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Mobile Robot: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Mobile Robot: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. In contrast, industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end effector) that is attached to a fixed surface.

Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum.

This book is your ultimate resource for Mobile Robot. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Mobile Robots right away, covering: Mobile robot, Robotic mapping, Autonomous robot, Ant robotics, Autonomous underwater vehicle, Domestic robot, Humanoid robot, Industrial robot, Mobile manipulator, Robot, Robotic arm, Robot kinematics, Ubiquitous robot, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Cybernetics, Instituto de Automática, Python Robotics, Robotics, RoboTuna, List of robotics topics, Obstacle avoidance, Robot learning, Snake-arm robot, Bush robot, 321 kinematic structure, 3D Pose Estimation, ACROSS Project, Action description language, Agricultural robot, Allen (robot), Almost Human: Making Robots Think, Android science, Anthrobotics, Any-angle path planning, Arduino, Areas of robotics, Articulated robot, Artificial Ants, Artificial brain, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Astrochicken, robotic sensing, Automated planning and scheduling, Automatic painting (robotic), Automaton, Autonomous research robot, Autonomous weapon, Bang-bang robot, Baseball robot, Beer Launching Fridge, Behavior-based robotics, Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton, Big Trak, Biorobotics, User talk:Blibrestez55, Robotic book scanner, Boustrophedon cell decomposition, Bow Leg, Bowler Communications System, Campus Party, Care-Providing Robot FRIEND, CETpD, Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion, Clanking replicator, CMUcam, Cognitive robotics, Common normal (robotics), Computationally enhanced craft item, Computer-assisted surgery, Covariance intersection, Cyborg, D*, Delta robot, Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters, Developmental robotics, Dynamic window approach, EKF SLAM, Electroadhesion, Embodied cognitive science, Envelope (motion), Evolutionary developmental robotics, Evolutionary robotics, Exploration problem, Extended Kalman filter, Feelix Growing, Festo, Forest of stars, Forward kinematic animation, Forward kinematics, Foton-M, Frankenstein complex, Freddy II, Friendly Robotics, Future of robotics, Glossary of robotics, GraphSLAM, Guidance, Navigation and Control, Handy Board, Hexapod (robotics), History of robots, Humanoid, The Humanoid Project, Incremental heuristic search, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Intelligent Small World Autonomous Robots for Micro-manipulation, International Robot Exhibition, Inverse dynamics, Inverse kinematics, ITALK Project, Japan Robot Association, Joint Compatibility Branch and Bound, Joint constraints, Kalman filter, Kidnapped robot problem, Kinematic chain, Kinemation, Laboratory automation, Laboratory robotics, The Leaf (AI) Project, Legged robot, Mark Leon, LEURRE, List of hexapod robots, Lynxmotion, Manipulability ellipsoid, Manipulator, Mecha, Micro air vehicle, Microbotics, Military robot, MineCam, Mobile robot navigation...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Mobile Robots. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Mobile Robot with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. In contrast, industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end effector) that is attached to a fixed surface.

Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum.

This book is your ultimate resource for Mobile Robot. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Mobile Robots right away, covering: Mobile robot, Robotic mapping, Autonomous robot, Ant robotics, Autonomous underwater vehicle, Domestic robot, Humanoid robot, Industrial robot, Mobile manipulator, Robot, Robotic arm, Robot kinematics, Ubiquitous robot, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Cybernetics, Instituto de Automática, Python Robotics, Robotics, RoboTuna, List of robotics topics, Obstacle avoidance, Robot learning, Snake-arm robot, Bush robot, 321 kinematic structure, 3D Pose Estimation, ACROSS Project, Action description language, Agricultural robot, Allen (robot), Almost Human: Making Robots Think, Android science, Anthrobotics, Any-angle path planning, Arduino, Areas of robotics, Articulated robot, Artificial Ants, Artificial brain, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Astrochicken, robotic sensing, Automated planning and scheduling, Automatic painting (robotic), Automaton, Autonomous research robot, Autonomous weapon, Bang-bang robot, Baseball robot, Beer Launching Fridge, Behavior-based robotics, Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton, Big Trak, Biorobotics, User talk:Blibrestez55, Robotic book scanner, Boustrophedon cell decomposition, Bow Leg, Bowler Communications System, Campus Party, Care-Providing Robot FRIEND, CETpD, Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion, Clanking replicator, CMUcam, Cognitive robotics, Common normal (robotics), Computationally enhanced craft item, Computer-assisted surgery, Covariance intersection, Cyborg, D*, Delta robot, Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters, Developmental robotics, Dynamic window approach, EKF SLAM, Electroadhesion, Embodied cognitive science, Envelope (motion), Evolutionary developmental robotics, Evolutionary robotics, Exploration problem, Extended Kalman filter, Feelix Growing, Festo, Forest of stars, Forward kinematic animation, Forward kinematics, Foton-M, Frankenstein complex, Freddy II, Friendly Robotics, Future of robotics, Glossary of robotics, GraphSLAM, Guidance, Navigation and Control, Handy Board, Hexapod (robotics), History of robots, Humanoid, The Humanoid Project, Incremental heuristic search, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Intelligent Small World Autonomous Robots for Micro-manipulation, International Robot Exhibition, Inverse dynamics, Inverse kinematics, ITALK Project, Japan Robot Association, Joint Compatibility Branch and Bound, Joint constraints, Kalman filter, Kidnapped robot problem, Kinematic chain, Kinemation, Laboratory automation, Laboratory robotics, The Leaf (AI) Project, Legged robot, Mark Leon, LEURRE, List of hexapod robots, Lynxmotion, Manipulability ellipsoid, Manipulator, Mecha, Micro air vehicle, Microbotics, Military robot, MineCam, Mobile robot navigation...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Mobile Robots. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Mobile Robot with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Jul 05, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved
List Price: $39.95


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  • Mobile robot
  • Robotic mapping
  • Autonomous robot
  • Ant robotics
  • Autonomous underwater vehicle
  • Domestic robot
  • Humanoid robot
  • Industrial robot
  • Mobile manipulator
  • Robot
  • Robotic arm
  • Robot kinematics
  • Ubiquitous robot
  • Unmanned aerial vehicle
  • Cybernetics
  • Instituto de Automática
  • Python Robotics
  • Robotics
  • RoboTuna
  • List of robotics topics
  • Obstacle avoidance
  • Robot learning
  • Snake-arm robot
  • Bush robot
  • 321 kinematic structure
  • 3D Pose Estimation
  • ACROSS Project
  • Action description language
  • Agricultural robot
  • Allen (robot)
  • Almost Human: Making Robots Think
  • Android science
  • Anthrobotics
  • Any-angle path planning
  • Arduino
  • Areas of robotics
  • Articulated robot
  • Artificial Ants
  • Artificial brain
  • Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
  • Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
  • Astrochicken
  • User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
  • Automated planning and scheduling
  • Automatic painting (robotic)
  • Automaton
  • Autonomous research robot
  • Autonomous weapon
  • Bang-bang robot
  • Baseball robot
  • Beer Launching Fridge
  • Behavior-based robotics
  • Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton
  • Big Trak
  • Biorobotics
  • User talk:Blibrestez55
  • Robotic book scanner
  • Boustrophedon cell decomposition
  • Bow Leg
  • Bowler Communications System
  • Campus Party
  • Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
  • CETpD
  • User:Chaosdruid/List of Androids
  • Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion
  • Clanking replicator
  • CMUcam
  • Cognitive robotics
  • Common normal (robotics)
  • Computationally enhanced craft item
  • Computer-assisted surgery
  • Covariance intersection
  • Cyborg
  • Cyborgs
  • D*
  • Delta robot
  • Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
  • Developmental robotics
  • User:Dmgultekin/sandbox
  • Dynamic window approach
  • Electroadhesion
  • Embodied cognitive science
  • Envelope (motion)
  • Evolutionary developmental robotics
  • Evolutionary robotics
  • Exploration problem
  • Extended Kalman filter
  • Feelix Growing
  • Festo
  • Forest of stars
  • Forward kinematic animation
  • Forward kinematics
  • Foton-M
  • Frankenstein complex
  • Freddy II
  • Friendly Robotics
  • Future of robotics
  • Glossary of robotics
  • GraphSLAM
  • Guidance, Navigation and Control
  • Handy Board
  • Hexapod (robotics)
  • History of robots
  • Humanoid
  • humanoid
  • The Humanoid Project
  • Incremental heuristic search
  • Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems
  • Intelligent Small World Autonomous Robots for Micro-manipulation
  • International Robot Exhibition
  • Inverse dynamics
  • Inverse kinematics
  • ITALK Project
  • Japan Robot Association
  • Joint Compatibility Branch and Bound
  • Joint constraints
  • Kalman filter
  • Kidnapped robot problem
  • Kinematic chain
  • Kinemation
  • Laboratory automation
  • Laboratory robotics
  • The Leaf (AI) Project
  • Legged robot
  • Mark Leon
  • List of hexapod robots
  • Lynxmotion
  • Manipulability ellipsoid
  • Manipulator
  • Mecha
  • Micro air vehicle
  • Microbotics
  • Military robot
  • MineCam
  • MineCam 1
  • MineCam 2
  • Mobile robot navigation
  • Monte Carlo localization
  • Monte Carlo POMDP
  • Morphogenetic robotics
  • Morphogenetic robotics [1]
  • Movax
  • MRI Robot
  • My Life as a Teenage Robot
  • Métamatic
  • NASA robots
  • Navigation function
  • Navigation research
  • Neurorobotics
  • Non-silicon robot
  • Nv network
  • Object Action Complex
  • Occupancy grid mapping
  • Odometry
  • Open Platform for Robotic Services
  • Open-source robotics
  • OpenRTM-aist
  • Parallel manipulator
  • Particle filter
  • Passive dynamics
  • Patient registration
  • Perceptual Robotics
  • Personal Robot
  • Pfaffian constraint
  • Pharmacy automation
  • Phidget
  • Photoreflector
  • Physicomimetics
  • Pipeline video inspection
  • Planner (programming language)
  • Player Project
  • Plug & Pray
  • Pneumatic artificial muscles
  • Pose (computer vision)
  • Powered exoskeleton
  • Probabilistic roadmap
  • R.U.R
  • Rapidly-exploring random tree
  • Remote handling
  • Remote surgery
  • Rescue robot
  • Rhex
  • Roblog
  • Robo One
  • Roboexotica
  • RoboLogix
  • Robomagellan
  • Robonexus
  • Robot calibration
  • Robot competition
  • Robot control
  • Robot end effector
  • Robot fetishism
  • Robot locomotion
  • Robot operating system
  • Robot operating systems
  • Robot software
  • Roboteer
  • Robotic laws
  • Robotic sensing
  • Robotic voice effects
  • Portal:Robotics
  • Robotics worldwide
  • Robotics Certification Standards Alliance
  • Robotics conventions
  • Robotics middleware
  • Robotoid
  • List of robots
  • Roboty
  • RoSta
  • Rota Vector
  • Rowa Automatisierungssysteme
  • Rowa Automatisierungssysteme GmbH
  • RT middleware
  • Santa Claus machine
  • Sawfish harvester
  • Self-balancing unicycle
  • Self-reconfiguring modular robot
  • Self-replicating machine
  • Sensitive skin
  • Sensor fusion
  • Simultaneous localization and mapping
  • Situated robotics
  • Six degrees of freedom
  • SMErobot
  • Soccer robot
  • Sphere world
  • Stage (software)
  • Star world
  • State space planning
  • Stereo cameras
  • Stochastic Roadmap Simulation
  • SwisTrack
  • Symbrion
  • Tape library
  • Teleoperation
  • Telerobotics
  • The Fighting Calculators
  • Three Laws of Robotics
  • Tilden's Laws of Robotics
  • Uncanny valley
  • Underactuation
  • Unicycle cart
  • Universal Robotics
  • Urology robotics
  • Vector Field Histogram
  • Velocity obstacle
  • Virtual fixture
  • Visibility graph
  • visibility graph
  • Visual odometry
  • Visual Servoing
  • Vocoder
  • Wake-up robot problem
  • Wearable augmented task-list interchange device
  • Robot welding
  • Wired intelligence
  • Zero Moment Point
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Mobile Robot

