“AUDITING FOR MAINTAINANCE IN CEENT INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT In cement industries maintenance cost consumes approximately 20-25% of the tota l production system, which comes in second rank after the energy cost. Performin g a periodic maintenance audit is essential in maintaining a profitable business . A maintenance audit answers the following questions: How effective is your cur rent planned maintenance program? What areas are working? What areas could be im proved? Continuous improvement can be accomplished by developing the necessary t ools for analyzing the audit results .This helps reveal the current maintenance state and identify potential areas for improvement. Therefore ACC cement plant, taken as a case study represents that cement plants are facing big challenges on reducing both energy and maintenance costs. In orde r to improve the maintenance in the ACC plant, auditing of the existing maintena nce system had been conducted, since this step is essential in improving any mai ntenance system. Maintenance types are like condition based, preventive based, planning based and breakdown maintenance. Maintenance modifications were selected from the calcula tions and questionnaire. A quantitative (statistical) method was used in order t o determine the weakness points in the existing maintenance system. Based upon t his auditing several actions and strategies were put in a medium range plan to r esolve the problems and improve the system.

INDEX Contents Certificate…………………………………………………………………….…………….…2 Acknowledgement…………..…………………………………………….……………….…3 Abstract……………….………………………………………………….…………………...4 1. Introduction……..…………………………………………….…………….…………7 2. Literature Survey………………..…………………………….……………………….9 2.1 Total Maintenance Management…………………………………………….…….9 2.2 Types of Maintenance………………………………………………………….....12 2.2.1 Condition Based Maintenance ………………………………...……................12 2.2.2 Preventive Maintenance …………..………………....……………………........14 2.2.3 Planned Maintenance ……..…………………………………………………….16 2.2.4 Breakdown Maintenance …………………………….…………………………17 3. Cement Kiln……………………………………………………………………………..18 4. Raw Mill……………………………………………………………………………….....20 5. Methodology……..………………………………………….……………………….....21 5.1 OEE Concept................................................................. .......................................21 5.2 Downtime Analysis……………………………………………………………….....22

5.3Net Availability Index%...................................................... ................................24 5.4Production Rate Index………………………………………………………………..25 5.5Mean Time Between Failure……………………………………………………....26 6. Data Analysis ……..…………………………………………….…………………….27 6.1 Downtime Analysis for Kiln…………….…….………............................ ..........27 6.1.1Kiln Downtime Analysis for June………............................... .........................31 6.1.2Kiln Downtime Analysis for July……………………………………………….35 6.1.3Kiln Downtime Analysis for August……………………………………...........39 6.1.4Cumulative Downtime Analysis ……………………………………….............43 6.1.5Parreto Chart………………………………………………………………………47 6.2 Downtime Analysis for Raw Mill……………………………………………….48 6.2.1 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for June………................... ......................48 6.2.2 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for July……………………………………52 6.2.3 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for August…………………………………56 6.2.4Cumulative Downtime Analysis …………………………………………..60 6.2.5Parreto Chart………………………………………………………………...64 7. 8. 9. Benchmarking ……..………………………………………………………. ……….65 Conclusions and future work .……..……………………………………………….66 References. ……...……………………………………………………..……………...67 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of maintenance functions for maintenance management in commonly i ndustries has growing rapidly. A lot of researches and publications in the field maintenance decision models have been published to improve the effectiveness of maintenance process. Production systems have changed tremendously in recent yea rs. Attention has shifted from economy of scale to economy of scope. Today’s mar ket conditions are characterized by more emphasis on variety, delivery performan ce, and quality. Product life cycles are shrinking. To respond to these new stri ngent requirements, manufacturers are turning to high-tech equipment such as fle xible manufacturing systems. They are also adopting new material control methodo logies such as the just-in-time philosophy which calls for production systems wo rking without inventory at all. Set-up and adjustment times are also reduced to a minimum. All these factors are shifting the focus to maintenance, since unplan ned unavailability of machines will result in serious problems. This new reality explains the renewed interest in maintenance and the increased attention it is receiving from management. Unfortunately, in many organizations maintenance prod uctivity is very low. However, the maintenance function can no longer be neglect ed. In order to meet today’s challenges; companies must constantly strive for ex cellence in maintenance through serious comprehensive maintenance improvement pr ogram. In order to measure the effectiveness of any maintenance system, we need to meas ure its productivity and identify the areas where improvements can be made. Audi ts are used to assess the current status of the maintenance system so that appro priate improvement program can be formulated. Auditing a maintenance system uses the following steps: (1) A survey carried out using a well-designed questionnaire. The questions are aimed at comparing the current practices with what they should be. (2) Analysis of the data gathered in step 1. (3) Formulation of improvement program based on the analysis of the previous ste p.

(2) Maintenance operations. in order to achieve that all maintenance activi ties should be performed and executed to high standard through accurate planning and scheduling for all resources. Due to the increase in automation. 2) The work of keeping something in proper condition. The main objective of TMM is to provide a methodology or framework for improving maintenance effectiveness continuously. Maintenance must be controlled in a way that the equi pment is stopped for maintenance in a planned stoppage schedule. in the ACC Cement plant barman . (3) Equipment management. The maintenance activity in th e cement industry couldn’t influence the productivity so much. In connection with technical development the importance of maintenance was incre ased as high productivity and quality can be achieved by mean of well developed and organized maintenance.In cement manufacturing the equipment at the beginning was not so complicated for the technical point of view and more people were t required to keep the cement production lines in operation. Actually once the audi t factors are mastered the maintenance can begin to analyze its operations much ore closely . it Is not accep table if equipment stops unplanned .to achieve the right productivity and qualit y of product .it is important to procure the right equipment from the very begin ning. upkeep. Maintenance does not start when equipment s delivered and installed. The main step in doing so is auditing of the existing maintenance system. Theref ore the main aims of the maintenance activities in cement plants are to preserve the equipment and installation. A brief description of each of the subs ystems follows. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY MAINTENANCE: 1) The act of maintaining or the state of being maintained. half of the production lines have been operating on av erage for more them 25 years and most of hem are fully automatically controlled.New information becomes available that can use o justify decisions support expansion arguments and provide better service.The importance of Maintenance in Cement Industries The importance of maintenance increases when the grade of automation and mechani zation increases .g. Maintenance management: In this section we discuss the main maintenance management areas that have a gre .maintenance problems are rising foe e. The maintenance system comprises three subsystems: (1) Maintenance management. Maintenance can benefit from these measures because these information’s are valuable when a manager is f ighting battle to get more resources and more investment. It was important to keep equipment running but the maintenance department couldn’t contribute muc h to productivity because the quality and quantity of cement was to large extent decided by the skill of the workers and his capacity to work fast. if it starts at an early stage in the projects and the procurement work. There are many reasons why maintenance is becoming increasingly importan t I developing countries India . TOTAL MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Total maintenance management (TMM) can be defined as a systematic approach to ma intenance. any breakdown will have as serious impact on production and measures to minimize and reduce breakdowns become a must. or making decisions th at could affect the future production capacity.

