining operation by means of a primary motion. each of which is capable of generating a certain part geometry and surface texture. and the appearance of waves on the machined surfaces of the workpiece. Basic machining process. The common feature is the use of a cutting tool to form a chip that is removed from the workpart. Frequently. and the feed motion is achieved by the cutting tool moving slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece. The direction of the feed motion is . Overview of machining technology Machining is not just one process. called cutting speed and a secondary motion called feed. To perform the operation.of a tool. the tool is used to enlarge an already available hole. this poor surface finish. In turning. produce the desired shape of the resulting work surface. known as chatter. It is accomplished by a rotating tool that is typically has two cutting edges. The shape of the tool and its penetration into the work surface.

thus protecting the surface from abrasion. and b. the point of the penetrates below the original work surface of the workpart.perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation. planing. called the feed. Also. The rake angle can be positive or negative. There are two basic types of cutting tools — a. The flank of the tool provides a clearance between the tool and the newly formed work surface. feed. This angle between the work surface and the flank surface is called the relief angle. Although the shapes of these tools are different from a single-point tool. In addition. It is measured relative to the plane perpendicular to the work surface. Single point tool. The cutting edge serves to separate chip from the parent work material. The cutting tool A cutting tool has one or more sharp cutting edges and is made of a material that harder than the work material. Cutting conditions Relative motion is required between the tool and work to perform a machining operation. Collectively. is oriented at a certain angle is called the rake angle "α". A single point tool has one cutting edge and is used for turning. The speed motion is provided by the rotating milling cutter. many elements of tool geometry are similar. The point is usily rounded to a certain radius. The primary motion is accomplished at a certain cutting speed. called the nose radius. and The flank. speed. which would degrade the finish. The remaining dimension of the cut is the penetration of the cutting tool below the original work surface. Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually achieve their motion relative to the workpart by rotating. called the depth of cut. broaching and sawing. The rake face which directs the flow of newly formed chip. grinding and similar abrasive operations are often included within the category of machining. and depth of cut are . Connected to the cutting edge are the two surfaces of the tool — The rake face. This is a much slower motion. Drilling and milling uses rotating multiplecutting-edge tools. the tool must be moved laterally across the work. Multiple-cutting-edge tool. During mechining. The two basic forms of milling are — Peripheral milling Face milling Other conventional machining operations include shaping.

followed by one or two finishing cuts. (in). — the cutting speed in m/s.25 mm/rev (0. Machining operations usually divide into two categories.015-0.015-0. their product can be used to obtain the material removal rate for the process — where — • • • • — the material removal rate in mm3/s. and Finishing cuts. Note:— All units MUST be converted to the corresponding decimal (or USCU) units.050 in/rev) and depths of 2. Finishing cuts are used to complete the part and achieve the final dimension. distinguished by purpose and cutting conditions: Roughing cuts.0125-0. and for certain operations. They form the three dimensions of the machining process.0015 in/rev) and depths of 0. is usually included within the scope of cutting condition. but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation. In production machining jobs. Finishing cuts are used to complete the part and achieve the final dimension. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths feeds of 0.04-1.called the cutting conditions. tolerances. and surface finish. in order to produce a shape close to the desired form.5-20 mm (0. one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work.050 in/rev) and depths of 2.04-1. Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing. and surface finish. (ft/min). if so. (in3/s). Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths — feeds of . in order to produce a shape close to the desired form.750 in) are typical.075 in) are typical. followed by one or two finishing cuts. (in).5-20 mm .100-0. — the feed in mm. tolerances. choosing the proper cutting fluid. Stages in metal cutting Roughing cuts are used to remove large amount of material from the starting workpart as quickly as possible.0 mm (0. — the depth of cut in mm.75-2. In production machining jobs.25 mm/rev (0.0300. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used. one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work.0005-0. Roughing cuts are used to remove large amount of material from the starting workpart as rapidly as possible. A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool.04 mm/rev (0. Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths — feeds of . and. but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation.

and.125-0.(0.75-2. choosing the proper cutting fluid.4 mm/rev (0. A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool.750 in) are typical.CNC A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine CNC panel Siemens Sinumerik . Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing. if so.0 mm (0. is usually included within the scope of cutting condition. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths feeds of 0.075 in) are typical.015 in/rev) and depths of 0.005-0. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used. 7.030-0.100-0.