High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know:
Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors
Kevin Roebuck
A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Mobile
robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical loca-
tion. In contrast, industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and grip-
per assembly (or end effector) that is attached to a fixed surface.
Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has
one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military
and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform
certain tasks like vacuum.
This book is your ultimate resource for Mobile Robot. Here you will find the most up-to-date informa-
tion, analysis, background and everything you need to know.
In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know
about Mobile Robots right away, covering: Mobile robot, Robotic mapping, Autonomous robot, Ant
robotics, Autonomous underwater vehicle, Domestic robot, Humanoid robot, Industrial robot, Mobile
manipulator, Robot, Robotic arm, Robot kinematics, Ubiquitous robot, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Cyber-
netics, Instituto de Automática, Python Robotics, Robotics, RoboTuna, List of robotics topics, Obstacle
avoidance, Robot learning, Snake-arm robot, Bush robot, 321 kinematic structure, 3D Pose Estimation,
ACROSS Project, Action description language, Agricultural robot, Allen (robot), Almost Human: Mak-
ing Robots Think, Android science, Anthrobotics, Any-angle path planning, Arduino, Areas of robotics,
Articulated robot, Artificial Ants, Artificial brain, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelli-
gence, Astrochicken, robotic sensing, Automated planning and scheduling, Automatic painting (robotic),
Automaton, Autonomous research robot, Autonomous weapon, Bang-bang robot, Baseball robot, Beer
Launching Fridge, Behavior-based robotics, Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton, Big Trak, Biorobot-
ics, User talk:Blibrestez55, Robotic book scanner, Boustrophedon cell decomposition, Bow Leg, Bowler
Communications System, Campus Party, Care-Providing Robot FRIEND, CETpD, Chebychev–Grübler–
Kutzbach criterion, Clanking replicator, CMUcam, Cognitive robotics, Common normal (robotics), Com-
putationally enhanced craft item, Computer-assisted surgery, Covariance intersection, Cyborg, D*, Delta
robot, Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters, Developmental robotics, Dynamic window approach, EKF SLAM,
Electroadhesion, Embodied cognitive science, Envelope (motion), Evolutionary developmental robot-
ics, Evolutionary robotics, Exploration problem, Extended Kalman filter, Feelix Growing, Festo, Forest
of stars, Forward kinematic animation, Forward kinematics, Foton-M, Frankenstein complex, Freddy II,
Friendly Robotics, Future of robotics, Glossary of robotics, GraphSLAM, Guidance, Navigation and Con-
trol, Handy Board, Hexapod (robotics), History of robots, Humanoid, The Humanoid Project, Incremen-
tal heuristic search, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Intelligent Small World Autonomous
Robots for Micro-manipulation, International Robot Exhibition, Inverse dynamics, Inverse kinematics,
ITALK Project, Japan Robot Association, Joint Compatibility Branch and Bound, Joint constraints, Kalman
filter, Kidnapped robot problem, Kinematic chain, Kinemation, Laboratory automation, Laboratory robot-
ics, The Leaf (AI) Project, Legged robot, Mark Leon, LEURRE, List of hexapod robots, Lynxmotion, Ma-
nipulability ellipsoid, Manipulator, Mecha, Micro air vehicle, Microbotics, Military robot, MineCam, Mobile
robot navigation...and much more
This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Mobile Robots. It reduces the risk of your
technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of
Mobile Robot with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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printed books.
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to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect
and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to
disseminate it effectively and globally.
The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be
advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the
expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some
information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not
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example, medical, legal, fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is
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entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free
Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free
Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Mobile robot 1
Robotic mapping 5
Autonomous robot 6
Ant robotics 11
Autonomous underwater vehicle 12
Domestic robot 16
Humanoid robot 19
Industrial robot 27
Mobile manipulator 33
Robot 36
Robotic arm 57
Robot kinematics 59
Ubiquitous robot 60
Unmanned aerial vehicle 62
Cybernetics 77
Instituto de Automática 86
Python Robotics 87
Robotics 88
RoboTuna 105
List of robotics topics 106
Obstacle avoidance 118
Robot learning 119
Snake-arm robot 119
Bush robot 121
321 kinematic structure 122
3D Pose Estimation 122
ACROSS Project 124
Action description language 125
Agricultural robot 128
Allen (robot) 129
Almost Human: Making Robots Think 130
Android science 131
Anthrobotics 133
Any-angle path planning 134
Arduino 135
Areas of robotics 146
Articulated robot 147
Artificial Ants 149
Artificial brain 151
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence 154
Astrochicken 155
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing 156
Automated planning and scheduling 159
Automatic painting (robotic) 161
Automaton 161
Autonomous research robot 167
Autonomous weapon 169
Bang-bang robot 169
Baseball robot 170
Beer Launching Fridge 171
Behavior-based robotics 172
Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton 173
Big Trak 174
Biorobotics 177
User talk:Blibrestez55 178
Robotic book scanner 178
Boustrophedon cell decomposition 179
Bow Leg 179
Bowler Communications System 180
Campus Party 181
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND 192
CETpD 201
User:Chaosdruid/List of Androids 203
Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion 204
Clanking replicator 204
CMUcam 208
Cognitive robotics 209
Common normal (robotics) 211
Computationally enhanced craft item 211
Computer-assisted surgery 212
Covariance intersection 215
Cyborg 216
D* 225
Delta robot 227
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters 228
Developmental robotics 233
User:Dmgultekin/sandbox 236
Dynamic window approach 241
Electroadhesion 242
Embodied cognitive science 243
Envelope (motion) 245
Evolutionary developmental robotics 246
Evolutionary robotics 246
Exploration problem 250
Extended Kalman filter 251
Feelix Growing 254
Festo 256
Forest of stars 257
Forward kinematic animation 257
Forward kinematics 258
Foton-M 259
Frankenstein complex 259
Freddy II 260
Friendly Robotics 262
Future of robotics 264
Glossary of robotics 267
GraphSLAM 272
Guidance, Navigation and Control 273
Handy Board 274
Hexapod (robotics) 275
History of robots 277
Humanoid 288
The Humanoid Project 290
Incremental heuristic search 291
Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems 293
Intelligent Small World Autonomous Robots for Micro-manipulation 297
International Robot Exhibition 298
Inverse dynamics 299
Inverse kinematics 301
ITALK Project 303
Japan Robot Association 304
Joint Compatibility Branch and Bound 304
Joint constraints 305
Kalman filter 305
Kidnapped robot problem 325
Kinematic chain 325
Kinemation 326
Laboratory automation 326
Laboratory robotics 327
The Leaf (AI) Project 329
Legged robot 330
Mark Leon 330
List of hexapod robots 332
Lynxmotion 333
Manipulability ellipsoid 333
Manipulator 333
Mecha 334
Micro air vehicle 341
Microbotics 345
Military robot 346
MineCam 351
Mobile robot navigation 354
Monte Carlo localization 355
Monte Carlo POMDP 356
Morphogenetic robotics 356
Movax 358
MRI Robot 359
My Life as a Teenage Robot 360
Métamatic 364
NASA robots 365
Navigation function 366
Navigation research 367
Neurorobotics 368
Non-silicon robot 371
Nv network 372
Object Action Complex 373
Occupancy grid mapping 374
Odometry 375
Open Platform for Robotic Services 376
Open-source robotics 376
OpenRTM-aist 380
Parallel manipulator 383
Particle filter 385
Passive dynamics 390
Patient registration 392
Perceptual Robotics 395
Personal Robot 395
Pfaffian constraint 396
Pharmacy automation 396
Phidget 404
Photoreflector 405
Physicomimetics 406
Pipeline video inspection 407
Planner (programming language) 410
Player Project 416
Plug & Pray 418
Pneumatic artificial muscles 420
Pose (computer vision) 421
Powered exoskeleton 422
Probabilistic roadmap 429
R.U.R. 430
Rapidly-exploring random tree 434
Remote handling 436
Remote surgery 437
Rescue robot 439
Rhex 440
Roblog 444
Robo One 445
Roboexotica 447
RoboLogix 449
Robomagellan 452
Robonexus 453
Robot calibration 453
Robot competition 456
Robot control 464
Robot end effector 464
Robot fetishism 465
Robot locomotion 467
Robot operating system 469
Robot software 470
Roboteer 477
Robotic laws 477
Robotic sensing 478
Robotic voice effects 481
Portal:Robotics 482
Robotics worldwide 484
Robotics Certification Standards Alliance 485
Robotics conventions 486
Robotics middleware 489
Robotoid 494
List of robots 495
Roboty 502
RoSta 503
Rota Vector 504
Rowa Automatisierungssysteme 505
RT middleware 507
Santa Claus machine 508
Sawfish harvester 509
Self-balancing unicycle 510
Self-reconfiguring modular robot 513
Self-replicating machine 524
Sensitive skin 533
Sensor fusion 534
Simultaneous localization and mapping 536
Situated robotics 539
Six degrees of freedom 539
SMErobot 541
Soccer robot 543
Sphere world 544
Stage (software) 544
Star world 545
State space planning 545
Stereo cameras 546
Stochastic Roadmap Simulation 547
SwisTrack 548
Symbrion 549
Tape library 550
Teleoperation 552
Telerobotics 553
The Fighting Calculators 555
Three Laws of Robotics 556
Tilden's Laws of Robotics 569
Uncanny valley 570
Underactuation 578
Unicycle cart 579
Universal Robotics 580
Urology robotics 582
Vector Field Histogram 583
Velocity obstacle 584
Virtual fixture 586
Visibility graph 589
Visual odometry 590
Visual Servoing 592
Vocoder 594
Wake-up robot problem 604
Wearable augmented task-list interchange device 604
Robot welding 605
Wired intelligence 606
Zero Moment Point 606
Article Sources and Contributors 609
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 621
Article Licenses
License 627
Mobile robot
Mobile robot
A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment.
Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. In
contrast, industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper assembly (or end
effector) that is attached to a fixed surface.
Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more
labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security
environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum
Mobile robots may be classified by:
• The environment in which they travel:
• Land or home robots. They are most commonly wheeled, but also include legged robots with two or more legs
(humanoid, or resembling animals or insects).
• Aerial robots are usually referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
• Underwater robots are usually called autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)
• Polar robots, designed to navigate icy, crevasse filled environments
• The device they use to move, mainly:
• Legged robot : human-like legs (i.e. an android) or animal-like legs.
• Wheeled robot.
• Tracks.
Mobile robot navigation
There are many types of mobile robot navigation:
Manual remote or tele-op
A manually tele-op'd robot is totally under control of a driver with a joystick or other control device. The device may
be plugged directly into the robot, may be a wireless joystick, or may be an accessory to a wireless computer or other
controller. A tele-op'd robot is typically used to keep the operator out of harm's way. Examples of manual remote
robots include Robotics Design's ANATROLLER ARI-100 and ARI-50, Foster-Miller's Talon, iRobot's PackBot,
and KumoTek's MK-705 Roosterbot.
Guarded tele-op
A guarded tele-op robot has the ability to sense and avoid obstacles but will otherwise navigate as driven, like a
robot under manual tele-op. Few if any mobile robots offer only guarded tele-op. (See Sliding Autonomy below.)
Line-following robot
Some of the earliest Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) were line following mobile robots. They might follow a
visual line painted or embedded in the floor or ceiling or an electrical wire in the floor. Most of these robots operated
a simple "keep the line in the center sensor" algorithm. They could not circumnavigate obstacles; they just stopped
Mobile robot
and waited when something blocked their path. Many examples of such vehicles are still sold, by Transbotics, FMC,
Egemin, HK Systems and many other companies.
Autonomously randomized robot
Autonomous robots with random motion basically bounce off walls, whether those walls are sensed
Autonomously guided robot
Robot developers use ready-made autonomous
bases and software to design robot applications
quickly. Shells shaped like people or cartoon
characters may cover the base to disguise it.
Courtesy of MobileRobots Inc
An autonomously guided robot knows at least some information about
where it is and how to reach various goals and or waypoints along the
way. "Localization" or knowledge of its current location, is calculated
by one or more means, using sensors such motor encoders, vision,
Stereopsis, lasers and global positioning systems. Positioning systems
often use triangulation, relative position and/or Monte-Carlo/Markov
localization to determine the location and orientation of the platform,
from which it can plan a path to its next waypoint or goal. It can gather
sensor readings that are time- and location-stamped, so that a hospital,
for instance, can know exactly when and where radiation levels
exceeded permissible levels. Such robots are often part of the wireless
enterprise network, interfaced with other sensing and control systems
in the building. For instance, the PatrolBot security robot responds to
alarms, operates elevators and notifies the command center when an
incident arises. Other autonomously guided robots include the
SpeciMinder and the Tug delivery robots for hospital labs, though the
latter actually has people at the ready to drive the robot remotely when its autonomy fails. The Tug sends a letter to
its tech support person, who then takes the helm and steers it over the Internet by looking through a camera low in
the base of the robot.
Sliding autonomy
More capable robots combine multiple levels of navigation under a system called sliding autonomy. Most
autonomously guided robots, such as the HelpMate hospital robot, also offer a manual mode. The Motivity
autonomous robot operating system, which is used in the ADAM, PatrolBot, SpeciMinder, MapperBot and a number
of other robots, offers full sliding autonomy, from manual to guarded to autonomous modes. Also see Autonomous
Mobile robot
Date Developments
1939–1945 During World War II the first mobile robots emerged as a result of technical advances on a number of relatively new research fields
like computer science and cybernetics. They were mostly flying bombs. Examples are smart bombs that only detonate within a certain
range of the target, the use of guiding systems and radar control. The V1 and V2 rockets had a crude 'autopilot' and automatic
detonation systems. They were the predecessors of modern cruise missiles.
W. Grey Walter builds Elmer and Elsie, two autonomous robots that looked like turtles. Officially they were called Machina
Speculatrix because these robots liked to explore their environment. Elmer and Elsie were equipped with a light sensor, if they found a
light source they would move towards it, avoiding or moving obstacles on their way. These robots demonstrated that complex
behaviour could arise from a simple design, Elmer and Elsie only had the equivalent of two nerve cells. [3]
1961–1963 The Johns Hopkins University develops 'Beast'. Beast used a sonar to move around. When its batteries ran low it would find a power
socket and plug itself in.
Mowbot was the very first robot that would automatically mow the lawn. [4]
The Stanford Cart line follower was a mobile robot that was able to follow a white line, using a camera to see. It was radio linked to a
large mainframe that made the calculations.
At about the same time (1966–1972) the Stanford Research Institute is building and doing research on Shakey the Robot, a robot
named after its jerky motion. Shakey had a camera, a rangefinder, bump sensors and a radio link. Shakey was the first robot that could
reason about its actions. This means that Shakey could be given very general commands, and that the robot would figure out the
necessary steps to accomplish the given task.
The Soviet Union explores the surface of the Moon with Lunokhod 1, a lunar rover.
1976 In its Viking program the NASA sends two unmanned spacecrafts to Mars.
The interest of the public in robots rises, resulting in robots that could be purchased for home use. These robots served entertainment
or educational purposes. Examples include the RB5X [6], which still exists today and the HERO series.
The Stanford Cart is now able to navigate its way through obstacle courses and make maps of its environment.
The team of Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University Munich builds the first robot cars, driving up to 55 mph on empty streets.
Hughes Research Laboratories demonstrates the first cross-country map and sensor-based autonomous operation of a robotic
1989 Mark Tilden invents BEAM robotics.
1990s Joseph Engelberger, father of the industrial robotic arm, works with colleagues to design the first commercially available autonomous
mobile hospital robots, sold by Helpmate. The US Department of Defense funds the MDARS-I project, based on the Cybermotion
indoor security robot.
1991 Edo. Franzi, André Guignard and Francesco Mondada developed Khepera, an autonomous small mobile robot intended for research
activities. The project was supported by the LAMI-EPFL lab.
Dante I [8] and Dante II [9] were developed by Carnegie Mellon University. Both were walking robots used to explore live volcanoes.
1994 With guests onboard, the twin robot vehicles VaMP and VITA-2 of Daimler-Benz and Ernst Dickmanns of UniBwM drive more than
one thousand kilometers on a Paris three-lane highway in standard heavy traffic at speeds up to 130 km/h. They demonstrate
autonomous driving in free lanes, convoy driving, and lane changes left and right with autonomous passing of other cars.
1995 Semi-autonomous ALVINN steered a car coast-to-coast under computer control for all but about 50 of the 2850 miles. Throttle and
brakes, however, were controlled by a human driver.
1995 In the same year, one of Ernst Dickmanns' robot cars (with robot-controlled throttle and brakes) drove more than 1000 miles from
Munich to Copenhagen and back, in traffic, at up to 120 mph, occasionally executing maneuvers to pass other cars (only in a few
critical situations a safety driver took over). Active vision was used to deal with rapidly changing street scenes.
1995 The Pioneer programmable mobile robot becomes commercially available at an affordable price, enabling a widespread increase in
robotics research and university study over the next decade as mobile robotics becomes a standard part of the university curriculum.
1996–1997 NASA sends the Mars Pathfinder with its rover Sojourner to Mars. The rover explores the surface, commanded from earth. Sojourner
was equipped with a hazard avoidance system. This enabled Sojourner to autonomously find it s way through unknown martian
Mobile robot
1999 Sony introduces Aibo, a robotic dog capable of seeing, walking and interacting with its environment. The PackBot remote-controlled
military mobile robot is introduced.
Start of the Swarm-bots project. Swarm bots resemble insect colonies. Typically they consist of a large number of individual simple
robots, that can interact with each other and together perform complex tasks. [10]
2002 Appears Roomba, a domestic autonomous mobile robot that cleans the floor.
Axxon Robotics purchases Intellibot
, manufacturer of a line of commercial robots that scrub, vacuum, and sweep floors in
hospitals, office buildings and other commercial buildings. Floor care robots from Intellibot Robotics LLC operate completely
autonomously, mapping their environment and using an array of sensors for navigation an obstacle avoidance.
Robosapien, a biomorphic toy robot designed by Mark Tilden is commercially available.
In 'The Centibots Project' 100 autonomous robots work together to make a map of an unknown environment and search for objects
within the environment. [12]
In the first DARPA Grand Challenge competition, fully autonomous vehicles compete against each other on a desert course.
2005 Boston Dynamics creates a quadruped robot intended to carry heavy loads across terrain too rough for vehicles.
Sony stops making Aibo and HelpMate halts production, but a lower-cost PatrolBot customizable autonomous service robot system
becomes available as mobile robots continue the struggle to become commercially viable. The US Department of Defense drops the
MDARS-I project, but funds MDARS-E, an autonomous field robot. TALON-Sword, the first commercially available robot with
grenade launcher and other integrated weapons options, is released. [13]. Honda's Asimo learns to run and climb stairs.
History is made with the DARPA Urban Grand Challenge, with six vehicles autonomously completing a complex course involving
manned vehicles and obstacles.
Kiva Systems clever robots proliferate in distribution operations; these smart shelving units sort
themselves according to the popularity of their contents. The Tug becomes a popular means for hospitals to move large cabinets of
stock from place to place, while the Speci-Minder [15] with Motivity begins carrying blood and other patient samples from nurses'
stations to various labs. Seekur, the first widely available, non-military outdoor service robot, pulls a 3-ton vehicle across a parking lot
[16], drives autonomously indoors and begins learning how to navigate itself outside. Meanwhile, PatrolBot learns to follow people
and detect doors that are ajar.
2008 Boston Dynamics released video footage of a new generation BigDog able to walk on icy terrain and recover its balance when kicked
from the side.
[1] Rail track (http:// prweb. com/ releases/ Rail/ Robot/ prweb453019.htm) and Linear track (PDF) (http:// www.labautomationrobots.com/
images/ crstrack.pdf)
[2] http:/ / mobilerobots.com/ MT400_autonomous_robotic_base. html
[3] http:// www. ias. uwe. ac. uk/ Robots/ gwonline/ gwonline.html
[4] http:/ / www. frc.ri.cmu. edu/ ~hpm/ talks/ Extras/mowbot. 1969.gif
[5] http:/ / www. stanford.edu/ ~learnest/ cart.htm
[6] http:/ / www. edurobot.com
[7] Proceedings of IEEE Robotics and Automation, 1988
[8] http:/ / www. ri.cmu. edu/ projects/ project_255. html
[9] http:/ / www. ri.cmu. edu/ projects/ project_163. html
[10] http:/ / www. swarm-bots. org/
[11] http:/ / www. intellibotrobotics. com/
[12] http:/ / www. ai. sri. com/ centibots/
[13] http:/ / www. foster-miller.com/ literature/documents/ Weaponized_Talon.pdf
[14] Welcome (http:/ / www. darpa.mil/ GRANDCHALLENGE/)
[15] http:// www. speciminder. com/
[16] http:/ / www. mobilerobots. com/ TowingMed. mov
Mobile robot
External links
• A tutorial about line tracking sensors and algorithms (http:// ikalogic. com/ tut_line_sens_algo. php)
• BioRobotics Laboratory, Research in Mobile Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction (http:/ / robot.kut. ac.kr)
• Department of Production at Aalborg University in Denmark, Research in Mobile Robotics and Manipulation
(http:// www. machinevision. dk)
Robotic mapping
Robotic mapping can be used for serving robot guide
Robotic mapping is related to cartography. The goal for an
autonomous robot to be able to construct (or use ) a map or
floor plan and to localize itself in it. Robotic mapping is that
branch of one, which deals with the study and application of
ability to construct map or floor plan by the autonomous robot
and to localize itself in it.
Evolutionarily shaped blind action may suffice to keep some
animals alive. For some insects for example, the environment
is not interpreted as a map, and they survive only with a
triggered response. A slightly more elaborated navigation
strategy dramatically enhances the capabilities of the robot.
Cognitive maps enable planning capacities, and use of current
perceptions, memorized events, and expected consequences.
The robot has two sources of information: the idiothetic and the allothetic sources. When in motion, a robot can use
dead reckoning methods such as tracking the number of revolutions of its wheels; this corresponds to the idiothetic
source and can give the absolute position of the robot, but it is subject to cumulative error which can grow quickly.
The allothetic source corresponds to the sensors of the robot, like a camera, a microphone, laser or sonar. The
problem here is "perceptual aliasing". This means that two different places can be perceived as the same. For
example, in a building, it may be impossible for to determine your location solely with the visual information,
because all the corridors may look the same.
Map representation
The internal representation of the map can be "metric" or "topological":
• The metric framework is the most common for humans and considers a two dimensional space in which it places
the objects. The objects are placed with precise coordinates. This representation is very useful, but is sensitive to
noise and it is difficult to calculate precisely the distances.
• The topological framework only considers places and relations between them. Often, the distances between places
are stored. The map is then a graph, in which the nodes corresponds to places and arcs correspond to the paths.
Many techniques use probabilistic representations of the map, in order to handle uncertainty.
There are three main methods of map representations, i.e., free space maps, object maps, and composite maps. These
employ the notion of a grid, but permit the resolution of the grid to vary so that it can become finer where more
accuracy is needed and more coarse where the map is uniform.
Robotic mapping
Map learning
Map-learning cannot be separated from the localization process, and a difficulty arises when errors in localization are
incorporated into the map. This problem is commonly referred to as Simultaneous localization and mapping
An important additional problem is to determine whether the robot is in a part of environment already stored or never
visited. One way to solve this problem is by using electric beacons.
Path planning
Path planning is an important issue as it allows a robot to get from point A to point B. Path planning algorithms are
measured by their computational complexity. The feasibility of real-time motion planning is dependent on the
accuracy of the map (or floorplan), on robot localization and on the number of obstacles. Topologically, the problem
of path planning is related to the shortest path problem problem of finding a route between two nodes in a graph.
Robot navigation
Outdoor robots can use GPS in a similar way to automotive navigation systems. Alternative systems can be used
with floor plan instead of maps for indoor robots, combined with localization wireless hardware. Electric beacons
also have been proposed for cheap robot navigational systems.
Autonomous robot
Autonomous robots are robots that can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous
human guidance. Many kinds of robots have some degree of autonomy. Different robots can be autonomous in
different ways. A high degree of autonomy is particularly desirable in fields such as space exploration, cleaning
floors, mowing lawns, and waste water treatment.
Some modern factory robots are "autonomous" within the strict confines of their direct environment. It may not be
that every degree of freedom exists in their surrounding environment, but the factory robot's workplace is
challenging and can often contain chaotic, unpredicted variables. The exact orientation and position of the next
object of work and (in the more advanced factories) even the type of object and the required task must be
determined. This can vary unpredictably (at least from the robot's point of view).
One important area of robotics research is to enable the robot to cope with its environment whether this be on land,
underwater, in the air, underground, or in space.
A fully autonomous robot has the ability to
• Gain information about the environment.
• Work for an extended period without human intervention.
• Move either all or part of itself throughout its operating environment without human assistance.
• Avoid situations that are harmful to people, property, or itself unless those are part of its design specifications.
An autonomous robot may also learn or gain new capabilities like adjusting strategies for accomplishing its task(s) or
adapting to changing surroundings.
Autonomous robots still require regular maintenance, as do other machines.
Autonomous robot
Examples of progress towards commercial autonomous robots
Exteroceptive sensors: 1. blue
laser rangefinder senses up to
360 distance readings in a
180-degree slice; 2. 24 round
golden ultrasonic sensors sample
range readings in a 15-degree
cone; 3. ten touch panels along
the bottom detect shoes and other
low-lying objects. 4. break beams
between the lower and upper
segments sense tables and other
mid-level obstacles.
The first requirement for complete physical autonomy is the ability for a robot to
take care of itself. Many of the battery powered robots on the market today can find
and connect to a charging station, and some toys like Sony's Aibo are capable of
self-docking to charge their batteries.
Self maintenance is based on "proprioception", or sensing one's own internal status.
In the battery charging example, the robot can tell proprioceptively that its batteries
are low and it then seeks the charger. Another common proprioceptive sensor is for
heat monitoring. Increased proprioception will be required for robots to work
autonomously near people and in harsh environments.
Autonomous robot
Robot GUI display showing battery voltage and
other proprioceptive data in lower right-hand
corner. The display is for user information only.
Autonomous robots monitor and respond to
proprioceptive sensors without human
intervention to keep themselves safe and
operating properly.
• Common proprioceptive sensors are
Hall Effect
Sensing the environment
Exteroception is sensing things about the environment. Autonomous
robots must have a range of environmental sensors to perform their
task and stay out of trouble.
• Common exteroceptive sensors are
Electromagnetic spectrum
Chemical sensors (smell, odor)
Range to things in the environment
Attitude (Inclination)
Some robotic lawn mowers will adapt their programming by detecting the speed in which grass grows as needed to
maintain a perfect cut lawn, and some vacuum cleaning robots have dirt detectors that sense how much dirt is being
picked up and use this information to tell them to stay in one area longer.
Task performance
The next step in autonomous behavior is to actually perform a physical task. A new area showing commercial
promise is domestic robots, with a flood of small vacuuming robots beginning with iRobot and Electrolux in 2002.
While the level of intelligence is not high in these systems, they navigate over wide areas and pilot in tight situations
around homes using contact and non-contact sensors. Both of these robots use proprietary algorithms to increase
coverage over simple random bounce.
The next level of autonomous task performance requires a robot to perform conditional tasks. For instance, security
robots can be programmed to detect intruders and respond in a particular way depending upon where the intruder is.
Autonomous robot
Indoor position sensing and navigation
Robot interface GUI showing a robot building
map with forbidden areas highlighted in yellow
on the right side of the screen. Defined task
sequences and goals are in the second column.
Robots listed on the left side of the GUI can be
selected by mouseclick. The selected robot will
then travel to any location clicked in the map,
unless it is in a forbidden area. (Courtesy of
MobileRobots Inc)
For a robot to associate behaviors with a place (localization) requires it
to know where it is and to be able to navigate point-to-point. Such
navigation began with wire-guidance in the 1970s and progressed in
the early 2000s to beacon-based triangulation. Current commercial
robots autonomously navigate based on sensing natural features. The
first commercial robots to achieve this were Pyxus' HelpMate hospital
robot and the CyberMotion guard robot, both designed by robotics
pioneers in the 1980s. These robots originally used manually created
CAD floor plans, sonar sensing and wall-following variations to
navigate buildings. The next generation, such as MobileRobots'
PatrolBot and autonomous wheelchair
both introduced in 2004,
have the ability to create their own laser-based maps of a building and
to navigate open areas as well as corridors. Their control system
changes its path on-the-fly if something blocks the way.
At first, autonomous navigation was based on planar sensors, such as
laser range-finders, that can only sense at one level. The most
advanced systems now fuse information from various sensors for both
localization (position) and navigation. Systems such as Motivity can rely on different sensors in different areas,
depending upon which provides the most reliable data at the time, and can re-map a building autonomously.
Rather than climb stairs, which requires highly specialized hardware, most indoor robots navigate
handicapped-accessible areas, controlling elevators and electronic doors.
With such electronic access-control
interfaces, robots can now freely navigate indoors. Autonomously climbing stairs and opening doors manually are
topics of research at the current time.
As these indoor techniques continue to develop, vacuuming robots will gain the ability to clean a specific user
specified room or a whole floor. Security robots will be able to cooperatively surround intruders and cut off exits.
These advances also bring concommitant protections: robots' internal maps typically permit "forbidden areas" to be
defined to prevent robots from autonomously entering certain regions.
Outdoor autonomous position-sensing and navigation
Outdoor autonomy is most easily achieved in the air, since obstacles are rare. Cruise missiles are rather dangerous
highly autonomous robots. Pilotless drone aircraft are increasingly used for reconnaissance. Some of these
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are capable of flying their entire mission without any human interaction at all
except possibly for the landing where a person intervenes using radio remote control. But some drone aircraft are
capable of a safe, automatic landing also.
Outdoor autonomy is the most difficult for ground vehicles, due to: a) 3-dimensional terrain; b) great disparities in
surface density; c) weather exigencies and d) instability of the sensed environment.
Autonomous robot
The Seekur and MDARS robots demonstrate their
autonomous navigation and security capabilities
at an airbase. (Courtesy of MobileRobots Inc)
In the US, the MDARS project, which defined and built a prototype
outdoor surveillance robot in the 1990s, is now moving into production
and will be implemented in 2006. The General Dynamics MDARS
robot can navigate semi-autonomously and detect intruders, using the
MRHA software architecture planned for all unmanned military
vehicles. The Seekur robot was the first commercially available robot
to demonstrate MDARS-like capabilities for general use by airports,
utility plants, corrections facilities and Homeland Security.
The Mars rovers MER-A and MER-B (now known as Spirit rover and
Opportunity rover) can find the position of the sun and navigate their
own routes to destinations on the fly by:
• mapping the surface with 3-D vision
• computing safe and unsafe areas on the surface within that field of
• computing optimal paths across the safe area towards the desired
• driving along the calculated route;
• repeating this cycle until either the destination is reached, or there is no known path to the destination
The planned ESA Rover, ExoMars Rover, is capable of vision based relative localisation and absolute localisation to
autonomously navigate safe and efficient trajectorys to targets by:
• reconstructing 3D models of the terrain surrounding the Rover using a pair of stereo cameras
• determining safe and unsafe areas of the terrain and the general 'difficulty' for the Rover to navigate the terrain
• computing efficient paths across the safe area towards the desired destination
• driving the Rover along the planned path
• building up a 'Navigation Map' of all past navigation data
The DARPA Grand Challenge and DARPA Urban Challenge have encouraged development of even more
autonomous capabilities for ground vehicles, while this has been the demonstrated goal for aerial robots since 1990
as part of the AUVSI International Aerial Robotics Competition.
Open problems in autonomous robotics
There are several open problems in autonomous robotics which are special to the field rather than being a part of the
general pursuit of AI.
Energy autonomy & foraging
Researchers concerned with creating true artificial life are concerned not only with intelligent control, but further
with the capacity of the robot to find its own resources through foraging (looking for food, which includes both
energy and spare parts).
This is related to autonomous foraging, a concern within the sciences of behavioral ecology, social anthropology,
and human behavioral ecology; as well as robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.
Autonomous robot
[1] http:/ / www. activrobots. com/ RESEARCH/ wheelchair. html
[2] Principal Investigator: W. Kennedy, National Institutes of Health, NIH SBIR 2 R44 HD041781-02
[3] Speci-Minder; see elevator and door access (http:/ / www.ccsrobotics.com/ speciminder.htm)
[4] FOXNews.com - Weapons Makers Unveil New Era of Counter-Terror Equipment - Local News | News Articles | National News | US News
(http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,293390,00. html)
Ant robotics
Ant robotics is a special case of swarm robotics. Swarm robots are simple and cheap robots with limited sensing and
computational capabilities. This makes it feasible to deploy teams of swarm robots and take advantage of the
resulting fault tolerance and parallelism. Swarm robots cannot use conventional planning methods due to their
limited sensing and computational capabilities. Thus, their behavior is often driven by local interactions. Ant robots
are swarm robots that can communicate via markings, similar to ants that lay and follow pheromone trails. Some ant
robots use long-lasting trails (either regular trails of a chemical substance
or smart trails of transceivers
), others
use short-lasting trails (heat,
or alcohol
), and others even use virtual trails.
Researchers have developed ant robot hardware and software and demonstrated, both in simulation and on physical
robots, that single ant robots or teams of ant robots solve robot-navigation tasks (such as path following
and terrain
) robustly and efficiently. For example, trails coordinate the ant robots via implicit communication and
provide an alternative to probabilistic reasoning for solving the simultaneous localization and mapping problem.
Researchers have also developed a theoretical foundation for ant robotics, based on ideas from real-time heuristic
search, stochastic analysis and graph theory.
Recently, it was shown that a single ant robot (modeled as finite state
machine) can simulate the execution of any arbitrary Turing machine.
This proved that a single ant robot, using
pheromones, can execute arbitrarily complex single-robot algorithms. However, the result unfortunately does not
hold for N robots.
[1] J. Svennebring and S. Koenig. Building terrain-covering ant robots. Autonomous Robots, 16, (3), 313-332, 2004.
[2] M. Batalin and G. Sukhatme. Efficient exploration without localization. Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and
Automation, 2714-2719, 2003.
[3] R. Russell. Heat trails as short-lived navigational markers for mobile robots. Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and
Automation, 3534-3539, 1997.
[4] R. Russell. Odour detection by mobile robots. World Scientific Publishing. 1999.
[5] R. Sharpe and B. Webb. Simulated and situated models of chemical trail following in ants. Proceedings of the International Conference on
Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 195-204, 1998.
[6] . Vaughan, K. Stoy, G. Sukhatme, and M. Mataric. LOST: Localization-space trails for robot teams. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and
Automation, 18(5):796-812, 2002.
[7] I. Wagner and A. Bruckstein, Special Issue on Ant Robotics, Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 31(1-4), 2001.
[8] Shiloni, A., Agmon, N. and Kaminka, G. A. Of Robot Ants and Elephants (http:/ / www. cs. biu. ac.il/ ~galk/ Publications/ b2hd-aamas09.
html). In Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS-09), 2009.
Ant robotics
External links
• ant robot webpage by Sven Koenig (http:// idm-lab.org/project-b.html)
• ant algorithm webpage by Israel Wagner (http:/ / www.cs. technion. ac.il/ ~wagner/)
The text of this article was adopted from the Tutorial on Ant Robotics (http:/ / idm-lab. org/ antrobotics-tutorial.
html) in compliance with their Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike Unported License and the GNU Free
Documentation License.
Autonomous underwater vehicle
Picture taken from the HSV Swift by an
employee of Bluefin Robotics Corporation during
a US Navy exercise.
The Blackghost AUV is designed to undertake an
underwater assault course autonomously with no
outside control.
An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels
underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute
part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned
underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous
remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) – controlled and
powered from the surface by an operator/pilot via an umbilical or using
remote control. In military applications AUVs more often referred to
simply as unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs).
The first AUV was developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory at the
University of Washington as early as 1957 by Stan Murphy, Bob
Francois and later on, Terry Ewart. The "Special Purpose Underwater
Research Vehicle", or SPURV, was used to study diffusion, acoustic
transmission, and submarine wakes.
Other early AUVs were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the 1970s. One of these is on display in the Hart
Nautical Gallery in MIT. At the same time, AUVs were also developed
in the Soviet Union
(although this was not commonly known until
much later).
Until relatively recently, AUVs have been used for a limited number of
tasks dictated by the technology available. With the development of more advanced processing capabilities and high
yield power supplies, AUVs are now being used for more and more tasks with roles and missions constantly
Autonomous underwater vehicle
The oil and gas industry uses AUVs to make detailed maps of the seafloor before they start building subsea
infrastructure; pipelines and sub sea completions can be installed in the most cost effective manner with minimum
disruption to the environment. The AUV allows survey companies to conduct precise surveys or areas where
traditional bathymetric surveys would be less effective or too costly. Also, post-lay pipe surveys are now possible.
A typical military mission for an AUV is to map an area to determine if there are any mines, or to monitor a
protected area (such as a harbor) for new unidentified objects. AUVs are also employed in anti-submarine warfare, to
aid in the detection of manned submarines.
Scientists use AUVs to study lakes, the ocean, and the ocean floor. A variety of sensors can be affixed to AUVs to
measure the concentration of various elements or compounds, the absorption or reflection of light, and the presence
of microscopic life.
Many roboticists construct AUVs as a hobby. Several competitions exist which allow these homemade AUVs to
compete against each other while accomplishing objectives. Like their commercial brethren, these AUVs can be
fitted with cameras, lights, or sonar. As a consequence of limited resources and inexperience, hobbiest AUVs can
rarely compete with commercial models on operational depth, durability, or sophistication. Finally, these hobby
AUVs are usually not oceangoing, being operated most of the time in pools or lakebeds. A simple AUV can be
constructed from a microcontroller, PVC pressure housing, automatic door lock actuator, syringes, and a DPDT
Vehicle designs
Bluefin-12 AUV with a Buried Object Scanning
Sonar (BOSS) integrated in two wings. This
picture was taken in January 2005 off the coast of
Florida during engineering trials.
Hundreds of different AUVs have been designed over the past 50 or so
, but only a few companies sell vehicles in any significant
numbers. There are about 10 companies that sell AUVs on the
international market, including Kongsberg Maritime, Hydroid (now
owned by Kongsberg), Bluefin Robotics, International Submarine
Engineering Ltd. and Hafmynd.
Vehicles range in size from man portable lightweight AUVs to large
diameter vehicles of over 10 metres length. Once popular amongst the
military and commercial sectors, the smaller vehicles are now losing
popularity. It has been widely accepted by commercial organizations
that to achieve the ranges and endurances required to optimize the
efficiencies of operating AUVs a larger vehicle is required. However,
smaller, lightweight and less expensive AUVs are still common as a
budget option for universities.
Some manufacturers have benefited from domestic government sponsorship including Bluefin and Kongsberg. The
market is effectively split into three areas: scientific (including universities and research agencies), commercial
offshore (oil and gas etc.) and military application (mine countermeasures, battle space preparation). The majority of
these roles utilize a similar design and operate in a cruise mode. They collect data while following a preplanned
route at speeds between 1 and 4 knots.
Autonomous underwater vehicle
Commercially available AUVS include various designs such as the small REMUS 100 AUV developed by Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution in the US and now marketed by Hydroid, Inc.; the larger HUGIN 1000 and 3000
AUVs developed by Kongsberg Maritime and Norwegian Defence Research Establishment; the Bluefin Robotics
12-and-21-inch-diameter (300 and 530 mm) vehicles and the International Submarine Engineering Ltd. Explorer.
Most AUVs follow the traditional torpedo shape as this is seen as the best compromise between size, usable volume,
hydrodynamic efficiency and ease of handling. There are some vehicles that make use of a modular design, enabling
components to be changed easily by the operators.
The market is evolving and designs are now following commercial requirements rather than being purely
developmental. The next stage is likely to be a hybrid AUV/ROV that is capable of surveys and light intervention
tasks. This requires more control and the ability to hover. Again, the market will be driven by financial requirements
and the aim to save money and expensive ship time.
Today, while most AUVs are capable of unsupervised missions most operators remain within range of acoustic
telemetry systems in order to maintain a close watch on their investment. This is not always possible. For example,
Canada has recently taken delivery of two AUVs (ISE Explorers) to survey the sea floor underneath the Arctic ice in
support of their claim under Article 76 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Also,
ultra-low-power, long-range variants such as underwater gliders are becoming capable of operating unattended for
weeks or months in littoral and open ocean areas, periodically relaying data by satellite to shore, before returning to
be picked up.
As of 2008, a new class of AUVs are being developed, which mimic designs found in nature. Although most are
currently in their experimental stages, these biomimetic (or bionic) vehicles are able to achieve higher degrees of
efficiency in propulsion and maneuverability by copying successful designs in nature. Two such vehicles are Festo's
AquaJelly and Evologics' Bionik Manta.
Primarily oceanographic tools, AUVs carry sensors to navigate autonomously and map features of the ocean. Typical
sensors include compasses, depth sensors, sidescan and other sonars, magnetometers, thermistors and conductivity
probes. A demonstration at Monterey Bay in California in September 2006 showed that a 21-inch (530 mm)
diameter AUV can tow a 300 feet (91 m) long hydrophone array while maintaining a 3-knot (5.6 km/h) cruising
AUVs can navigate using an underwater acoustic positioning system. When operating within a net of sea floor
deployed baseline transponders this is known as LBL navigation. When a surface reference such as a support ship is
available, ultra-short baseline (USBL) or short-baseline (SBL) positioning is used to calculate where the subsea
vehicle is relative to the known (GPS) position of the surface craft by means of acoustic range and bearing
measurements. When it is operating completely autonomously, the AUV will surface and take its own GPS fix.
Between position fixes and for precise maneuvering, an inertial navigation system on board the AUV measures the
acceleration of the vehicle and Doppler velocity technology is used to measure rate of travel. A pressure sensor
measures the vertical position. These observations are filtered to determine a final navigation solution. An emerging
alternative is using an inertial navigation system in conjunction with either a GPS receiver, or an additional magnetic
compass for Dead Reckoning whenever the GPS signal is lost.
Autonomous underwater vehicle
AUVs can rely on a number of propulsion techniques, but propeller based thrusters or Kort_nozzles are the most
common by far. These thrusters are usually powered by electric motors and sometimes rely on a lip seal in order to
protect the motor internals from corrosion. One consideration which impacts this process of waterproofing is the
decision to use brushed motors or brushless motors. This same consideration also impacts reliability, efficiency, and
Most AUVs in use today are powered by rechargeable batteries (lithium ion, lithium polymer, nickel metal hydride
etc), and are implemented with some form of Battery Management System. Some vehicles use primary batteries
which provide perhaps twice the endurance—at a substantial extra cost per mission. A few of the larger vehicles are
powered by aluminum based semi-fuel cells, but these require substantial maintenance, require expensive refills and
produce waste product that must be handled safely. An emerging trend is to combine different battery and power
systems with Ultra-capacitors.
[1] Autonomous Vehicles at the Institute of Marine Technology Problems (http:// www. imtp. febras.ru/anpa/ anpa_. html)
[2] Osaka University NAOE Mini Underwater Glider (MUG) for Education (http:// www.naoe.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/ naoe/ naoe7/ MUG. html)
[3] AUV System Timeline (http:/ / auvac. org/ resources/ infographic/timeline/ )
External links
Collection of groups and projects
• NOAA, Ocean Explorer AUVfest 2008 (http:// oceanexplorer.noaa. gov/ explorations/ 08auvfest/ welcome.
html): What Are AUVs (http:/ / oceanexplorer.noaa. gov/ explorations/ 08auvfest/ background/ auvs/ auvs. html),
and Why Do We Use Them?
• Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (http:/ / www.transit-port.net/ Lists/ AUVs.Org. html)
• Prosapien LLC (http:// www. prosapien. com/ )
• Saab Seaeye AUV,ROV & Underwater Robotics (http:/ / www. roperresources.com/ )
• Browseable AUV database at AUVAC.org (http:/ / auvac. org/resources/ browse/ configuration/)
• GREX (http:/ / www. grex-project.eu) - Scientific research for AUV coordination and control (a project by order
of the European Union)
• Ocean Systems Laboratory - Heriot-Watt University, Scotland (http:// osl. eps. hw.ac. uk/ )
• First AUV to cross Atlantic Ocean Displayed at Smithsonian (http:/ / ocean. si.edu/ ocean-news/
• Presentation of the AUV Abyss (IFM-GEOMAR Kiel) (http:// www.ifm-geomar.de/ index. php?id=auv)
Application papers
• The Application of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology in the Oil Industry – Vision and
Experiences (http:// www. fig.net/ pub/ fig_2002/Ts4-4/TS4_4_bingham_etal. pdf)
Domestic robot
Domestic robot
First generation Roomba vacuums the carpets in a
domestic environment
A domestic robot is a robot used for household chores. Thus far, there
are only a few limited models, though science fiction writers and other
speculators have suggested that they could become more common in
the future. In 2006, Bill Gates wrote an article for Scientific American
titled "A Robot in Every Home".
Many domestic robots are used for basic household chores, such as the
Electrolux Trilobite, Roomba and the SLAM based Neato Robotics
vacuum cleaner robot. Others are educational or entertainment robots,
such as the HERO line of the 1980s or the AIBO. While most domestic
robots are simplistic, some are connected to WiFi home networks or
smart environments and are autonomous to a high degree. There were
an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use in 2006, compared with
an estimated 950,000 industrial robots.
Domestic robots in production
Working or chore robots
• Robotic mop:
• Scooba (by iRobot)
• Mint (by Evolution Robotics)
• Robotic vacuum cleaners:
• CleanMate (by Infinuvo)
• DC06 (by Dyson)
• eVac (by The Sharper Image/ Evolution Robotics)
• Hom-Bot (by LG)
• HomeRun (by Philips)
• IClebo (by Yujin Robot)
• Koolvac (by Koolatron)
• Neato Robotics XV-11
• Orazio (by Zuchetti)
• Ottoro (by Hanool robotics)
• P3 International
• picaBot
• Roomba and Dirtdog
(by iRobot)
• Robo Maxx
• RoboMop
• Trilobite (by Electrolux)
• RC3000 (by Kärcher)
• VSR8000 (by Siemens)
Domestic robot
Samsung Navibot SR8855.
• Navibot by Samsung (with camera-based navigation system,
"Visionary Mapping").