A maintenance-scheduling function combined with the plan ner function deals with day-to-day scheduling of works orders. 3) Determining the number and skill of the workers required for the job. 6) Estimating costs. Maintenance control. Besides issuing d aily schedules. Materials and tool control :. 1) Appropriate ratio of supervisors to workers. this function determines the priority of works orders follows up on their progress and keeps track of backlogs. proper number of planners necessary support functions. Organization: A well-designed maintenance department organization is essential to a productive maintenance activity. 2) Determining work plans using appropriate methods. 5) Planning and scheduling works orders. Appropriate ratio of supervisors to workers. tools and materials required.at impact on maintenance productivity. Planning is a key function in a maintenance department. 2) Charts and graphs showing backlog. Training is essential to good quality maintenance work. Planning is an important aspect of good maintenance practice.ordination procedure between maintenance an d warehouse must be developed. adequate supervi sion) are necessary ingredients for employee motivation and. . A computerized invent ory control system must be installed and optimal order quantities must be establ ished. quick mainte nance response. planner. Better maintenance productivity and improved quality maintenance wo rk can be achieved through effective supervision. The works order system :A well-designed works order form and procedures are a mu st for maintenance management. Maintenance scheduling. materials. 2) Proper number of planners. superviso r. overtime. Time standards must be developed so that proper planning can be carried out. Planner training. The organization chart should be current and complete and should take into consideration the following important issues. It also ensures good documentation of mainte nance work for analysis and appropriate action. 1) Maintenance productivity reports. 4) Quick maintenance response. The span of supervision must be optimal or near optimal. 4) Determining spare parts. emergency work. This kind of inf ormation allows better labour and cost control through corrective action based o n facts and the identification of potential improvement areas. and support unction). hence. This system provides clear communication between all parties involved in a maintenance job request (requester. Maintenance operations Work measurement. Appropriate interface and co. 3) Necessary support functions. A maintenance supervisor shoul d have a planner who relieves him from the planning/scheduling function so that he can concentrate on better maintenance management and more supervision of crew s at job sites. A positive climate and necessary support (planning. A thorough maintenance control system is very important for the identification and control of delays. The maintenance activity requires that tools and p arts are available so that unnecessary delays are avoided. Training and motivation. good perform ance. A plan ner should be well trained to carry out the following functions: 1) Determining job content and duration. Supervision. Such a system includes: l information on work order status and estimated time versus actual time. craftsman.

TYPES OF MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Condition Based Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Planned Maintenance Break down Maintenance CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE: Condition-based maintenance was introduced to try to maintain the correct equip ment at the right time. Such a system will determine the equipment s health. Observing the state of the system is known as con dition monitoring. How does Condition Monitoring work? Condition Monitoring relies on the fact that most failures do not occur instantaneous. you have no guarantee that the equipment will continue to work even if you are maintaining it according to the maintenance plan. to reduce probability and/or impact of a failu re in operation. Also. Ideally condition-based maintenance will allow the maintenance person nel to do only the right things. As you cannot p ossibly maintain your equipment at all times you need some way to decide when it is proper to perform maintenance. and act only when maintenance is actually necessary. the equipment can still function as maintenance prepares for correction. By doing this. Developments in recent years have a llowed extensive instrumentation of equipment. P-F Interval: PREVENTIVE MAINTENACE: To avoid the problems of correcting unfortunate situations that have already ari sen. the magnitude may be so small that it is un-detectable. At some point. If not corrected. many try to maintain equipment before it fails. system downtime an d time spent on qui maintenance. and together with better tools fo r analyzing condition data. or to maintain a desired level of performance of equipment. Once observed. the goal is to avoid failure. but rather over time. CBM is based on using real-time data to prioritize and o ptimize maintenance resources. however. the magnitude reaches a level in which it is mea sureable. Normally this is done by deciding some inspec tion/maintenance intervals. At the beginning of a failure. “Cost-effective maintenance tasks carried out at predetermined intervals to chec k the current physical condition.”   . unnecessary production loss and HSE violation. The result of this is that most of the maintenance performed is unnecessary. minimizing spare parts cost. the component will fail completely. the maintenance personnel of today are more than eve r able to decide what is the right time to perform maintenance on some piece of equipment. it even adds substantial wear to the equi pment. and sticking to this interval more or less affected by what you find during these activities.

primarily supervised by the on board personnel. prevent corrosion f. cooling c. save energy d. The planning and scheduling of the maintenance. 2. must be made according to a system that is approved by C lassification society like Germanischer Lloyd. Provides procedures to plan. in catching many d ifferent types of problems. It is simple easily completed by personnel with experience. sound basic knowledge and a good dose of common sense.g.Which is now mandatory as per ISM (International Safety Management Code). as wel l as its documentation.Preventive Maintenance Level Walk by inspections Lubrication Preventive Maintenance Routines (PMRs) 1) Walk by inspections: Walk-by inspections use our human senses to monitor the condition of our equipme nt . days) Ball mill liner thickness measurement every three months Bearing regreasing every 1’000 operating hours 3)PLANNED MAINTENANCE: The Planned Maintenance is a paper /Software based system which allows ship owne rs and/or operators of vessel/ship maintenance in intervals according to manufac turers and class/Classification society requirements. This inspection is the first ‘line of defense’. Lower maintenance costs. hours. reduce friction and wear b. help to reach the life expectancy of the component under friction e. The maintenance. Releases front-line foremen from major planning duties and allows them m ore time to supervise their crews. we can fix pro blems in the early stages of development before they become worse and cause perm anent equipment damage Problems can be avoided in the first place when we apply the right tools and procedures for lubrication. Lloyd s Register or Bureau Verita s etc. 3) PMR(PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ROUTINE): The maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals and intended to reduce th e probability of failure or the performance degradation of an item. Why is lubrication so important? Lubricants are commonly referred to as the “lifeblood” of machines and e quipment If we treat lubricants the same way we do with our blood. Tasks carried out at fixed frequencies (e. It is inexpensive only manpower and minor tools r equired. 2) Lubrication: The purpose of lubrication is: a. monitor and control maintenance re   . ADVANTAGES OF PLANNED MAINTENANCE: 1. is then credited towards inspections requ ired by periodic surveys. execute.

