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a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled. and then reconstructed as a new analog signal. Analog filter. discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal. computer science and mathematics. ƒ ƒ . then manipulated mathematically.ƒ In electronics. An analog signal may be processed by a digital filter by first being digitized and represented as a sequence of numbers. which is an electronic circuit operating on continuous-time analog signals.

time-invariant. Mathematical analysis of the transfer function can describe how it will respond to any input. As such. its difference equation. The transfer function for a linear. digital filter can be expressed as a transfer function in the Zdomain ƒ ƒ . and then producing a transfer function which meets the specifications. a second-order low pass filter with a specific cut-off frequency). designing a filter consists of developing specifications appropriate to the problem (for example.ƒ A digital filter is characterized by its transfer function. or equivalently.

ƒ Filter design is the process of designing a. The purpose is to find a realization of the filter that meets each of the requirements to a sufficient degree to make it useful. ƒ ƒ . but normally an experienced electrical engineer is needed to get a good result. some of which are contradictory. Certain parts of the design process can be automated. that satisfies a set of requirements.

ƒ Two types  IIR  FIR .

. they use feedback. and the output and the next internal state are determined by a linear combination of the previous inputs and outputs (in other words. which FIR filters normally do not). contains internal state.ƒ Infinite impulse response. or IIR.

ƒ Finite impulse response. they are inherently stable . filters express each output sample as a weighted sum of the last N inputs. where N is the order of the filter. Since they do not use feedback. or FIR.

.ƒ The Butterworth filter is a type of signal processing filter designed to have as flat a frequency response as possible in the passband so that it is also termed a maximally flat magnitude filter.


ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Conversion of discrete time specification to continuous time Application of Filter Formula Find N and Cutoff frequency Find pole pairs with the help of N and Cutoff frequency Find the transfer Function in Laplace Domain Convert the Laplace Transform to Ztransform .