• V-bot RV10 (by P3 International)
• RV-88 by SungTung
• Ironing clothes:
• Dressman (by Siemens AG).
• Pets:
• Litter Robot for cats
• A towel folding robot has now been developed in the USA but is not yet on sale.
Serving robot at the "Ubiquitous Dream" exhibition in
Seoul, Korea on June 24, 2005
Home couriers
Home transport robots are a main element in the domestic robotic
system, because they join specialized processes, moving objects at
home (i.e. clothes from the bathroom to the washing machine or
glasses from the table to the dishwasher):
• STR (by Iberobotics). It includes Wi-Fi and USB connection to
(domotics) network.
• In 2006 Sharp said it has developed a humanoid robot that
clears dishes from the table and puts them into a dishwasher.
The robot (measuring 95x50x45cm) opens the door of the
dishwasher, takes hold of teacups, rice bowls and plates, places
them in the unit and closes the door
General helper robots
There are also general domestic helper robots, i.e. HRP-2.
Husqvarna automower in action.
• Robotic lawnmowers
• RoboMower (by Friendly Robotics)
• The Husqvarna Automower
• Ambrogio by Zucchetti
• Automated pool cleaners are robots for cleaning
swimming pools.
• Toy robots include
• Sony's Aibo, a robot pet dog also used by many
universities in the RoboCup autonomous soccer
• Robosapien, a small humanoid remote controlled robot
• Furby, an electronic toy that was the must-have toy of 1998.
• Spykee, a consumer spy robot.
Domestic robot
Social robots
• Robots whose main object is social interaction (partner robots) include:
• Wakamaru, a humanoid robot designed to provide company for the elderly and less mobile people, made by
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, on sale from 2005
• Paro, a robot baby seal intended to provide comfort to nursing home patients
• PaPeRo, a robot designed by NEC to study robot-human interaction.
• Sony's QRIO.
• Toyota Partner Robots, some of them mountable.
Domestic robots in popular culture
Many cartoons feature robot maids, notably Rosie the Robot from The Jetsons. Maid Robots are especially
prominent in anime (in Japanese, they are called Meido Robo or Meido Roboto), and their Artificial Intelligence
ranges from rudimentary to fully sentient and emotional, while their appearance ranges from obviously mechanical
to human-like.
[1] Bill Gates (2007-01). A Robot in Every Home (http:// www. scientificamerican.com/ article.cfm?id=a-robot-in-every-home). Scientific
American. . Retrieved 2010-09-19.
[2] Erico Guizzo (2008-03-21). "10 stats you should know about robots but never bothered googling up" (http:// blogs. spectrum.ieee. org/
automaton/2008/ 03/ 21/ 10_stats_you_should_know_about_robots. html). IEEE Spectrum. . Retrieved 2010-09-19.
[3] http:// www. lg. com/ es/ electrodomesticos/ aspiradores/ LG-robot-VR5902LVM.jsp
[4] (http:// www. p4c. philips. com/ cgi-bin/dcbint/ cpindex. pl?slg=EN& scy=FR& ctn=FC9910/ 01)
[5] 49xx Robotic Vacuums (http:/ / www.p3international.com/ sitemap. html)
[6] picabot.com.my (http:/ / www. picabot. com. my)
[7] http:// www. robotreviews.com/ wiki/ What-Is-Dirtdog
[8] http:// www. samsung. com/ us/ news/ newsRead. do?news_seq=17959
[9] Introducing The Samsung NaviBot – A Robot That Loves The Chores You Hate (http:// www. samsung. com/ au/ news/ newsRead.
do?news_seq=19705& gltype=localnews)
[10] The smarter way to clean (http:// www.samsung. com/ uk/ consumer/ home-appliances/ vacuum-cleaner/robot/ VCR8855L4B/ XEU/
index. idx?pagetype=prd_detail)
[11] Samsung Navibot (http:// www.robotreviews.com/ chat/ viewtopic.php?f=6&t=12796) by Robot Reviews
[12] SungTung, Taiwan (http:/ / papago. twcom. net/ )
[13] The towel folding robot in action - BBC video (http:// news. bbc.co.uk/ 1/ hi/technology/ 8607538. stm)
[14] Robot moves dishes from table to dishwasher - we make money not art (http:// www.we-make-money-not-art.com/ archives/ 007980. php)
External links
• Babybot - University of Genova (http:// www. liralab.it/ babybot/ robot.htm).
• Robot Info (directory of robotics news, books, videos, magazines forums and products) (http:/ / www.robotinfo.
• Robot Reviews wiki, about domestic robots (http:/ / www.robotreviews.com/ wiki)
Humanoid robot
Humanoid robot
A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance, based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with
made-for-human tools or environments. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs,
although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some
humanoid robots may also have a 'face', with 'eyes' and 'mouth'. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically
resemble a human.
TOSY's TOPIO, a humanoid robot, can play ping pong.
A humanoid robot is an autonomous robot,
because it can adapt to changes in its
environment or itself and continue to reach
its goal. This is the main difference between
humanoid and other kinds of robots. In this
context, some of the capacities of a
humanoid robot may include, among others:
• self-maintenance (like recharging itself)
• autonomous learning (learn or gain new
capabilities without outside assistance,
adjust strategies based on the
surroundings and adapt to new situations)
• avoiding harmful situations to people,
property, and itself
• safe interacting with human beings and the environment
Like other mechanical robots, humanoid refer to the following basic components too: Sensing, Actuating and
Planning and Control. Since they try to simulate the human structure and behavior and they are autonomous systems,
generally humanoid robots are more complex than other kinds of robots.
This complexity affects all robotic scales (mechanical, spatial, time, power density, system and computational
complexity), but it is more noticeable on power density and system complexity scales. In the first place, most current
humanoids aren’t strong enough even to jump and this happens because the power/weight ratio is not as good as in
the human body. The dynamically balancing Dexter can jump, but poorly so far. On the other hand, there are very
good algorithms for the several areas of humanoid construction, but it is very difficult to merge all of them into one
efficient system (the system complexity is very high). Nowadays, these are the main difficulties that humanoid
robots development has to deal with.
Humanoid robots are created to imitate some of the same physical and mental tasks that humans undergo daily.
Scientists and specialists from many different fields including engineering, cognitive science, and linguistics
combine their efforts to create a robot as human-like as possible. Their creators' goal for the robot is that one day it
will be able to both understand human intelligence, reason and act like humans. If humanoids are able to do so, they
could eventually work in cohesion with humans to create a more productive and higher quality future. Another
important benefit of developing androids is to understand the human body's biological and mental processes, from
the seemingly simple act of walking to the concepts of consciousness and spirituality.
There are currently two ways to model a humanoid robot. The first one models the robot like a set of rigid links,
which are connected with joints. This kind of structure is similar to the one that can be found in industrial robots.
Although this approach is used for most of the humanoid robots, a new one is emerging in some research works that
use the knowledge acquired on biomechanics. In this one, the humanoid robot's bottom line is a resemblance of the
Humanoid robot
human skeleton.
Nao (robot) is a robot created for
companionship. It also competes in the
RoboCup soccer championship.
Enon was created to be a personal
assistant. It is self-guiding and has
limited speech recognition and
synthesis. It can also carry things.
Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific areas.
Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior
(biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots. On the other side,
the attempt to simulate the human body leads to a better understanding of
Human cognition is a field of study which is focused on how humans
learn from sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor
skills. This knowledge is used to develop computational models of
human behavior and it has been improving over time.
It has been suggested that very advanced robotics will facilitate the
enhancement of ordinary humans. See transhumanism.
Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build better
orthosis and prosthesis for human beings, knowledge has been transferred
between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prosthesis for
neuromuscularly impaired, ankle-foot orthosis, biological realistic leg
prosthesis and forearm prosthesis.
Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform
human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist
the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being
a receptionist or a worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also
suitable for humanoids. In essence, since they can use tools and operate
equipment and vehicles designed for the human form, humanoids could
theoretically perform any task a human being can, so long as they have
the proper software. However, the complexity of doing so is deceptively
They are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too.
For example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, dances, and speaks to her audiences at Universal Studios. Several Disney
attractions employ the use of animatrons, robots that look, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of
their theme park shows. These animatrons look so realistic that it can be hard to decipher from a distance whether or
not they are actually human. Although they have a realistic look, they have no cognition or physical autonomy.
Various humanoid robots and their possible applications in daily life are featured in an independent documentary
film called Plug & Pray, which was released in 2010.
Humanoid robots, especially with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or
distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the
mission is completed.
Humanoid robot
A sensor is a device that measures some attribute of the world. Being one of the three primitives of robotics (besides
planning and control), sensing plays an important role in robotic paradigms.
Sensors can be classified according to the physical process with which they work or according to the type of
measurement information that they give as output. In this case, the second approach was used.
Proprioceptive Sensors
Proprioceptive sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the humanoid's body and joints.
In human beings inner ears are used to maintain balance and orientation. Humanoid robots use accelerometers to
measure the acceleration, from which velocity can be calculated by integration; tilt sensors to measure inclination;
force sensors placed in robot's hands and feet to measure contact force with environment; position sensors, that
indicate the actual position of the robot (from which the velocity can be calculated by derivation) or even speed
Exteroceptive Sensors
An artificial hand holding a lightbulb
Arrays of tactels can be used to provide data on what has been
touched. The Shadow Hand uses an array of 34 tactels arranged
beneath its polyurethane skin on each finger tip.
Tactile sensors
also provide information about forces and torques transferred
between the robot and other objects.
Vision refers to processing data from any modality which uses the
electromagnetic spectrum to produce an image. In humanoid
robots it is used to recognize objects and determine their
properties. Vision sensors work most similarly to the eyes of
human beings. Most humanoid robots use CCD cameras as vision
Sound sensors allow humanoid robots to hear speech and
environmental sounds, and perform as the ears of the human
being. Microphones are usually used for this task.
Actuators are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.
Humanoid robots are constructed in such a way that they mimic
the human body, so they use actuators that perform like muscles
and joints, though with a different structure. To achieve the same
effect as human motion, humanoid robots use mainly rotary
actuators. They can be either electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, piezoelectric or ultrasonic.
Hydraulic and electric actuators have a very rigid behavior and can only be made to act in a compliant manner
through the use of relatively complex feedback control strategies . While electric coreless motor actuators are better
suited for high speed and low load applications, hydraulic ones operate well at low speed and high load applications.
Piezoelectric actuators generate a small movement with a high force capability when voltage is applied. They can be
used for ultra-precise positioning and for generating and handling high forces or pressures in static or dynamic
Humanoid robot
Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in a micrometer order at ultrasonic frequencies (over
20 kHz). They are useful for controlling vibration, positioning applications and quick switching.
Pneumatic actuators operate on the basis of gas compressibility. As they are inflated, they expand along the axis, and
as they deflate, they contract. If one end is fixed, the other will move in a linear trajectory. These actuators are
intended for low speed and low/medium load applications. Between pneumatic actuators there are: cylinders,
bellows, pneumatic engines, pneumatic stepper motors and pneumatic artificial muscles.
Planning and Control
In planning and control the essential difference between humanoids and other kinds of robots (like industrial ones) is
that the movement of the robot has to be human-like, using legged locomotion, especially biped gait. The ideal
planning for humanoid movements during normal walking should result in minimum energy consumption, like it
happens in the human body. For this reason, studies on dynamics and control of these kinds of structures become
more and more important.
To maintain dynamic balance during the walk, a robot needs information about contact force and its current and
desired motion. The solution to this problem relies on a major concept, the Zero Moment Point (ZMP).
Another characteristic about humanoid robots is that they move, gather information (using sensors) on the "real
world" and interact with it, they don’t stay still like factory manipulators and other robots that work in highly
structured environments. Planning and Control have to focus about self-collision detection, path planning and
obstacle avoidance to allow humanoids to move in complex environments.
There are features in the human body that can’t be found in humanoids yet. They include structures with variable
flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e., more
degrees of freedom and therefore wide task availability. Although these characteristics are desirable to humanoid
robots, they will bring more complexity and new problems to planning and control.
Timeline of developments
Year Development
c. 250
The Lie Zi described an automaton.
c. 50
Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria described a machine to automatically pour wine for party guests.
Al-Jazari described a band made up of humanoid automata which, according to Charles B. Fowler, performed "more than fifty facial and
body actions during each musical selection."
Al-Jazari also created hand washing automata with automatic humanoid servants,
an elephant clock incorporating an automatic humanoid mahout striking a cymbal on the half-hour. His programmable "castle clock" also
featured five musician automata which automatically played music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a
water wheel.
Leonardo da Vinci designs a humanoid automaton that looks like an armored knight, known as Leonardo's robot.
Jacques de Vaucanson builds The Flute Player, a life-size figure of a shepherd that could play twelve songs on the flute and The
Tambourine Player that played a flute and a drum or tambourine.
Pierre Jacquet-Droz and his son Henri-Louis created the Draughtsman, the Musicienne and the Writer, a figure of a boy that could write
messages up to 40 characters long.
1837 The story of the Golem of Prague, an humanoid artificial intelligence activated by inscribing Hebrew letters on its forehead, based on
Jewish folklore, was created by Jewish German writer Berthold Auerbach for his novel Spinoza.
Czech writer Karel Čapek introduced the word "robot" in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). The word "robot" comes from the
word "robota", meaning, in Czech, "forced labour, drudgery".
Humanoid robot
1927 The Maschinenmensch (“machine-human”), a gynoid humanoid robot, also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria
impersonator" (played by German actress Brigitte Helm), perhaps the most memorable humanoid robot ever to appear on film, is
depicted in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis.
1941-42 Isaac Asimov formulates the Three Laws of Robotics, and in the process of doing so, coins the word "robotics".
1948 Norbert Wiener formulates the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.
1961 The first digitally operated and programmable non-humanoid robot, the Unimate, is installed on a General Motors assembly line to lift
hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. It was created by George Devol and constructed by Unimation, the first
robot manufacturing company.
D.E. Whitney publishes his article "Resolved motion rate control of manipulators and human prosthesis".
Miomir Vukobratović has proposed Zero Moment Point, a theoretical model to explain biped locomotion.
1972 Miomir Vukobratović and his associates at Mihajlo Pupin Institute build the first active anthropomorphic exoskeleton.
In Waseda University, in Tokyo, Wabot-1 is built. It was able to communicate with a person in Japanese and to measure distances and
directions to the objects using external receptors, artificial ears and eyes, and an artificial mouth.
Marc Raibert established the MIT Leg Lab, which is dedicated to studying legged locomotion and building dynamic legged robots.
Using MB Associates arms, "Greenman" was developed by Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. It had an exoskeletal
master controller with kinematic equivalency and spatial correspondence of the torso, arms, and head. Its vision system consisted of two
525-line video cameras each having a 35-degree field of view and video camera eyepiece monitors mounted in an aviator's helmet.
At Waseda University, the Wabot-2 is created, a musician humanoid robot able to communicate with a person, read a normal musical
score with his eyes and play tunes of average difficulty on an electronic organ.
Developed by Hitachi Ltd, WHL-11 is a biped robot capable of static walking on a flat surface at 13 seconds per step and it can also turn.
1985 WASUBOT is another musician robot from Waseda University. It performed a concerto with the NHK Symphony Orchestra at the
opening ceremony of the International Science and Technology Exposition.
Honda developed seven biped robots which were designated E0 (Experimental Model 0) through E6. E0 was in 1986, E1 – E3 were done
between 1987 and 1991, and E4 - E6 were done between 1991 and 1993.
Manny was a full-scale anthropomorphic robot with 42 degrees of freedom developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories in
Richland, Washington, for the US Army's Dugway Proving Ground in Utah. It could not walk on its own but it could crawl, and had an
artificial respiratory system to simulate breathing and sweating.
Tad McGeer showed that a biped mechanical structure with knees could walk passively down a sloping surface.
Honda developed P1 (Prototype Model 1) through P3, an evolution from E series, with upper limbs. Developed until 1997.
1995 Hadaly was developed in Waseda University to study human-robot communication and has three subsystems: a head-eye subsystem, a
voice control system for listening and speaking in Japanese, and a motion-control subsystem to use the arms to point toward campus
1995 Wabian is a human-size biped walking robot from Waseda University.
Saika, a light-weight, human-size and low-cost humanoid robot, was developed at Tokyo University. Saika has a two-DOF neck, dual
five-DOF upper arms, a torso and a head. Several types of hands and forearms are under development also. Developed until 1998.
1997 Hadaly-2, developed at Waseda University, is a humanoid robot which realizes interactive communication with humans. It communicates
not only informationally, but also physically.
Honda creates its 11th bipedal humanoid robot, ASIMO.
2001 Sony unveils small humanoid entertainment robots, dubbed Sony Dream Robot (SDR). Renamed Qrio in 2003.
Fujitsu realized its first commercial humanoid robot named HOAP-1. Its successors HOAP-2 and HOAP-3 were announced in 2003 and
2005, respectively. HOAP is designed for a broad range of applications for R&D of robot technologies.
Humanoid robot
JOHNNIE, an autonomous biped walking robot built at the Technical University of Munich. The main objective was to realize an
anthropomorphic walking machine with a human-like, dynamically stable gait
Actroid, a robot with realistic silicone "skin" developed by Osaka University in conjunction with Kokoro Company Ltd.
Persia, Iran's first humanoid robot, was developed using realistic simulation by researchers of Isfahan University of Technology in
conjunction with ISTT.
2004 KHR-1, a programmable bipedal humanoid robot introduced in June 2004 by a Japanese company Kondo Kagaku.
The PKD Android, a conversational humanoid robot made in the likeness of science fiction novelist Philip K Dick, was developed as a
collaboration between Hanson Robotics, the FedEx Institute of Technology, and the University of Memphis.
Wakamaru, a Japanese domestic robot made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, primarily intended to provide companionship to elderly and
disabled people.
TOPIO, a ping pong playing robot developed by TOSY Robotics JSC.
Justin, a humanoid robot developed by the German Space Agency (DLR).
KT-X, the first international humanoid robot developed as a collaboration between the five-time consecutive RoboCup champions, Team
Osaka, and KumoTek Robotics.
Nexi, the first mobile, dexterous and social robot, makes its public debut as one of TIME magazine's top inventions of the year.
robot was built through a collaboration between the MIT Media Lab Personal Robots Group,
Xitome Design
UMass Amherst
and Meka robotics.

2009 HRP-4C, a Japanese domestic robot made by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, shows human
characteristics in addition to bipedal walking.
Turkey's first dynamically walking humanoid robot, SURALP, is developed by Sabanci University in conjunction with Tubitak.
NASA and General Motors revealed Robonaut 2, a very advanced humanoid robot. It was part of the payload of Shuttle Discovery on the
successful launch February 24, 2010. It is intended to do spacewalks for NASA.
Students at the University of Tehran, Iran unveil the Surena II. It was unveiled by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Researchers at Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology demonstrate their humanoid robot HRP-4C
singing and dancing along with human dancers.
2010 in September the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology also demonstrates the humanoid robot HRP-4. The
HRP-4 resembles the HRP-4C in some regards but is called "athletic" and is not a gynoid.
[1] "Nano technology | Computer | Robot | TOSY TOPIO - Table Tennis Playing Robot" (http:// www. diginfo.tv/ 2007/ 12/ 05/ 07-0601-d.
php). DigInfo News. . Retrieved 2007-12-05.
[2] Plug & Pray (http:/ / www.plugandpray-film.de/ en/ content. html), documentary film by Jens Schanze about the future possibilities of AI
and robotics.
[3] "Shadow Robot Company: The Hand Technical Specification" (http:/ / www.shadowrobot.com/ hand/ techspec.shtml). . Retrieved
[4] Joseph Needham (1986), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2, p. 53, England: Cambridge University Press
[5] Hero of Alexandria; Bennet Woodcroft (trans.) (1851). Temple Doors opened by Fire on an Altar. Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria.
London: Taylor Walton and Maberly (online edition from University of Rochester, Rochester, NY). Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
[6] Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal 54 (2): 45-9
[7] Rosheim, Mark E. (1994). Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0471026220
[8] [[Ancient Discoveries (http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8)], Episode 11: Ancient Robots]. History Channel. . Retrieved
[9] (http:// robotics. megagiant. com/ history. html)
[10] (http:// www. miralab. unige. ch/ subpages/ automates/ eightennth/ jaquetdroz_uk.htm)
[11] (http:/ / www. iirobotics. com/ webpages/ robothistory.php)
Humanoid robot
[12] (http:// robotics. megagiant. com/ history. html)
[13] Resolved motion rate control of manipulators and human prostheses DE Whitney - IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems, 1969
[14] (http:// www. imp. bg. ac. rs/ prez/ lab150/ eng. pdf)
[15] (http:// www. androidworld.com/ prod06. htm)
[16] (http:// robosapiens. mit. edu/ electric3.htm)
[17] (http:// www. nosc. mil/ robots/ telepres/ greenman/greenman. html)
[18] (http:// www. androidworld.com/ prod06. htm)
[19] (http:// www. androidworld.com/ prod06. htm)
[20] (http:// www. honda. co. jp/ ASIMO/ history/ index. html)
[21] (http:// www. androidworld.com/ prod06. htm)
[22] (http:// www. droidlogic. com/ )
[23] (http:// www. honda. co. jp/ ASIMO/ history/ index. html)
[24] (http:// www. androidworld.com/ prod06. htm)
[25] (http:// www. honda. co. jp/ ASIMO/ history/ index. html)
[26] http:// www. fujitsu. com/ global/ about/ rd/200506hoap-series.html
[27] (http:// www. amm. mw. tum. de/ index. php?id=182)
[28] (http:/ / www. kokoro-dreams.co. jp/ english/ robot/act/ index. html)
[29] (http:// roboticscenter. org/en/ content/ Projects/ Humanoid. asp)
[30] (http:/ / www. pkdandroid. org)
[31] (http:/ / www. mhi. co. jp/ kobe/ wakamaru/ english/ news/ index.html)
[32] (http:/ / news. softpedia. com/ news/ I-The-Ping-pong-Robot-72870.shtml)
[33] (http:/ / www. dlr. de)
[34] (http:/ / www. kumotek. com/ educational_robots. htm)
[35] Time. 2008-10-29. http:// www.time. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/0,28804,1852747_1854195_1854135,00. html.
[36] http:// robotic.media. mit. edu/ index. html
[37] http:/ / www. xitome. com/
[38] http:/ / www. mekabot. com/
[39] (http:// robotic. media. mit. edu/ projects/ robots/ mds/ overview/ overview.html)
[40] (http:/ / people.sabanciuniv. edu/ erbatur/humanoid robot project.html)
[41] http:/ / www. popsci. com/ technology/ article/2010-02/nasa-unveils-android-astronaut
[42] http:/ / uk.news. yahoo.com/ 18/ 20100704/ twl-iran-unveils-human-like-robot-report-3cd7efd_1.html
[43] http:// spectrum. ieee. org/automaton/ robotics/ humanoids/ how-to-make-a-robot-dance
• Asada, H. and Slotine, J.-J. E. (1986). Robot Analysis and Control. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-83029-1.
• Arkin, Ronald C. (1998). Behavior-Based Robotics. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01165-4.
• Brady, M., Hollerbach, J.M., Johnson, T., Lozano-Perez, T. and Mason, M. (1982), Robot Motion: Planning and
Control. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-02182-X.
• Horn, Berthold, K. P. (1986). Robot Vision. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-08159-8.
• Craig, J. J. (1986). Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-09528-9.
• Everett, H. R. (1995). Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application. AK Peters. ISBN 1-56881-048-2.
• Kortenkamp, D., Bonasso, R., Murphy, R. (1998). Artificial Intelligence and Mobile Robots. MIT Press. ISBN
• Poole, D., Mackworth, A. and Goebel, R. (1998), Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-510270-3.
• Russell, R. A. (1990). Robot Tactile Sensing. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-781592-1.
• Russell, S. J. & Norvig, P. (1995). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Prentice-Hall. Prentice Hall.
ISBN 0-13-790395-2.
Humanoid robot
Further reading
• Carpenter, J., Davis, J., Erwin‐Stewart, N., Lee. T., Bransford, J. & Vye, N. (2009). Gender representation in
humanoid robots for domestic use. International Journal of Social Robotics (special issue). 1 (3), 261‐265.The
Netherlands: Springer.
• Carpenter, J., Davis, J., Erwin‐Stewart, N., Lee. T., Bransford, J. & Vye, N. (2008).Invisible machinery in
function, not form: User expectations of a domestic humanoid robot. Proceedings of 6th conference on Design
and Emotion. Hong Kong, China.
• Williams, Karl P. (2004). Build Your Own Human Robots: 6 Amazing and Affordable Projects.
McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics. ISBN 0-07-142274-9. ISBN 978-0-07-142274-1.
External links
• MIT Media Lab Personal Robots Group (http:// robotic. media. mit. edu/ )
• Humanoid Robots' jobs in Japan (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/articles/ A25394-2005Mar10_2.
• MIT Lab Research Projects (http:// www. media.mit. edu/ research/ResearchPubWeb. pl?ID=1106)
• Ethics for the Robot Age (http:/ / www. wired.com/ wired/archive/13.01/ view.html)
• Honda Humanoid Robots (http:/ / www. honda-robots.com)
• Service Robots (http:/ / www. inl. gov/ adaptiverobotics/ humanoidrobotics/ servicerobots. shtml)
• Ethical Considerations for Humanoid Robots (http:/ / www.inl. gov/ adaptiverobotics/ humanoidrobotics/
ethicalconsiderations. shtml)
• Android World (http:// www. androidworld.com/ ) (also contains a more complete timeline)
• Robotics Education Website (http:/ / www. razorrobotics.com/ )
• Xitome Design Humanoid Robotics (http:/ / www.xitome. com/ )
Industrial robot
Industrial robot
Articulated industrial robot operating in a
A set of six-axis robots used for welding.
An industrial robot is defined by ISO
as an automatically
controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable
in three or more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically
defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for
manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of
Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly,
pick and place, packaging and palletizing, product inspection, and
testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.
Robot types, features
The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots,
SCARA robots and Cartesian coordinate robots, (aka gantry robots or
x-y-z robots). In the context of general robotics, most types of robots
would fall into the category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of the
word manipulator in the above-mentioned ISO standard). Robots
exhibit varying degrees of autonomy:
• Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions
over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a
high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined by
programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration,
velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated
• Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the
object on which they are operating or even the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot
may even need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often contain machine vision
sub-systems acting as their "eyes", linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what
passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial robot.
History of industrial robotics
George Devol, c. 1982
George Devol applied for the first robotics patents in 1954 (granted in 1961).
The first company to produce a robot was Unimation, founded by Devol and
Joseph F. Engelberger in 1956, and was based on Devol's original patents.
Unimation robots were also called programmable transfer machines since
their main use at first was to transfer objects from one point to another, less
than a dozen feet or so apart. They used hydraulic actuators and were
programmed in joint coordinates, i.e. the angles of the various joints were
stored during a teaching phase and replayed in operation. They were accurate
to within 1/10,000 of an inch (note: although accuracy is not an appropriate
measure for robots, usually evaluated in terms of repeatability - see later). Unimation later licensed their technology
Industrial robot
to Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Guest-Nettlefolds, manufacturing Unimates in Japan and England respectively.
For some time Unimation's only competitor was Cincinnati Milacron Inc. of Ohio. This changed radically in the late
1970s when several big Japanese conglomerates began producing similar industrial robots.
In 1969 Victor Scheinman at Stanford University invented the Stanford arm, an all-electric, 6-axis articulated robot
designed to permit an arm solution. This allowed it accurately to follow arbitrary paths in space and widened the
potential use of the robot to more sophisticated applications such as assembly and welding. Scheinman then designed
a second arm for the MIT AI Lab, called the "MIT arm." Scheinman, after receiving a fellowship from Unimation to
develop his designs, sold those designs to Unimation who further developed them with support from General Motors
and later marketed it as the Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly (PUMA).
Industrial robotics took off quite quickly in Europe, with both ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics bringing robots to
the market in 1973. ABB Robotics (formerly ASEA) introduced IRB 6, among the world's first commercially
available all electric micro-processor controlled robot. The first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in
Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974. Also in 1973
KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS,
also one of the first articulated robot to have six
electromechanically driven axes.
Interest in robotics increased in the late 1970s and many US companies entered the field, including large firms like
General Electric, and General Motors (which formed joint venture FANUC Robotics with FANUC LTD of Japan).
U.S. startup companies included Automatix and Adept Technology, Inc. At the height of the robot boom in 1984,
Unimation was acquired by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for 107 million U.S. dollars. Westinghouse sold
Unimation to Stäubli Faverges SCA of France in 1988, which is still making articulated robots for general industrial
and cleanroom applications and even bought the robotic division of Bosch in late 2004.
Only a few non-Japanese companies ultimately managed to survive in this market, the major ones being Adept
Technology, Stäubli-Unimation, the Swedish-Swiss company ABB Asea Brown Boveri and the German company
KUKA Robotics.
Technical description
Defining parameters
• Number of axes – two axes are required to reach any point in a plane; three axes are required to reach any point in
space. To fully control the orientation of the end of the arm (i.e. the wrist) three more axes (yaw, pitch, and roll)
are required. Some designs (e.g. the SCARA robot) trade limitations in motion possibilities for cost, speed, and
• Degrees of freedom which is usually the same as the number of axes.
• Working envelope – the region of space a robot can reach.
• Kinematics – the actual arrangement of rigid members and joints in the robot, which determines the robot's
possible motions. Classes of robot kinematics include articulated, cartesian, parallel and SCARA.
• Carrying capacity or payload – how much weight a robot can lift.
• Speed – how fast the robot can position the end of its arm. This may be defined in terms of the angular or linear
speed of each axis or as a compound speed i.e. the speed of the end of the arm when all axes are moving.
• Acceleration - how quickly an axis can accelerate. Since this is a limiting factor a robot may not be able to reach
its specified maximum speed for movements over a short distance or a complex path requiring frequent changes
of direction.
• Accuracy – how closely a robot can reach a commanded position. When the absolute position of the robot is
measured and compared to the commanded position the error is a measure of accuracy. Accuracy can be
improved with external sensing for example a vision system or IR. See robot calibration. Accuracy can vary with
speed and position within the working envelope and with payload (see compliance).
Industrial robot
• Repeatability - how well the robot will return to a programmed position. This is not the same as accuracy. It may
be that when told to go to a certain X-Y-Z position that it gets only to within 1 mm of that position. This would be
its accuracy which may be improved by calibration. But if that position is taught into controller memory and each
time it is sent there it returns to within 0.1mm of the taught position then the repeatability will be within 0.1mm.
Accuracy and repeatability are different measures. Repeatability is usually the most important criterion for a robot.
ISO 9283
sets out a method whereby both accuracy and repeatability can be measured. Typically a robot is sent to
a taught position a number of times and the error is measured at each return to the position after visiting 4 other
positions. Repeatability is then quantified using the standard deviation of those samples in all three dimensions. A
typical robot can, of course make a positional error exceeding that and that could be a problem for the process.
Moreover the repeatability is different in different parts of the working envelope and also changes with speed and
payload. ISO 9283 specifies that accuracy and repeatability should be measured at maximum speed and at maximum
payload. But this results in pessimistic values whereas the robot could be much more accurate and repeatable at light
loads and speeds. Repeatability in an industrial process is also subject to the accuracy of the end effector, for
example a gripper, and even to the design of the 'fingers' that match the gripper to the object being grasped. For
example if a robot picks a screw by its head the screw could be at a random angle. A subsequent attempt to insert the
screw into a hole could easily fail. These and similar scenarios can be improved with 'lead-ins' e.g. by making the
entrance to the hole tapered.
• Motion control – for some applications, such as simple pick-and-place assembly, the robot need merely return
repeatably to a limited number of pre-taught positions. For more sophisticated applications, such as welding and
finishing (spray painting), motion must be continuously controlled to follow a path in space, with controlled
orientation and velocity.
• Power source – some robots use electric motors, others use hydraulic actuators. The former are faster, the latter
are stronger and advantageous in applications such as spray painting, where a spark could set off an explosion;
however, low internal air-pressurisation of the arm can prevent ingress of flammable vapours as well as other
• Drive – some robots connect electric motors to the joints via gears; others connect the motor to the joint directly
(direct drive). Using gears results in measurable 'backlash' which is free movement in an axis. Smaller robot arms
frequently employ high speed, low torque DC motors, which generally require high gearing ratios; this has the
disadvantage of backlash. In such cases the harmonic drive is often used.
• Compliance - this is a measure of the amount in angle or distance that a robot axis will move when a force is
applied to it. Because of compliance when a robot goes to a position carrying its maximum payload it will be at a
position slightly lower than when it is carrying no payload. Compliance can also be responsible for overshoot
when carrying high payloads in which case acceleration would need to be reduced.
Robot programming and interfaces
Offline programming by ROBCAD
The setup or programming of motions and sequences for an industrial
robot is typically taught by linking the robot controller to a laptop,
desktop computer or (internal or Internet) network.
A robot and a collection of machines or peripherals is referred to as a
workcell, or cell. A typical cell might contain a parts feeder, a molding
machine and a robot. The various machines are 'integrated' and
controlled by a single computer or PLC. How the robot interacts with
other machines in the cell must be programmed, both with regard to
their positions in the cell and synchronizing with them.
Industrial robot
A typical well-used teach pendant with optional
Software: The computer is installed with corresponding interface
software. The use of a computer greatly simplifies the programming
process. Specialized robot software is run either in the robot controller
or in the computer or both depending on the system design.
There are two basic entities that need to be taught (or programmed):
positional data and procedure. For example in a task to move a screw
from a feeder to a hole the positions of the feeder and the hole must
first be taught or programmed. Secondly the procedure to get the screw
from the feeder to the hole must be programmed along with any I/O
involved, for example a signal to indicate when the screw is in the
feeder ready to be picked up. The purpose of the robot software is to
facilitate both these programming tasks.
Teaching the robot positions may be achieved a number of ways:
Positional commands The robot can be directed to the required position using a GUI or text based commands in
which the required X-Y-Z position may be specified and edited.
Teach pendant: Robot positions can be taught via a teach pendant. This is a handheld control and programming unit.
The common features of such units are the ability to manually send the robot to a desired position, or "inch" or "jog"
to adjust a position. They also have a means to change the speed since a low speed is usually required for careful
positioning, or while test-running through a new or modified routine. A large emergency stop button is usually
included as well. Typically once the robot has been programmed there is no more use for the teach pendant.
Lead-by-the-nose is a technique offered by many robot manufacturers. In this method, one user holds the robot's
manipulator, while another person enters a command which de-energizes the robot causing it to go limp. The user
then moves the robot by hand to the required positions and/or along a required path while the software logs these
positions into memory. The program can later run the robot to these positions or along the taught path. This
technique is popular for tasks such as paint spraying.
Offline programming is where the entire cell, the robot and all the machines or instruments in the workspace are
mapped graphically. The robot can then be moved on screen and the process simulated. The technique has limited
value because it relies on accurate measurement of the positions of the associated equipment and also relies on the
positional accuracy the robot which may or may not conform to what is programmed (see accuracy and repeatability,
Others In addition, machine operators often use user interface devices, typically touchscreen units, which serve as
the operator control panel. The operator can switch from program to program, make adjustments within a program
and also operate a host of peripheral devices that may be integrated within the same robotic system. These include
end effectors, feeders that supply components to the robot, conveyor belts, emergency stop controls, machine vision
systems, safety interlock systems, bar code printers and an almost infinite array of other industrial devices which are
accessed and controlled via the operator control panel.
The teach pendant or PC is usually disconnected after programming and the robot then runs on the program that has
been installed in its controller. However a computer is often used to 'supervise' the robot and any peripherals, or to
provide additional storage for access to numerous complex paths and routines.
Industrial robot
End effectors
Factory Automation with industrial robots for
palletizing food products like bread and toast at a
bakery in Germany
The most essential robot peripheral is the end effector, or
end-of-arm-tooling. Common examples of end effectors include
welding devices (such as MIG-welding guns, spot-welders, etc.), spray
guns and also grinding and deburring devices (such as pneumatic disk
or belt grinders, burrs, etc.), and grippers (devices that can grasp an
object, usually electromechanical or pneumatic). Another common
means of picking up an object is by vacuum. End effectors are
frequently highly complex, made to match the handled product and
often capable of picking up an array of products at one time. They may
utilize various sensors to aid the robot system in locating, handling,
and positioning products.
Movement and singularities
Most articulated robots perform by storing a series of positions in memory, and moving to them at various times in
their programming sequence. For example, a robot which is moving items from one place to another might have a
simple 'pick and place' program similar to the following:
Define points P1–P5:
1. Safely above workpiece (defined as P1)
2. 10 cm Above bin A (defined as P2)
3. At position to take part from bin A (defined as P3)
4. 10 cm Above bin B (defined as P4)
5. At position to take part from bin B. (defined as p5)
Define program:
1. Move to P1
2. Move to P2
3. Move to P3
4. Close gripper
5. Move to P2
6. Move to P4
7. Move to P5
8. Open gripper
9. Move to P4
10. Move to P1 and finish
For examples of how this would look in popular robot languages see industrial robot programming.
For a given robot the only parameters necessary to completely locate the end effector (gripper, welding torch, etc.) of
the robot are the angles of each of the joints or displacements of the linear axes (or combinations of the two for robot
formats such as SCARA). However there are many different ways to define the points. The most common and most
convenient way of defining a point is to specify a Cartesian coordinate for it, i.e. the position of the 'end effector' in
mm in the X, Y and Z directions relative to the robot's origin. In addition, depending on the types of joints a
particular robot may have, the orientation of the end effector in yaw, pitch, and roll and the location of the tool point
relative to the robot's faceplate must also be specified. For a jointed arm these coordinates must be converted to joint
angles by the robot controller and such conversions are known as Cartesian Transformations which may need to be
performed iteratively or recursively for a multiple axis robot. The mathematics of the relationship between joint
Industrial robot
angles and actual spatial coordinates is called kinematics. See robot control
Positioning by Cartesian coordinates may be done by entering the coordinates into the system or by using a teach
pendant which moves the robot in X-Y-Z directions. It is much easier for a human operator to visualize motions
up/down, left/right, etc. than to move each joint one at a time. When the desired position is reached it is then defined
in some way particular to the robot software in use, e.g. P1 - P5 above.
The American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems — Safety Requirements (ANSI/RIA
R15.06-1999) defines a singularity as “a condition caused by the collinear alignment of two or more robot axes
resulting in unpredictable robot motion and velocities.” It is most common in robot arms that utilize a “triple-roll
wrist”. This is a wrist about which the three axes of the wrist, controlling yaw, pitch, and roll, all pass through a
common point. An example of a wrist singularity is when the path through which the robot is traveling causes the
first and third axes of the robot’s wrist to line up. The second wrist axis then attempts to spin 360° in zero time to
maintain the orientation of the end effector. Another common term for this singularity is a “wrist flip”. The result of a
singularity can be quite dramatic and can have adverse effects on the robot arm, the end effector, and the process.
Some industrial robot manufacturers have attempted to side-step the situation by slightly altering the robot’s path to
prevent this condition. Another method is to slow the robot’s travel speed, thus reducing the speed required for the
wrist to make the transition. The ANSI/RIA has mandated that robot manufacturers shall make the user aware of
singularities if they occur while the system is being manually manipulated.
Recent and future developments
As of 2005, the robotic arm business is approaching a mature state, where they can provide enough speed, accuracy
and ease of use for most of the applications. Vision guidance (aka machine vision) is bringing a lot of flexibility to
robotic cells. However, the end effector attached to a robot is often a simple pneumatic, 2-position chuck. This does
not allow the robotic cell to easily handle different parts, in different orientations.
Hand-in-hand with increasing off-line programmed applications, robot calibration is becoming more and more
important in order to guarantee a good positioning accuracy.
Other developments include downsizing industrial arms for light industrial use such as production of small products,
sealing and dispensing, quality control, handling samples in the laboratory. Such robots are usually classified as
"bench top" robots. Robots are used in pharmaceutical research in a technique called High-throughput screening.
Bench top robots are also used in consumer applications (micro-robotic arms). Industrial arms may be used in
combination with or even mounted on automated guided vehicles (AGVs) to make the automation chain more
flexible between pick-up and drop-off.
Prices of robots will vary with the features, but are usually between 7,500 USD, for a bench-top model, and 100,000
USD, for a heavy-duty, long-reach robot.
Market structure
The 2010 report
from the International Federation of Robotics
shows that Japanese companies lead the world in
both stock and sales of multi-purpose industrial robots. About 60 per cent of the installations were articulated robots,
22 per cent were gantry robots, and 13 per cent were SCARA robots and 4 per cent were cylindrical robots. The
majority of installations are in the automobile sector. There are increasing sales into non automotive sectors such as
metals and plastics.
In 2007 the world market grew by 3% with approximately 114,000 new installed industrial robots. At the end of
2007 there were around one million industrial robots in use, compared with an estimated 50,000 service robots for
industrial use.
Industrial robot
[1] ISO Standard 8373:1994, Manipulating Industrial Robots – Vocabulary
[2] KUKA-Roboter.de: 1973 The First KUKA Robot (http:// www.kuka-robotics.com/ en/ company/ group/ milestones/ 1973. htm) English,
28th of March 2010
[3] ISO 9283 preview (http:// www. evs. ee/ Checkout/ tabid/ 36/ screen/ freedownload/productid/ 159968/ doclang/ en/ preview/1/
EVS_EN_ISO_9283;2001_en_preview. aspx)
[4] http:// www. worldrobotics.org/ downloads/ 2010_Executive_Summary_rev%281%29.pdf
[5] http:/ / www. ifr.org/
[6] http:/ / www. worldrobotics.org/ downloads/ 2010_Executive_Summary_rev%281%29.pdf
Further reading
• Nof, Shimon Y. (editor) (1999). Handbook of Industrial Robotics, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons. 1378 pp. ISBN
• Lars Westerlund (author) (2000). The extended arm of man. ISBN 91-7736-467-8.
External links
• Industrial robots and robot system safety (http:// www.osha. gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/ otm_iv_4.html) (by
OSHA, so in the public domain (http:// www.osha. gov/ html/ Feed_Back. html)).
• International Federation of Robotics IFR (worldwide) (http:// www.ifr.org/)
• Robotic Industries Association RIA (North America) (http:/ / www.roboticsonline. com/ ).
Mobile manipulator
Mobile Manipulator systems; mobile platform, robot
manipulator, vision and tooling
Mobile manipulator is nowadays a widespread term to refer to
robot systems built from a robotic manipulator arm mounted on a
mobile platform. Such systems combine the advantages of mobile
platforms and robotic manipulator arms and reduce their
drawbacks. For instance, the mobile platform extends the
workspace of the arm, whereas an arm offers several operational
A mobile manipulation system offers a dual advantage of
mobility offered by a mobile platform and dexterity offered by
the manipulator. The mobile platform offers unlimited workspace
to the manipulator. The extra degrees of freedom of the mobile
platform also provide user with more choices. However the
operation of such a system is challenging because of the many
degrees of freedom and the unstructured environment that it
performs in.
General system composition:
• Mobile platform
• Robot manipulator
• Vision
• Tooling
Mobile manipulator
At the moment mobile manipulation is a subject of major focus in development and research environments, and
mobile manipulators, either autonomous or teleoperated, are used in many different areas, e.g. space exploration,
military operations, home-care and health-care. However, within the industrial field the implementation of mobile
manipulators has been limited, although the needs for intelligent and flexible automation are present. In addition, the
necessary technology entities (mobile platforms, robot manipulators, vision and tooling) are, to a large extent,
available off-the-shelf components.
A reason for this is that the manufacturing industries act traditionally and, therefore, have reluctance in taking risks
by implementing new technologies. Also within the field of industrial mobile manipulation the centre of attention
has been on optimization of the individual technologies, especially robot manipulators
and tooling,
while the
integration, use and application have been neglected. This means that few implementations of mobile robots, in
production environments, have been reported - e.g.
Year Robot name Company / Research Institute
Hilare 2bis
2000 Jaume
Robotic Intelligence Lab, Jaume I University, Spain
2004 FAuStO
University of Verona, Italy
Neobotix MM-500
GPS GmbH, Germany
Little Helper
Department of Production, Aalborg University, Denmark
Mobile manipulator
State of the art
Mobile Manipulator: Little Helper - Aalborg
One recent example is the mobile manipulator "Little Helper"
from the Department of Production at Aalborg University.
Notes and references
[1] M. Hvilshøj, S. Bøgh, O. Madsen and M. Kristiansen: The Mobile Robot “Little
Helper”: Concepts, ideas and working principles, 14th IEEE International
Conference on Emerging Techonologies and Factory Automation, 2009
[2] A. Albu-Schäffer, S. Haddadin, C. Ott, A. Stemmer, T. Wimböck and G.
Hirzinger: The DLR lightweight robot: design and control concepts for robots
in human environments, Industrial Robot, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 376-385, 2007
[3] H. Liu, P. Meusel, G. Hirzinger, M. Jin and Y. X. Liu: The Modular
Multisensory DLR-HIT-Hand: Hardware and Software Architecture,
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 461-469, 2008
[4] A. Stopp, S. Horstmann, S. Kristensen and F. Lohnert: Towards Interactive
Learning for Manufacturing Assistant, IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, pp. 705-707, 2003
[5] E. Helms, R. D. Schraft and M. Hägele: rob@work: Robot assistant in
industrial environments, Proceedings in IEEE International Workshop on Robot
and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 399-404, 2002
[6] http:/ / homepages. laas. fr/matthieu/ robots/ h2bis. shtml
[7] http:// www. neobotix. de/ en/ products/ Manipulators. html
[8] http:// www. machinevision. dk
[9] Research project; Industrial maturation and exploitation of mobile
manipulators - more info: MachineVision.dk (http:// www. machinevision.dk)
External links
• Automation Group, Department of Production, Aalborg University (http:// www.machinevision. dk)
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo International Robot Exhibition
(IREX) 2009.