and cement kilns are the heart of this production pr ocess: their capacity usually define the capacity of the cement plant. With preventative maintenance equipment is routinely inspected and serviced in an effort to prevent breakdowns from occurring. Because of the impact both during and beyond the immediate down time. Provides a tool for operations to assign priorities. few records and a comparative small staff. Provides a daily plan for front-line supervisors. businesses have sought to prevent equipment breakdown by a process known a s Preventative Maintenance. and the manufactured goods in process at breakdown as well as the goods manufactured for a period after breakdown may either be unusable o r of less value. the process of addressing equipment breakdowns after occurrence is known as Correct ive Maintenance and exists in some form in all manufacturing companies. 14. when equipment breakdowns occur the cost can go well beyond the period of repai r. a belt i s broken. Allows hourly employees to be 100% work loaded. Over a billion tones o f cement are made per year. in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica -bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates. Reduces emergency breakdowns. labor is no longer optimized. Reduces maintenance costs. 13. Under such conditions. 10. 12. Breakdown maintenance implies that repairs are m ade after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal functio n any longer. There is no planned interfer ence with production program. As the ma in energy-consuming and greenhouse-gas–emitting stage of cement manufacture.g. After removing the fault. 8. tools after a job is in pro gress. 11. Provides for systematic collection of materials prior to planned jobs. Provides a communication link between maintenance and operations. 5. 4. Often process lines require significant run-time after startup to begin produ cing quality product. 3. Reduces the time required for critical shutdowns or overhauls. However. Expensive production equipment is idled. imp rovement of their efficiency has been the central concern of cement manufacturin gtechnology. Reduces delays in waiting for men. 4) Break Down Maintenance: Breakdowns in industrial manufacturing systems can have significant impact on th e profitability of a business. . Breakdown maintenance practice is economical for those (non-critical) equipments whose downtime and repair costs are less this way than with any other type of maintenance. and generally include recorded data that can be compared over time to determine if n egative shifts indicate an imminent equipment problem. and the ratio of fixed costs to product output is negative ly affected. etc. maintenance engineers do not attend the equipment again until another failure or breakdown occurs. 6. Such inspections are based on either calendar periods or equipment process time. CEMENT KILN Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland an d other types of hydraulic cement. 9. e. Performance reporting allows upper management to judge maintenance progr ess. an electric motor of a machine tool will not start. material. production department calls on the mainte nance department to rectify the defect. Breakdown type of maintenance involves little administrati ve work. Rapid repair of down equipment is critical to business success. 7.sources.. Provides procedures to implement and continue a PM program. Helps field repairs coordinate work with shop and construction forces. The maintenance department checks into t he fault and makes the necessary repairs.

which has balls of different sizes. drive gear and internal heat exchangers.setting of mud in jackets lead to the improper elliptical movement of the roller material. the refractory lining. The material and hot air is fed to the first chamber a nd grounded material. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY OEE CONCEPT: In order to maximize the worth of the equipment installed and its function to bu siness requirements. oil or pulve rized coal. or may be generated by a flame in side the kiln. inclined slightly to the horizontal. ROTARY KILN HORIZONTAL RAW MILL:-It is used for grinding raw material. sometimes in the same direction as the process material (co-current). and may undergo a certain amount of stirring and mixing. vibration sensor. The whole mill is provided with metallic liners. Impact of ball and material leads to wearing out of the li ning material present inside the mill. Here the fines are separated from coarse and are tak en to the blending & storage silo. • Gear Box : → Changes the toque. Moderate impact and abrasion leads to d shape resu lting in improper grinding • Diaphragm : → Permitting the fine particles.Jamming of chips in slot decrease the permeability of the diaphragm. but usually in the opposite direction (counter-current). First chamber cont ains spherical balls of large diameter as compared to second chamber. The hot gases may be generated in an external furnace.Principle of Operation The kiln is a cylindrical vessel. RTD for temp. Hot ga ses pass along the kiln. whereas coarse particles are fed back to the mill. supp ort tires and rollers. The material to be processed is fed into the uppe r end of the cylinder. material gradually moves down toward s the lower end. Sensors used are sound pressure level. The basic components of a cement kiln are the shell. Such a flame is projected from a burner-pipe (or "firing pipe") w hich acts like a large Bunsen burner. • Trunion Bearing : → Bear load of ball mill. As the kiln rotates. • Ball Mill lining Plates : → Preventing mill wear. It consists of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. • It must be available & utilized for operation→ Availability Index (AI) • It must be productive to its capacity→ Production Rate Index (PRI) . which is rotated slowly about its axis. The fuel for this may be gas. Main parts of Raw Mill: • Grinding Media : → Grinding of coarse particles. outputted through second chamber is fed to the air separat or through bucket elevator.

All impact production and can be improved in some manner. A Downtime Notification is sent to se lected users to pro-actively notify them of the event.e. If GAI is 60%. The efficiency of a production facility is linked directly to the efficiency of the individual machinery that makes up the facility.• It must produce quality product to accept→ Quality Index (QI) OEE (%) = Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Quality Index (%) OEE measures the effectiveness of an asset (equipment). Availability Index (AI): The indicator purpose is to measure the total time for which the equipme nt could potentially be operated.→ Gross Availability Index (GAI) NAI indicates the operational availability of equipment and it gives the scope for analyzing the planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal causes. and hence maximize the efficiency of the overall facility. How it Works: Rules. When a rule is met. By automa tically collecting. to machinery that is operating below its sp ecified level. In a capital-intensive industry such as mining. ra nging from complete production halt. which are sometimes quite complex. a Downtime i s triggered. Citect’s Downtime Analysis module provides producers with an intuiti ve tool for monitoring and improving plant utilization and efficiency. the facility fails. When machiner y falters. an hour downtime can cost the plant a days profitability. even if that means simply scheduling maintenance more efficiently. where a typical Greenfield site costs over $450million. TYPES OF DOWNTIME: As shown in the diagram on previous page . to scheduled stoppages for routine maintenance. the cost of downtime is over $1million per day. plant ma nagers and engineers can proactively and effectively improve plant ROA. with the appropriate monitoring and analysi s software. Manual D owntimes are entered when there are no electronic means of detecting the failure . are setup in the Downtime Server so th at it can monitor events in the control system. the facility falters. Automated Downtimes are gathered automatically from the control system. All of these cons titute Downtime to a manufacturer. utility of equipment is 60% and remaining 40% loss is due to planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal and external causes. . and the vast majority of them are avoidable. total time in the period NET AVAILABILITY INDEX = {(Operating time + Idle time) / (Calendar time)} × 100 GROSS AVAILABILITY INDEX = {(Operating time) / (Calendar time)} × 100 [NAI > GAI for any equipment] DOWN TIME ANALYSIS: What is Downtime? . In high commo dity applications such as bottling plants.The term downtime is referred to the period when a system is unavailable. there are many types of downtimes. availability of equipment for operation is 80% and remaining 20% los s is due to planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal causes. and as much information as is electronically available about the Do wntime is logged to the Downtime database. If NAI is 80%. Net Availability Index (NAI) and Gross Availability Index (GAI) Calendar time: = Operating Time + Idle Time + Other Downtime = 24 hours x # of days in the period i. Aim of Downtime Analysis: The aim of a Downtime Analysis tool is to identify problems and trends within a facility to minimize the impact of failures for individual machinery. Many of these situations are commonly experienced. GAI indicates the overall utilization of equipment and it gives scope f or analyzing the planned & unplanned stoppages due to internal and external caus es.→ Net Availability Index (NAI) This also measures the actual utilization of the asset related to total calendar time. storing and analyzing events that lead to downtime. when machinery fails.