CNC does numerically directed interpolation of a cutting tool in the work envelope of a machine. NC was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by John T. Punched tape continued to be used as a medium for transferring G-codes into the controller for many decades after 1950.Siemens CNC panel The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control. The files containing the G-codes to be interpreted by the controller are usually saved under the . Historical overview CNC was preceded by NC (Numerically Controlled) machines. . CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC operators with time to perform additional tasks. and the computer was used for the tool compensation calculations and sometimes for editing. until it was eventually superseded by RS232 cables. CNC automation also allows for more flexibility in the way parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required to change the machine to produce different components. and the number of machining steps that required human action have been dramatically reduced. With the increased automation of manufacturing processes with CNC machining. considerable improvements in consistency and quality have been achieved with no strain on the operator. and refers specifically to a computer "controller" that reads G-code instructions and drives a machine tool. The introduction of CNC machines radically changed the manufacturing industry. complex 3-D structures are relatively easy to produce. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines.NC extension. and now is commonly tied directly into plant networks. which were hard wired and their operating parameters could not be changed. The first CNC systems used NC style hardware. a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate components by the selective removal of material. Most shops have their own saving format that matches their ISO certification requirements. floppy disks. The operating parameters of the CNC can be altered via a software load program. Parsons in collaboration with the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory.

While the machine is awaiting replacement on the tool. Drilling A tool can be used to drill holes by pecking to let the swarf out. it would run other parts it is already loaded with up to that tool and wait for the operator. it can be used to cut screw threads. After the holes are completed.Production environment A series of CNC machines may be combined into one station. feed rate. and CAM software can already generate any motion using many short linear segments. but these efforts have been met with skepticism since. A drilling cycle is used to repeat drilling or tapping operations on a workpiece. To begin drilling any number of holes to the specifications configured in the cycle. unlike circular arcs. Using an internal thread cutting tool and the ability to control the exact rotational position of the tool with the depth of cut. the CNC machines represent a special segment of industrial robot systems. checking each part with lasers and sensors. and other parameters that appear in more complex cycles. In a sense. giving CNC machines the ability to call the operator's mobile phone if it detects that a tool has broken. the only input required is a set of coordinates for hole location. CNC machines can run over night and over weekends without operator intervention. The ever changing intelligence of CNC controllers has dramatically increased job shop cell production. the machine is given another command to cancel the cycle. . Some machines might even make 1000 parts on a weekend with no operator. as they are programmable to perform many kinds of machining operations (within their designed physical limits. retraction. their definitions are not natural and are too complicated to set up by hand. Types of instruction Main article: G-code A line in a G-code file can instruct the machine tool to do one of several things. such as depth and feed rate. and resumes operation. Movements Lately. The cycle takes care of depth. like other robotic systems). Error detection features have been developed. CNC machines today are controlled directly from files created by CAM software packages. The drilling cycle accepts a list of parameters about the operation. commonly called a "cell". so that a part or assembly can go directly from design to manufacturing without the need of producing a drafted paper drawing of the manufactured component. some controllers have implemented the ability to follow an arbitrary curve (NURBS). to progressively machine a part requiring several operations.