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005, a humanoid
A robot is a mechanical intelligent
agent which can perform tasks on its
own, or with guidance. The term robot
can also apply to a virtual agent. In
practice it is usually an
electro-mechanical machine which is
guided by computer and electronic
programming. Robots can be
autonomous or semi-autonomous and
come in those two basic types: those
which are used for research into
human-like systems, such as ASIMO
and TOPIO, as well as those into more
defined and specific roles, such as
Nano robots and Swarm robots; and
helper robots which are used to make
or move things or perform menial or
dangerous tasks, such as Industrial
robots or mobile or servicing robots.
Another common characteristic is that,
by its appearance or movements, a
robot often conveys a sense that it has
intent or agency of its own.
When societies began developing
nearly all production and effort was the
result of human labour. As mechanical
means of performing functions were
discovered, and mechanics and
complex mechanisms were developed,
the need for human labour was
reduced. Machinery was initially used
for repetitive functions, such as lifting
water and grinding grain. With
technological advances more complex
machines were slowly developed, such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria in the 4th century BC, and the first
half of the second millennium AD, such as the Automata of Al Jazari in the 12th century AD. They were not widely
adopted as human labour, particularly slave labour, was still inexpensive compared to the capital-intensive machines.
Men such as Leonardo Da Vinci in 1495 through to Jacques de Vaucanson in 1739, as well as rediscovering the
Greek engineering methods, have made plans for and built automata and robots leading to books of designs such as
the Japanese Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery) in 1796. As mechanical techniques developed through the
Industrial age we find more practical applications such as Nikola Tesla in 1898, who designed a radio-controlled
torpedo, and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation creation of Televox in 1926. From here we also find a more
android development as designers tried to mimic more human-like features including designs such as those of
biologist Makoto Nishimura in 1929 and his creation Gakutensoku, which cried and changed its facial expressions,
and the more crude Elektro from Westinghouse in 1938.
Electronics then became the driving force of development instead of mechanics, with the advent of the first
electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England, in 1948. The first digital and
programmable robot was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the
first Unimate to General Motors in 1960 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines in a
plant in Trenton, New Jersey. Since then we have seen robots finally reach a more true assimilation of all
technologies to produce robots such as ASIMO which can walk and move like a human. Robots have replaced slaves
in the assistance of performing those repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to
do due to size limitations, or even those such as in outer space or at the bottom of the sea where humans could not
survive the extreme environments.
Man has developed an awareness of the problems associated with autonomous robots and how they may act in
society. Fear of robot behaviour, such as Shelley's Frankenstein and the EATR, drive current practice in establishing
what autonomy a robot should and should not be capable of. Thinking has developed through discussion of robot
control and artificial intelligence (AI) and how its application should benefit society, such as those based around
Asimov's three laws. Practicality still drives development forwards and robots are used in an increasingly wide
variety of tasks such as vacuuming floors, mowing lawns, cleaning drains, investigating other planets, building cars,
in entertainment and in warfare.
A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R.
(Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three
The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech interwar
writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots),
published in 1920.
The play begins in a factory that makes artificial
people called robots, though they are closer to the modern ideas of
androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly
think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is
whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in
reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which
he named his brother, the painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual originator.
In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he explained that he had originally wanted to call the
creatures laboři ("workers", from Latin labor). However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his
brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". The word robota means literally "work", "labor" or "corvée", "serf labor", and
figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and many Slavic languages. Traditionally the robota was the work
period a serf (corvée) had to give for his lord, typically 6 months of the year. The origin of the word is the Old
Church Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary Bulgarian and Russian), which in turn comes from the
Indo-European root *orbh-.
Serfdom was outlawed in 1848 in Bohemia, so at the time Čapek wrote R.U.R., usage
of the term robota had broadened to include various types of work, but the obsolete sense of "serfdom" would still
have been known.
The word robotics, used to describe this field of study, was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.
Asimov and John W. Campbell created the "Three Laws of Robotics" which are a recurring theme in his books.
These have since been used by many others to define laws used in fact and fiction. Introduced in his 1942 short story
"Runaround" the Laws state the following:

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. ”
Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god
(Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and
Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life.
According to Mark E. Rosheim, "The beginning of robots may be traced to the great Greek engineer Ctesibius (c.
270 BC). ... Ctesibius applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks
with moving figures."

In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a
mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD), a Greek mathematician
and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air
pressure, steam and water.
Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that
chimed the hours.
In the 3rd century BC text of the Lie Zi, there is a curious account on automata involving a much earlier encounter
between King Mu of Zhou (Chinese emperor 10th century BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi , an
'artificer'. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork'
made of leather, wood, and artificial organs.
Al-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of
automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and programmable

The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking
parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that
operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns
by moving the pegs to different locations.

of a washstand
the earliest
known, as
described by
the Greek
engineer Philo
of Byzantium
(3rd century
Al-Jazari's programmable
19th century.
Early modern developments
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks,
rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot, able to
sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.
The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded
in his Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In 1738 and 1739, Jacques de Vaucanson
exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck. The mechanical duck could flap its
wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by
excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.
Complex mechanical toys and animals built in Japan in the 18th
century were described in the Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery, 1796)
Modern developments
The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (1799–1881), known as "Japan's Edison" or "Karakuri Giemon", created
an array of extremely complex mechanical toys, some of which served tea, fired arrows drawn from a quiver, and
even painted a Japanese kanji character.
In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled
Based on patents for "teleautomation", Tesla hoped to develop it into a weapon system for the US

In 1926, Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox, the first robot put to useful work. They followed
Televox with a number of other simple robots, including one called Rastus, made in the crude image of a black man.
In the 1930s, they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939 and 1940
World's Fairs.

In 1928, Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto
The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at
Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact
with external objects, and use these stimuli to navigate.
The first truly modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was
ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960, and it was installed in 1961
in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundation of the modern robotics
Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy
and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for
humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration,
surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.
The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as
There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts,
and the public, that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense
and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior — especially behavior which mimics humans or
other animals.
There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have their own.
For example Joseph
Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces
human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike
Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various
complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often
repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".
The various types of robots KITT (a fictitious robot) is mentally
ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic
Defining characteristics
While there is no single correct definition of "robot,"
a typical robot will have several, or possibly all, of the
following characteristics.
It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic
programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to
perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond
to various stimuli. This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other
item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.
Mental agency
For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled.
The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An
important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are not
necessary, as shown by ant robots.
• A clockwork car is never considered a robot.
• A mechanical device able to perform some preset motions but with no ability to adapt (an automaton) is rarely
considered a robot.
• A remotely-operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot).
• A car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence, might be called a
• A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information,
such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, would quite
likely be called a robot.
• A sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a
human, is usually considered a robot.
Physical agency
However, for many laymen, if a machine appears to be able to control its arms or limbs, and especially if it appears
anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO or Aibo), it would be called a robot.
• A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot.
• A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot.
• A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot.
• An autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle, is almost always
characterized as a mobile robot or service robot.
• A zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot.
• A mechanical humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot, usually as a service robot.
Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm, it is the arm which is almost
always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. Having eyes can also make a difference in
whether a machine is called a robot, since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. However, simply being
anthropomorphic is not a sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. A robot must do something; an
inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot.
Modern robots
A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine
Mobile robot
Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment
and are not fixed to one physical location. An example of a mobile
robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or
automatic guided vehicle (AGV). An AGV is a mobile robot that
follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. AGVs
are discussed later in this article.
Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security
environments. They also appear as consumer products, for
entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. Mobile
robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every
major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot
Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such
as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to
unexpected interference. Because of this most humans rarely encounter
robots. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are
increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries. Robots can also be found in military applications.
Industrial robots (manipulating)
Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and end effector that is attached to a
fixed surface. One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly.
The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO 8373:
"an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes,
which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications."
This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network
(EURON) and many national standards committees.
A Pick and Place robot in a factory
Service robot
Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and
manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods.
The term "service robot" is less well-defined. IFR has proposed a
tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or
fully- autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of
humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations."
In South Africa robot is an informal and commonly used term for a set
of traffic lights.
Social impact
Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe,
and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.
30% of all the robots in the world are in
making Japan the country with the highest number of robots.
Regional perspectives
In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society
there is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astro Boy'. Asian societies such as Japan, South Korea, and more
recently, China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach
children, or replace pets etc.
The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better.
"This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about
one of the many humanistic robots in Japan.
South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020
in order to help catch up technologically with Japan.

Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output
in movies and literature that they will replace humans. Some believe that the West regards robots as a 'threat' to the
future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society.

Obviously, these
boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.
Autonomy and ethical questions
As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the
questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior,
and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of
social, cultural, ethical or legal rights.
One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist
by 2019.
Others predict robot intelligence breakthroughs by 2050.
Recent advances have made robotic
behavior more sophisticated.
The social impact of intelligent robots is subject of a 2010 documentary film called
Plug & Pray.
Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls
this "the Singularity".
He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans.
This is
discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism.
In 2009, experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
(AAAI) to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these
abilities might pose a threat or hazard. They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy,
including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack
with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach
intelligence." They noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were
other potential hazards and pitfalls.
Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in
differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some
inherent concerns.


Military robots
Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are
given some degree of autonomous functions.
There are also concerns about technology which might allow some
armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots.
The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that as
military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make
autonomous decisions.

One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could
make decisions more effectively. However, other experts question this.
Some public concerns about autonomous robots have received media attention.
One robot in particular, the
EATR, has generated concerns over its fuel source as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances.
Although the engine for the EATR is designed to run on biomass and vegetation
specifically selected by its
sensors which can find on battlefields or other local environments the project has stated that chicken fat can also be
Contemporary uses
At present there are 2 main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated
Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task
extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave
differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as
cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit
General-purpose autonomous robots
General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous
robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with
electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with
networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk,
provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful
tasks. General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles
at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance;
this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.
A general-purpose robot acts as a guide
during the day and a security guard at
Factory robots
Car production
Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by
robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on
fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human
workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is
welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.
An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without
needing lines or beacons in the workspace
Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and
packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink
cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or
for loading and unloading machining centers.
Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively
manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA
manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or
trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.
Such robots
can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far
out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs)
Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using
or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities,
such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.
Early AGV-Style Robots
Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little
feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors (sensors). The
limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if
obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation.
Interim AGV-Technologies
Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most
factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all
beacons or bar codes. Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may
become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.
Intelligent AGVs (i-AGVs)
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a
telerobot to detonate a buried improvised
explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq
Such as SpeciMinder,
and MT 400 with
are designed for people-friendly workspaces. They
navigate by recognizing natural features. 3D scanners or other
means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions
help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning
calculations of the AGV's current position. Some AGVs can
create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with
simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those
maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and
obstacle avoidance algorithms. They are able to operate in
complex environments and perform non-repetitive and
non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a
semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in
warehouses. For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies using
three-dimensional sensors such as time-of-flight or stereovision cameras.
Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks
There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning,
or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano.
Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as exploring
another planet,
cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.
Space probes
Almost every unmanned space probe ever launched was a robot. Some were launched in the 1960s with more limited
abilities, but their ability to fly and to land (in the case of Luna 9) is an indication of their status as a robot. This
includes the Voyager probes and the Galileo probes, as well as other probes.
When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible,
teleoperated robots, or telerobots are used. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements, a
telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator. The robot may be in another room or another country, or
may be on a very different scale to the operator. For instance, a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to
work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery
When disabling a bomb, the operator sends a small robot to disable it. Several authors have been using a
device called the Longpen to sign books remotely.
Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the Predator Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle, are increasingly being used by the military. These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets.
Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and
Afghanistan by the U.S. military to defuse roadside bombs or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in an activity
known as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD).
Automated fruit harvesting machines
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does
a single, menial job
Used to pick fruit on orchards at a cost lower than that of human
In the home
As prices fall and robots become smarter and more autonomous,
simple robots dedicated to a single task work in over a million homes.
They are taking on simple but unwanted jobs, such as vacuum cleaning
and floor washing, and lawn mowing. Some find these robots to be
cute and entertaining, which is one reason that they can sell very well.
Duct cleaning
The ANATROLLER ARI-100 is a modular
mobile robot used for cleaning hazardous
In the hazardous and tight spaces of a building's duct work, many hours
can be spent cleaning relatively small areas if a manual brush is used.
Robots have been used by many duct cleaners primarily in the
industrial and institutional cleaning markets, as they allow the job to be
done faster, without exposing workers to the harmful enzymes released
by dust mites. For cleaning high-security institutions such as embassies
and prisons, duct cleaning robots are vital, as they allow the job to be
completed without compromising the security of the institution.
Hospitals and other government buildings with hazardous and
cancerogenic environments such as nuclear reactors legally must be
cleaned using duct cleaning robots, in countries such as Canada, in an
effort to improve workplace safety in duct cleaning.
Military robots
Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of
weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.


Unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), which are an upgraded form of UAVs, can do a wide variety of missions,
including combat. UCAVs are being designed such as the Mantis UCAV which would have the ability to fly
themselves, to pick their own course and target, and to make most decisions on their own.
The BAE Taranis is a
UCAV built by Great Britain which can fly across continents without a pilot and has new means to avoid
Flight trials are expected to begin in 2011.

The AAAI has studied this topic in depth
and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.
Some have suggested a need to build "Friendly AI", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI
should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane.
Several such measures reportedly
already exist, with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea
having begun to pass regulations
requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems, and possibly sets of 'laws' akin to Asimov's Three Laws of

An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy
Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules, as well as a set
of new legal guidelines referred to as "Robot Legal Studies."
Some concern has been expressed over a possible
occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehoods.
Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students with the company FIRST
(For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). The organization is the foundation for the FIRST
Robotics Competition, FIRST LEGO League, Junior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge
Robots in healthcare have two main functions. Those which assist an individual, such as a sufferer of a disease like
Multiple Sclerosis, and those which aid in the overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals.
Home automation for the elderly and disabled
The Care-Providing robot FRIEND. (Photo: IAT)
Robots have developed over time from simple basic robotic assistants,
such as the Handy 1,
through to semi-autonomous robots, such as
FRIEND which can assist the elderly and disabled with common tasks.
The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning
that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for, but
relatively fewer young people to care for them.

Humans make
the best carers, but where they are unavailable, robots are gradually
being introduced.
FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and
elderly people in their daily life activities, like preparing and serving a
meal. FRIEND make it possible for patients who are paraplegic, have
muscle diseases or serious paralysis (due to strokes etc.), to perform
tasks without help from other people like therapists or nursing staff.
Script Pro manufactures a robot designed to help pharmacies fill prescriptions that consist of oral solids or
medications in pill form. The pharmacist or pharmacy technician enters the prescription information into its
information system. The system, upon determining whether or not the drug is in the robot, will send the information
to the robot for filling. The robot has 3 different size vials to fill determined by the size of the pill. The robot
technician, user, or pharmacist determines the needed size of the vial based on the tablet when the robot is stocked.
Once the vial is filled it is brought up to a conveyor belt that delivers it to a holder that spins the vial and attaches the
patient label. Afterwards it is set on another conveyor that delivers the patient’s medication vial to a slot labeled with
the patient's name on an LED read out. The pharmacist or technician then checks the contents of the vial to ensure
it’s the correct drug for the correct patient and then seals the vials and sends it out front to be picked up. The robot is
a very time efficient device that the pharmacy depends on to fill prescriptions.
McKesson’s Robot RX is another healthcare robotics product that helps pharmacies dispense thousands of
medications daily with little or no errors. The robot can be ten feet wide and thirty feet long and can hold hundreds
of different kinds of medications and thousands of doses. The pharmacy saves many resources like staff members
that are otherwise unavailable in a resource scarce industry. It uses an electromechanical head coupled with a
pneumatic system to capture each dose and deliver it to its either stocked or dispensed location. The head moves
along a single axis while it rotates 180 degrees to pull the medications. During this process it uses barcode
technology to verify its pulling the correct drug. It then delivers the drug to a patient specific bin on a conveyor belt.
Once the bin is filled with all of the drugs that a particular patient needs and that the robot stocks, the bin is then
released and returned out on the conveyor belt to a technician waiting to load it into a cart for delivery to the floor.
Research robots
While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of
robot are being developed in laboratories around the world. Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific
industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and
new ways to manufacture them. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems
when they are finally realized.
A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding
some silicon nanowires.
Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or
robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a
nanometer (10
meters). Also known as "nanobots" or "nanites", they
would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers
have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as
bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning
robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot
Robocup contest.
Researchers also hope to be able to create entire
robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a
tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog,
manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.
Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could
reproduce, the earth would turn into "grey goo", while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.
Reconfigurable Robots
A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a
particular task,
like the fictional T-1000. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly
consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours. Algorithms have been
designed in case any such robots become a reality.
Soft Robots
Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, and ferrofluids), controlled
using fuzzy logic and neural networks, look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and are capable of
different behaviors.
Swarm robots
A swarm of robots from the Open-source
Micro-robotic Project
Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are
modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which
together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden,
cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent
behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can
be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant
colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm
intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot
swarm, the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project
and the
Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to
research collective behaviors.

Swarms are also more resistant
to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a
swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions,
where failure is normally extremely costly.
Haptic interface robots
Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in
the haptic research community. These robots, called "haptic interfaces," allow touch-enabled user interaction with
real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which
users can experience through their sense of touch.
Future development
Technological trends
Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is Evolutionary
robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model
to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is Developmental robotics, which tracks changes and
development within a single in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.
Technological development
Overall trends
Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is
led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.
As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly
for robots. Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others. ROS
provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also
provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a
robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs. It would relay
this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics
Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007.
New functions and abilities
The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator.
Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of
robots available at the time of the prediction. As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots
1. clean parts by removing molding flash 2. spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence
3. pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. make electrical cable
harness 5. load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. shear
sheep 8. prosthesis 9. cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. household robot.
Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.
Reading robot
A literate or 'reading robot' named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. She can read newspapers, find
and correct misspelled words, learn about banks like Barclays, and understand that some restaurants are better places
to eat than others.
Relationship to unemployment
Some analysts, such as Martin Ford,
argue that robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in
significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most jobs. At
present the negative impact is only on menial and repetitive jobs, and there is actually a positive impact on the
number of jobs for highly skilled technicians, engineers, and specialists. However, these highly skilled jobs are not
sufficient in number to offset the greater decrease in employment among the general population, causing structural
unemployment in which overall (net) unemployment rises.
As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, some worry even many skilled jobs may be threatened. In
conventional economic theory this should merely cause an increase in the productivity of the involved industries,
resulting in higher demand for other goods, and hence higher labour demand in these sectors, off-setting whatever
negatives are caused. Conventional theory describes the past well but may not describe the future due to shifts in the
parameter values that shape the context.
Problems depicted in popular culture
Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common
theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or
destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, Blade Runner, RoboCop, the Replicators in Stargate, the
Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix, and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy;
others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of
popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet and Enthiran. Another common
theme is the reaction, sometimes called the "uncanny valley", of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that
mimic humans too closely.
Frankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become
synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the
robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in
industry, but these robots carry out daily lives.
Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be
considered robots, and they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important
and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.
Marauding robots may have entertainment value, but unsafe use of robots constitutes an actual danger. A heavy
industrial robot with powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior can cause harm, for instance by
stepping on a human's foot or falling on a human. Most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which
separates them from human workers, but not all. Two robot-caused deaths are those of Robert Williams and Kenji
Urada. Robert Williams was struck by a robotic arm at a casting plant in Flat Rock, Michigan on January 25,
37-year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, was killed in 1981; Urada was performing routine
maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding
Date Significance Robot name Inventor
1st century
AD and earlier
Descriptions of over a hundred machines and automata, including a fire engine, wind
organ, coin-operated machine, and steam-powered aeliopile, in Pneumatica and
Automata by Heron
Ctesibius, Philo,
Heron, and others
1206 Early programmable automata
Robot band
c. 1495 Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical
Leonardo da Vinci
1738 Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Digesting Duck Jacques de Vaucanson
19th century Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted Karakuri toys Hisashige Tanaka
1921 First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R. Rossum's
Universal Robots
Karel Čapek
1928 Humanoid robot, based on a suit of armor with electrical actuators, exhibited at the
annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London
Eric W. H. Richards
1930s Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric
Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors
Elsie and Elmer William Grey Walter
First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and
Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents
Unimate George Devol
1961 First installed industrial robot Unimate George Devol
First palletizing robot
Palletizer Fuji Yusoki Kogyo
First robot with six electromechanically driven axes
Famulus KUKA Robot Group
1975 Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product PUMA Victor Scheinman
A gynoid, or robot designed to resemble a
woman, can appear comforting to some people
and disturbing to others
Robotic characters, androids (artificial men/women) or gynoids
(artificial women), and cyborgs (also "bionic men/women", or humans
with significant mechanical enhancements) have become a staple of
science fiction.
The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears
in Homer's Iliad. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new
armor for the hero Achilles, assisted by robots.
According to the
Rieu translation, "Golden maidservants hastened to help their master.
They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their
limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by
the immortal gods." Of course, the words "robot" or "android" are not
used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical devices
human in appearance. "The first use of the word Robot was in Karel
Čapek's play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (written in 1920)"
Robots in literature
The most prolific author of stories about robots was Isaac Asimov
(1920–1992), who placed robots and their interaction with society at
the center of many of his works.

Asimov carefully considered
the problem of the ideal set of instructions robots might be given in order to lower the risk to humans, and arrived at
his Three Laws of Robotics: a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to
come to harm; a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with
the First Law; and a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or
Second Law.
These were introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few
earlier stories. Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow
humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov's short story "Liar!" (1941) that mentions
the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics. Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed
the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of
applied knowledge.
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Further reading
• TechCast Article Series, Jason Rupinski and Richard Mix, "Public Attitudes to Androids: Robot Gender, Tasks, &
Pricing" (http:// www. techcast. org/Upload/ PDFs/ 050804104155TC.androids2. pdf)
• Cheney, Margaret [1989:123] (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Dorset Press. New York. ISBN 0-88029-419-1
• Craig, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Robotics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
• Gutkind, L. (2006). Almost Human: Making Robots Think. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
• Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
• Sotheby's New York. The Tin Toy Robot Collection of Matt Wyse, (1996)
• Tsai, L. W. (1999). Robot Analysis. Wiley. New York.
• DeLanda, Manuel. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. 1991. Swerve. New York.
• Journal of Field Robotics (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ journal/117946193/ grouphome/ home. html)
External links
• Robotics (http:/ / www.dmoz.org/Computers/ Robotics/ ) at the Open Directory Project
• International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR) (http:// www.ifrr.org)
• International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR) (http:/ / www.ijrr.org).
• Robotics and Automation Society (RAS) (http:/ / www.ieee-ras.org) at IEEE
• Robotics Network (http:/ / kn. theiet. org/communities/ robotics/ index. cfm) at IET
• Robotics Division (http:/ / robotics. nasa. gov) at NASA
• Human Machine Integration Laboratory (http:// robotics. eas. asu. edu/ ) at Arizona State University
Robotic arm
The SSRMS while deploying a payload from the cargo bay of the
Space Shuttle
A robotic arm is a robotic manipulator, usually
programmable, with similar functions to a human arm.
The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints
allowing either rotational motion (such as in an
articulated robot) or translational (linear)