The main criteria whether a stoppage generates idle or other downtime ar e the immediate starting availability (without any further maintenance) of relev ant asset. Criterion for registering time: 1) Operating Time: Requires that the asset is operating and it is fed. Gross OEE (%) = Gross Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Qua lity Index (%) Aggregated Net Availability Index Aggregation of NAI calculated by weighing the NAIs of the kilns by the c orresponding BDPs               . No idle time can occur during the shutdown/stoppage for maintenance reas on. Net OEE: The indicator corresponds to the potential performance of a kiln taking into account net Availability Index. Production Rate Index and Quality Index. 2) Equipment Operating Time. Production Rate Index and Quality Index. Aggregated Net OEE Aggregated Aggregated Aggregated [%] = Availability * Productio n rate * Quality index Index [%] in dex [%] [%] Gross OEE The indicator corresponds to the potential performance of a kiln taking into acc ount Gross Availability Index. 1) Planned and Unplanned stoppages due to internal causes (other downtime). Net OEE (%) = Net Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Quality Index (%) Aggregated Net OEE The aggregated values on plant and sub-segment (Group Reporting Unit) levels ar e calculated by applying the same rule as for a kiln.Distribution of total calendar hours: .The Net Availabi lity Index is replaced by the Aggregated Net Availability Index and the Prod uction Rate Index is replaced by the Aggregated Production Rate Index.g. 2) Other Downtime: Equipment is not operating and is not in a condition for imme diate start up with feed.→ Other downtime Management decision to stop the Kiln to optimize the cost (no maintenanc e)→ Idle time Kiln is stopped for upgrade of ESP to Bag house →Other Downtime Raw mill is down due to kiln shutdowns. 3) Idle Time: Equipment not operating and in a condition for immediate start up with feed. Critical examples Kiln is stopped due to plant CPP power failure. and no maintenance on raw mill i s done→Idle time for Raw mill Lack of raw meal for Kiln→Downtime for Kiln due to process/ production failure Natural disasters with impact on the condition of equipment (e. floodi ng of the engine room)→ Other downtime Non-availability of spares (maintenance materials)→ Other downtime Heat-up time and cooling time of Kiln (started after and stopped for shu tdown reason respectively) →Part of “other downtime” for which the stoppage is t aken. 3) Planned and Unplanned stoppages due to external cause (Idle time).

Other downtime can be categorized as Planned downtime (e. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK: A methodology to measure the effectiveness of the current status of maintenance . Production Rate Index – Example Production rate index (%) = { Production rate (t/day)} / { BDP (t/day)} = { 42’000 (t) / 20 d} / {2’32 0 (t/day) } =90.Production Rate Index (PRI) Is the actual production volume.g. Maintenance. The continuous improvement is carried out by ensuring that the desired results are attained. compared to the BDP. Unplanned stoppage due to external reason ( Power Failure ) Mean Time Between Failure = Operating Time(hr) / Frequency Of Unplanned Stoppage Due To Internal Reason BENCHMARKING STEPS: Benchmarking may be grouped into five steps: planning. and implementation and results.g. Equipment. bad and good. Calculation The PRI formula can be used to calculate and aggregate over time (e.5% Information: The kiln was operating for 20 days. clinker stock management ) The unplanned stoppages. Major up gradations) Unplanned downtime (e. over different clinker types (OR cement types) and over differe nt assets (kilns OR mills). Process failures). will be used to make cement. integration. are categorised as Planned stoppage with maintenance Planned stoppages without maintenance ( Cement silo full . BDP is 2320 t/day Quality Index (QI): Like any process the kiln may produce products of bad quality. These steps are briefly described in Figur e below. ac tion. d ifferent BDP’s). produced 42’000 t. in relation to the theoretically achiev able production with BDP. It’s just a matter of proportion you will ad apt to make your cement. It is therefore considered that the quality for the kiln will always be 100%. but a «ba d» clinker will ot affect the kiln OEE. indeed all the clinker produced.g. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF): All break downs can be categorized into: • Idle Down time. are categorised as Unplanned stoppage due to internal reason. • Other down time. These results are based on the goals set at the integratio n stage and can be repeatedly modified to improve performance. Production Rate index – Kilns: It measures the actual production rate over a period. analysis. The planned stoppages.

School of Technology and Design. which thereby determines the timely attention required for its proper working. K. Towards a holistic understanding of disruptions in operations ma nagement. Application and Case Studies Maintenance Manage ment: Literature Review and Directions. [6] P. Industrial Press. GA. Augu st. No. D. Swanson. ACM Computing Surveys 3 (1) (2003) 1–29. 138-164. Computerized maintenance management systems: a study of systems design and use. Vol. Malmsey. [5] L. Johnson. Kraemer. V. Cranfield University.This basic aim of the auditing for maintenance is to reduce the maintenanc e cost. by the use of planned maintenance. pp. Reliability En gineering and System Safety. 2000. Vol. Dedrick.J. 4.. . September resulted in respective failure and downtimes for the damaged equip ments. the objective should clea rly define the vision of the improved maintenance activity and the impact it w ill have on the enterprise. R. S. Inc. E.L. Thesis for the degree of licentiate. and Deshmukh. Va¨xjo¨ Univer sity. World-class Maintenance. 6. Norcross. Labib. 3. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 20 (8) [4] M. E. Auditing of maintenance for the months June. [10] Wierman. 9. 2006. [11] Madu.H. pp. (Ed. 12. Maintenance Management. MPhil thesis. [2] Sherwin. Journal of Operations Management 18 (2000) 701–718.). To be able to achieve a level of worl d-class maintenance effectiveness. guarantees to a degree that the followers of the maintenanc e practice of successful companies can themselves become leaders. July. Production and Inventory Management Journal 38 (2) (1997) 11–16.. 1987. Kans. if followed.. The OEE determines the effectiveness o f the asset or equipment. 17 No. Internationa l Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. 7)Boznos. The d ata was collected to calculate the OEE (overall equipment efficiency) of the equ ipments used in raw mill and cement kiln. Vol. [3] O.N. New York. [8] J. (2000). D. A. Future Work: Similar Downtime Analysis will be done in the coming semester for the months: Ja nuary. Fernandez. 1990. Downtime analysis was carried out for CEMENT KILN and RAW MILL at ACC Plant. A. preferably planned maintenance will be assured for the particular equipment. NY. A decision support mainte nance management system development and implementation.OEE will be calculated for the assets which will help in identifying th e potential areas of improvement . February.. 937-49. Information technology and economic performance: A critical review of the empirical evidence. “Competing through maintenance strategies”. Petty.management has been presented. C. March and April. [9] Hartman. Barmana. pp.According to the modified maintenance schedule and the type of maintenance. Review Overall Model for Maintenance Management. Institute of Industrial E ngineers.G. On the identification and utilization of relevant data for applying cost-effective maintenance. No. “Maintenance productivity: why it is so low and how to improv e it”. 205-238. 2005. D. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engine ering. in Hartman. Monthly downtime analysis determined the mo stly affected parts and the time required for their repair or replacement. (1998). This ap proach. “The use of CMMSs to support team-based maintenance”.W. Based on the the downtime analysis in the 2 se mesters .H. Gurbaxani. benchmarking has been briefly stated. REFERENCES [1] Garg. Based on the audit results.. T.