common variable. An entire product line of different sizes can be programmed using logic and simple math to create and scale an entire range of parts. Parametric programs incorporate both G-code and these logical constructs to create a programming language and syntax similar to BASIC. The brevity of the program allows the CNC programmer to rapidly make performance adjustments to looped commands. A loop can be created with variables for step values and other parameters.Parametric programming A more recent advancement in CNC interpreters is support of logical commands. and system variable. tool length. There are three types of variables used in CNC systems: local variable. Typical logic to a parameter program is as follows. Haas Automation refers to parametric programs as macros. Local variable is used to hold data after machine off preset value. The machine will then drill and form the patterns required to mount additional vises or clamps at that location. -bolt circle radius -how many holes -centerpoint of bolt circle Next build a subprogram that crunches the math. and manipulate variables to create a large degree of freedom within one program. Various manufacturers refer to parametric programming in brand-specific ways. subprogram calls. Tool wear. GE Fanuc refers to it as Custom Macro A & B. and in doing so remove a large amount of repetition in the program body. The programmer can make if/then/else statements. First define variables to start your program. allowing extensions and modifications to the functionality of a machine beyond what a manufacturer envisioned. breakage. Because of these features. Parametric programs are also used to shorten long programs with incremental or stepped passes. a parametric program is more efficient than using CAD/CAM software for large part runs. and other system parameters can be accessed and changed directly in the program. Common variable is used to hold data if machine switch off does not erase form data. example: #100=3 (bolt circle radius) . the machine can be manually guided to the new location and the fixture subroutine called. while Okuma refers to it as User Task 2. perform various arithmetic. loops. If a user wishes to create additional fixture locations on a work holding device. and tool height to be measured in millimeters or inches. and tailor the program to the machine it is running on. For instance. known as parametric programming. Parametric programming also enables custom machining cycles. such as fixture creation and bolt circles. When you are ready to drill or tap your holes. or create a stock part that can be scaled to any size a customer demands. run the drill cycle off of your math in subprogram. The System variable this variable used system parameter this cannot use direct to convert the common variable for example tool radius.

Tools with CNC variants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Drills EDMs Lathes Milling machines Wood routers Sheet metal works(Turret Punch) Wire bending machines Hot-wire foam cutters Plasma cuttings Water jet cutters Laser cutting Oxy-fuel Surface Grinders Cylindrical Grinders 8. the logic is all similar.Measuring instrument .and offset pickup.etc G43 in some cases (tool length pickup) G81(drill cycle) call sub program N50 G80 M30 Subprogram N100 #105=((COS#104)*#100) (x location) #106=((SIN#104)*#100) (y location) x#105 y#106 (remember your G81 code is modal) If #104 GT 360 goto N50 #104=(#104+(360/#101)) Goto 100 This is just a modal to show the logic of programming.#101=10 (how many holes) #102=0 (x position of ctr of bolthole) #103=0 (y position of ctr of bolthole) #104=0 (angle of first hole Tool call. As all languages have some differences. spindle speed.

A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing points. the caliper is then removed and the distance read by measuring between the tips with a measuring tool. such as a ruler. fine setting of this caliper type is performed by tapping the caliper legs lightly on a handy surface until they will almost pass over the object. They are used in many fields such as metalworking.a)caliper A vernier caliper A caliper (British spelling also calliper) is a device used to measure the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. A light push against the resistance of the central pivot screw then spreads the legs to the correct . gunsmithing. woodworking and woodturning. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured. handloading. mechanical engineering. • The upper caliper in the image (at the right) requires manual adjustment prior to fitting. Types Inside caliper Two inside calipers The inside calipers are used to measure the internal size of an object.

consistent feel that ensures a repeatable measurement. consider if the calipers are used to measure a large diameter pipe. The points are sharpened so that they act as scribers. Outside caliper Three outside calipers.• dimension and provides the required. With some understanding of their limitations and usage these instruments can provide a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. A vernier caliper does not have the depth capacity to straddle this large diameter while at the same time reach the outermost points of the pipes diameter. as for the above Inside caliper. thus forming an arc or circle. They are especially useful when measuring over very large distances. . Divider caliper A pair of dividers In the metalworking field divider calipers are used in the process of marking out suitable workpieces. one leg can then be placed in the dimple created by a center or prick punch and the other leg pivoted so that it scribes a line on the workpiece's surface. Outside calipers are used to measure the external size of an object. The lower caliper in the image has an adjusting screw that permits it to be carefully adjusted without removal of the tool from the workpiece. The same observations and technique apply to this type of caliper.