The links of the manipulator can be
considered to form a kinematic chain. The business end
of the kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the
end effector and it is analogous to the human hand. The
end effector can be designed to perform any desired
task such as welding, gripping, spinning etc.,
depending on the application. For example robot arms
in automotive assembly lines perform a variety of tasks
such as welding and parts rotation and placement
during assembly.
In space the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System
also known as Canadarm or SSRMS and its successor
Canadarm2 are examples of multi degree of freedom
robotic arms that have been used to perform a variety of tasks such as inspections of the Space Shuttle using a
specially deployed boom with cameras and sensors attached at the end effector and satellite deployment and retrieval
Robotic arm
manoeuvres from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle.
The robot arms can be autonomous or controlled manually and can be used to perform a variety of tasks with great
The robotic arm can be fixed or mobile (i.e. wheeled) and can be designed for industrial or home applications.
6 Axis Articulated Robots from
• Cartesian robot / Gantry robot:Used for pick and place work, application of
sealant, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc welding. It's a
robot whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a
Cartesian coordinator.
• Cylindrical robot:Used for assembly operations, handling at machine tools,
spot welding, and handling at diecasting machines. It's a robot whose axes
form a cylindrical coordinate system.
• Spherical robot / Polar robot (such as the Unimate):Used for handling at
machine tools, spot welding, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding and arc
welding. It's a robot whose axes form a polar coordinate system.
• SCARA robot:Used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly
operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot which has two parallel rotary joints to provide compliance in a
• Articulated robot:Used for assembly operations, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding, arc welding and
spray painting. It's a robot whose arm has at least three rotary joints.
• Parallel robot:One use is a mobile platform handling cockpit flight simulators. It's a robot whose arms have
concurrent prismatic or rotary joints.
• Anthropomorphic robot: Shaped in a way that resembles a human hand, i.e with independent fingers and
[1] OSHA Technical Manual (http:/ / www.osha. gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/ otm_iv_4. html)
[2] Paper on Space Robotics, pg 9 (http:/ / www.ssl. umd. edu/ projects/ rangertsx/ data/ spacerobotics-UNDSPST470.pdf)
[3] IEEE Xplore:The Canadarm grasps this boom and can position it in the necessary positions to permit a complete inspection (http:/ /
ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login. jsp?url=/ iel5/ 9317/ 29659/ 01347668.pdf)
External links
• Robot Arm Types (http:// prime.jsc. nasa. gov/ ROV/ types. html)
Robot kinematics
Robot kinematics
Robot kinematics is the study of the motion (kinematics) of robots. In a kinematic analysis the position, velocity
and acceleration of all the links are calculated without considering the forces that cause this motion. The relationship
between motion, and the associated forces and torques is studied in robot dynamics. One of the most active areas
within robot kinematics is the screw theory.
Robot kinematics deals with aspects of redundancy, collision avoidance and singularity avoidance. While dealing
with the kinematics used in the robots we deal each parts of the robot by assigning a frame of reference to it and
hence a robot with many parts may have many individual frames assigned to each movable parts. For simplicity we
deal with the single manipulator arm of the robot. Each frames are named systematically with numbers, for example
the immovable base part of the manipulator is numbered 0, and the first link joined to the base is numbered 1, and
the next link 2 and similarly till n for the last nth link.
Robot kinematics are mainly of the following two types: forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Forward
kinematics is also known as direct kinematics. In forward kinematics, the length of each link and the angle of each
joint is given and we have to calculate the position of any point in the work volume of the robot. In inverse
kinematics, the length of each link and position of the point in work volume is given and we have to calculate the
angle of each joint.
Robot kinematics can be divided in serial manipulator kinematics, parallel manipulator kinematics, mobile robot
kinematics and humanoid kinematics.
Often robot kinematics are described in reference to a simplified kinematic diagram that applies to a large category
of physical robots.
Fields of study
Forward position kinematics
The forward position kinematics (FPK) solves the following problem: "Given the joint positions, what is the
corresponding end effector's pose?"
Serial chains
The solution is always unique: one given joint position vector always corresponds to only one single end effector
pose. The FK problem is not difficult to solve, even for a completely arbitrary kinematic structure.
Methods for a forward kinematic analysis:
• using straightforward geometry
• using transformation matrices
Parallel chains (Stewart Gough Manipulators)
The solution is not unique: one set of joint coordinates has more different end effector poses. In case of a Stewart
platform there are 40 poses possible which can be real for some design examples. Computation is intensive but
solved in closed form with the help of algebraic geometry.
Forward velocity kinematics
The forward velocity kinematics (FVK) solves the following problem: "Given the vectors of joint positions and joint
velocities, what is the resulting end effector twist?" The solution is always unique: one given set of joint positions
and joint velocities always corresponds to only one single end effector twist.
Robot kinematics
Inverse position kinematics
The inverse position kinematics (IPK) solves the following problem: "Given the actual end effector pose, what are
the corresponding joint positions?" In contrast to the forward problem, the solution of the inverse problem is not
always unique: the same end effector pose can be reached in several configurations, corresponding to distinct joint
position vectors. A 6R manipulator (a serial chain with six revolute joints) with a completely general geometric
structure has sixteen different inverse kinematics solutions, found as the solutions of a sixteenth order polynomial.
for best result.
Inverse velocity kinematics
Assuming that the inverse position kinematics problem has been solved for the current end effector pose, the inverse
velocity kinematics (IVK) then solves the following problem: "Given the end effector twist, what is the
corresponding vector of joint velocities?"
Forward force kinematics
The forward force kinematics (FFK) solves the following problem: "Given the vectors of joint force/torques, what is
the resulting static wrench that the end effector exerts on the environment?" (If the end effector is rigidly fixed to a
rigid environment.)
Inverse force kinematics
Assuming that the inverse position kinematics problem has been solved for the current end effector pose, the inverse
force kinematics (IFK) then solves the following problem: "Given the wrench that acts on the end effector, what is
the corresponding vector of joint forces/torques?"
Ubiquitous robot
Ubiquitous robot is a term used in an analogous way to Ubiquitous computing. Software useful for "integrating
robotic technologies with technologies from the fields of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, sensor networks, and
ambient intelligence" under GPL and LGPL licenses.
Emergence of mobile phone, wearable computer and ubiquitous computing predicts human beings will live in a
ubiquitous world in which all devices are fully networked. The existence of ubiquitous space resulting from
developments in computer and network technology will provide motivations to offer desired services by any IT
device at any place and time through user interactions and seamless applications. This shift has hastened the
ubiquitous revolution, which has further manifested itself in the new multidisciplinary research area, ubiquitous
robotics. It initiates the third generation of robotics following the first generation of the industrial robot and the
second generation of the personal robot.
Ubiquitous robot (Ubibot) is a robot incorporating three components including virtual software robot or avatar,
real-world mobile robot and embedded sensor system in surroundings. Software robot within a virtual world can
control a real-world robot as a brain and interact with human beings. Researchers of KAIST, Korea describe these
three components as a Sobot (Software robot), Mobot (Mobile robot), and Embot (Embedded robot).
Ubiquitous robot
Related Technical literature
• Tae-Hun Kim, Seung-Hwan Choi, and Jong-Hwan Kim. "Incorporation of a Software Robot and a Mobile Robot
Using a Middle Layer." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and
Reviews, Vol. 37, No. 6, Nov. 2007.
• Jong-Hwan Kim et al., “Ubiquitous Robot: A New Paradigm for Integrated Services,” in Proc. of IEEE Int’l Conf.
on Robotics and Automation, Rome, Italy, April 2007.
• Jong-Hwan Kim, ``Ubiquitous Robot: Recent Progress and Development,'‘ (Keynote Speech Paper) in
SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference 2006, Busan, Korea, pp. I-25 - I-30, Oct. 2006.
• Jong-Hwan Kim et al., “The 3rd Generation of Robotics: Ubiquitous Robot,” (Keynote Speech Paper) in Proc. of
the International Conference on Autonomous Robots and Agents, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2004.
• Jong-Hwan Kim, ``Ubiquitous Robot, in Computational Intelligence, Theory and Applications (edited by B.
Reusch), in Springer, pp. 451–459, 2004 (Keynote Speech Paper of the 8th Fuzzy Days International Conference,
Dortmund, Germany, Sep. 2004).
[1] (http:// aass. oru.se/ ~peis/ download. html)
[2] Giving Avatars Real Bodies (http:/ / www.robotworldnews. com/ 100328. php), robotworldnews.com December 14, 2007
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle
A group photo of aerial demonstrators at the 2005 Naval Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Air Demo.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV; also known as a unmanned aircraft system (UAS) or sometimes incorrectly
referred to as a remotely piloted vehicle or RPV) is an aircraft that is flown by a pilot or a navigator (called Combat
Systems Officer on UCAVs) depending on the different Air Forces; however, without a human crew on board the
aircraft. Their largest uses are in military applications. To distinguish UAVs from missiles, a UAV is defined as a
powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly
autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal
Therefore, cruise missiles are not considered UAVs, because, like many other guided missiles, the
vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, even though it is also unmanned and in some cases remotely guided.
There are a wide variety of UAV shapes, sizes, configurations, and characteristics. Historically, UAVs were simple
(remotely piloted aircraft), but autonomous control is increasingly being employed in UAVs. UAVs come
in two varieties: some are controlled from a remote location (which may even be many thousands kilometers away,
on another continent), and others fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans using more complex
dynamic automation systems.
Currently, military UAVs perform reconnaissance as well as attack missions.
While many successful drone attacks
on militants have been reported, they have a reputation of being prone to collateral damage and/or erroneous
targeting, as with many other weapon types.
UAVs are also used in a small but growing number of civil
applications, such as firefighting or nonmilitary security work, such as surveillance of pipelines. UAVs are often
preferred for missions that are too "dull, dirty, or dangerous" for manned aircraft.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Ryan Firebee was a series of target
drones/unmanned aerial vehicles.
The earliest unmanned aerial vehicle was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target"
of 1916.
Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat
vehicles in 1915.
A number of remote-controlled airplane advances
followed, including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, during and
after World War I, including the first scale RPV (Remote Piloted
Vehicle), developed by the film star and model airplane enthusiast
Reginald Denny in 1935.
More were made in the technology rush
during the Second World War; these were used both to train
antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Jet engines were applied
after WW2, in such types as the Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951,
while companies like Beechcraft also got in the game with their Model 1001 for the United States Navy in 1955.
Nevertheless, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam Era.
The birth of US UAVs (called RPVs at the time) began in 1959 when USAF officers, concerned about losing US
pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of unmanned flights.
This plan became intensified when
Francis Gary Powers and his "secret" U-2 were shot down over the USSR in 1960. Within days, the highly classified
UAV program was launched under the code name of "Red Wagon."
The August 2 and August 4, 1964, clash in
the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U.S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's highly classified
UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War.
When the "Red Chinese"
showed photographs of
downed US UAVs via Wide World Photos,
the official U.S. response was, "no comment."
Only on February 26, 1973, during testimony before the US House Appropriations Committee, did the U.S. military
officially confirm that they had been utilizing UAVs in Southeast Asia (Vietnam).
While over 5,000 U.S. airmen
had been killed and over 1,000 more were either missing in action (MIA), or captured (prisoners of war/POW); the
USAF 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing had flown approximately 3,435 UAV missions during the war,
at a
cost of about 554 UAVs lost to all causes. In the words of USAF General George S. Brown, Commander, Air Force
Systems Command in 1972, "The only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don't want to needlessly expend the man in
the cockpit."
Later that same year, General John C. Meyer, Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command, stated,
"we let the drone do the high-risk flying...the loss rate is high, but we are willing to risk more of them...they save
During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Syrian missile batteries in Lebanon caused heavy damage to Israeli fighter jets.
As a result, Israel developed their first modern UAV. The images and radar decoying provided by these UAVs
helped Israel to completely neutralize the Syrian air defenses at the start of the 1982 Lebanon War, resulting in no
pilots downed.
With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies as seen in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs
grew within the higher echelons of the US military. UAVs were seen to offer the possibility of cheaper, more
capable fighting machines that could be used without risk to aircrews. Initial generations were primarily surveillance
aircraft, but some were armed (such as the MQ-1 Predator, which utilized AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles).
An armed UAV is known as an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV).
As a tool for search and rescue, UAVs can help find humans lost in the wilderness, trapped in collapsed buildings, or
adrift at sea.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
FAA designation
In the United States, the United States Navy and shortly after the Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the
name unmanned aircraft (UA) to describe aircraft systems without the flight crew on board. It is preferred instead
the usual names: UAV, drone, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV), remotely operated aircraft (ROA), models, radio
control (R/Cs), etc.
More importantly, the term unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is preferred for the whole class, to emphasize the
importance of other elements beyond an aircraft itself. A typical UAS consists of the:
• unmanned aircraft (UA)
• control system, such as Ground Control Station (GCS)
• control link, a specialized datalink
• other related support equipment.
For example, the RQ-7 Shadow UAS consists of four UAs, two GCSes, one portable GCS, one Launcher, two
Ground Data Terminals (GDTs), one portable GDT, and one Remote Video Terminal. Certain military units are also
fielded with a maintenance support vehicle.
Because of this systemic approach UAS have been not included in the United States Munitions List Category VIII –
Aircraft and Associated Equipment. Vice versa, the “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems” are clearly mentioned at
paragraph 121-16 Missile Technology Control Regime Annex of the United States Munitions List. More precisely,
the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex levels rocket and unmanned aerial vehicle systems together.
The term UAS was since adopted by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the Civil Aviation
Authority (United Kingdom) (CAA).
The term used previously for unmanned aircraft system was unmanned-aircraft vehicle system (UAVS).
UAS references
• DoD UAS Roadmap 2005-2030
• DoD Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap 2009
• FAA UAS Fact Sheet
• FAA UAS Regulations & Policies
• The Remote Control Aerial Photography Association commercial UAS operators
• UK CAA Regulations & Overview
UAV classification
Although most UAVs are fixed-wing aircraft,
rotorcraft designs (i.e., RUAVs) such as this
MQ-8B Fire Scout are also used.
UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories (although
multi-role airframe platforms are becoming more prevalent):
• Target and decoy – providing ground and aerial gunnery a target
that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
• Reconnaissance – providing battlefield intelligence
• Combat – providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see
Unmanned combat air vehicle)
• Logistics – UAVs specifically designed for cargo and logistics
• Research and development – used to further develop UAV
technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraft
• Civil and Commercial UAVs – UAVs specifically designed for civil
and commercial applications
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Schiebel S-100 fitted with a Lightweight
Multirole Missile
They can also be categorised in terms of range/altitude and the
following has been advanced as relevant at such industry events as
ParcAberporth Unmanned Systems forum:
• Handheld 2000 ft (600 m) altitude, about 2 km range
• Close 5000 ft (1500 m) altitude, up to 10 km range
• NATO type 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude, up to 50 km range
• Tactical 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude, about 160 km range
• MALE (medium altitude, long endurance) up to 30000 ft (9000 m)
and range over 200 km
• HALE (high altitude, long endurance) over 30000 ft (9100 m) and indefinite range
• HYPERSONIC high-speed, supersonic (Mach 1–5) or hypersonic (Mach 5+) 50000 ft (15200 m) or suborbital
altitude, range over 200 km
• ORBITAL low earth orbit (Mach 25+)
• CIS Lunar Earth-Moon transfer
• CACGS Computer Assisted Carrier Guidance System for UAVs
Additional category can be applied in pattern of function: fixed routes vs. dynamically variable routes:
A Train Cable UAV(TCUAV): UAV payload
,Train Landing platform ,Cable roller ,Train
• A Train Cable UAV (TCUAV) is a combination of three concepts:
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned ground vehicles
(UGVs), and trains creating uninterrupted flow of electric energy
through the cable.
The United States military employs a tier system for categorizing its
United States military UAV classifications
The modern concept of U.S. military UAVs is to have the various
aircraft systems work together in support of personnel on the ground.
The integration scheme is described in terms of a "Tier" system, and is
used by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft
elements in an overall usage plan for integrated operations. The Tiers do not refer to specific models of aircraft, but
rather roles for which various models and their manufacturers competed. The U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Marine
Corps each has its own tier system, and the two systems are themselves not integrated.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
US Air Force tiers
An MQ-9 Reaper, a hunter-killer surveillance
• Tier N/A: Small/Micro UAV. Role filled by BATMAV (Wasp
Block III).
• Tier I: Low altitude, long endurance. Role filled by the Gnat 750.
• Tier II: Medium altitude, long endurance (MALE). Role currently
filled by the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper.
• Tier II+: High altitude, long endurance conventional UAV (or
HALE UAV). Altitude: 60,000 to 65000 feet (19800 m), less than
300 knots (560 km/h) airspeed, 3000-nautical-mile (6000 km)
radius, 24 hour time-on-station capability. Complementary to the
Tier III- aircraft. Role currently filled by the RQ-4 Global Hawk.
• Tier III-: High altitude, long endurance low-observable UAV. Same
parameters as, and complementary to, the Tier II+ aircraft. The RQ-3 DarkStar was originally intended to fulfill
this role before it was "terminated."

On December 4, 2009 the USAF confirmed the existence of the
RQ-170 Sentinel.
US Marine Corps tiers
• Tier N/A: Micro UAV. Wasp III fills this role, driven largely by the desire for commonality with the USAF
BATMAV. [25]
• Tier I: Role currently filled by the Dragon Eye but all ongoing and future procurement for the Dragon Eye
program is going now to the RQ-11B Raven B.
• Tier II: Role currently filled by the ScanEagle and, to some extent, the RQ-2 Pioneer.
• Tier III: For two decades, the role of medium range tactical UAV was filled by the Pioneer UAV. In July 2007,
the Marine Corps announced its intention to retire the aging Pioneer fleet and transition to the Shadow Tactical
Unmanned Aircraft System by AAI Corporation. The first Marine Shadow systems have already been delivered,
and training for their respective Marine Corps units is underway.

U.S. Army tiers
• Tier I: Small UAV. Role filled by the RQ-11A/B Raven.
• Tier II: Short Range Tactical UAV. Role filled by the RQ-7A/B Shadow 200.
• Tier III: Medium Range Tactical UAV. Role currently filled by the RQ-5A / MQ-5A/B Hunter and
IGNAT/IGNAT-ER, but transitioning to the Extended Range Multi-Purpose (ERMP) MQ-1C Gray Eagle.
Future Combat Systems (FCS) (U.S. Army) classes
• Class I: For small units. Role to be filled by all new UAV with some similarity to Micro Air Vehicle.
• Class II: For companies (cancelled).
• Class III: For battalions (cancelled).
• Class IV: For brigades. Role to be filled by the RQ-8A/B / MQ-8B Fire Scout.
Unmanned aircraft system
UAS, or unmanned aircraft system, is the official United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) term for an
unmanned aerial vehicle. Initially coined by the FAA in 2004 to reflect the fact that these complex systems include
ground stations and other elements besides the actual aircraft, the term was first officially used by the FAA in early
2005 and subsequently adopted by DoD that same year in their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030.
Many people have mistakenly used the term Unmanned Aerial System, or Unmanned Air Vehicle System, as these
designations were in provisional use at one time or another. The inclusion of the term aircraft emphasizes that
regardless of the location of the pilot and flightcrew, the operations must comply with the same regulations and
Unmanned aerial vehicle
procedures as do those aircraft with the pilot and flightcrew onboard. The official acronym 'UAS' is also used by the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other government aviation regulatory organizations.
Predator launching a Hellfire missile
The military role of unmanned aircraft systems is growing at
unprecedented rates. In 2005, tactical- and theater-level unmanned
aircraft alone had flown over 100,000 flight hours in support of
Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which
they are organized under Task Force Liberty in Afghanistan and Task
Force ODIN in Iraq. Rapid advances in technology are enabling more
and more capability to be placed on smaller airframes which is
spurring a large increase in the number of Small Unmanned Aircraft
Systems (SUAS) being deployed on the battlefield. The use of SUAS in combat is so new that no formal DoD wide
reporting procedures have been established to track SUAS flight hours. As the capabilities grow for all types of
UAS, nations continue to subsidize their research and development leading to further advances enabling them to
perform a multitude of missions. UAS no longer only perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
missions, although this still remains their predominant type. Their roles have expanded to areas including electronic
attack, strike missions, suppression and/or destruction of enemy air defense, network node or communications relay,
combat search and rescue, and derivations of these themes. These UAS range in cost from a few thousand dollars to
tens of millions of dollars, with aircraft ranging from less than one pound to over 40,000 pounds.
When the Obama administration announced in December 2009 the deployment of 30,000 new troops in Afghanistan,
there was already an increase of attacks by pilotless Predator drones against Taliban and Al Qaeda militants in
Afghanistan and Pakistan's tribal areas, of which one probably killed a key member of Al Qaeda. However, neither
Osama bin Laden nor Ayman al-Zawahiri was the likely target, according to reports. According to a report of the
New America Foundation, armed drone strikes had dramatically increased under President Obama – even before his
deployment decision. There were 43 such attacks between January and October 2009. The report draws on what it
deems to be "credible" local and national media stories about the attacks. That compared with a total of 34 in all of
2008, President Bush’s last full year in office. Since 2006, drone-launched missiles allegedly had killed between 750
and 1,000 people in Pakistan, according to the report. Of these, about 20 people were said to be leaders of Al Qaeda,
Taliban, and associated groups. Overall, about 66 to 68 percent of the people killed were militants, and between 31
and 33 percent were civilians. US officials disputed the assertion that up to 30 percent of the victims of the
unmanned aerial vehicle attacks were civilians.
The U.S. Air Force has recently begun referring at least to larger
UAS like Predator, Reaper, and Global Hawk as Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), to highlight the fact that these
systems are indeed always controlled by a human operator at some location.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
UAV functions
A Forward looking infrared(FLIR) camera
mounted on the side of an UAV similar to that
from UAVs Australia.
InView UAV for use in scientific, commercial
and state applications.
The RQ-7 Shadow is capable of delivering a
20 lb (9.1 kg) "Quick-MEDS" canister to
front-line troops.
UAVs perform a wide variety of functions. The majority of these
functions are some form of remote sensing; this is central to the
reconnaissance role most UAVs fulfill. Less common UAV functions
include interaction and transport.
Remote sensing
UAV remote sensing functions include electromagnetic spectrum
sensors, biological sensors, and chemical sensors. A UAV's
electromagnetic sensors typically include visual spectrum, infrared, or
near infrared cameras as well as radar systems. Other electromagnetic
wave detectors such as microwave and ultraviolet spectrum sensors
may also be used, but are uncommon. Biological sensors are sensors
capable of detecting the airborne presence of various microorganisms
and other biological factors. Chemical sensors use laser spectroscopy
to analyze the concentrations of each element in the air.
Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production
UAVs can be used to perform geophysical surveys, in particular
geomagnetic surveys
where the processed measurements of the
differential Earth's magnetic field strength are used to calculate the
nature of the underlying magnetic rock structure. A knowledge of the
underlying rock structure helps trained geophysicists to predict the
location of mineral deposits. The production side of oil and gas
exploration and production entails the monitoring of the integrity of oil
and gas pipelines and related installations. For above-ground pipelines,
this monitoring activity could be performed using digital cameras
mounted on one, or more, UAVs.
The InView Unmanned Aircraft
System is an example of a UAV developed for use in oil, gas and
mineral exploration and production activities.
UAVs can transport goods using various means based on the
configuration of the UAV itself. Most payloads are stored in an
internal payload bay somewhere in the airframe. For many helicopter
configurations, external payloads can be tethered to the bottom of the
airframe. With fixed wing UAVs, payloads can also be attached to the
airframe, but aerodynamics of the aircraft with the payload must be
assessed. For such situations, payloads are often enclosed in
aerodynamic pods for transport.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Fulmar UAV, developed by Aerovision for
civilian applications.
UAV Stardust II, developed under sUAS ARC
IAI Heron, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
developed by the Malat (UAV) division of Israel
Aerospace Industries.
Scientific research
Unmanned aircraft are uniquely capable of penetrating areas which
may be too dangerous for piloted craft. The National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began utilizing the Aerosonde
unmanned aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane hunter. AAI
Corporation subsidiary Aerosonde Pty Ltd. of Victoria (Australia),
designs and manufactures the 35-pound system, which can fly into a
hurricane and communicate near-real-time data directly to the National
Hurricane Center in Florida. Beyond the standard barometric pressure
and temperature data typically culled from manned hurricane hunters,
the Aerosonde system provides measurements far closer to the water’s
surface than previously captured. Further applications for unmanned
aircraft can be explored once solutions have been developed for their
accommodation within national airspace, an issue currently under
discussion by the Federal Aviation Administration. UAVSI, the UK
manufacturer also produce a variant of their Vigilant light UAS (20 kg)
designed specifically for scientific research in severe climates such as
the Antarctic.
Armed attacks
MQ-1 Predator UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles are now used as
platforms for hitting ground targets in sensitive areas. Armed Predators
were first used in late 2001 from bases in Pakistan and Uzbekistan,
mostly for hitting high profile individuals (terrorist leaders etc.) inside
Afghanistan. Since then, there have been several reported cases of such
attacks taking place in Pakistan, this time from Afghan-based
Predators. The advantage of using an unmanned vehicle, rather than a
manned aircraft, in such cases is to avoid a diplomatic embarrassment
should the aircraft be shot down and the pilots captured, since the
bombings took place in countries deemed friendly and without the official permission of those countries.


A Predator based in a neighboring Arab country was used to kill suspected al-Qaeda terrorists in Yemen on
November 3, 2002. This marked the first use of an armed Predator as an attack aircraft outside of a theater of war
such as Afghanistan.
Questions have been raised about the accuracy of the targeting of UAVs. In March 2009, The Guardian reported that
Israeli UAVs armed with missiles killed 48 Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip, including two small children in a
field and a group of women and girls in an otherwise empty street.
In June, Human Rights Watch investigated six
UAV attacks which resulted in civilian casualties, and found that Israeli forces either failed to take all feasible
precautions to verify that the targets were combatants, or failed to distinguish between combatants and civilians.

In July 2009, Brookings Institution released a report stating that in the United States-led drone attacks in
Pakistan, ten civilians died for every militant killed.

S. Azmat Hassan, a former ambassador of Pakistan, said
in July 2009 that American UAV attacks were turning Pakistani opinion against the United States, and that 35 or 40
such attacks only killed 8 or 9 top al-Qaeda operatives.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
CIA officials became concerned in 2008 that targets in Pakistan were being tipped off to pending U.S. drone strikes
by Pakistani intelligence, when the U.S. requested Pakistani permission prior to launching targeted killing attacks.
The Bush administration therefore decided in August 2008 to abandon the practice of obtaining Pakistani
government permission before launching missiles from drones, and in the next six months the CIA carried out at
least 38 Predator targeted killing strikes in northwest Pakistan, compared with 10 in 2006 and 2007 combined.
The Predator strikes killed at least nine senior al-Qaeda leaders, and dozens of lower-ranking operatives, depleting
its operational tier in what U.S. officials described as the most serious disruption of al-Qaeda since 2001.
It was
reported that the Predator strikes took such a toll on al-Qaeda that militants began turning violently on one another
out of confusion and distrust.
A senior U.S. counter-terrorism official said: "They have started hunting down
people who they think are responsible" for security breaches. "People are showing up dead, or disappearing."
By October 2009, the CIA said they had killed more than half of the 20 most wanted al-Qaeda terrorist suspects in
targeted killings.
By May 2010, counter-terrorism officials said that drone strikes in the Pakistani tribal areas had
killed more than 500 militants since 2008, and no more than 30 (5%) nearby civilians—mainly family members who
lived and traveled with the targets.

Drones linger overhead after a strike, in some cases for hours, to enable
the CIA to count the bodies and determine who is a civilian.
A Pakistani intelligence officer gave a higher
estimate of civilian casualties, saying 20% of total deaths were civilians or non-combatants.
One issue with civilian casualties is the relative lack of discretion of the 100 lb (45 kg) Hellfire, which was designed
to eliminate tanks and attack bunkers.
Smaller weapons such as the Raytheon Griffin and Small Tactical Munition
are being developed as a less indiscriminate alternative,
and development is underway on the still smaller, US
Navy-developed Spike missile.
The payload-limited Predator A can also be armed with six Griffin missiles, as
opposed to only two of the much-heavier Hellfires.
Search and rescue
A Bell Eagle Eye, offered to the US Coast Guard.
UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the
United States. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs
during the 2008 hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas.
For example, Predators, operating between 18,000–29,000 feet above
sea level, performed search and rescue and damage assessment.
Payloads carried were an optical sensor (which is a daytime and infra
red camera) and a synthetic aperture radar. The Predator's SAR is a
sophisticated all-weather sensor capable of providing
photographic-like images through clouds, rain or fog, and in daytime
or nighttime conditions; all in real-time. A concept of coherent change detection in SAR images allows for
exceptional search and rescue ability: photos taken before and after the storm hits are compared and a computer
highlights areas of damage.

Design and development considerations
UAV design and production is a global activity, with manufacturers all across the world. The United States and
Israel were initial pioneers in this technology, and U.S. manufacturers have a market share of over 60% in 2006, with
U.S. market share due to increase by 5–10% through 2016.
Northrop Grumman and General Atomics are the
dominant manufacturers in this industry, on the strength of the Global Hawk and Predator/Mariner systems.
Israeli and European manufacturers form a second tier due to lower indigenous investments, and the governments of
those nations have initiatives to acquire U.S. systems due to higher levels of capability.
European market share
represented just 4% of global revenue in 2006.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Development costs for American military UAVs, as with most military programs, have tended to overrun their initial
estimates. This is mostly due to changes in requirements during development and a failure to leverage UAV
development programs over multiple armed services. This has caused United States Navy UAV programs to increase
from zero to five percent in cost while United States Air Force UAV programs have increased from 60 to 284
Degree of autonomy
UAV monitoring and control at CBP
HiMAT Remote Cockpit Synthetic Vision
Display (Photo: NASA 1984)
Early UAVs used during the Vietnam War after launch captured video
that was recorded to film or tape on the aircraft. These aircraft often
were launched and flew either in a straight line or in preset circles
collecting video until they ran out of fuel and landed. After landing, the
film was recovered for analysis. Because of the simple nature of these
aircraft, they were often called drones. As new radio control systems
became available, UAVs were often remote controlled and the term
"remotely piloted vehicle" came into vogue. Today's UAVs often
combine remote control and computerized automation. More
sophisticated versions may have built-in control and/or guidance
systems to perform low-level human pilot duties such as speed and
flight-path stabilization, and simple scripted navigation functions such
as waypoint following. In news and other discussions, often the term
"drone" is still mistakenly used to refer to these more sophisticated
From this perspective, most early UAVs are not autonomous at all. In
fact, the field of air-vehicle autonomy is a recently emerging field,
whose economics is largely driven by the military to develop
battle-ready technology. Compared to the manufacturing of UAV flight
hardware, the market for autonomy technology is fairly immature and
undeveloped. Because of this, autonomy has been and may continue to
be the bottleneck for future UAV developments, and the overall value
and rate of expansion of the future UAV market could be largely driven by advances to be made in the field of
Autonomy technology that is important to UAV development falls under the following categories:
• Sensor fusion: Combining information from different sensors for use on board the vehicle
• Communications: Handling communication and coordination between multiple agents in the presence of
incomplete and imperfect information
• Path planning: Determining an optimal path for vehicle to go while meeting certain objectives and mission
constraints, such as obstacles or fuel requirements
• Trajectory Generation (sometimes called Motion planning): Determining an optimal control maneuver to take to
follow a given path or to go from one location to another
• Trajectory Regulation: The specific control strategies required to constrain a vehicle within some tolerance to a
• Task Allocation and Scheduling: Determining the optimal distribution of tasks amongst a group of agents, with
time and equipment constraints
• Cooperative Tactics: Formulating an optimal sequence and spatial distribution of activities between agents in
order to maximize chance of success in any given mission scenario
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Autonomy is commonly defined as the ability to make decisions without human intervention. To that end, the goal of
autonomy is to teach machines to be "smart" and act more like humans. The keen observer may associate this with
the development in the field of artificial intelligence made popular in the 1980s and 1990s such as expert systems,
neural networks, machine learning, natural language processing, and vision. However, the mode of technological
development in the field of autonomy has mostly followed a bottom-up approach, such as hierarchical control
and recent advances have been largely driven by the practitioners in the field of control science, not
computer science . Similarly, autonomy has been and probably will continue to be considered an extension of the
controls field.
To some extent, the ultimate goal in the development of autonomy technology is to replace the human pilot. It
remains to be seen whether future developments of autonomy technology, the perception of the technology, and most
importantly, the political climate surrounding the use of such technology, will limit the development and utility of
autonomy for UAV applications. Also as a result of this, synthetic vision for piloting has not caught on in the UAV
arena as it did with manned aircraft. NASA utilized synthetic vision for test pilots on the HiMAT program in the
early 1980s (see photo), but the advent of more autonomous UAV autopilots, greatly reduced the need for this
Interoperable UAV technologies became essential as systems proved their mettle in military operations, taking on
tasks too challenging or dangerous for troops. NATO addressed the need for commonality through STANAG
(Standardization Agreement) 4586. According to a NATO press release, the agreement began the ratification process
in 1992. Its goal was to allow allied nations to easily share information obtained from unmanned aircraft through
common ground control station technology. STANAG 4586 — aircraft that adhere to this protocol are equipped to
translate information into standardized message formats; likewise, information received from other compliant
aircraft can be transferred into vehicle-specific messaging formats for seamless interoperability. Amendments have
since been made to the original agreement, based on expert feedback from the field and an industry panel known as
the Custodian Support Team. Edition Two of STANAG 4586 is currently under review. There are many systems
available today that are developed in accordance with STANAG 4586, including products by industry leaders such
as AAI Corporation, CDL Systems, and Raytheon, all three of which are members of the Custodian Support Team
for this protocol.
RQ-4 Global Hawk, a high-altitude
reconnaissance UAV capable of 36 hours
continuous flight time
Because UAVs are not burdened with the physiological limitations of
human pilots, they can be designed for maximized on-station times.
The maximum flight duration of unmanned, aerial vehicles varies
widely. Internal-combustion-engine aircraft endurance depends
strongly on the percentage of fuel burned as a fraction of total weight
(the Breguet endurance equation), and so is largely independent of
aircraft size. Solar-electric UAVs hold potential for unlimited flight, a
concept originally championed by the AstroFlight Sunrise in 1974


and the much later Aerovironment Helios Prototype, which
was destroyed in a 2003 crash.
Electric UAVs kept aloft indefinitely by laser power-beaming
technology represent another proposed solution to the endurance
challenge. This approach is advocated by Jordin Kare and Thomas Nugent.
One of the major problems with UAVs is no capability for inflight refueling. Currently the US Air Force is
promoting research that should end in an inflight UAV refueling capability, which should be available by 2010.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
One of the uses for a high endurance UAV would be to "stare" at the battlefield for a long period of time to produce
a record of events that could then be played backwards to track where improvised explosive devices (IEDs) came
from. Air Force Chief of Staff John P. Jumper started a program to create these persistent UAVs, but this was
stopped once he was replaced.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to sign a contract on building an UAV which should
have an enormous endurance capability of about 5 years. The project is entitled "Vulture" and a September 15, 2010
news release indicated DARPA’s Vulture Program Enters Phase II
. The developers are certain neither on the
design of the UAV nor on what fuel it should run to be able to stay in air without any maintenance for such a long
period of time.
Notable high endurance flights
UAV Flight time Date Notes
QinetiQ Zephyr Solar
336 hours 22
9–23 July 2010
QinetiQ Zephyr Solar
82 hours 37
28–31 July 2008
Boeing Condor 58 hours, 11
The aircraft is currently in the Hiller Aviation
Museum, CA.
QinetiQ Zephyr Solar
54 hours September 2007

IAI Heron 52 hours ?

AC Propulsion Solar
48 hours, 11
June 3, 2005
MQ-1 Predator 40 hours, 5
GNAT-750 40 hours 1992

TAM-5 38 hours, 52
August 11, 2003
Smallest UAV to cross the Atlantic

Aerosonde 38 hours, 48
May 3, 2006
TAI Anka 24 hours 30 December
Existing UAV systems
UAVs have been developed and deployed by many countries around the world. For a list of models by country, see :
List of unmanned aerial vehicles. The use of unmanned aerial systems, however, is not limited to state powers:
non-state actors can also build, buy and operate these combat vehicles.
Most notably, Hezbollah has used drones
to get past Israeli defenses, and in 2001 Al-Qaeda reportedly explored using drones to attack a conference of
international leaders.
The export of UAVs or technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km is restricted in many
countries by the Missile Technology Control Regime. Iran has an ambitious UAV program, which uses gas turbines
bought in the Netherlands and shipped as model aircraft parts.
At the center of the American military's continued UAV research is the MQ-X, which builds upon the capabilities of
the Reaper and Predator drones. As currently conceived, the MQ-X would be a stealthier and faster fighter-plane
Unmanned aerial vehicle
sized UAV capable of any number of missions: high-performance surveillance; attack options, including retractable
cannons and bomb or missile payloads; and cargo capacity.
China has exhibited some UAV designs, but its ability to operate them is limited by the lack of high endurance
domestic engines, satellite infrastructure and operational experience.
Other information
• During the Gulf War, Iraqi Army forces surrendered to the UAVs of the USS Wisconsin.