4 Breakdown Maintenance …………………………….....…………………………………………...........“AUDITING FOR MAINTAINANCE IN CEENT INDUSTRY ABSTRACT In cement industries maintenance cost consumes approximately 20-25% of the tota l production system.... INDEX Contents Certificate……………………………………………………………………..... Cement Kiln…………………………………………………………………………….. planning based and breakdown maintenance..……………………………………………………..………………………......20 5.……………………………………………....12 2.……………………...……...... Maintenance modifications were selected from the calcula tions and questionnaire. Literature Survey……………….. auditing of the existing maintena nce system had been conducted.2.This helps reveal the current maintenance state and identify potential areas for improvement....………………...9 2.. Based upon t his auditing several actions and strategies were put in a medium range plan to r esolve the problems and improve the system......…………………………………………….14 2.....……………….3 Planned Maintenance ……..........16 2. preventive based.……..4 1.1 OEE Concept.....9 2. ... since this step is essential in improving any mai ntenance system..…………………......……………... Therefore ACC cement plant... In orde r to improve the maintenance in the ACC plant.2.....……………...2 Types of Maintenance…………………………………………………………... Maintenance types are like condition based..……………………….21 5......... A maintenance audit answers the following questions: How effective is your cur rent planned maintenance program? What areas are working? What areas could be im proved? Continuous improvement can be accomplished by developing the necessary t ools for analyzing the audit results ..... which comes in second rank after the energy cost......…2 Acknowledgement…………..18 4.1 Total Maintenance Management……………………………………………. taken as a case study represents that cement plants are facing big challenges on reducing both energy and maintenance costs....21 .1 Condition Based Maintenance ………………………………..……………………………........ A quantitative (statistical) method was used in order t o determine the weakness points in the existing maintenance system.12 2.. Methodology…….... Raw Mill……………………………………………………………………………….. Introduction…….........…………7 2......2.…3 Abstract………………...... Performin g a periodic maintenance audit is essential in maintaining a profitable business ..…………………………………………………......2...2 Preventive Maintenance ………….…………………………17 3.

....66 References.........……….............……………........48 6..2 Downtime Analysis……………………………………………………………….. .... Product life cycles are shrinking..2.4Cumulative Downtime Analysis ………………………………………….. the maintenance function can no longer be neglect ed..... In order to meet today’s challenges....2 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for July……………………………………52 6..1 Downtime Analysis for Kiln…………….. To respond to these new stri ngent requirements..…………………………………………….... we need to meas ure its productivity and identify the areas where improvements can be made...... companies must constantly strive for ex cellence in maintenance through serious comprehensive maintenance improvement pr ogram....1... Today’s mar ket conditions are characterized by more emphasis on variety..........26 6.........24 5...60 6.....5Parreto Chart………………………………………………………………....... Unfortunately.... and quality......27 6.1..3Kiln Downtime Analysis for August……………………………………...................2...……………………..1 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for June……….. manufacturers are turning to high-tech equipment such as fle xible manufacturing systems.. Production systems have changed tremendously in recent yea rs.....67 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of maintenance functions for maintenance management in commonly i ndustries has growing rapidly.39 6. 8..1.. since unplan ned unavailability of machines will result in serious problems.1......2.. . ..25 5............3Net Availability Index%. However. in many organizations maintenance prod uctivity is very low...35 6..3 Raw Mill Downtime Analysis for August…………………………………56 6. They are also adopting new material control methodo logies such as the just-in-time philosophy which calls for production systems wo rking without inventory at all. ……...2.........31 6... Auditing a maintenance system uses the following steps: (1) A survey carried out using a well-designed questionnaire..………………………………………………………. This new reality explains the renewed interest in maintenance and the increased attention it is receiving from management.. (3) Formulation of improvement program based on the analysis of the previous ste .. delivery performan ce....48 6..27 6... 9.5Mean Time Between Failure……………………………………………………....5Parreto Chart………………………………………………………………………47 6........65 Conclusions and future work .....1Kiln Downtime Analysis for June………...1..…….22 5.... .. ……….……..……………………………………………….... Attention has shifted from economy of scale to economy of scope...... Benchmarking …….........4Cumulative Downtime Analysis ………………………………………....5. (2) Analysis of the data gathered in step 1...2... Data Analysis …….....43 6.. All these factors are shifting the focus to maintenance..2 Downtime Analysis for Raw Mill………………………………………………....... Set-up and adjustment times are also reduced to a minimum... A lot of researches and publications in the field maintenance decision models have been published to improve the effectiveness of maintenance process....... The questions are aimed at comparing the current practices with what they should be......4Production Rate Index……………………………………………………………….2Kiln Downtime Analysis for July……………………………………………….... Audi ts are used to assess the current status of the maintenance system so that appro priate improvement program can be formulated..64 7... In order to measure the effectiveness of any maintenance system......……………………………………………………....

Maintenance management: . The main objective of TMM is to provide a methodology or framework for improving maintenance effectiveness continuously. upkeep.g. if it starts at an early stage in the projects and the procurement work. The main step in doing so is auditing of the existing maintenance system. The maintenance system comprises three subsystems: (1) Maintenance management. or making decisions th at could affect the future production capacity. Maintenance must be controlled in a way that the equi pment is stopped for maintenance in a planned stoppage schedule. half of the production lines have been operating on av erage for more them 25 years and most of hem are fully automatically controlled.to achieve the right productivity and qualit y of product . Actually once the audi t factors are mastered the maintenance can begin to analyze its operations much ore closely . it Is not accep table if equipment stops unplanned . The importance of Maintenance in Cement Industries The importance of maintenance increases when the grade of automation and mechani zation increases . In connection with technical development the importance of maintenance was incre ased as high productivity and quality can be achieved by mean of well developed and organized maintenance. in order to achieve that all maintenance activi ties should be performed and executed to high standard through accurate planning and scheduling for all resources. There are many reasons why maintenance is becoming increasingly importan t I developing countries India .New information becomes available that can use o justify decisions support expansion arguments and provide better service. TOTAL MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Total maintenance management (TMM) can be defined as a systematic approach to ma intenance. Due to the increase in automation. any breakdown will have as serious impact on production and measures to minimize and reduce breakdowns become a must. (2) Maintenance operations. It was important to keep equipment running but the maintenance department couldn’t contribute muc h to productivity because the quality and quantity of cement was to large extent decided by the skill of the workers and his capacity to work fast.maintenance problems are rising foe e. Maintenance does not start when equipment s delivered and installed. in the ACC Cement plant barman . (3) Equipment management.In cement manufacturing the equipment at the beginning was not so complicated for the technical point of view and more people were t required to keep the cement production lines in operation.p. A brief description of each of the subs ystems follows. 2) The work of keeping something in proper condition. Theref ore the main aims of the maintenance activities in cement plants are to preserve the equipment and installation.it is important to procure the right equipment from the very begin ning. Maintenance can benefit from these measures because these information’s are valuable when a manager is f ighting battle to get more resources and more investment. The maintenance activity in th e cement industry couldn’t influence the productivity so much. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY MAINTENANCE: 1) The act of maintaining or the state of being maintained.