In the diagram at left. 3. 4. the lower caliper lacks this feature but has a renewable scriber that can be adjusted for wear. On a nautical chart the distance is often measured on the latitude scale appearing on the sides of the map: one minute of arc of latitude is approximately one nautical mile or 1852 metres. 8. this ensures a line parallel to the edge. or it is measured directly on a scale drawn on the map. 7. The bent leg is used to run along the workpiece edge while the scriber makes its mark at a predetermined distance. Hermaphrodite calipers or Oddleg jennys. as well as being replaced when excessively worn. 2. Vernier caliper Parts of a vernier caliper: 1. 5. Oddleg caliper Odd leg calipers Oddleg calipers. or just plain Ol' Jennys. . as pictured on the left. The two caliper's ends are brought to the two points whose distance is being measured. 6. The caliper's opening is then either measured on a separate ruler and then converted to the actual distance. are generally used to scribe a line a set distance from the edge of workpiece. Outside jaws: used to measure external lengths Inside jaws: used to measure internal lengths Depth probe: used to measure depths Main scale (cm) Main scale (inch) Vernier (cm) Vernier (inch) Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement A variation to the more traditional caliper is the inclusion of a vernier scale. this makes it possible to directly obtain a more precise measurement. the uppermost caliper has a slight shoulder in the bent leg allowing it to sit on the edge more securely.A divider caliper is also used to measure a distance between two points on a map.

external dimensions using the pictured lower jaws. this allows simple go/no-go checks of part sizes. or one thousandth of an inch. A more accurate instrument used for the same purpose is the micrometer.Vernier calipers can measure internal dimensions (using the uppermost jaws in the picture at right). Vernier calipers commonly used in industry provide a precision to a hundredth of a millimetre (10 micrometres). and depending on the manufacturer. depth measurements by the use of a probe that is attached to the movable head and slides along the centre of the body. the pointer rotates once every inch. a small gear rack drives a pointer on a circular dial. Digital caliper . Typically. This probe is slender and can get into deep grooves that may prove difficult for other measuring tools. allowing for "differential" measurements (the measuring of the difference in size between two objects. or 1 millimetre. Dial caliper Mitutoyo dial caliper A further refinement to the vernier caliper is the dial caliper. The dial is usually arranged to be rotatable beneath the pointer. or the setting of the dial using a master object and subsequently being able to read directly the plus-or-minus variance in size of subsequent objects relative to the master object). tenth of an inch. The slide of a dial caliper can usually be locked at a setting using a small lever or screw. The vernier scales will often include both metric and Imperial measurements on the upper and lower part of the scale. In this instrument. allowing for a direct reading without the need to read a vernier scale (although one still needs to add the basic inches or tens of millimeters value read from the slide of the caliper).

A suitable interface to convert the output to RS-232 levels and format can be built or purchased. Under the scale of the caliper another printed circuit board also contains an etched pattern of lines. Like dial calipers. allowing the reading of dimensions even in awkward locations where the display cannot be seen. This version of the caliper allows reading the value directly from a single display. Digital calipers may contain some sort of "reading hold" feature. The two capacitances are out of phase. A pattern of bars is etched directly on the Printed circuit board in the slider. All provide for zeroing the display at any point along the slide. Many digital calipers can be switched between metric and imperial units. digital calipers have by no means replaced the dial caliper. significantly decreasing the time taken to take and record a series of measurements. allowing the same sort of differential measurements as with the dial caliper but without the need to read numbers that may be upside down. the slide of a digital caliper can usually be locked using a lever or thumb-screw. The circuitry built into the slider counts the bars as the slider moves and does a linear interpolation based on the magnitudes of the capacitors to find the precise position of the . Examples are a base that extends their usefulness as a depth gauge and a jaw attachment that allows measuring the center distance between holes.[citation needed] Increasingly. digital calipers offer a serial data output to allow them to be interfaced with a personal computer. Dial calipers have the potential to last much longer with their repairability. As the slider moves the capacitance changes in a linear fashion and in a repeating pattern. Digital calipers contain a linear encoder. This means measurements can be taken and instantly stored in a spreadsheet or similar piece of software.Digital caliper A refinement now popular is the replacement of the analog dial with an electronic digital display. The combination of these printed circuit boards forms two variable Capacitors. With all of these benefits. The output of non-name brand calipers is usually 24 bit 90 kHz synchronous. Both dial and digital calipers can be used with accessories that extend their usefulness. Digital calipers typically do not have the beam structure of a dial or vernier caliper and therefore do not have the repeatability or accuracy to an amateur user.