• In October 2002, a few days before the U.S. Senate vote on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against
Iraq Resolution, about 75 senators were told in closed session that Saddam Hussein had the means of delivering
biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction by UAV drones that could be launched from ships off the
Atlantic coast to attack U.S. eastern seaboard cities. Colin Powell suggested in his presentation to the United
Nations that they had been transported out of Iraq and could be launched against the U.S.
It was later revealed
that Iraq's UAV fleet consisted of only a few outdated Czech training drones.
At the time, there was a vigorous
dispute within the intelligence community as to whether CIA's conclusions about Iraqi UAVs were accurate. The
U.S. Air Force agency most familiar with UAVs denied outright that Iraq possessed any offensive UAV
• In December 2002, the first ever dogfight involving a UAV occurred when an Iraqi MiG-25 and a U.S. RQ-1
Predator fired missiles at each other. The MiG's missile destroyed the Predator.
• UAVs have been used in many episodes of the science-fiction television series Stargate SG-1, and a sentient
unmanned, combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) was a central figure in the action film Stealth. Also, UAVs are used in
computer games such as F.E.A.R., Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon, and the popular Call of Duty: Modern Warfare
,Call of Duty: Black Ops and Battlefield: Bad Company franchises.
US Navy UAVs in Action, Neubeck, (Squadron/Signal Publications 2010)
• Wagner, William. Lightning Bugs and other Reconnaissance Drones; The can-do story of Ryan's unmanned spy
planes. 1982, Armed Forces Journal International, in cooperation with Aero Publishers, Inc.
[1] "The Free Dictionary" (http:// www. thefreedictionary.com/ Unmanned+Aerial+Vehicle) accessed 19 November 2010
[2] [[Pir Zubair Shah (http:/ / www.nytimes. com/ 2009/ 06/ 19/ world/asia/ 19pstan. html?ref=world)], "Pakistan Says U.S. Drone Kills 13",
New York Times, June 18, 2009.]
[3] David Axe, "Strategist: Killer Drones Level Extremists’ Advantage", Wired, June 17, 2009. (http:/ / www. wired.com/ dangerroom/2009/ 06/
strategist-killer-drones-level-extremists-advantage/ )
[4] Taylor, A. J. P. Jane's Book of Remotely Piloted Vehicles.
[5] Dempsey, Martin E. Eyes of the Army - U.S. Army Roadmap for Unmanned Aircraft Systems 2010-2035 (http:// www-rucker.army.mil/
usaace/ uas/ US Army UAS RoadMap 2010 2035. pdf) Size: 9MB U.S. Army, 9 April 2010. Accessed: 6 March 2011.
[6] Wagner p. xi
[7] Wagner p. xi, ,xii
[8] Wagner p. xii
[9] Wagner p. 79
[10] Wagner p. 78 & 79 photos
[11] Wagner p. 202
[12] Wagner p. 200 & 212
[13] Wagner p. 208
[14] Levinson, Charles (January 13, 2010). "Israeli Robots Remake Battlefield" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB126325146524725387.
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[17] http:/ / www. faa.gov/ news/ fact_sheets/ news_story. cfm?newsId=6287
[18] http:// www. faa.gov/ about/ initiatives/ uas/ reg/
[19] http:// www. RCAPA. net
Unmanned aerial vehicle
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[22] History of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (http:// www.vectorsite. net/ twuav. html)
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[24] http:// www. edwards. af. mil/articles98/ docs_html/ splash/ may98/ cover/ Tier.htm USAF Tier system
[25] http:/ / www. avinc. com/ pr_detail.asp?ID=68
[26] USMC powerpoint presentation of tier system (https:// www.mccdc.usmc. mil/OpsDiv/ CEAB/ Jun 05 CEAB/ JUN 05 Briefs/ 20 -
Coordinated UAV Endorsement Brief. ppt#5)
[27] Detailed description of USMC tier system (http:// www.navyleague.org/sea_power/ jul06-18.php)
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[33] Fox News (http:// www.foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,177709,00. html)
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[35] MSNBC (http:// www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 7847008/ )
[36] Globe and Mail (http:// www.theglobeandmail. com/ servlet/ story/ RTGAM. 20080131.walq0131/ BNStory/ International/homeThe)
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[38] The Guardian, March 23, 2009. "Cut to pieces: the Palestinian family drinking tea in their courtyard: Israeli unmanned aerial vehicles—the
dreaded drones—caused at least 48 deaths in Gaza during the 23-day offensive." (http:// www.guardian.co.uk/ world/ 2009/ mar/ 23/
gaza-war-crimes-drones) Retrieved on August 3, 2009.
[39] "Precisely Wrong: Gaza Civilians Killed by Israeli Drone-Launched Missiles" (http:// www.hrw.org/ en/ reports/2009/ 06/ 30/
precisely-wrong-0), Human Rights Watch, June 30, 2009.
[40] "Report: IDF used RPV fire to target civilians" (http:// www.ynet. co.il/ english/ Ext/Comp/ ArticleLayout/CdaArticlePrintPreview/
1,2506,L-3739125,00.html), YNET, June 30, 2009
[41] "Israel/Gaza: Civilians must not be targets: Disregard for Civilians Underlies Current Escalation" (http:// www.hrw. org/en/ news/ 2008/
12/ 30/ israelgaza-civilians-must-not-be-targets). Human Rights Watch. December 30, 2008. . Retrieved August 3, 2009.
[42] Drones kill 10 civilians for one militant: US report (http:// www. dawn.com/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ dawn-content-library/dawn/ news/ world/
13+ drones+kill+ 10+ civilians+ for+one+ militant-za-09), Dawn (newspaper), 2009-07-21
[43] "Do Targeted Killings Work?" (http:/ / www.brookings. edu/ opinions/ 2009/ 0714_targeted_killings_byman.aspx), Brookings Institution,
[44] Newsweek, July 8, 2009. Anita Kirpalani, "Drone On. Q&A: A former Pakistani diplomat says America's most useful weapon is hurting the
cause in his country." (http:/ / www.newsweek. com/ id/ 205725) Retrieved on August 3, 2009.
[45] Greg Miller (March 22, 2009). "U.S. missile strikes said to take heavy toll on Al Qaeda" (http:/ / articles. latimes.com/ 2009/ mar/ 22/
world/ fg-pakistan-predator22). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved May 19, 2010.
[46] Terry Gross, host (October 21, 2009). "Jane Mayer: The Risks Of A Remote-Controlled War" (http:// www.npr.org/templates/ transcript/
transcript.php?storyId=113978637). NPR. . Retrieved May 20, 2010.
[47] "U.S. Approval of Killing of Cleric Causes Unease" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 05/ 14/ world/ 14awlaki.htm), Scott Shane, The
New York Times, May 13, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
[48] Entous, Adam (May 19, 2010). "How the White House learned to love the drone" (http:/ / uk. reuters.com/ article/
idUKTRE64H5U720100519?pageNumber=3). Reuters. . Retrieved October 17, 2010.
[49] Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper (http:// www. defensenews. com/ story.php?i=4649372& c=FEA&s=TEC) William Matthew; Defense News;
May 31, 2010
[50] "AUVSI: Raytheon designing UAV-specific weapons" (http:/ / www.flightglobal.com/ articles/ 2010/ 08/ 26/ 346610/
auvsi-raytheon-designing-uav-specific-weapons.html). . Retrieved December 19, 2010.
[51] Efforts Are Underway to Arm Small UAVs (http:// www.aviationweek.com/aw/ generic/ story_generic.jsp?channel=dti& id=news/
DTI-UAVs.xml& headline=Efforts Are Underway to Arm Small UAVs) Aviation Week; Oct 17, 2008
[52] AP Texas News (http:// www.chron.com/ disp/ story. mpl/ ap/ tx/ 5986181. html)
[53] 2008 Search and Rescue Missions (http:/ / www.justaeroworks.com/ pages/ JAW. 08SRM.html)
[54] "UAVs on the Rise." Dickerson, L. Aviation Week & Space Technology. January 15, 2007.
[55] Defense Acquisitions: Opportunities Exist to Achieve Greater Commonality and Efficiencies among Unmanned Aircraft Systems (http://
www.gao.gov/ products/ GAO-09-520)
[56] Shim, D. H, Kim, H. J., Sastry, S., Hierarchical Control System Synthesis for Rotorcraft-based Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (http:/ / robotics.
eecs. berkeley.edu/ ~sastry/ pubs/ PDFs of Pubs2000-2005/ Publications of Postdocs/ ShimDavid/ShimHierarchicalControl2000.pdf).
[57] Boucher, Roland (undated). "Project Sunrise pg 1" (http:// www.projectsunrise.info/First_Solar_Powered_Aircraft.html). . Retrieved
September 23, 2009.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
[58] Boucher, Roland (undated). "Project Sunrise pg 13" (http:// www.projectsunrise.info/Flight__Tests. html). . Retrieved September 23,
[59] Newcome, Laurence R. (2004). Unmanned aviation: a brief history of unmanned aerial vehicles (http:// books. google. com/
books?isbn=1563476444). . Retrieved September 23, 2009.
[60] Curry, Marty (March 2008). "Solar-Power Research and Dryden" (http:// www. nasa.gov/ centers/ dryden/ news/ FactSheets/
FS-054-DFRC. html). . Retrieved September 15, 2009.
[61] "Wireless Power for UAVs" (http:// lasermotive. com/ wp-content/uploads/ 2010/ 04/ Wireless-Power-for-UAVs-March2010.pdf). 2010. .
[62] counter_ied_backtracking.mpg (http:// www.youtube. com/ watch?v=ojGcX2H81NQ)
[63] http:// www. darpa.mil/ news/ 2010/ NewsReleaseVultureII. pdf
[64] Vulture – The Unmanned Aircraft Able to Stay in the Air for 5 Years (http:// www.infoniac.com/ hi-tech/
[65] QinetiQ press release (http:// www.qinetiq. com/ home/ newsroom/ news_releases_homepage/ 2010/ 3rd_quarter/qinetiq_files_for.html)
[66] QinetiQ press release (http:/ / www.qinetiq. com/ home/ newsroom/ news_releases_homepage/ 2008/ 3rd_quarter/qinetiq_s_zephyr_uav.
[67] Hiller Aviation Museum reference to the flight (http:// www. hiller.org/ files/docs/ 2003Q3. pdf)
[68] QinetiQ press release (http:/ / www.qinetiq. com/ home/ newsroom/ news_releases_homepage/ 2007/ 3rd_quarter/qinetiq_s_zephyr_uav.
[69] New Scientist article (http:// www. newscientist. com/ blog/ technology/ 2007/ 09/ solar-flyer-en-route-to-everlasting.html)
[70] "Spies That Fly: Time Line of UAVs" (http:// www. pbs. org/wgbh/ nova/ spiesfly/ uavs. html). PBS NOVA. .
[71] "Heron 1" (http:// www. iai. co.il/ Default.aspx?docID=16382& FolderID=18900&lang=en). Israel Aerospace Industries. .
[72] AC Propulsion release describing the flight (http:// www.acpropulsion.com/ACP_PDFs/ ACP_SoLong_Solar_UAV_2005-06-05.pdf)
[73] UAV Forum reference (http:/ / www.uavforum.com/ library/librarian.htm) Federation of American Scientists reference (http:// www. fas.
org/irp/ agency/ daro/uav95/ endurance. html)
[74] Directory of US Military Rockets and Missiles reference to the flight (http:// www.designation-systems. net/ dusrm/ app4/ gnat.html)
[75] UAV Endurance Prehistory reference (http:// www. vectorsite.net/ twuav_12.html)
[76] TAM Homepage (http://tam. plannet21. com)
[77] TAM-5 FAQ page (http:/ / tam. plannet21. com/ FAQs. htm)
[78] Aerosonde release on the flight (http:// www.aerosonde.com/ drawarticle/133)
[79] (http:// www. zaman. com. tr/haber.do?haberno=1074255&title=insansiz-hava-araci-gelistirme-projesi-imzalandi)
[80] Singer, Peter W. "A Revolution Once More: Unmanned Systems and the Middle East" (http:/ / www. brookings. edu/ articles/ 2009/
11_robotic_revolution_singer. aspx), The Brookings Institution (http:// www.brookings.edu/ ), November 2009.
[81] Singer, Peter W. "How the US Military Can Win the Robotic Revolution" (http:// www.brookings.edu/ articles/ 2010/ 0517_robots_singer.
aspx), The Brookings Institution (http:/ / www.brookings. edu/ ), 17 May 2010.
[82] Axe, David. "US Drones Trump China Theatrics" (http:// the-diplomat. com/2011/ 02/ 07/ us-drones-trump-china-theatrics/) The
Diplomat, 7 February 2011.
[83] Federation of American Scientists. Pioneer Short Range (SR) UAV (http:/ / www. fas.org/irp/program/collect/ pioneer. htm). Accessed
November 26, 2006.
[84] National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Pioneer RQ-2A (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20080117120211/ http:/ / www.
nasm.si. edu/ research/ aero/aircraft/pioneer. htm) September 14, 2001. Accessed November 26, 2006.
[85] Senator Bill Nelson (January 28, 2004) "New Information on Iraq's Possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction", (http:/ / www.fas. org/
irp/congress/ 2004_cr/s012804b. html) Congressional Record
[86] Lowe, C. (December 16, 2003) "Senator: White House Warned of UAV Attack," (http:// www.defensetech.org/ archives/ 000690.html)
Defense Tech
[87] Hammond, J. (November 14, 2005) "The U.S. 'intelligence failure' and Iraq's UAVs" (http:/ /www. yirmeyahureview.com/ articles/
iraq_uavs.htm) The Yirmeyahu Review
[88] Pilotless Warriors Soar To Success (http:// www.cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2003/04/ 25/ tech/ main551126.shtml), www.cbsnews.com, April
25, 2004. Accessed April 21, 2007.
Unmanned aerial vehicle
External links
• VTOL UAVs (http:// www. vtol. org/uavpaper/NavyUAV.htm)
• Build Your Own Drone, suppliers of DIY Drones hardware in UK & Europe (http:// www.buildyourowndrone.
co. uk)
• History of WWI-era UAVs (http:// www.ctie.monash. edu/ hargrave/rpav_usa. html) – Remote Piloted Aerial
Vehicles : The 'Aerial Target' and 'Aerial Torpedo' in the USA
• Defense Update reports about UAV employment in Persistent Surveillance (http:/ / www.defense-update.com/
features/ du-2-05/feature-uav.htm)
Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to
control theory and systems theory. Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second half of the 20th century,
cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.
Example of cybernetic thinking. On the one hand a company is approached as a system in
an environment. On the other hand cybernetic factory can be modeled as a control system.
Cybernetics is most applicable when
the system being analysed is involved
in a closed signal loop; that is, where
action by the system causes some
change in its environment and that
change is fed to the system via
information (feedback) that causes the
system to adapt to these new
conditions: the system's changes affect
its behavior. This "circular causal"
relationship is necessary and sufficient
for a cybernetic perspective. System
Dynamics, a related field, originated
with applications of electrical
engineering control theory to other
kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. Convenient GUI
system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse
systems. SD models solve the problem of simultaneity (mutual causation) by updating all variables in small time
increments with positive and negative feedbacks and time delays structuring the interactions and control. The best
known SD model is probably the 1972 The Limits to Growth. This model forecast that exponential growth would
lead to economic collapse during the 21st century under a wide variety of growth scenarios.
Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical
network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, and
psychology in the 1940s, often attributed to the Macy Conferences.
Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a
mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially
neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, and architecture and organizational
The term cybernetics stems from the Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor,
pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but
the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of
systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action
to sensing to comparison with desired goal, and again to action. Studies in cybernetics
provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social
systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the
purpose of making them more efficient and effective.
Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in
the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it
to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and
derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including
self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to
information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks
. A more philosophical
definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as
"the art of ensuring the efficacy of action"
. The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman,
President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact
with themselves and produce themselves from themselves"
Concepts studied by cyberneticists (or, as some prefer, cyberneticians) include, but are not limited to: learning,
cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These
concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from
the context of the individual organism or device.
Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory; system theory (a
mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); psychology, especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology and
cognitive psychology; philosophy; anthropology; and even theology,
telematic art, and architecture.
The roots of cybernetic theory
The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify
the governance of people. The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère
(1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.
James Watt
The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented
by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source
such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the
mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to
monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the
water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so
that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first
artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside
intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism.
Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they
considered it a field of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and
Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.
The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end,
goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back
as the late 18th century when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a
governor, a centrifugal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this
as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article
on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll
applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle (Funktionskreis) in order to explain animal
behaviour and the origins of meaning in general.
The early 20th century
Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical
network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s.
Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black
on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. The ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von
Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory.
Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna
during World War II. Jay Forrester, a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT during WWII
working with Gordon S. Brown to develop electronic control systems for the U.S. Navy, later applied these ideas to
social organizations such as corporations and cities as an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial
Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Forrester is known as the founder of System Dynamics.
W. Edwards Deming, the Total Quality Management guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial prize,
was an intern at Bell Telephone Labs in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory. Deming made
"Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book "The
New Economics."
Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P.K. Anokhin published a
book in which the concept of feedback ("back afferentation") was studied. The study and mathematical modelling of
regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. These papers
were "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow; and the paper
"A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts.
Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as W. Ross Ashby and W.
Grey Walter.
Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. Together with the
US and UK, an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was France.
In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy, France. The event was
organized by the Bourbaki, a French scientific society, and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899–1983), uncle
of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot.
John von Neumann
During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a
manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied
mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in
telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the
United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics
into his scientific theory. The name cybernetics was coined to denote
the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through
his book Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal
and Machine (Hermann & Cie, Paris, 1948). In the UK this became the
focus for the Ratio Club.
In the early 1940s John von Neumann, although better known for his
work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique
and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann
cellular automata, and their logical follow up the Von Neumann
Universal Constructor. The result of these deceptively simple
thought-experiments was the concept of self replication which
cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social
memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic
Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a
regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics
and Society (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).
While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the Biological Computer Lab
at the
University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, under the direction of Heinz von Foerster, was a major center of
cybernetic research
for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958.
The fall and rebirth of cybernetics
For a time during the past 30 years, the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more
dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (i.e. cyborgs) and when this
research fell out of favor, the field as a whole fell from grace.
In the 1970s new cyberneticians emerged in multiple fields, but especially in biology. The ideas of Maturana, Varela
and Atlan, according to Dupuy (1986) "realized that the cybernetic metaphors of the program upon which molecular
biology had been based rendered a conception of the autonomy of the living being impossible. Consequently, these
thinkers were led to invent a new cybernetics, one more suited to the organizations which mankind discovers in
nature - organizations he has not himself invented"
. However, during the 1980s the question of whether the
features of this new cybernetics could be applied to social forms of organization remained open to debate.
In political science, Project Cybersyn attempted to introduce a cybernetically controlled economy during the early
1970s. In the 1980s, according to Harries-Jones (1988) "unlike its predecessor, the new cybernetics concerns itself
with the interaction of autonomous political actors and subgroups, and the practical and reflexive consciousness of
the subjects who produce and reproduce the structure of a political community. A dominant consideration is that of
recursiveness, or self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression of political consciousness and
with the ways in which systems build upon themselves".
One characteristic of the emerging new cybernetics considered in that time by Geyer and van der Zouwen, according
to Bailey (1994), was "that it views information as constructed and reconstructed by an individual interacting with
the environment. This provides an epistemological foundation of science, by viewing it as observer-dependent.
Another characteristic of the new cybernetics is its contribution towards bridging the "micro-macro gap". That is, it
links the individual with the society"
Another characteristic noted was the "transition from classical cybernetics to
the new cybernetics [that] involves a transition from classical problems to new problems. These shifts in thinking
involve, among others, (a) a change from emphasis on the system being steered to the system doing the steering, and
the factor which guides the steering decisions.; and (b) new emphasis on communication between several systems
which are trying to steer each other"
. The work of Gregory Bateson was also strongly influenced by cybernetics.
Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields
as game theory (the analysis of group interaction), systems of feedback in evolution, and metamaterials (the study of
materials with properties beyond the Newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have led to a revived interest
in this increasingly relevant field.
Subdivisions of the field
Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many types of subject matter. These subjects also extend into
many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.
Basic cybernetics
Cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such
things as
ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to
avoid obstacles and navigate stairs.
• Artificial intelligence
• Robotics
• Computer Vision
• Control systems
• Emergence
• Learning organization
• New Cybernetics
• Second-order cybernetics
• Interactions of Actors Theory
• Conversation Theory
In biology
Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how
animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to
. There is also a secondary focus on combining artificial systems with biological systems.
• Bioengineering
• Biocybernetics
• Bionics
• Homeostasis
• Medical cybernetics
• Synthetic Biology
• Systems Biology
In computer science
Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of
• Robotics
• Decision support system
• Cellular automaton
• Simulation
• Technology
In engineering
Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze cascading failures and System Accidents, in which the small errors and
imperfections in a system can generate disasters. Other topics studied include:
An artificial heart, a product of biomedical
• Adaptive systems
• Engineering cybernetics
• Ergonomics
• Biomedical engineering
• Systems engineering
In management
• Entrepreneurial cybernetics
• Management cybernetics
• Organizational cybernetics
• Operations research
• Systems engineering
In mathematics
Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information, interaction of parts in systems, and the structure of
• Dynamical system
• Information theory
• Systems theory
In psychology
• Homunculus
• Psycho-Cybernetics
• Systems psychology
• Perceptual Control Theory
In sociology
By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics, sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous
events as smart mobs and riots, as well as how communities develop rules, such as etiquette, by consensus without
formal discussion. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior, emotions, and labeling theory in terms of
homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. The most comprehensive attempt ever
made in the social sciences to increase cybernetics in a generalized theory of society was made by Talcott Parsons.
In this way, cybernetics establish the basic hierarchy in Parsons' AGIL paradigm, which is the ording
system-dimension of his action theory. These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited
by McClelland and Fararo
• Affect Control Theory
• Memetics
• Sociocybernetics
In art
The artist Roy Ascott theorised the cybernetics of art in "Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision". Cybernetica,
Journal of the International Association for Cybernetics (Namur), 1967.
• Telematic art
• Interactive Art
• Systems art
Related fields
Complexity science
Complexity science attempts to understand the nature of complex systems.
• Complex Adaptive System
• Complex systems
• Complexity theory
[1] Tange, Kenzo (1966) "Function, Structure and Symbol".
[2] Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: The new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
ISBN 0-201-48340-8. OCLC 221860672 32208523 40868076 56082721 57396750.
[3] Couffignal, Louis, "Essai d’une définition générale de la cybernétique", The First International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Belgium,
June 26–29, 1956, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1958, pp. 46-54
[4] CYBCON discusstion group 20 September 2007 18:15
[5] Granfield, Patrick (1973). Ecclesial Cybernetics: A Study of Democracy in the Church. New York: MacMillan. pp. 280.
[6] Hight, Christopher (2007). Architectural Principles in the age of Cybernetics. Routledge. pp. 248. ISBN 978-0415384827.
[7] http:/ / www. ece.uiuc. edu/ pubs/ bcl/ mueller/index. htm
[8] http:// www. ece.uiuc. edu/ pubs/ bcl/ hutchinson/ index. htm
[9] Jean-Pierre Dupuy, "The autonomy of social reality: on the contribution of systems theory to the theory of society" in: Elias L. Khalil &
Kenneth E. Boulding eds., Evolution, Order and Complexity, 1986.
[10] Peter Harries-Jones (1988), "The Self-Organizing Polity: An Epistemological Analysis of Political Life by Laurent Dobuzinskis" in:
Canadian Journal of Political Science (Revue canadienne de science politique), Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun., 1988), pp. 431-433.
[11] Kenneth D. Bailey (1994), Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis, p.163.
[12] Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche, such as the case
of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments.
[13] McClelland, Kent A., and Thomas J. Fararo (Eds.). 2006. Purpose, Meaning, and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Further reading
• Andrew Pickering (2010) The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of Another Future (http:// www.amazon. com/
Cybernetic-Brain-Sketches-Another-Future/dp/ 0226667898) University Of Chicago Press.
• Slava Gerovitch (2002) From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (http:/ / web. mit. edu/
slava/homepage/ newspeak. htm) MIT Press.
• John Johnston, (2008) "The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI", MIT Press
• Heikki Hyötyniemi (2006). Neocybernetics in Biological Systems (http:// neocybernetics. com/ report151/).
Espoo: Helsinki University of Technology, Control Engineering Laboratory.
• Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Journal of
Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.
• Lars Bluma, (2005), Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster.
• Francis Heylighen, and Cliff Joslyn (2001). " Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics (http:/ / pespmc1. vub.
ac.be/ Papers/ Cybernetics-EPST.pdf)", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology
(3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
• Charles François (1999). " Systemics and cybernetics in a historical perspective (http:/ / www.uni-klu.ac. at/
~gossimit/ ifsr/francois/papers/ systemics_and_cybernetics_in_a_historical_perspective. pdf)". In: Systems
Research and Behavioral Science. Vol 16, pp. 203–219 (1999)
• Heinz von Foerster, (1995), Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics (http:// www.stanford.edu/ group/SHR/ 4-2/
text/ foerster.html).
• Steve J. Heims (1993), Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953,
Cambridge University Press, London, UK.
• Paul Pangaro (1990), "Cybernetics — A Definition", Eprint (http:// pangaro.com/ published/ cyber-macmillan.
• Stuart Umpleby (1989), "The science of cybernetics and the cybernetics of science" (ftp:/ / ftp.vub. ac.be/ pub/
projects/ Principia_Cybernetica/Papers_Umpleby/ Science-Cybernetics. txt), in: Cybernetics and Systems", Vol.
21, No. 1, (1990), pp. 109–121.
• Michael A. Arbib (1987, 1964) Brains, Machines, and Mathematics (http:/ / www.amazon. com/
Brains-Machines-Mathematics-Michael-Arbib/ dp/ 0387965394) Springer.
• B.C. Patten, and E.P. Odum (1981), "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems", The American Naturalist 118,
• Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980), Norbert Wiener, Leipzig.
• Steve J. Heims (1980), John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life
and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge.
• Stafford Beer (1974), Designing Freedom, John Wiley, London and New York, 1975.
• Gordon Pask (1972), " Cybernetics (http:// www.cybsoc. org/gcyb.htm)", entry in Encyclopædia Britannica
• Helvey, T.C. The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Educational Technology Publications, 1971.
• Roy Ascott (1967). Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision. Cybernetica, Journal of the International
Association for Cybernetics (Namur), 10, pp. 25–56
• W. Ross Ashby (1956), Introduction to Cybernetics. Methuen, London, UK. PDF text (http:/ / pespmc1. vub. ac.
be/books/ IntroCyb.pdf).
• Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, (Hermann &
Cie Editeurs, Paris, The Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1948).
External links
• Norbert Wiener and Stefan Odobleja - A Comparative Analysis (http:// www.bu. edu/ wcp/ Papers/ Comp/
CompJurc. htm)
• Reading List for Cybernetics (http:// www. cscs. umich. edu/ ~crshalizi/ notabene/ cybernetics. html)
• Principia Cybernetica Web (http:/ /pespmc1. vub.ac.be/ DEFAULT.html)
• Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems (http:/ / pespmc1. vub. ac. be/ ASC/ indexASC.html)
• Glossary Slideshow (136 slides) (http:// www. gwu.edu/ ~asc/ slide/ s1. html)
• Basics of Cybernetics (http:// www. smithsrisca. demon. co. uk/ cybernetics. html)
• What is Cybernetics? (http:// www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_hjAXkNbPfk) Livas short introductory videos on
• A History of Systemic and Cybernetic Thought. From Homeostasis to the Teardrop (http:// www.pclibya. com/
cybernetic_teardrop. pdf)
• American Society for Cybernetics (http:/ / www.asc-cybernetics. org/)
• IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Society (http:/ / www.ieeesmc. org/)
• The Cybernetics Society (http:/ / www. cybsoc. org)
Instituto de Automática
Instituto de Automática
The Automation Institute (Spanish: Instituto de Automática) is an Argentine
Research Institution located in San Juan Province (Argentina) dedicated to research
advanced topics of Control Engineering, Robotics and Electronics.
The INAUT was created in 1973 under the umbrella of the National University of
San Juan. It is one of the 14 Research Institutes that operate under the hood of this
academic institution.
Research Area
The scope of the Institute is, broadly,research and development of Automatic Control. Nowadays, the following
research programs are being conducted: Robotics, Manufacture, Process Control, Control Artificial Intelligence,
Industrial Electronics, Sensors. International Cooperation is encouraged and many projects are being executed jointly
with similar International Research Centers. One important goal of the institute is to successfully achieve a
technology transfer to the public and private industry sector.
The INAUT is located in Av. San Martin -Oeste- 1112, San Juan, Argentina. It includes laboratories, libraries,
conference rooms, workshops and administrative offices.
Personnel includes professional researchers, scholars, technical staff and sum up to 27 persons. The Institute is now
committed to develop very specialized human resources and to foster the area in the country.
Financial Sources
• National University of San Juan
• National Science and Technology Secretary (SECYT) and National Agency for Science and Technology
Promotion (ANPCyT ANPCyT)
• National Research Council (CONICET)
• Technology transfer funds
• International Agencies (ICI, CYTED, DAAD, EU, INCO, ALFA, CAPES)
External links
• Official website of the INstituto de AUTomatica
[1] http:/ / www. inaut. unsj. edu. ar/
Python Robotics
Python Robotics
(Pyro) - Python Robotics
Stable release 5.0 / August 15, 2007
Available in Python
Website http:/ / pyrorobotics. org/
Python Robotics (Pyro for short) is a project designed to create an easy-to-use interface for accessing and
controlling a wide variety of real and simulated robots.
The Pioneer robot is one of many which PyroBot
can simulate.
Pyrobot was funded from 2003 to 2005 by the National Science
Foundation as NSF DUE CCLI-EMD Award number 0231363,
"Beyond LEGOs: Hardware, Software, and Curriculum for the Next
Generation Robot Laboratory". The principal investigators on the NSF
grant were Douglas Blank of Bryn Mawr College, Kurt Konolige of
SRI International, Deepak Kumar (computer scientist) of Bryn Mawr
College, Lisa Meeden of Swarthmore College, and Holly Yanco of
University of Massachusetts Lowell.
PyroBot is a Python library with some C++ code for processing camera
images. It has connections to Player, Stage, and Gazebo. It also
contains its own simulator written completely in Python. It can directly
control a variety of real robots, including the Pioneer, Khepera, Aibo, and Hemisson.
The ideas from PyroBot continue to evolve as Myro, short for My Robot, in the Institute for Personal Robots in
Education software, although it is no longer for Python only. Myro can be used by many other computer languages
as well.
External links
• Python Robotics
- project home page
• Beyond LEGOs
- NSF funding page for Pyrobot
[1] http:/ / pyrorobotics.org/
[2] http:/ / www. cs. brynmawr.edu/ BeyondLegos/
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo International Robot Exhibition
(IREX) 2009.

The Shadow robot hand system
Robotics is the branch of technology
that deals with the design,
construction, operation, structural
disposition, manufacture and
application of robots.
Robotics is
related to the sciences of electronics,
engineering, mechanics, and
The word "robot" was
introduced to the public by Czech
writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R.
(Rossum's Universal Robots),
published in 1920. The term "robotics"
was coined by Isaac Asimov in his
1941 science fiction short-story
Stories of artificial helpers and
companions and attempts to create
them have a long history.
A Pick and Place robot in a factory
The World's largest and strongest 6-axis robot
A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R.
(Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three
The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel
Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in
The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called
robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans - though they are
closer to the modern ideas of androids. Karel Čapek himself did not
coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in
the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef
Čapek as its actual originator.
In 1927 the Maschinenmensch ("machine-human") gynoid humanoid
robot (also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria
impersonator") was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played
by German actress Brigitte Helm) in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis.
In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and, in the process of doing
so, coined the word "robotics" (see details in "Etymology" section below).
In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.
Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and
programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and
stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, or more
accurately and reliably, than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be
suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, transport, earth
and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and
industrial goods.
Date Significance Robot Name Inventor
First century
A.D. and
Descriptions of more than 100 machines and automata, including a
fire engine, a wind organ, a coin-operated machine, and a
steam-powered engine, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron of
Ctesibius, Philo of
Byzantium, Heron of
Alexandria, and others
Created early humanoid automata, programmable automaton band
Robot band, hand-washing
moving peacocks
1495 Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical knight Leonardo da Vinci
1738 Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Digesting Duck Jacques de Vaucanson
1898 Nikola Tesla demonstrates first radio-controlled vessel. Teleautomaton Nikola Tesla
1921 First fictional automatons called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R. Rossum's Universal Robots Karel Čapek
1930s Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Elektro Westinghouse Electric
Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors
Elsie and Elmer William Grey Walter
First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by
George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents
Unimate George Devol
1961 First installed industrial robot. Unimate George Devol
First palletizing robot
Palletizer Fuji Yusoki Kogyo
First industrial robot with six electromechanically driven axes
Famulus KUKA Robot Group
1975 Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product PUMA Victor Scheinman
Largest and strongest industrial robot with six axes
M-2000iA FANUC Robotics America
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his
science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that
he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics
already referred to the science and technology of robots. However, in some of Asimov's other works, he states that
the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942).
The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel
Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921.
Power source
At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:
• pneumatic (compressed gases)
• hydraulics (compressed liquids)
• flywheel energy storage
• organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)
• faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused
for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the
system would operate)
• still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear
fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover
• radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red
A robotic leg powered by Air Muscles
Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert
stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are
electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that
control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent
advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity,
chemicals, or compressed air:
• Electric motors: The vast majority of robots use electric motors,
often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC
motors in industrial robots and CNC machines.
• Linear Actuators: Various types of linear actuators move in and out
instead of by spinning, particularly when very large forces are
needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered
by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic
• Series Elastic Actuators: A spring can be designed as part of the
motor actuator, to allow improved force control. It has been used in
various robots, particularly walking humanoid robots.
• Air muscles: (Also known as Pneumatic Artificial Muscles) are
special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced
inside it. They have been used for some robot applications.

• Muscle wire: (Also known as Shape Memory Alloy, Nitinol or
Flexinol Wire) is a material that contracts slightly (typically under
5%) when electricity runs through it. They have been used for some
small robot applications.

• Electroactive Polymers: (EAPs or EPAMs) are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%)
from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots,
and to allow new robots
to float,
fly, swim or walk.
• Piezo motor: A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a
fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per
second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of
the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line.
Another type uses the piezo elements to
cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and
available force for their size.
These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some

• Elastic nanotubes: These are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development.
The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with
energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm
for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm
diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump
Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has
developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.
The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin.
Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within
the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing
impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function
of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.
Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which
functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play piano and perform other fine
movements. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips.
Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is
concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take
many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras.
In most practical computer vision applications, the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task, but
methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common.
Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form
of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. The process by which
light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image sensors even require
quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process.
There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and
behavior of biological systems, at different levels of complexity. Also, some of the learning-based methods
developed within computer vision have their background in biology.
Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or
otherwise have an effect. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors,
while the "arm" is
referred to as a manipulator.
Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some
small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general
purpose manipulator, for example a humanoid hand.
• Mechanical Grippers: One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of
just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can for
example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it.
See Shadow Hand.
• Vacuum Grippers: Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens,
will often use very simple vacuum grippers. These are very simple astrictive
devices, but can hold very large
loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction.
• General purpose effectors: Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow
Hand, MANUS,
and the Schunk hand.
These highly dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of
freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.
For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors, their design, and usage consult the book "Robot
Rolling robots
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya.
For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of
continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex
wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. These can have certain
advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as
allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled
robot would not be able to.
• Two-wheeled balancing: Balancing robots generally use a
gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the
wheels proportionally in the opposite direction, to counter-balance
the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of
an inverted pendulum.
Many different balancing robots have
been designed.
While the Segway is not commonly thought of as
a robot, it can be thought of as a component of a robot, such as
NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway.
• One-wheeled balancing: A one-wheeled balancing robot is an
extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in
any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed
recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person, and
Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP".
Because of the long, thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces,
they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.
• Spherical orb robots: Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball, either
by spinning a weight inside the ball,

or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere.