materials. A maintenance supervisor shoul d have a planner who relieves him from the planning/scheduling function so that he can concentrate on better maintenance management and more supervision of crew s at job sites. 3) Determining the number and skill of the workers required for the job. A plan ner should be well trained to carry out the following functions: 1) Determining job content and duration. 5) Planning and scheduling works orders. 3) Necessary support functions. 6) Estimating costs. The maintenance activity requires that tools and p arts are available so that unnecessary delays are avoided. The span of supervision must be optimal or near optimal. Training and motivation. Materials and tool control :.ordination procedure between maintenance an d warehouse must be developed. . A thorough maintenance control system is very important for the identification and control of delays. The works order system :A well-designed works order form and procedures are a mu st for maintenance management. this function determines the priority of works orders follows up on their progress and keeps track of backlogs. 2) Proper number of planners. 4) Determining spare parts. proper number of planners necessary support functions. adequate supervi sion) are necessary ingredients for employee motivation and. good perform ance. Training is essential to good quality maintenance work. and support unction). A positive climate and necessary support (planning. tools and materials required. This system provides clear communication between all parties involved in a maintenance job request (requester.In this section we discuss the main maintenance management areas that have a gre at impact on maintenance productivity. 2) Charts and graphs showing backlog. planner. This kind of inf ormation allows better labour and cost control through corrective action based o n facts and the identification of potential improvement areas. Organization: A well-designed maintenance department organization is essential to a productive maintenance activity. Maintenance operations Work measurement. Planner training. Appropriate interface and co. 1) Maintenance productivity reports. 2) Determining work plans using appropriate methods. Planning is an important aspect of good maintenance practice. Time standards must be developed so that proper planning can be carried out. Planning is a key function in a maintenance department. 1) Appropriate ratio of supervisors to workers. quick mainte nance response. emergency work. The organization chart should be current and complete and should take into consideration the following important issues. superviso r. Maintenance scheduling. hence. 4) Quick maintenance response. overtime. Supervision. Maintenance control. Better maintenance productivity and improved quality maintenance wo rk can be achieved through effective supervision. Such a system includes: l information on work order status and estimated time versus actual time. Besides issuing d aily schedules. A maintenance-scheduling function combined with the plan ner function deals with day-to-day scheduling of works orders. Appropriate ratio of supervisors to workers. craftsman. It also ensures good documentation of mainte nance work for analysis and appropriate action. A computerized invent ory control system must be installed and optimal order quantities must be establ ished.

Once observed.TYPES OF MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Condition Based Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Planned Maintenance Break down Maintenance CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE: Condition-based maintenance was introduced to try to maintain the correct equip ment at the right time. If not corrected. “Cost-effective maintenance tasks carried out at predetermined intervals to chec k the current physical condition. it even adds substantial wear to the equi pment. Such a system will determine the equipment s health. unnecessary production loss and HSE violation. Ideally condition-based maintenance will allow the maintenance person nel to do only the right things. and together with better tools fo r analyzing condition data. however. As you cannot p ossibly maintain your equipment at all times you need some way to decide when it is proper to perform maintenance. you have no guarantee that the equipment will continue to work even if you are maintaining it according to the maintenance plan. and act only when maintenance is actually necessary. How does Condition Monitoring work? Condition Monitoring relies on the fact that most failures do not occur instantaneous. but rather over time. Also. The result of this is that most of the maintenance performed is unnecessary. the goal is to avoid failure. P-F Interval: PREVENTIVE MAINTENACE: To avoid the problems of correcting unfortunate situations that have already ari sen. and sticking to this interval more or less affected by what you find during these activities. CBM is based on using real-time data to prioritize and o ptimize maintenance resources. to reduce probability and/or impact of a failu   . Normally this is done by deciding some inspec tion/maintenance intervals. At some point. system downtime an d time spent on qui maintenance. the component will fail completely. Developments in recent years have a llowed extensive instrumentation of equipment. Observing the state of the system is known as con dition monitoring. the magnitude may be so small that it is un-detectable. the magnitude reaches a level in which it is mea sureable. By doing this. the equipment can still function as maintenance prepares for correction. the maintenance personnel of today are more than eve r able to decide what is the right time to perform maintenance on some piece of equipment. minimizing spare parts cost. many try to maintain equipment before it fails. At the beginning of a failure.

help to reach the life expectancy of the component under friction e. is then credited towards inspections requ ired by periodic surveys. in catching many d ifferent types of problems. days) Ball mill liner thickness measurement every three months Bearing regreasing every 1’000 operating hours 3)PLANNED MAINTENANCE: The Planned Maintenance is a paper /Software based system which allows ship owne rs and/or operators of vessel/ship maintenance in intervals according to manufac turers and class/Classification society requirements. This inspection is the first ‘line of defense’. primarily supervised by the on board personnel. 2) Lubrication: The purpose of lubrication is: a. reduce friction and wear b.g. must be made according to a system that is approved by C lassification society like Germanischer Lloyd. as wel l as its documentation. or to maintain a desired level of performance of equipment. It is inexpensive only manpower and minor tools r equired. Lloyd s Register or Bureau Verita s etc. Releases front-line foremen from major planning duties and allows them m ore time to supervise their crews. ADVANTAGES OF PLANNED MAINTENANCE: 1. Why is lubrication so important? Lubricants are commonly referred to as the “lifeblood” of machines and e quipment If we treat lubricants the same way we do with our blood. prevent corrosion f. Tasks carried out at fixed frequencies (e. hours. The planning and scheduling of the maintenance.re in operation.” Preventive Maintenance Level Walk by inspections Lubrication Preventive Maintenance Routines (PMRs) 1) Walk by inspections: Walk-by inspections use our human senses to monitor the condition of our equipme nt . we can fix pro blems in the early stages of development before they become worse and cause perm anent equipment damage Problems can be avoided in the first place when we apply the right tools and procedures for lubrication. Lower maintenance costs. sound basic knowledge and a good dose of common sense. The maintenance.Which is now mandatory as per ISM (International Safety Management Code). cooling c. It is simple easily completed by personnel with experience.   . save energy d. 3) PMR(PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ROUTINE): The maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals and intended to reduce th e probability of failure or the performance degradation of an item.