firm touch is correct. Regardless of type. calipers out of adjustment.slider. the amount of force used affects the indication. Simple calipers are uncalibrated. When a calipers' jaws are fully closed.) Use Using the vernier caliper A caliper must be properly applied against the part in order to take the desired measurement. is held in contradistinction to micrometer. Accuracy of measurement when using a caliper is highly dependent on the skill of the operator. the measurement taken must be compared against a scale.require good eyesight in order to achieve the highest precision. Whether the scale is part of the caliper or not. when measuring the thickness of a plate a vernier caliper must be held at right angles to the piece.verniers and dials -. it must be recalibrated or . For example. more often. If it does not. a caliper's jaws must be forced into contact with the part being measured. Micrometer caliper A caliper with a micrometer built in is called a micrometer caliper or. This is a greater problem with a caliper incorporating a wheel. too little force gives insufficient contact and an overindication. all analog calipers -. leading to loss of zero. Too much force results in an underindication as part and tool distort. referring to any other type in this article. Some practice may be needed to measure round or irregular objects correctly. As both part and caliper are always to some extent elastic. (Sometimes the term caliper. or calipers with a poor quality beam. This is especially the case with digital calipers. Digital calipers have the advantage in this area. A consistent. which lends mechanical advantage. simply a micrometer. Calibrated calipers may be mishandled. it should of course indicate zero.

Types Basic types The image shows three common types of micrometers. in the form of calipers. It might seem that a vernier caliper cannot get out of calibration but a drop or knock can be enough. b)Micrometer (device) Outside. along with other metrological instruments such as dial calipers and vernier calipers. and depth micrometers A micrometer (pronounced /mаɪˈkrɒmɪtər/) (enPR: mī-krŏmʹĭ-tər).repaired. inside. For example: the distance from the side of a screw head to the edge of a surface. Digital calipers have zero set buttons. is a device used widely in mechanical engineering and machining for precisely measuring. In later years (maybe since the 1990s) a clever modification of the moveable jaw on the back side of any caliper allows for "step"-measurements. but not always. the names are based on their application: • • Outside micrometer (aka micrometer caliper) Inside micrometer . sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge. Micrometers are often. Colloquially the word micrometer is often shortened to mic (IPA: /mаɪk/) (enPR: mīk).

Specialized types Each type of micrometer caliper can be fitted with specialized anvils and spindle tips for particular measuring tasks. depth mic. They help the operator to position the table precisely. An inside micrometer is commonly used to measure the diameter of holes. through the constant known as the screw's lead (/li:d/). For example. disk. the anvil may be shaped in the form of a segment of screw thread. for example. shafts and blocks. point. A screw's lead is the distance it . Limit mics have two anvils and two spindles. Blade mics have a matching set of narrow tips (blades). Operating principles The accuracy of a micrometer derives from the accuracy of the threadform of the screw that is at its heart. spherical. The part being checked must pass through the first gap and must stop at the second gap in order to be within specification. in place of simple stops. knife-edge. The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice versa). etc. The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows: 1. The term universal micrometer may also refer to a type of micrometer whose frame has modular components. blade. The bore micrometer is typically a three anvil head on a micrometer base used to accurately measure inside diameters. in the form of a v-block. Micrometer stops are essentially inside mics that are mounted on the table of a manual milling machine or other machine tool. allowing one micrometer to function as outside mic. step mic. They allow. etc. spheres. Tube micrometers are used to measure the thickness of tubes. the measuring of a narrow o-ring groove. Pitch-diameter mics have a matching set of thread-shaped tips for measuring the pitch diameter of screw threads. in the form of a large disc. and a depth micrometer typically measures depths of slots and steps. and are used like a snap gauge. Universal micrometer sets come with interchangeable anvils: flat. etc.• • • Depth micrometer Bore micrometer Tube micrometer An outside micrometer is typically used to measure wires. spline.