These have also
been referred to as an orb bot
or a ball bot

• Six-wheeled robots: Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain
such as on rocky dirt or grass.
• Tracked robots: Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. Tracked wheels behave as if
they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the
robot must drive on very rough terrain. However, they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth
floors. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie".
Walking robots
iCub robot, designed by the
RobotCub Consortium
Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been
made which can walk reliably on two legs, however none have yet been made
which are as robust as a human. Many other robots have been built that walk on
more than two legs, due to these robots being significantly easier to construct.
Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I, Robot, where they walk
on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. Typically, robots on
2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can
walk over rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are:
• ZMP Technique: The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by
robots such as Honda's ASIMO. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep
the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration
and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the
force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). In this way, the two forces
cancel out, leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall
However, this is not exactly how a human walks, and the difference
is obvious to human observers, some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO
walks as if it needs the lavatory.


ASIMO's walking algorithm is not
static, and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). However, it still
requires a smooth surface to walk on.
• Hopping: Several robots, built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory, successfully
demonstrated very dynamic walking. Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot, could stay upright
simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it
would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself.
Soon, the algorithm was generalised to two and
four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults.
A quadruped was also
demonstrated which could trot, run, pace, and bound.
For a full list of these robots, see the MIT Leg Lab
• Dynamic Balancing or controlled falling: A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic
balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique, as it constantly
monitors the robot's motion, and places the feet in order to maintain stability.
This technique was recently
demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot,
which is so stable, it can even jump.
Another example is the TU
Delft Flame.
• Passive Dynamics: Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of
swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms
can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this technique, a robot need only
supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. This
technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.
Other methods of locomotion
RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle
• Flying: A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot,
with two humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane
for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and
even landing.
Other flying robots are uninhabited, and are known
as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They can be smaller and
lighter without a human pilot onboard, and fly into dangerous
territory for military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on
targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can
fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from
a human. Other flying robots include cruise missiles, the
, and the Epson micro helicopter robot
. Robots
such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and guided by
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2
degrees of freedom per segment), the right one
• Snaking: Several snake robots have been successfully developed.
Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate
very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search
for people trapped in collapsed buildings.
The Japanese
ACM-R5 snake robot
can even navigate both on land and in
• Skating: A small number of skating robots have been developed,
one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. It has
four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll.
Another robot, Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates,
and skate across a desktop.
• Climbing: Several different approaches have been used to develop
robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. One approach
mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving
each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin,
built by Stanford University, California.
Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes, which can run on smooth
surfaces such as vertical glass. Examples of this approach include Wallbot
and Stickybot.
"Technology Daily" November 15, 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co., Ltd. Dr. Li Hiu Yeung
and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy
Freelander".According to Dr. Li introduction, this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of
building walls, ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the ceiling, it is able to adapt on
smooth glass, rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can
automatically identify obstacles, circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. Its flexibility and
speed are comparable to the natural gecko. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole.
• Swimming: It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than
Furthermore, they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and
produce less noise and water disturbance. Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to
copy this type of locomotion.
Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish,
and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics
, to analyze and mathematically model thunniform
The Aqua Penguin
, designed and built by Festo of Germany, copies the streamlined shape and
propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly, which emulate the
locomotion of manta ray, and jellyfish, respectively.
Environmental interaction and navigation
RADAR, GPS, LIDAR, ... are all combined to provide
proper navigation and obstacle avoidance
Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are
either human controlled, or operate in a static environment, there
is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in
a dynamic environment. These robots require some combination of
navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their
environment. In particular unforeseen events (e.g. people and other
obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions.
Some highly advanced robots as ASIMO, EveR-1, Meinü robot
have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software.
Also, self-controlled cars, Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car, and the
entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, are capable of sensing the
environment well and subsequently making navigational decisions
based on this information. Most of these robots employ a GPS
navigation device with waypoints, along with radar, sometimes
combined with other sensory data such as LIDAR, video cameras, and inertial guidance systems for better navigation
between waypoints.
Human-robot interaction
Kismet can produce a range of facial
If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial
environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and especially
how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who
interact with them may have little or no training in robotics, and so any interface
will need to be extremely intuitive. Science fiction authors also typically assume
that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through
speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.
Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate,
it is unnatural for the robot. It will probably be a long time before robots interact
as naturally as the fictional C-3PO.
• Speech recognition: Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from
a human (speech recognition), in real time, is a difficult task for a computer,
mostly because of the great variability of speech.
The same word, spoken
by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics,
volume, the previous word, whether or not the speaker has a cold, etc.. It becomes even harder when the speaker
has a different accent.
Nevertheless, great strides have been made in the field since Davis, Biddulph, and
Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100%
accuracy" in 1952.
Currently, the best systems can recognize continuous, natural speech, up to 160 words per
minute, with an accuracy of 95%.
• Robotic voice: other hurdles exist when allowing the robot to use voice for interacting with humans. For social
reasons, synthetic voice proves suboptimal as a communication medium,
making it necessary to develop the
emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques.

• Gestures: One can imagine, in the future, explaining to a robot chef how to make a pastry, or asking directions
from a robot police officer. In both of these cases, making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions. In the
first case, the robot would be recognizing gestures made by the human, and perhaps repeating them for
confirmation. In the second case, the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the road, then turn
right". It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots.
A great
many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.
• Facial expression: Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two
humans, and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. Robotic faces have been constructed by
Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber, allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to
the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial
The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. A robot should know how to approach a human,
judging by their facial expression and body language. Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy-looking
affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Likewise, robots like Kismet and the more recent addition,
can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with
• Artificial emotions: Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial
expressions and/or gestures. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, the programming
of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation. To simplify this
programming in the movie, presets were created together with a special software program. This decreased the
amount of time needed to make the film. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots.
• Personality: Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality, something which may or may not be
desirable in the commercial robots of the future.
Nevertheless, researchers are trying to create robots which
appear to have a personality:

i.e. they use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey
an internal state, which may be joy, sadness, or fear. One commercial example is Pleo, a toy robot dinosaur,
which can exhibit several apparent emotions.
A robot-manipulated marionette, with complex
control systems
The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform
tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases - perception,
processing, and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give information
about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the position of its joints
or its end effector). This information is then processed to calculate the
appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the
The processing phase can range in complexity. At a reactive level, it
may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands.
Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e.g.
the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. An
immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is
inferred from these estimates. Techniques from control theory convert
the task into commands that drive the actuators.
At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks, the robot may
need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Cognitive models
try to represent the robot, the world, and how they interact. Pattern
recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the
world. Finally, motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. For
example, a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles, falling over, etc.
Autonomy levels
Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy.
1. Direct interaction is used for haptic or tele-operated devices, and the human has nearly complete control over the
robot's motion.
2. Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding medium-to-high-level tasks, with the robot automatically
figuring out how to achieve them.
3. An autonomous robot may go for extended periods of time without human interaction. Higher levels of autonomy
do not necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities. For example, robots in assembly plants are
completely autonomous, but operate in a fixed pattern.
Another classification takes into account the interaction between human control and the machine motions.
1. Teleoperation. A human controls each movement, each machine actuator change is specified by the operator.
2. Supervisory. A human specifies general moves or position changes and the machine decides specific movements
of its actuators.
3. Task-level autonomy. The operator specifies only the task and the robot manages itself to complete it.
4. Full autonomy. The machine will create and complete all its tasks without human interaction.
Dynamics and kinematics
The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end
effector position, orientation, velocity, and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. Inverse
kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values, as
done in path planning. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of
performing the same movement), collision avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Once all relevant positions,
velocities, and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics, methods from the field of dynamics are used to
study the effect of forces upon these movements. Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the
robot once the applied forces are known. Direct dynamics is used in computer simulations of the robot. Inverse
dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end effector acceleration.
This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot.
In each area mentioned above, researchers strive to develop new concepts and strategies, improve existing ones, and
improve the interaction between these areas. To do this, criteria for "optimal" performance and ways to optimize
design, structure, and control of robots must be developed and implemented.
Robot research
Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of
robots, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them but other investigations,
such as MIT's cyberflora project, are almost wholly academic.
A first particular new innovation in robot design is the opensourcing of robot-projects. To describe the level of
advancement of a robot, the term "Generation Robots" can be used. This term is coined by Professor Hans Moravec,
Principal Research Scientist at the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute in describing the near future
evolution of robot technology. First generation robots, Moravec predicted in 1997, should have an intellectual
capacity comparable to perhaps a lizard and should become available by 2010. Because the first generation robot
would be incapable of learning, however, Moravec predicts that the second generation robot would be an
improvement over the first and become available by 2020, with an intelligence maybe comparable to that of a
mouse. The third generation robot should have an intelligence comparable to that of a monkey. Though fourth
generation robots, robots with human intelligence, professor Moravec predicts, would become possible, he does not
predict this happening before around 2040 or 2050.
The second is Evolutionary Robots. This is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots,
especially the body form, or motion and behavior controllers. In a similar way to natural evolution, a large
population of robots is allowed to compete in some way, or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness
function. Those that perform worst are removed from the population, and replaced by a new set, which have new
behaviors based on those of the winners. Over time the population improves, and eventually a satisfactory robot may
appear. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers. Researchers use this method
both to create better robots,
and to explore the nature of evolution.
Because the process often requires many
generations of robots to be simulated,
this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation, then tested on
real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough.
Currently, there are about 1 million industrial robots
toiling around the world, and Japan is the top country having high density of utilizing robots in its manufacturing
Education and training
The SCORBOT-ER 4u - educational robot.
Robots recently became a popular tool in raising interests in computing
for middle and high school students. First year computer science
courses at several universities were developed which involves the
programming of a robot instead of the traditional software engineering
based coursework.
Career training
Universities offer Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees in the field
of robotics. Select Private Career Colleges and vocational schools offer
robotics training to train individuals towards being job ready and
employable in the emerging robotics industry.
The Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is an
international robotics certification authority who confers various
industry and educational related robotics certifications.
Employment in robotics
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots.
(Courtesy: MobileRobots Inc)
Robotics is an essential component in any modern manufacturing
environment. As factories increase their use of robots, the number of
robotics related jobs grow and have been observed to be on a steady
Relationship to unemployment
Some analysts, such as Martin Ford,
argue that robots and other
forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment
as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to
perform most jobs. At present the negative impact is only on menial
and repetitive jobs, and there is actually a positive impact on the
number of jobs for highly skilled technicians, engineers, and
specialists. However, these highly skilled jobs are not sufficient in
number to offset the greater decrease in employment among the
general population, causing structural unemployment in which overall
(net) unemployment rises.
As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, some worry even
many skilled jobs may be threatened. In conventional economic theory this should merely cause an increase in the
productivity of the involved industries, resulting in higher demand for other goods, and hence higher labour demand
in these sectors, off-setting whatever negatives are caused. Conventional theory describes the past well but may not
describe the future due to shifts in the parameter values that shape the context (see Automation and its effects on
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with different robot voice styles. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication,
2008. RO-MAN 2008, Munich, 1-3 Aug. 2008, pp. 707-712, doi: 10.1109/ROMAN.2008.4600750. Available: online (http:// ieeexplore.ieee.
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[107] Žlajpah, Leon (2008-12-15). "Simulation in robotics". Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 79 (4): 879–897.
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Evolution_trains_robot_teams_051904. html)
[109] Ford, Martin R. (2009), The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future (http:// www.
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com/ ).)
• K. S. Fu & R.C. Gonzalez & C.S.G. Lee, Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision, and Intelligence (CAD/CAM,
robotics, and computer vision)
• C.S.G. Lee & R.C. Gonzalez & K.S. Fu, Tutorial on robotics
• “SP200 With Open Control Center. Robotic Prescription Dispensing System” (http:/ / www.scriptpro.com/
products/ sp-200/ SP_200_OCC_Low_Res. pdf), accessed November 22, 2008.
• “McKesson Empowering HealthCare. Robot RX” (http:// www.mckesson. com/ en_us/ McKesson. com/ For+
Pharmacies/Inpatient/Pharmacy+Automation/ ROBOT-Rx. html), accessed November 22, 2008.
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22, 2008.
• Marco Ceccarelli, "Fundamentals of Mechanics of Robotic Manipulators"
Further reading
• Journal of Field Robotics (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ journal/117946193/ grouphome/ home. html)
• Robotics education website (http:/ / www. razorrobotics.com/ )
• R. Andrew Russell (1990). Robot Tactile Sensing. New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-781592-1
External links
• Autonomous Programmable Robot (http:// www.moway-robot.com/ index.php?lang=en)
• Four-leg robot (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=egpBRjFqNWA)
• Robotics video tutorial (http:/ / www. expertcore.org/viewtopic. php?f=73&t=335)
The RoboTuna is a robotic fish project involving a series of robotic fish designed and built by a team of scientists at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.
The Project
The project started in 1993. Their aim was to investigate the possibility of constructing a robotic submarine that
could reproduce the way tunas swim and see if they could find a superior system of propulsion for the Autonomous
Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Their experiment was a success as they discovered that their fish was both more
manoeuvrable and used less energy than other robotic submarines.The Science Museum in London, UK has one on
display in their geophysics and oceanography section.




While the early results were successful the RoboTuna was not able to replicate the bursts of acceleration that real
tuna were able to manage. Researchers tried a genetic algorithm. Early incarnations worked poorly but as the system
evolved the RoboTuna's abilities improved. Visualization techniques showed that the system had evolved so that the
RoboTuna was taking advantage of vortices that it created. A swish of its tail one way creating a vortex, which was
then used by a swish the other way - propelling it off the vortex it had created. This technique not only helps to with
normal swimming but explains the impressive standing start speeds of real tuna.
The Researchers
The team involved in the project included: Michael Triantafyllou, David Barrett who built the first RoboTuna
(Charlie I) in 1995 for his PhD thesis, and David Beal and Michael Sachinis, who introduced several modification
including a cable-pulley system to produce RoboTuna II.
[1] http:/ / www. sciencemuseum. org. uk/ objects/ oceanography/ L2000-4475.aspx The Science Museum
[2] http:// www. robotic-fish.net/ index. php?lang=en&id=robots robotic-fish.net
[3] http:/ / tech.mit. edu/ V115/ N49/ robotuna.49n. html
[4] http:// edition.cnn. com/ 2009/ TECH/science/ 08/ 31/ robotic.fish.mit/ index. html MIT engineers create new school of robotic fish August
31, 2009
[5] http:// www. smithsonianmag. com/ science-nature/ robofish-abstract.html Douglas Whynott (2000) Something's Fishy about this Robot:
When it comes to speed and maneuverability, fish leave man-made submersibles floundering, but RoboTuna and friends may change all that
Smithsonian magazine, August
[6] http:/ / sub-log. com/ robotuna_or_how_do_fish_swim_so_fast Sub-log.com:submarines, shipwrecks and undersea exploration Robotuna, or
How Do Fish Swim So Fast?
[7] http:/ / tech.mit. edu/ V115/ N49/ robotuna.49n. html
List of robotics topics
Robotics is the field of science which applies to the various components of robots and their related systems. This
includes designing and manufacture, control, programming, and applcations of robots and their components.
Robotics integrates theory and practice from various contributing fields: mechanical and electrical engineering,
computer science, sensing and perception, cognitive science etc. Robotics can also be applied to sub-systems which
mimic or follow human actions such as robotic arms and tele-robotic surgical equipment.
A robot is a mechanical intelligent agent which can perform tasks on its own, or with guidance. The term robot can
also apply to a virtual agent. In practice it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or
electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and come in those two basic types: those
which are used for research into human-like systems, such as ASIMO and TOPIO, as well as those into more defined
and specific roles, such as Nano robots and Swarm robots; and helper robots which are used to make or move things
or perform menial or dangerous tasks, such as Industrial robots or mobile or servicing robots. Another common
characteristic is that, by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its
Main articles: Robot, Robotics and Roboticist
The following list is provided as an overview of, and topical guide, to robotics.
Branches of robotics
• Anthrobotics • Developmental robotics • Passive dynamics
• Artificial intelligence • Driverless cars • Programming by Demonstration
• Autonomous research robotics • Electronic Stability Control • Rapid prototyping
• BEAM robotics • Epigenetic robotics • Robotic surgery
• Remote surgery
• Robot-assisted heart surgery
• Behavior-based robotics • Evolutionary robotics • Robot kinematics
• Biomorphic robotics • Home automation • Robot locomotion
• Bionics • Human robot interaction • Speech processing
• Biorobotics • Intelligent vehicle technologies • Swarm robotics
• Cognitive robotics • Laboratory robotics • Telepresence
• Computer vision • Microrobotics
• Machine vision • Nanorobotics
List of robotics topics
Contributing fields
• Aerospace
• Biology
• Biomechanics
• Computer science
• Artificial Intelligence
• Computational linguistics
• Cybernetics
• Modal logic
• Engineering
• Acoustical engineering
• Automotive engineering
• Chemical engineering
• Control engineering
• Electrical engineering
• Electronic engineering
• Mechanical engineering
• Mechatronics engineering
• Microelectromechanical engineering
• Nanoengineering
• Optical engineering
• Safety engineering
• Software engineering
• Telecommunications
• Fiction
• Literature
• Movies
• Military science
• Psychology
• Cognitive science
• Behavioral science
• Philosophy
• Ethics
• Physics
• Dynamics
• Kinematics
Additionally, contributing fields include the specific field(s) a particular robot is being designed for. Expertise in
surgical procedures and anatomy, for instance would be required for designing robotic surgery applications.
Types of robots
Industrial robots
• Articulated robot
• Bang-bang robot
• Cartesian coordinate robot
• Delta robot
• Gantry robot
• Liquid handling robot
• Parallel manipulator
• Serial manipulator
• SCARA robot
Mobile robots
• Aerobot • Driverless car
• Analog robot • Drone
• Android • Entertainment robot
• Ant robot • Gynoid
• Artificial human companion • Hexapod
• Artificial powered exoskeleton • Humanoid robot
• Automated Guided Vehicle • Hybrot
• Autonomous robot • Microbot
• Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
• Underwater gliders
• Military robot
List of robotics topics
• BEAM robots
• Audiotrope
• Climber (BEAM)
• Crawler (BEAM)
• Flier (BEAM)
• Jumper (BEAM)
• Phototrope
• Photovore (light eater)
• Radiotrope
• Roller (BEAM)
• Sitter (BEAM)
• Slider (BEAM)
• Solarroller
• Squirmer (BEAM)
• Swimmer (BEAM)
• Thermotrope
• Walker (BEAM)
• Non-silicon robot
• Cruise missile • Remotely Operated Aircraft
• Cryobot • Remotely operated vehicle
• Cyborg • Remotely Piloted Vehicle
• Differential wheeled robot • Robot dog
• Domestic robot
• Automated pool cleaner
• Robotic pet
• Robotic telescope
• Robotic unicycle
• Self-replicating machine
• Service robot
• Smart car
• Snakebot
• Social robot
• Space probe
• Turtle (robot)
• Unmanned aerial vehicle
• Unmanned Aircraft
• Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle
• Unmanned ground vehicle
• Unmanned space mission
• Unmanned Surface Vehicle
• Walker
• Wired intelligence
List of robotics topics
Real-life cyborgs
• Claudia Mitchell • Jesse Sullivan • Kevin Warwick
Specific robots and robot models
• Actroid - (humanoid robot developed by Osaka University)
• Aesop - (Surgey robot commercialized by Intuitive Surgical)
• Albert Hubo - (humanoid robot)
• Albert one - (chatterbox robot)
• Alice - (mobile robot)
• Anthropos - (social robot)
• ASIMO - (Honda's latest bipedal humanoid robot)
• Ballbot - (robotic unicycle prototype)
• Battlebots contenders
• Deadblow - (combat robot)
• BigDog - (quadruped robot)
• Boe-Bot - (robot kit)
• Choromet - (mini humanoid robot)
• Cog - (humanoid robot, research project)
• Corobot - (mobile robot)
• Cosmobot - (therapist assistant)
• Crusher - (off-road unmanned ground vehicle)
• Da Vinci - (Telesurgery robot developed and commercialized by Intuitive Surgical)
• Deep Drone - (submersible remotely operated vehicle)
• Don Cuco El Guapo - (pianist robot)
• Dragon Eye - (military unmanned aerial vehicle)
• Dragon Runner - (4 kg urban combat RC military robot)
• Dymiad - (versatile domestic robot)
• Electrolux Trilobite - (autonomous vacuum cleaner)
• Elektro - (antique robot)
• Enon - (personal assistant robot)
• Entomopter - (flying/crawling insect-like robot)
• European Robotic Arm - (autonomous and complete space walk robot)
• EveR-1 - (gynoid)
• ExoMars - (rover scheduled to explore Mars)
• Foosbot - (automated game)
• Foster-Miller TALON - (remote-controlled military robot)
• Friendly Vac - (autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner)
• Gastrobot - (robot with stomach)
• GuRoo - (humanoid robot)
List of robotics topics
• H1ghlander - (unmanned ground vehicle)
• HAL 5 - (artificial powered exoskeleton)
• Honda E0 - (bipedal humanoid robot)
• Honda E1 - (bipedal humanoid robot)
• Honda P series - (bipedal humanoid robot)
• HUBO - (humanoid robot)
• Huygens probe - (ESA atmospheric entry probe)
• I-bot - (robot kit)
• ICub - (humanoid robot)
• Inkha - (interactive robotic head)
• Intelligent Small World Autonomous Robots for Micro-manipulation - (swarmbots)
• iRobot products
• Create - (expandable robotics platform)
• PackBot - (line of military/law enforcement robots)
• Roomba - (autonomous vacuum cleaner)
• Scooba - (autonomous robotic floor washer)
• Joe Robot - (social robot)
• Khepera - (small mobile robot)
• KHR-1 - (programmable bipedal humanoid robot)
• Kismet - (antique head with ELIZA-style interaction)
• Land Walker - (one-man, two-legged walker transport)
• Lego Mindstorms - (robot kit)
• Lewis - (wedding photographer robot)
• LORAX - (autonomous rover)
• Mars Rover - (autonomous rovers sent to Mars)
• Mars Exploration Rover Mission - (unmanned space mission)
• Opportunity rover - (NASA autonomous rover)
• Spirit rover - (NASA autonomous rover)
• Scientific information from the Mars Exploration Rover mission
• Mars Pathfinder Mission Probe - (lander and autonomous rover)
• Marvin - ("Mobile Autonomous Robot Vehicle for Indoor Navigation")
• Megasaurus - (robotic car-eating dinosaur)
• Mobile Servicing System - (robotic system on the ISS)
• Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator - (robotic arm)
• Multifunctional Utility/Logistics and Equipment - (MULE, autonomous military ground vehicle)
• Musa - (Kendo fighting robot)
• Nomad rover - (NASA unmanned ground vehicle)
• PaPeRo - ("partner-type personal robot")
• Paro - (therapeutic baby harp seal robot)
• PatrolBot - (service robot)
List of robotics topics
• Polly - (behavior based robot)
• Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly - (PUMA, industrial robot arm)
• qfix - robot kits for hobby and education
• Ravon - (Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Offroad Navigation)
• Remote Manipulator System - (Space Shuttle's robotic arm)
• Repliee Q1Expo - (gynoid)
• Robomaxx - (autonomous vacuum cleaner)
• RoboMower - (autonomous lawnmower)
• Robonaut - (humanoid robot for spacewalks)
• Robosaurus - (robotic car-eating dinosaur)
• Roboshark - (robotic shark, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)
• RoboTurb - (industrial welding robot)
• Robot Wars contenders
• 101 - (combat robot)
• Behemoth - (combat robot)
• Bigger Brother - (combat robot)
• Bulldog Breed - (combat robot)
• Chaos 2 - (combat robot)
• Crushtacean - (combat robot)
• Dantomkia - (combat robot)
• Derek - (combat robot)
• Díotóir - (combat robot)
• Evil Weevil - (combat robot)
• Firestorm Robot Series - (combat robot)
• Gemini - (combat robot)
• Gravity - (combat robot)
• House Robots of Robot Wars - (combat robots)
• Matilda - (combat robot)
• Hypno-Disc - (combat robot)
• King Buxton Robot Series - (combat robots)
• Milly Ann Bug - (combat robot)
• Ming Die-nasty - (combat robot)
• Mortis - (combat robot)
• Napalm - (combat robot)
• Nemesis - (combat robot)
• Panic Attack - (combat robot)
• Plunderbird Robot Series - (combat robots)
• Psychosprout - (combat robot)
• Pussycat - (combat robot)
• Razer - (combat robot)
• Recyclops - (combat robot)
• Roadblock - (combat robot)
• Roger Plant Robot Series - (combat robots)
• Spikasaurus - (combat robot)
List of robotics topics
• Storm II - (combat robot)
• The Steel Avenger - (combat robot)
• Tornado - (combat robot)
• Tough as Nails - (combat robot)
• Typhoon 2 - (combat robot)
• Push the Talking Trash Can - (remote controlled mobile trash can)
• RuBot II - (Rubik's cube solver)
• Sandstorm - (unmanned ground vehicle)
• S-bot mobile robot - (swarm-bot)
• SCORBOT-ER 4u - (educational robot)
• Scorpio ROV - (remotely operated Deep Submergence Vehicle)
• Shakey the Robot - (early mobile robot)
• SIGMO - (humanoid robot based on passive dynamics)
• Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle - (military robot)
• Stanley - (autonomous unmanned ground vehicle; modified SUV)
• Stiquito - (nitinol-based walker)
• SYRANO - (French remote-controlled tank)
• Talisman UUV - (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)
• TOPIO - (a humanoid robot can play ping-pong with human)
• Transaurus - (robotic car-eating dinosaur)
• Tug - (delivery system for use in hospitals)
• Ulysses - (bomb-detecting robot)
• Vex Robotics Design System - (robot kit)
• VaMP - first driverless car driving long distances in traffic (1994)
• Viky - (Surgery Robot commercialized by EndoControl Medical)
• Wakamaru - (personal companion domestic robot)
• Walking truck - (quadruped robot)
• XBC - (Xport Botball Controller)
• Xianxingzhe - (bipedal humanoid robot)
• XR-2 - (PC-operated robotic arm)
• Zoë - (solar-powered autonomous rover)
• Moway Robot - (Autonomous Programmable Robot of Minirobots)
Robotic toys and toy robots
List of robotics topics
• AIBO • Pleo (simple robotic dinosaur)
• Big Loo • Poo-Chi (simple robot dog)
• Big Trak • QRIO
• Furby • Sakura Best Friend Robot
• Hexbug a hexapod insect • WowWee products
• FemiSapien
• Roboraptor
• RoboSapien
• Robosapien v2
• Roboraptor
• Roboreptile
• I-Cybie (robot dog) • WR-07 (transformer robot)
• IDog
• Lego Mindstorms
• MANOI 01
• Robo Hopper
• Plen
Notable Robots in fiction
• 790, from LEXX • Data, from Star Trek • Replicants, from Blade
• Ash, from Alien • Goddard, Jimmy Neutron's robot pet dog • R2-D2, from Star Wars
• Bender (Bender Bending Rodríguez) from
• "I, Robot" • Robby the Robot
• The Bicentennial Man • Johnny 5, from Short Circuit • RoboCop (actually a
• Bishop, from Aliens • Kryten, from Red Dwarf • Robot Archie
• C-3PO, from Star Wars • Marvin the Paranoid Android • Super Robot
• Cylons, from Battlestar Galactica • The Protoss, from StarCraft (Specifically the Dragoon, a
• The Terminator
• Blade Runner (not a robot, but a robot hunter) • The Transformers
Robotic subsystems
• Robotic arm
Specific robotic subsystems
• Shadow Hand
History of robotics
Main article: History of robots
• History of artificial intelligence
• History of behavior-based robotics
• History of industrial robotics
• History of mobile robots
• History of robotic surgery
• History of remote surgery
• History of unmanned aerial vehicles
• History of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles
• Timeline of Humanoid Robots
List of robotics topics
General robotics concepts
• Actuator • Embodied cognitive science • Robot Football
• Adaptable robotics • Epigenetic robotics • Robot kinematics
• Anthrobotics • Face recognition • Robot kit
• Artificial consciousness • Frankenstein complex • Robot learning
• Artificial intelligence • Gesture recognition • Robot locomotion
• Astrochicken • GPS • Robot rights
• Assembly line • Ground Control Station • Robot-sumo
• Automatic speech recognition • Guidance system • Robot welding
• Automation • Haptics • Roboteer
• Automaton • Home automation • Robotic book scanner
• Autonomous automation • Human-computer interaction • Robotic mapping
• Autonomous research robotics • Human robot interaction • Robotic paradigms
• Battery • Inductive logic programming • Robotic surgery
• Remote surgery
• Robot-assisted heart surgery
• BEAM robotics • Inertial guidance system • Robotics conventions
• Behavior based AI • Intelligent agent • Screw theory
• Behavior-based robotics • Intelligent vehicle technologies • Sensors
• Biomechanics • Japanese robotics • Servo drive
• Biomechatronics • Laboratory robotics • Servomechanism
• Biomorphic • Leonardo's robot • Simultaneous localization and mapping
• Biomorphic robotics • Machine
• Machine consciousness
• Machine learning
• Machine olfaction
• Machine vision
• Software
• Robot software
• Player/Stage Project
• Software development
• Software engineering
• Software programming
• Bionics • Mechanical self-replication • Solar panel
• Biorobotics • Mechatronics • Speech recognition
• Bow Leg • Modality • Speech synthesis
• Brain-computer interface • Motor • Subsumption architecture
• Cog project • Nanorobotics • Swarm robotics
• Cognitive robotics • Neuroevolution • Synthetic biology
• Computer • Neuromorphic • Tactical Control System
• Computer vision • Passive dynamics • Telematics
• Computing • Process control • Telepresence
• Constructionist design methodology • Proprioception • Three Laws of Robotics
• References to the Three Laws of Robotics
• Control System • Rapid prototyping • Tilden's Law of Robotics
• Control theory • RC Servo • Transhumanism
• Creative robotics • Reciprocating Chemical Muscle • Walking city
• Cybernetics • Remote control • Zero Moment Point
• Cyberware • Robot calibration
• Datalink • Robot combat
• Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency • Robot control
• Developmental robotics • Robot fetishism
• Dialog management
• Digesting Duck
• Domotics
List of robotics topics
• Electronic Stability Control
Robotics software projects
• DROS, Dave's Robotic Operating System, free software for the robotics researcher or hobbyist
• MARIE - Mobile and Autonomous Robotics Integration Environment, a free software tool for building robotics
software systems
• anyKode Marilou, an integrated graphics environment for robotics prototyping, physics simulations and robots
• Microsoft Robotics Studio
• The Mobile Robot Programming Toolkit (MRPT)
- An open-source set of C++ libraries and applications which
cover grabbing, visualizing and manipulating datasets, particle filter and Kalman filter-based SLAM, linear
algebra, robotics sensors and MATLAB-like plot rendering.
• OROCOS - Open Robot Control Software project, a free software toolkit for realtime robot arm and machine tool
• Player/Stage Project, a free software robot interface and simulation system, used for robotics research and
teaching worldwide
• RoboRealm, free robot vision software
• Robot Intelligence Kernel from Idaho National Laboratory
• URBI - Universal Real-Time Behavior Interface
• Webots, a professional robot simulator used widely in academic and education
• YARP - Yet Another Robotic Platform, an open source platform for research in robotics
Robotics tradeshows and conventions
• International Conference On Intelligent Robots and Systems
• Robonexus
Robotics contests and competitions
• BattleBots • European Land-Robot Trial • PAReX
• BEST Robotics • FIRST Robotics Competition • Robocon
• Botball • Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition • RoboCup
• Centennial Challenges • International Aerial Robotics Competition • RobocupJunior
• DARPA Grand Challenge • National Robotics Challenge • Robot Wars
• Northeast Robotics Club • Robotica
Robotics companies and brands
List of robotics topics
• ABB Group • Friendly Robotics • Intelligent Actuator
• ActivMedia Robotics • Fuji Yusoki Kogyo Co. Ltd. • IRobot
• Adept Technology • Honda • Jim Henson's Creature Shop
• Audio-Animatronics • Institute of Robotics in Scandinavia AB (iRobis) • Kawasaki Robotics
• Automatix • intelitek • Perrone Robotics
• CogniTeam
• KUKA • qfix robot kits for hobby and education
• Consolidated Robotics • Reis Robotics • Transbotics Corporation
• Epson Robots • SCHUNK • Yaskawa Electric Corporation
• Environmental Robots Inc. • Spykee
• FANUC Robotics
• Foster-Miller
Robotics agencies, organizations, schools, and education programs
• Australian Centre for Field
• CSIRO Australia
• European Robotics Research
• Federation of International Robot-soccer
• Laboratory Robotics Interest Group
• Maine FIRST Robotics Coalition
• Robar Training Specialists
• Robot Fighting League
• Robot Hall of Fame
• Robotics Certification Standards Alliance
• Robotics Institute
• TekBots
Robotics periodic publications
• The encoder (newsletter)
• Robot Magazine
• Real Robots
• Imagine (educational magazine)
• SERVO Magazine
Robotics scholars
• Isaac Asimov
Leaders in robotics
• George Devol
• Ernst Dickmanns
• Rodney Brooks
• Robert C. Michelson
• Peter Nordin
• Sebastian Thrun
• Mark W. Tilden
• Kevin Warwick
List of robotics topics
Robotics lists
• List of robots
• List of inductees to the Robot Hall of Fame
• List of fictional robots and androids
External links
• Adaptive Robotics Software at the Idaho National Laboratory
• Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI)
• Automata and Art Bots mailing list home page
• Automonous Robots Journal
• "The Basics - Robot Software
". Seattle Robotics Society.
• Creators of robots for people
Autonomous mobile robots.
• DARPA Grand Challenge
• DIY Learning robot
Build your own autonomous learning programmable robot.
• FSI-All Japan Robot-Sumo Tournament
• Grape - Graphical Programming Environment
for embedded controllers and qfix robots
• Guarding the fence - 2 Autonomous combat vehicles developed in Israel
- An article
• Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC)
• " Mobile Autonomous Robot Software
(MARS)". Georgia Tech Research Corporation.
• Cognitive Robotics Lab
of Juergen Schmidhuber at IDSIA and Technical University of Munich
• qfix robot kits
Robot kits for hobby and education
• RoboCupJunior
• RobotRoom
• " Robot software components
". Sluggish Software.
• Robot Tutorials for Beginners
• " Rossum Project
". G.W. Lucas.
• Southern Illinois University Edwardsville's Robot-Sumo Competition
• " Tech Database
". robot.spawar.navy.mil.
• Robotics and Electronics Tutorials and Educational resources
• RoombaGuide - The A to Z guide on Roomba
• SpykeeWiki- Development on the wifi robot Spykee
• Robotics Education Website
• " Mechatrons
". Entertainment robots for rent.
• Moway Educational Robot
[1] http:/ / mrpt.sourceforge.net
[2] http:/ / www. cogniteam. com
[3] http:/ / www. ict. csiro. au/ asl
[4] http:/ / www. robotics. org/
[5] http:/ / www. inl. gov/ adaptiverobotics
[6] http:// www. auvsi. org/
[7] http:// homepage. ntlworld.com/ kinetic-arts/ sculpture/ automata.htm
[8] http:/ / www. kluweronline.com/ issn/ 0929-5593
[9] http:/ / www. seattlerobotics. org/encoder/aug97/ basics. html
[10] http:// www. merlinsystemscorp. co. uk
[11] http:// www. grandchallenge. org/
[12] http:/ / www. lifl.fr/~decomite/ caroll/ caroll.html
List of robotics topics
[13] http:/ / www. fsi. co. jp/ sumo-e/
[14] http:// qfix-shop.de/ cgi/ websale6.
[15] http:/ / www. qfix.de
[16] http:/ / www. isracast. com/ tech_news/ 080405_tech. htm
[17] http:/ / www. igvc.org
[18] http:/ / www-static. cc. gatech. edu/ ai/ robot-lab/MARS/
[19] http:/ / www. idsia. ch/ ~juergen/cogbotlab. html
[20] http:/ / www. robocupjunior.de
[21] http:/ / www. robotroom.com/ SumoRules. html
[22] http:// www. fuzzgun.btinternet. co. uk/ rodney/components. htm
[23] http:// www. societyofrobots. com/ robot_tutorial.shtml
[24] http:// rossum. sourceforge.net/
[25] http:/ / roboti.cs. siue. edu/ competitions/ sumowrestling/
[26] http:/ / robot.spawar. navy. mil/ home. asp?item=robotsoftware
[27] http:/ / www. ikalogic. com/
[28] http:/ / www. roombaguide.com
[29] http:/ / spykeewiki. sektor-9.com
[30] http:/ / www. razorrobotics.com/
[31] http:/ / www. mechatrons. com/
[32] http:/ / www. moway-robot.com/
Obstacle avoidance
In robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some control objective subject to non-intersection or
non-collision position constraints. Normally obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning in
that one is usually implemented as a reactive control law while the other involves the pre-computation of an
obstacle-free path which a controller will then guide a robot along.
Further reading
• BECKER, M. ; DANTAS, Carolina Meirelles ; MACEDO, Weber Perdigão, "Obstacle Avoidance Procedure for
Mobile Robots
". In: Paulo Eigi Miyagi; Oswaldo Horikawa; Emilia Villani. (Org.). ABCM Symposium Series
in Mechatronics, Volume 2. 1 ed. São Paulo - SP: ABCM, 2006, v. 2, p. 250-257. ISBN 978-85-85769-26-0
[1] http:/ / www. abcm. org.br/ symposiumSeries/ SSM_Vol2/ Section_IV_Mobile_Robots/ SSM2_IV_05. pdf
Robot learning
Robot learning
Robot learning is a subset of machine learning and robotics. Usually "robot learning" refers to learning to perform
tasks such as obstacle avoidance, control and various other motion-related tasks. While machine learning is
frequently used by computer vision algorithms employed in the context of robotics, these applications are usually not
referred to as "robot learning" Robot learning can be closely related to adaptive control and reinforcement learning.
Snake-arm robot
A snake-arm robot is a slender hyper-redundant manipulator. The high number of degrees of freedom allows the
arm to “snake” along a path or around an obstacle – hence the name “snake-arm”.
Elephant Trunk robotic
Snake-arm robots are also described as continuum robots and elephant’s trunk robots
although these descriptions are restrictive in their definitions and cannot be applied to all
snake-arm robots.
• A continuum robot is a continuously curving manipulator, much like the arm of an
• An elephant’s trunk robot is a good descriptor of a continuum robot. This has generally
been associated with whole arm manipulation – where the entire arm is used to grasp
and manipulate objects, in the same way that an elephant would pick up a ball.
This is an emerging field and as such there is no agreement on the best term for this class
of robot.
Snake-arm robots are often used in association with another device. The function of the
other device is to *introduce the snake-arm into the confined space. Examples of possible
introduction axes include mounting a snake-arm on a remote controlled vehicle or an
industrial robot or designing a bespoke a linear actuator. In this case the shape of the arm is
coordinated with the linear movement of the introduction axis enabling the arm to follow a
path into confined spaces.
Other features which are usually (but not always) associated with snake-arm robots:
• Continuous diameter along the length of the arm
• Self-supporting
• Either tendon-driven or pneumatically controlled in most cases.
A snake-arm robot is not to be confused with a snakebot which mimics the biomorphic motion of a snake in order to
slither along the ground.
Snake-arm robot
The ability to reach into confined spaces lends itself to many applications involving access problems. The list below
is not intended to be an exhaustive list of possibilities but merely an indication of where these robots are being used
or developed for use.
• Nuclear
• Decommissioning
• Repair and maintenance