5. monitor and control maintenance re sources. tools after a job is in pro gress. 9. a belt i s broken. There is no planned interfer ence with production program. and cement kilns are the heart of this production pr ocess: their capacity usually define the capacity of the cement plant. Reduces maintenance costs. in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica -bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates. Breakdown maintenance implies that repairs are m ade after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal functio n any longer. Because of the impact both during and beyond the immediate down time. few records and a comparative small staff. 11. 7. Over a billion tones o f cement are made per year. Rapid repair of down equipment is critical to business success. 12.2. Allows hourly employees to be 100% work loaded. when equipment breakdowns occur the cost can go well beyond the period of repai r. businesses have sought to prevent equipment breakdown by a process known a s Preventative Maintenance. and the ratio of fixed costs to product output is negative ly affected. Often process lines require significant run-time after startup to begin produ cing quality product. 8. Provides for systematic collection of materials prior to planned jobs. Provides procedures to plan. 14. Reduces delays in waiting for men. Reduces the time required for critical shutdowns or overhauls.. Provides a communication link between maintenance and operations. Performance reporting allows upper management to judge maintenance progr ess. the process of addressing equipment breakdowns after occurrence is known as Correct ive Maintenance and exists in some form in all manufacturing companies. CEMENT KILN Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland an d other types of hydraulic cement. e. and generally include recorded data that can be compared over time to determine if n egative shifts indicate an imminent equipment problem. Helps field repairs coordinate work with shop and construction forces. Reduces emergency breakdowns. . an electric motor of a machine tool will not start. labor is no longer optimized. Provides procedures to implement and continue a PM program. execute. 4. etc. 4) Break Down Maintenance: Breakdowns in industrial manufacturing systems can have significant impact on th e profitability of a business. material. The maintenance department checks into t he fault and makes the necessary repairs. Breakdown maintenance practice is economical for those (non-critical) equipments whose downtime and repair costs are less this way than with any other type of maintenance. Such inspections are based on either calendar periods or equipment process time. Provides a daily plan for front-line supervisors. Under such conditions. As the ma in energy-consuming and greenhouse-gas–emitting stage of cement manufacture. and the manufactured goods in process at breakdown as well as the goods manufactured for a period after breakdown may either be unusable o r of less value. 3. Provides a tool for operations to assign priorities. imp rovement of their efficiency has been the central concern of cement manufacturin gtechnology. maintenance engineers do not attend the equipment again until another failure or breakdown occurs. With preventative maintenance equipment is routinely inspected and serviced in an effort to prevent breakdowns from occurring. Expensive production equipment is idled. Breakdown type of maintenance involves little administrati ve work. However. 6. production department calls on the mainte nance department to rectify the defect. After removing the fault.g. 10. 13.

The material to be processed is fed into the uppe r end of the cylinder. Impact of ball and material leads to wearing out of the li ning material present inside the mill. First chamber cont ains spherical balls of large diameter as compared to second chamber. Such a flame is projected from a burner-pipe (or "firing pipe") w hich acts like a large Bunsen burner. The basic components of a cement kiln are the shell. • Ball Mill lining Plates : → Preventing mill wear. ROTARY KILN HORIZONTAL RAW MILL:-It is used for grinding raw material. As the kiln rotates. RTD for temp. It consists of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. which has balls of different sizes. The whole mill is provided with metallic liners.setting of mud in jackets lead to the improper elliptical movement of the roller material. supp ort tires and rollers. material gradually moves down toward s the lower end. sometimes in the same direction as the process material (co-current). • Trunion Bearing : → Bear load of ball mill. Main parts of Raw Mill: • Grinding Media : → Grinding of coarse particles. the refractory lining. inclined slightly to the horizontal. The hot gases may be generated in an external furnace. Hot ga ses pass along the kiln.Jamming of chips in slot decrease the permeability of the diaphragm. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY OEE CONCEPT: In order to maximize the worth of the equipment installed and its function to bu siness requirements. but usually in the opposite direction (counter-current).Principle of Operation The kiln is a cylindrical vessel. outputted through second chamber is fed to the air separat or through bucket elevator. The material and hot air is fed to the first chamber a nd grounded material. and may undergo a certain amount of stirring and mixing. • Gear Box : → Changes the toque. whereas coarse particles are fed back to the mill. oil or pulve rized coal. vibration sensor. Moderate impact and abrasion leads to d shape resu lting in improper grinding • Diaphragm : → Permitting the fine particles. drive gear and internal heat exchangers. • It must be available & utilized for operation→ Availability Index (AI) . or may be generated by a flame in side the kiln. which is rotated slowly about its axis. Here the fines are separated from coarse and are tak en to the blending & storage silo. The fuel for this may be gas. Sensors used are sound pressure level.

All impact production and can be improved in some manner. Manual D owntimes are entered when there are no electronic means of detecting the failure . If GAI is 60%. By automa tically collecting. to scheduled stoppages for routine maintenance. Automated Downtimes are gathered automatically from the control system. even if that means simply scheduling maintenance more efficiently. Aim of Downtime Analysis: The aim of a Downtime Analysis tool is to identify problems and trends within a facility to minimize the impact of failures for individual machinery. utility of equipment is 60% and remaining 40% loss is due to planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal and external causes. TYPES OF DOWNTIME: As shown in the diagram on previous page . Net Availability Index (NAI) and Gross Availability Index (GAI) Calendar time: = Operating Time + Idle Time + Other Downtime = 24 hours x # of days in the period i. In a capital-intensive industry such as mining.The term downtime is referred to the period when a system is unavailable. How it Works: Rules. where a typical Greenfield site costs over $450million. and the vast majority of them are avoidable. and as much information as is electronically available about the Do wntime is logged to the Downtime database.→ Net Availability Index (NAI) This also measures the actual utilization of the asset related to total calendar time. to machinery that is operating below its sp ecified level. GAI indicates the overall utilization of equipment and it gives scope f or analyzing the planned & unplanned stoppages due to internal and external caus es. All of these cons titute Downtime to a manufacturer. ra nging from complete production halt. The efficiency of a production facility is linked directly to the efficiency of the individual machinery that makes up the facility. the facility fails. with the appropriate monitoring and analysi s software. If NAI is 80%. In high commo dity applications such as bottling plants. Citect’s Downtime Analysis module provides producers with an intuiti ve tool for monitoring and improving plant utilization and efficiency. and hence maximize the efficiency of the overall facility.→ Gross Availability Index (GAI) NAI indicates the operational availability of equipment and it gives the scope for analyzing the planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal causes. there are many types of downtimes. Many of these situations are commonly experienced. the facility falters. When a rule is met. plant ma nagers and engineers can proactively and effectively improve plant ROA. When machiner y falters. an hour downtime can cost the plant a days profitability. a Downtime i s triggered. total time in the period NET AVAILABILITY INDEX = {(Operating time + Idle time) / (Calendar time)} × 100 GROSS AVAILABILITY INDEX = {(Operating time) / (Calendar time)} × 100 [NAI > GAI for any equipment] DOWN TIME ANALYSIS: What is Downtime? . storing and analyzing events that lead to downtime. A Downtime Notification is sent to se .• • It must be productive to its capacity→ Production Rate Index (PRI) It must produce quality product to accept→ Quality Index (QI) OEE (%) = Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Quality Index (%) OEE measures the effectiveness of an asset (equipment). availability of equipment for operation is 80% and remaining 20% los s is due to planned/unplanned stoppages due to internal causes. when machinery fails. Availability Index (AI): The indicator purpose is to measure the total time for which the equipme nt could potentially be operated. which are sometimes quite complex. are setup in the Downtime Server so th at it can monitor events in the control system. the cost of downtime is over $1million per day.e.