thimble: The part that one's thumb turns. which would distort the measurement. Therefore. lock-ring/lock nut/thimble lock: The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary. (In most threads [that is.4 mm. The stationary round part with the linear scale on it.4 mm. (Notice also that there is a handy decimalfraction equivalents chart printed right on the frame of this inch-reading micrometer.moves forward axially with one complete turn (360°). or about 31.) 2. This amplification allows a small difference in the sizes of two similar measured objects to correlate to a larger difference in the position of a micrometer's thimble. a given amount of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential movement. It is inside the barrel. barrel/sleeve: Also called the stock. as explained under "Operating principles". such as when momentarily holding a measurement. lead and pitch refer to essentially the same concept. Graduated markings. References: Starrett Parts of an Outside micrometer wikiHow Reading Inch system . expansion. Sometimes vernier markings. With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw. labeled. and that the thing to be measured rests against. ratchet stop: (not shown in illustration) Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque. and contraction. (No wonder that the usual name for the device in German is Messschraube. literally "measuring screw". then the circumference of the screw is 10π. screw (not seen): The heart of the micrometer. Parts The parts of a micrometer caliper.) • • • • • • • • anvil: The shiny part that the spindle moves toward.) spindle: The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil. frame: The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. in all single-start threads]. an axial movement of 1 mm is amplified (magnified) to a circumferential movement of 31. but the major diameter (here. if the lead of a screw is 1 mm. For example. outer diameter) is 10 mm. It is thick because it needs to minimize flexion.

the reading is given by the number of millimetre divisions visible on the scale of the sleeve plus the particular division on the thimble which coincides with the axial line on the sleeve.025 inch to be further divided..Micrometer thimble showing 0. Suppose the thimble were screwed out so that graduation 2.276 inch. so that one turn moves the spindle axially 0. Thus. and thus one complete revolution moves the spindle through a distance of 0. indicating hundreds of thousandths. . were visible (as shown in the image). The 25 graduations on the thimble allow the 0. The longitudinal line on the frame is graduated with 1 millimetre divisions and 0. the reading can easily be taken mentally. each being 0. Thus. The result will be the diameter expressed in thousandths of an inch. etc. 2. As the numbers 1. and three additional subdivisions.78mm The spindle of an ordinary metric micrometer has 2 threads per millimetre.276 inch The spindle of an inch-system micrometer has 40 threads per inch. The thimble has 50 graduations.01 millimetre (one-hundredth of a millimetre). Metric system Micrometer thimble reading 5. The reading then would be 0. equal to the distance between two graduations on the frame. appear below every fourth sub-division on the frame.2000 + 0. plus the number of that division on the thimble which coincides with the axial zero line on the frame. so that turning the thimble through one division moves the spindle axially 0.001).001. multiplied by 25 (the number of thousandths of an inch that each division represents). the reading is given by the number of whole divisions that are visible on the scale of the frame. and that graduation 1 on the thimble coincided with the axial line on the frame.5 millimetre subdivisions.5 millimetre.075 + 0.025 ÷ 25 = 0. or . 3.025 inch (1 ÷ 40 = 0.001 inch (0.025).