No idle time can occur during the shutdown/stoppage for maintenance reas on. 1) Planned and Unplanned stoppages due to internal causes (other downtime). Production Rate Index and Quality Index. Aggregated Net OEE Aggregated Aggregated Aggregated [%] = Availability * Productio n rate * Quality index Index [%] in dex [%] [%] Gross OEE The indicator corresponds to the potential performance of a kiln taking into acc ount Gross Availability Index. Distribution of total calendar hours: . floodi ng of the engine room)→ Other downtime Non-availability of spares (maintenance materials)→ Other downtime Heat-up time and cooling time of Kiln (started after and stopped for shu tdown reason respectively) →Part of “other downtime” for which the stoppage is t aken.lected users to pro-actively notify them of the event. Net OEE: The indicator corresponds to the potential performance of a kiln taking into account net Availability Index. 3) Planned and Unplanned stoppages due to external cause (Idle time). 2) Other Downtime: Equipment is not operating and is not in a condition for imme diate start up with feed. Net OEE (%) = Net Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Quality Index (%) Aggregated Net OEE The aggregated values on plant and sub-segment (Group Reporting Unit) levels ar e calculated by applying the same rule as for a kiln.g. and no maintenance on raw mill i s done→Idle time for Raw mill Lack of raw meal for Kiln→Downtime for Kiln due to process/ production failure Natural disasters with impact on the condition of equipment (e.→ Other downtime Management decision to stop the Kiln to optimize the cost (no maintenanc e)→ Idle time Kiln is stopped for upgrade of ESP to Bag house →Other Downtime Raw mill is down due to kiln shutdowns. Gross OEE (%) = Gross Availability Index (%) x Production Rate Index (%) x Qua lity Index (%) Aggregated Net Availability Index Aggregation of NAI calculated by weighing the NAIs of the kilns by the c orresponding BDPs               .The Net Availabi lity Index is replaced by the Aggregated Net Availability Index and the Prod uction Rate Index is replaced by the Aggregated Production Rate Index. Production Rate Index and Quality Index. Critical examples Kiln is stopped due to plant CPP power failure. Criterion for registering time: 1) Operating Time: Requires that the asset is operating and it is fed. 3) Idle Time: Equipment not operating and in a condition for immediate start up with feed. The main criteria whether a stoppage generates idle or other downtime ar e the immediate starting availability (without any further maintenance) of relev ant asset. 2) Equipment Operating Time.

integration.5% Information: The kiln was operating for 20 days. are categorised as Planned stoppage with maintenance Planned stoppages without maintenance ( Cement silo full .g. but a «ba d» clinker will ot affect the kiln OEE. produced 42’000 t. • Other down time. d ifferent BDP’s). Equipment. ac tion. over different clinker types (OR cement types) and over differe nt assets (kilns OR mills). clinker stock management ) The unplanned stoppages. indeed all the clinker produced.Production Rate Index (PRI) Is the actual production volume. and implementation and results.g. Maintenance. Production Rate index – Kilns: It measures the actual production rate over a period. Other downtime can be categorized as Planned downtime (e. analysis. compared to the BDP. Unplanned stoppage due to external reason ( Power Failure ) Mean Time Between Failure = Operating Time(hr) / Frequency Of Unplanned Stoppage Due To Internal Reason BENCHMARKING STEPS: Benchmarking may be grouped into five steps: planning. BDP is 2320 t/day Quality Index (QI): Like any process the kiln may produce products of bad quality. Process failures). The planned stoppages. will be used to make cement. It’s just a matter of proportion you will ad apt to make your cement. Mean Time between Failure (MTBF): All break downs can be categorized into: • Idle Down time. are categorised as Unplanned stoppage due to internal reason. in relation to the theoretically achiev able production with BDP. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK: . The continuous improvement is carried out by ensuring that the desired results are attained. Major up gradations) Unplanned downtime (e. Production Rate Index – Example Production rate index (%) = { Production rate (t/day)} / { BDP (t/day)} = { 42’000 (t) / 20 d} / {2’32 0 (t/day) } =90.g. bad and good. Calculation The PRI formula can be used to calculate and aggregate over time (e. These results are based on the goals set at the integratio n stage and can be repeatedly modified to improve performance. It is therefore considered that the quality for the kiln will always be 100%. These steps are briefly described in Figur e below.

On the identification and utilization of relevant data for applying cost-effective maintenance. 6. ACM Computing Surveys 3 (1) (2003) 1–29. Future Work: Similar Downtime Analysis will be done in the coming semester for the months: Ja nuary. preferably planned maintenance will be assured for the particular equipment. GA. July. E. The d ata was collected to calculate the OEE (overall equipment efficiency) of the equ ipments used in raw mill and cement kiln.). [6] P. pp. 205-238. Vol.W. Based on the the downtime analysis in the 2 se mesters . if followed. pp. S. World-class Maintenance.G. Johnson. Labib. 17 No. “Competing through maintenance strategies”. School of Technology and Design. [10] Wierman.N. 12. September resulted in respective failure and downtimes for the damaged equip ments. REFERENCES [1] Garg. 3.This basic aim of the auditing for maintenance is to reduce the maintenanc e cost. The OEE determines the effectiveness o f the asset or equipment. “Maintenance productivity: why it is so low and how to improv e it”..H. Review Overall Model for Maintenance Management. Barmana. the objective should clea rly define the vision of the improved maintenance activity and the impact it w ill have on the enterprise. D. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management 20 (8) [4] M. Malmsey. 9. . E. Kraemer. Industrial Press. 937-49. 2005. A decision support mainte nance management system development and implementation. 1987. [3] O. Swanson.J. February. Internationa l Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. Towards a holistic understanding of disruptions in operations ma nagement. Norcross. [5] L. To be able to achieve a level of worl d-class maintenance effectiveness. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engine ering. [8] J. C. 138-164. Fernandez.L. Computerized maintenance management systems: a study of systems design and use. No. 7)Boznos. Information technology and economic performance: A critical review of the empirical evidence. D. Auditing of maintenance for the months June. NY. (2000). K. New York. in Hartman. (Ed. Vol. Inc. Institute of Industrial E ngineers. MPhil thesis. (1998). V. pp. by the use of planned maintenance. A.H. Kans. 1990. Thesis for the degree of licentiate. Downtime analysis was carried out for CEMENT KILN and RAW MILL at ACC Plant. Reliability En gineering and System Safety. Vol. which thereby determines the timely attention required for its proper working. This ap proach.. benchmarking has been briefly stated. Maintenance Management. Va¨xjo¨ Univer sity. Monthly downtime analysis determined the mo stly affected parts and the time required for their repair or replacement. T. and Deshmukh. Dedrick. 2006. Petty. Production and Inventory Management Journal 38 (2) (1997) 11–16. guarantees to a degree that the followers of the maintenanc e practice of successful companies can themselves become leaders. “The use of CMMSs to support team-based maintenance”.. [2] Sherwin. No. Gurbaxani. Based on the audit results.. A. Cranfield University.OEE will be calculated for the assets which will help in identifying th e potential areas of improvement . Augu st. [11] Madu..A methodology to measure the effectiveness of the current status of maintenance management has been presented. 2000. Application and Case Studies Maintenance Manage ment: Literature Review and Directions. March and April.According to the modified maintenance schedule and the type of maintenance. 4. R. Journal of Operations Management 18 (2000) 701–718. D. [9] Hartman.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.