Suppose that the thimble were screwed out so that graduation 5.002 millimetre = 0. as with an ordinary micrometer. Note: 0.78 mm. Therefore. The additional digit of these micrometers is obtained by finding the line on the sleeve vernier scale which exactly coincides with one on the thimble. .003 (as shown in the image). Thus.783mm Some micrometers are provided with a vernier scale on the sleeve in addition to the regular graduations. and one additional 0.28 = 5.01 millimetre = 0. Inch micrometers are read in a similar fashion.000393 inch. without a vernier.0001 inches on inch-system micrometers. The reading then would be 5.00254 mm). The number of this coinciding vernier line represents the additional digit. and then adding 0. or 0. and 0. For example.001 inch.0001 inch (0. the vernier type has graduations down to 0.001 millimetre to be made on metric micrometers. 0. the reading for metric micrometers of this type is the number of whole millimetres (if any) and the number of hundredths of a millimetre.5 subdivision were visible (as shown in the image).00 + 0. When using either a metric or inch micrometer.0001 inch = 0. a measurement of 5.783 millimetres would be obtained by reading 5.000078 inch (78 millionths) or alternately. metric micrometers provide smaller measuring increments than comparable inch unit micrometers—the smallest graduation of an ordinary inch reading micrometer is 0.5 + 0.5 millimetres on the sleeve.00254 millimetres. smaller readings than those graduated may of course be obtained by visual interpolation between graduations. These permit measurements within 0. and the number of thousandths of a millimetre given by the coinciding vernier line on the sleeve vernier scale. and that graduation 28 on the thimble coincided with the axial line on the sleeve. The vernier would then be used to read the 0.28 millimetre as determined by the thimble. Vernier Micrometer sleeve (with vernier) reading 5.

However. D. and interest in. then the micrometer should measure it as 0. such as are maintained in Paris. by attaching a thimble that will ratchet or friction slip at a certain torque. even if it did not refer specifically to its present-day senses. consistent touch of a skilled user. If the micrometer measures 0. it was used in a telescope to measure angular distances between stars. Normally. the ability to measure small things. giving an inaccurate measurement. The accuracy of the gauge blocks themselves is traceable through a chain of comparisons back to a master standard. as an enhancement of the vernier.. then it is out of calibration. The accuracy of micrometers is checked by using them to measure gauge blocks. However. The first ever micrometric screw was invented by William Gascoigne in the 17th century. History of the device and its name Gascoigne's Micrometer as drawn by Robert Hooke The word micrometer is a neoclassical coinage from Greek micros. If the gauge block is known to be 0. and metron. the word no doubt was coined in reference to this endeavor. "measure".C.00005"). Neither the metre nor the micrometre nor the micrometer (device) as we know them today existed at that time.7500". Its adaptation for the precise measurement of handheld objects was made by Jean Laurent Palmer of Paris in 1848[2]. humans of that time did have much need for. the micrometer will not continue to advance once sufficient resistance is encountered. rods. the device is therefore often called palmer in French. (Those languages also use . etc. Washington. or similar standards whose lengths are precisely and accurately known. "small". and small differences.7500" (± . This results in greater accuracy and repeatability of measurements—most especially for low-skilled or semiskilled workers. who may not have developed the light. and tornillo de Palmer ("Palmer screw") in Spanish.Torque repeatability via torque-limiting ratchets or sleeves An additional feature of many micrometers is the inclusion of a torque-limiting device on the thimble—either a spring-loaded ratchet or a friction sleeve. Merriam-Webster Collegiate[1] says that English got it from French and that its first known appearance in English writing was in 1670.7516". one could use the mechanical advantage of the screw to force the micrometer to squeeze the material or tighten the screw threads.

micrómetro.) The micrometer caliper was introduced to the mass market in anglophone countries by Brown & Sharpe in 1867.[3] allowing the penetration of the instrument's use into the average machine shop. . Brown & Sharpe were inspired by several earlier devices. In 1888 Edward Williams Morley added to the precision of micrometric measurements and proved their accuracy in a complex series of experiments. one of them being Palmer's design.the micrometer cognates: micromètre.