• Aerospace
• Manufacture and assembly: inside wing boxes, jet engines and ducts.
• Surface Preparation: wielding pneumatic sanders for all stages of surface finishing prior to final paint
• Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul
• Automotive
• Manufacture: Snake-arm robots allow structures to be assembled in a different way.
Security and defence
• Bomb disposal and counter terrorism
• Search and rescue
Robotic surgery
• Endoscopy
• Colonoscopy
• Neurosurgery
History of Snake-arm robots
• Tensor arm manipulator, invented in 1968 by V.C. Anderson, commonly called the Scripps Tensor Arm, is a
spine-like elephant trunk arm. Control is via a large number nylon microfilaments.
• ANAT (Articulated Nimble Adaptable Trunk) AMI-100
, invented in 1997 by Charles Khairallah, is a modular
hyper-redundant snake-like industrial robot arm.
[1] "Snaking around in a nuclear jungle" (http:// www.ocrobotics.com/ newsroom/ publications/ IR2005. pdf), Rob Buckingham and Andrew
Graham, Int. J. Industrial Robot, Vol. 32, No. 2, ISSN 0143-991X, 2005, p120-127
[2] "Snake-arm robots slither forward" (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 5324708. stm), Jonathon Fildes, BBC News Website
(bbc.co.uk), 13 September 2006
[3] Ingenia
[4] http:// www. roboticsdesign. qc. ca/ ami-100.html
Snake-arm robot
External links
Snake-arm robots are currently being researched by several major universities:
• Cornell University (http:// snakearm. engineering.cornell.edu): Student Project team with goal to design and
fabricate a class of robotic arms that best resemble the strength, fluidity, precision, and dexterity of a snake
• Carnegie Mellon (http:/ / www. snakerobot.com): Research into various hyper-redundant robots including
• Clemson (http:/ / www.ece.clemson. edu/ crb/octor/index. htm): Research into elephant’s trunk robots
• Mississippi State University (http:/ / www. ece.msstate. edu/ wiki/ index. php/ Robotics_research_group):
Research into designing, analyzing, and building continuum robots.
Snake-arm robots are being made commercially by
• OC Robotics (http:// www. ocrobotics. com): manufacturing for the aerospace sector (automated assembly of
aircraft), security (robotics for counter-terrorism), nuclear (decommissioning and asset management), and other
industries (inspection and maintenance).
Bush robot
Bush robots, as envisioned by Hans Moravec, are the ultimate in dexterity and reconfigurability. They earn their
nickname from their appearance: bush robots repeatedly branch in a fractal way into trillions of nanoscale fingers.
According to the author, it will be half a century before we have the required technology to build them.
Bush robots are also referenced as very recent technology in the Transhuman Space roleplaying game. They are also
featured in some novels, such as Rocheworld by author and physicist Robert L. Forward, Iron Sunrise and
Singularity Sky by author Charles Stross, Matter by author Iain M. Banks, The Return of Bruce Wayne #6 by Grant
Morrison and Lee Garbett and The Adventures of Lando Calrissian, by author L. Neil Smith.
Bush robots play an important role in Ken Macleod's The Cassini Division, part of his science-fiction series The Fall
• Moravec, Hans. (1988). Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press. Chpt. 4 in particular. ISBN 0-674-57618-7
• Moravec, Hans; Easudes, Jesse; and Dellaert, Frank. (1996). Fractal branching ultra-dexterous robots (Bush
robots). [1])NASA Advanced Concepts Research Project.
• Moravec, Hans. Robot Bushes. Online article. [2]
[1] http:/ / www. frc.ri.cmu. edu/ users/ hpm/ project.archive/ robot.papers/ 1999/ NASA.report.99/ 9901.NASA.html
[2] http:/ / www. islandone. org/MMSG/ HansMoravecRobotBush. html
321 kinematic structure
321 kinematic structure
321 kinematic structure is a design method for robotic arms (serial manipulators), used in most commercially
produced robotic arms. The inverse kinematics of serial manipulators with six revolute joints, and with three
consecutive joints intersecting, can be solved in closed form, i.e. analytically.
The 321 design is an example of a
6R wrist-partitioned manipulator: the three wrist joints intersect, the two shoulder and elbow joints are parallel, the
first joint intersects the first shoulder joint orthogonally (at a right angle).
Many other industrial robots, such as the PUMA, have a kinematic structure that deviates a little bit from the 321
structure. The offsets move the singular positions of the robot away from places in the workspace where they are
likely to cause problems.
[1] D. L. Pieper. The kinematics of manipulators under computer control. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, 1968.
External links
• 321 Kinematic Structure (http:// www. roble.info/robotics/ serial/ html/ SerialRobots-1se4. html)
3D Pose Estimation
3D pose estimation is the problem of determining the transformation of an object in a 2D image which gives the 3D
object. The need for 3D pose estimation arises from the limitations of feature based pose estimation. There exist
environments where it is difficult to extract corners or edges from an image. To circumvent these issues, the object is
dealt with as a whole through the use of free-form contours.
3D Pose Estimation from an Uncalibrated 2D Camera
It is possible to estimate the 3D rotation and translation of a 3D object from a single 2D photo, if an approximate 3D
model of the object is known and the corresponding points in the 2D image are known. A common technique for
solving this has recently been "POSIT", where the 3D pose is estimated directly from the 3D model points and the
2D image points, and corrects the errors iteratively until a good estimate is found from a single image.
implementations of POSIT only work on non-coplanar points (in other words, it wont work with flat objects or
3D Pose Estimation from a Calibrated 2D Camera
Given a 2D image of an object, and a the camera that is calibrated with respect to a world coordinate system, it is
also possible to find the pose which gives the 3D object in its object coordinate system.
This works as follows.
Extracting 3D from 2D
Starting with a 2D image, image points are extracted which correspond to corners in an image. The projection rays
from the image points are reconstructed from the 2D points so that the 3D points, which must be incident with the
reconstructed rays, can be determined.
3D Pose Estimation
The algorithm for determining pose estimation is based on the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. The main idea is to
determine the correspondences between 2D image features and points on the 3D model curve. (a)Reconstruct
projection rays from the image points (b)Estimate the nearest point of each projection ray to a point on the 3D
contour (c)Estimate the pose of the contour with the use of this correspondence set (d)goto (b)
The above algorithm does not account for images containing an object that is partially occluded. The following
algorithm assumes that all contours are rigidly coupled, meaning the pose of one contour defines the pose of another
(a)Reconstruct projection rays from the image points (b)For each projection ray R: (c)For each 3D contour:
(c1)Estimate the nearest point P1 of ray R to a point on the contour (c2)if (n==1) chose P1 as actual P for the
point-line correspondence (c3)else compare P1 with P: if dist(P1, R) is smaller than dist(P, R) then choose P1 as new
P (d)Use (P, R) as correspondence set. (e)Estimate pose with this correspondence set (f)Transform contours, goto (b)
In practice, using a 2 GHz Intel Pentium processor, average speeds of 29fps have been reached using the above
Estimating Pose Through Comparison
Systems exist which use a database of an object at different rotations and translations to compare an input image
against to estimate pose. These systems accuracy is limited to situations which are represented in their database of
images, however the goal is to recognize a pose, rather than determine it.
[1] Bodo Rosenhahn. "Pose Estimation of 3D Free-form Contours in Conformal Geometry" (http:// www.ks. informatik.uni-kiel. de/ modules.
php/ name+ Publikationen) (in English / German). Institut fur Informatik und Praktische Mathematik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel.
. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
[2] Dementhon and Davis, 1995. "Model-based object pose in 25 lines of code" (http:// portal.acm.org/ citation.cfm?id=204015). Kluwer
Academic Publishers. . Retrieved 2010-05-29.
[3] Javier Barandiaran. "POSIT tutorial with OpenCV and OpenGL" (http:/ / opencv.willowgarage.com/ wiki/ Posit). . Retrieved 2010-05-29.
[4] Bodo Rosenhahn. "Foundations about 2D-3D Pose Estimation" (http:// homepages.inf.ed.ac. uk/ rbf/CVonline/ LOCAL_COPIES/
ROSENHAHN1/CVOnlinePose. html). CV Online. . Retrieved 2008-06-09.
[5] Vassilis Athitsos. "Estimating 3D Hand Pose from a Cluttered Image". Boston University Computer Science Tech..
• Rosenhahn, B. "Foundations about 2D-3D Pose Estimation."
• Rosenhahn, B. "Pose Estimation of 3D Free-form Contours in Conformal Geometry."
• Athitsos, V. "Estimating 3D Hand Pose from a Cluttered Image."
External links
• (http:// www. ks. informatik.uni-kiel. de/ modules. php?name=Projekte&func=hp&prid=6) Further readings on
various Computer Vision topics as well as more information on 3D pose estimation
ACROSS Project
ACROSS Project
ACROSS is a Singular Strategic R&D Project led by
funded by
activities in the field of Robotics and Cognitive
Computing over an execution time-frame from 2009 to 2011. ACROSS project involves a number higher than 100
researchers from 13 Spanish entities.
ACROSS Project Objectives
ACROSS modifies the design of social robotics, blocked in providing predefined services, going further by means of
intelligent systems. These systems are able to self-reconfigure and modify their behavior autonomously through the
capacity for understanding, learning and software remote access.
In order to provide an open framework for collaboration between universities, research centers and the
Administration, ACROSS develops Open Source Services available to everybody.
Three application domains
ACROSS works in three application domains:
• Autonomous living: robots are used as technological tools to help handicapped person into daily tasks.
• Psycho-Affective Disorders (autism): robots are used to mitigate cognitive disorders.
• Marketing: robots are used to interact with humans in a recreational approach.
• Treelogic
• Alimerka
• Bizintek
• Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya
• University of Deusto
• European Centre for Soft Computing
• Fatronik - Tecnalia
• Fundació Hospital Comarcal Sant Antoni Abat
• Fundación Pública Andaluza para la Gestión de la Investigación en Salud de Sevilla, "Virgen del Rocío"
University Hospitals
• m-BOT
• Omicron Electronic
• Universidad de Extremadura:Robotics and Vision Laboratory
• Verbio Technologies
ACROSS Project
[1] Treelogic (http:// www. treelogic. com)
[2] the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (http:/ / www. mityc.es) through the Plan Avanza I+D initiative. ACROSS carries out
research and development
• ACROSS website (http:/ / www. acrosspse. com)
• ACROSS SlideShare (http:// www. slideshare. net/ acrosspse)
Action description language
In artificial intelligence, Action description language (ADL) is an automated planning and scheduling system in
particular for robots. It is considered an advancement of STRIPS. Pednault (a specialist in the field of Data
abstraction and modelling who has been an IBM Research Staff Member in the Data Abstraction Research Group
since 1996
) proposed this language in 1987.
Pednault observed that the expressive power of STRIPS was susceptible to being improved by allowing the effects of
an operator to be conditional. This is the main idea of ADL-A, which is basically the propositional fragment of the
ADL proposed by Pednault,
with ADL-B an extension of -A. In the -B extension actions can be described with
indirect effects by the introduction of a new kind of propositions: ”static laws". A third variation of ADL is ADL-C
which is similar to -B, in the sense that its propositions can be classified into static and dynamic laws, but with some
more particularities.
The sense of a planning language is to represent certain conditions in the environment and, based on these,
automatically generate a chain of actions which lead to a desired goal. A goal is a certain partially specified
condition. Before an action can be executed its preconditions must be fulfilled; after the execution the action yields
effects, by which the environment changes. The environment is described by means of certain predicates, which are
either fulfilled or not.
Contrary to STRIPS, the principle of the open world applies with ADL: everything not occurring in the conditions is
unknown (Instead of being assumed false). In addition, whereas in STRIPS only positive literals and conjunctions
are permitted, ADL allows negative literals and disjunctions as well.
Syntax of ADL
Figure 1
An ADL schema consists of an action name, an optional parameter list
and four optional groups of clauses labeled Precond, Add, Delete and
The Precond group is a list of formulae that define the preconditions
for the execution of an action. If the set is empty the value "TRUE" is
inserted into the group and the preconditions are always evaluated as holding conditions.
The Add and Delete conditions are specified by the Add and Delete groups, respectively. Each group consists of a
set of clauses of the forms shown in the left-hand column of the figure 1:
1. The R represents a relation symbol
2. τ
represents terms
3. ψ represents a formula
Action description language
4. The sequence z
are variable symbols that appear in the terms τ
, but not in the parameter list of the
action schema
5. x
are variable symbols that are different from the variables z
and do not appear in τ
, ψ , or the
parameter list of the action schema
The Update groups are used to specify the update conditions to change the values of function symbols. An Update
group consists of a set of clauses of the forms shown in the left column of the figure 2:
Semantics of ADL
The formal semantic of ADL is defined by 4 constraints. The first constraint is that actions may not change the set of
objects that exist in the world; this means that for every action α and every current-state/next-state pair (s, t) ∈ a, it
must be the case that the domain of t should be equal to the domain of s.
The second constraint is that actions in ADL must be deterministic. If (s, t1) and (s, t2) are current-state/next-state
pairs of action ∃, then it must be the case that t1 = t2.
The third constraint incorporated into ADL is that the functions introduced above must be representable as first-order
formulas. For every n-ary relation symbol R, there must exist a formula Φ
,... ,x
) with free variables x
such that f
(s) is given by:
t(R) = f
(s) = (d
,... , d
) ∈ Dom(s)
| s[d
⊧ Φ
Consequently, F(n
) = y will be true after performing action |= if and only if Φ
,... ,x
,y) was true
beforehand. Note that this representability requirement relies on the first constraint ( Domain of f should be equal to
domain of s).
The fourth and final constraint incorporated into ADL is that set of states in which an action is executable must also
be representable as a formula. For every action α that can be represented in ADL, there must exist a formula Π
the property that s |= Π
if and only if there is some state t for which (s, t ) ∈ α (i.e. action α is executable in state s)
Complexity of planning
In terms of computational efficiency, ADL can be located between STRIPS and the Situation Calculus.
problem can be translated into a STRIPS instance – however, existing compilation techniques are worst-case
This worst case cannot be improved if we are willing to preserve the length of plans polynomially,
and thus ADL is strictly more brief than STRIPS.
ADL planning is still a PSPACE-complete problem. Most of the algorithms polynomial space even if the
preconditions and effects are complex formulae.
Most of the top-performing approaches to classical planning internally utilize a STRIPS like representation. In fact
most of the planners (FF, LPG, Fast-Downward, SGPLAN5 and LAMA) first translate the ADL instance into one
that is essentially a STRIPS one (without conditional or quantified effects or goals).
Comparison between STRIPS and ADL
1. The STRIPS language only allows positive literals in the states, while ADL can support both positive and
negative literals. For example, a valid sentence in STRIPS could be Rich ^ Beautiful. The same sentence could be
expressed in ADL as ¬Poor ∧ ¬Ugly
2. In STRIPS the unmentioned literals are false. This is called the Closed World Assumption. In ADL the
unmentioned literals are unknown. This is known as the Open World Assumption.
3. In STRIPS we only can find ground literals in goals. For instance, Rich ∧ Beautiful. In ADL we can find
quantified variables in goals. For example, ∃x At (P1, x) ∧ At(P2, x) is the goal of having P1 and P2 in the same
place in the example of the blocks
Action description language
4. In STRIPS the goals are conjunctions (Rich ^ Beautiful ). In ADL the goals allow conjunction and disjunction
(Rich ∧ Beautiful ¬Smart).
5. In STRIPS the effects are conjunctions, but in ADL conditional effects are allowed: when P:E means E is an
effect only if P is satisfied
6. The STRIPS language does not support equality. In ADL , the equality predicate (x = y ) is built in.
7. STRIPS does not have support for types, while in ADL it is supported (for example, the variable p : Person).
The expressiveness of the STRIPS language is constrained by the types of transformations on sets of formulas that
can be described in the language. Transformations on sets of formulas using STRIPS operators are accomplished by
removing some formulas from the set to be transformed and adding new additional formulas. For a given STRIPS
operator the formulas to be added and deleted are fixed for all sets of formulas to be transformed. Consequently,
STRIPS operators cannot adequately model actions whose effects depend on the situations in which they are
performed. Consider a rocket which is going to be fired for a certain amount of time. The trajectory may vary not
only because of the burn duration but also because of the velocity, mass and orientation of the rocket. It cannot be
modelled by means of a STRIPS operator because the formulas that would have to be added and deleted would
depend on the set of formulas to be transformed.
Although an efficient reasoning is possible when the STRIPS language is being used it is generally recognized that
the expressiveness of STRIPS is not suitable for modeling actions in many real world applications. This inadequacy
motivated the development of the ADL language.

ADL expressiveness and complexity lies between the
STRIPS language and the situation calculus. Its expressive power is sufficient to allow the rocket example described
above to be represented yet, at the same time, it is restrictive enough to allow efficient reasoning algorithms to be
As an example in a more complex version of the blocks world: It could be that block A is twice as big as blocks B
and C, so the action xMoveOnto(B,A) might only have the effect of negating Clear(A) if On(A,C) is already true, or
creating the conditional effect depending on the size of the blocks. This kind of conditional effects would be hard to
express in STRIPS notation without the conditional effects.
Consider the problem of air freight transport, where certain goods must be transported from an airport to another
airport by plane and where airplanes need to be loaded and unloaded.
The necessary actions would be loading, unloading and flying; over the descriptors one could express In(c, p) and
At(x, a) whether a freight C is in an airplane p and whether an object x is at an airport A.
The actions could be defined then as follows:
Action (
Load (c: Freight, p: Airplane, A: Airport)
Precondition: At(c, A) ^ At(p, A)
Effect: ¬At(c, A) ^ In(c, p)
Action (
Unload (c: Freight, p: Airplane, A: Airport)
Precondition: In(c, p) ^ At(p, A)
Effect: At(c, A) ^ ¬In(c, p)
Action (
Fly (p: Airplane, from: Airport, to: Airport)
Action description language
Precondition: At(p, from)
Effect: ¬At(p, from) ^ At(p, to)
[1] Edwin Pednault. "IBM Research Website: Pednault" (http:/ / domino. research.ibm. com/ comm/ research_projects.nsf/ pages/ dar.
edwinpednault. htm). .l
[2] Pednault. Formulating multi-agent dynamic-world problems in the classical planning framework. In Michael Georgeff and Amy Lansky,
editors, Reasoning about actions and plans pages 47-82. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1987.
[3] Action Languages. Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz.
[4] Edwin P.D. Pednault. ADL. Exploring the Middle Ground Between STRIPS and the Situation Calculus. In Proceedings of KR-89, 324-332.
[5] Gazen, B. C. and Knoblock, C. A. Combining the Expressivity of UCPOP with the efficiency of Graphplan. In ECP97, pp. 221233. Toulouse,
France. 1997
[6] Nebel, B. On the Compilability and Expressive Power of Propositional Planning Formalisms. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 12,
271315. 2000
[7] Jorge A. Baier. Effective Search Techniques for Non-Classical Planning via Reformulation. PhD. Thesis, University of Toronto, 2003.
[8] Edwing P.D. Pednault. ADL and the State-Transition Model of Action
[9] H. J. Levesque and R. J. Brachman. A fundamental tradeoff in knowledge representation and reasoning. In Readings in Knowledge
Representation, H. J. Levesque and R. J. Brachman, eds, pp. 42-70. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1985.
[10] Vladimir Lifschitz and Arkady Rabinov. Miracles in formal theories of actions. Artificial Intelligence, 626(3):89-116. 1986
Agricultural robot
An agricultural robot or agribot is a robot deployed for agricultural purposes.
The main area of application of robots in agriculture is at the harvesting stage. Fruit picking robots and sheep
shearing robots are designed to replace human labour. The agricultural industry is behind other complementary
industries in using robots because the sort of jobs involved in agriculture are not straightforward, and many repetitive
tasks are not exactly the same every time. In most cases, a lot of factors have to be considered (e.g., the size and
colour of the fruit to be picked) before the commencement of a task. Robots can be used for other horticultural tasks
such as pruning, weeding, spraying and monitoring.
Livestock robotics
Robots can also be used in livestock applications (livestock robotics) such as milking, washing and castrating.
• "Ag Ant", an inexpensive foot-long bot that works cooperatively
• The Oracle Robot
• The Shear Magic Robot
• Fruit Picking Robot
• LSU's AgBot
• Harvest Automation is a company founded by former iRobot employees to develop robots for greenhouses
• Strawberry picking robot from Robotic Harvesting
and Agrobot
Agricultural robot
[1] AgBots: Agricultural Robots Take The Field: Science Fiction in the News (http:/ / www. technovelgy.com/ ct/ Science-Fiction-News.
[2] The Oracle Robot (http:/ / kernow.curtin. edu. au/ www/ Agrirobot1/oracle.htm)
[3] The Shear Magic Robot (http:// kernow. curtin.edu. au/ www/ Agrirobot1/shmagic. htm)
[4] Fruit Picking Robot (http:// kernow. curtin.edu. au/ www/ Agrirobot1/frutrob.htm)
[5] http:// www. 2theadvocate. com/ news/ business/ 34722634.html?showAll=y& c=y
[6] Harvest Automation, Inc. (http:// www.harvestautomation. com/ )
[7] http:// www. roboticharvesting.com
[8] http:/ / www. agrobot.es
Allen (robot)
Allen was a robot introduced by Rodney Brooks and his team in the late 1980s, and was their first robot based on
subsumption architecture. It had sonar distance and odometry onboard, and used an offboard lisp machine to
simulate subsumption architecture. It resembled a footstool on wheels.
Allen used three layers of control which are implemented in subsumption architecture.
"The lowest layer of control
makes sure that the robot does not come into contact with other objects."
Due to this layer it could avoid static and
dynamic obstacles, but it could not move. It sat in the middle of the room, waiting for obstruction. When the
obstruction came, Allen ran away, avoiding collisions as it went. It used following internal representation, and every
sonar return represented a repulsive force with, and inverse square drop off in strength. Direction of its move was
obtained by sum of the repulsive forces (suitably thresholded). It possessed an additional reflex which halted it
whenever it was moving forward, and something was directly in its path.
"The first level layer of control (second layer), when combined with zeroth, imbues the robot with the ability to
wander around aimlessly without hitting obstacles."
Owing to the second layer, Allen could randomly wander
about every 10 seconds. It used simple heuristic, which was coupled with the instinct to shun barriers by vector
addition. "The summed vector suppressed the more primitive obstacle avoidance vector, but the obstacle avoidance
behaviour still operated, having been subsumed by the new layer, in its account of the lower level's repulsive force.
Additionally, the halt reflex of the lower level operated autonomously and unchanged."
The third layer made the robot try to explore. Allen could look for distant places (with its sonars), then tried to reach
them. "This layer monitored progress through odometry, generating a desired heading which suppressed the
direction desired by the wander layer. The desired heading was then fed into a vector addition with the instinctive
obstacle avoidance layer. The physical robot did not therefore remain true to the desires of the upper layer. The
upper layer had to watch what happened in the world, through odometry, in order to understand what was really
happening in the lower control layers, and send down correction signals."
[1] Brooks, R.A. (1990). "Elephants Don't Play Chess" (http:/ / people. csail.mit. edu/ brooks/ papers/ elephants. pdf). Designing Autonomous
Agents: Theory and Practice from Biology to Engineering and Back. . Retrieved 2009-02-05.
[2] Brooks, R. (1986). "A robust layered control system for a mobile robot" (http:// people.csail. mit.edu/ brooks/ papers/ AIM-864.pdf).
Robotics and Automation, IEEE Journal of [legacy, pre-1988] 2 (1): 14–23. . Retrieved 2009-02-04.
Almost Human: Making Robots Think
Almost Human: Making Robots Think
Almost Human: Making Robots Think is a book written by Lee Gutkind founder of Creative Nonfiction. Gutkind
spent six years as a "fly on the wall" researcher at the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Melon University in Pittsburgh.
There the scientists and students are working to design, build, and test robots so advanced that they will one day be
able to work alongside or, in some cases, even replace humans. Almost Human is an intense portrait of the robotic
subculture and the challenging quest for robot autonomy. Almost Human is 330 pages long and is published by W.W.
Featured Robots
From June 15 to July 31 of 1997, Carnegie Mellon University deployed the robotic Nomad rover to traverse the
Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. Nomad traveled an unprecedented 215 km in 45 days, remotely controlled and
driven from both the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and the Intelligent Mechanisms Group laboratory at
Ames Research Center (ARC). This NASA-funded research program tested technologies critical to planetary
exploration and enabled scientists to perform remote geological experiments. The total cost of developing Nomad
and conducting the desert trek was $1.6 million.
Nomad was operated entirely under remote control from the U.S., including telepresence and autonomous guidance
with simulated 4- to 15-minute time delays such as those that would be encountered on missions to Mars. 20 of the
215 km it traveled were done under autonomous control.
Nomad is about the size of a small car and massed 550 kg. To maneuver through rough terrain, the robot has
four-wheel drive and four-wheel steering with a chassis that expands to improve stability and travel over various
terrain conditions. Four aluminum wheels with cleats provide traction in soft sand. For this terrestrial experiment,
power was supplied by a gasoline generator that enabled the robot to travel at speeds up to about one mile per hour.
Nomad employed a panospheric camera, a high-resolution video camera that focuses up into a hemispheric mirror
similar to a store security mirror. The video view includes all of the ground up to the horizon in the circle
surrounding Nomad. The robot also had three pairs of conventional stereo cameras and a laser rangefinder for 3D
The RoboCup Robots
RoboCup is an international robotics competition founded in 1993. The aim is to develop autonomous soccer robots
with the intention of promoting research and education in the field of artificial intelligence. The name RoboCup is a
contraction of the competition's full name, "Robot Soccer World Cup", But there are many other stages of the
competition such as "Search and Rescue" and "Robot Dancing".
The official goal of the project:
By mid-21st century, a team of fully autonomous humanoid robot soccer players shall win the soccer game,
complying with the official rule of the FIFA, against the winner of the most recent World Cup.
Zoë is a solar-powered autonomous robot with sensors able to detect microorganisms and map the distribution of life
in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, duplicating tasks that could be used in future exploration of Mars.
GRACE, which stands for Graduate Robot Attending a ConferencE, is a B21R Mobile Robot build by RWI. It has a
panning platform on which a screen shows an emotionally expressive face, as well as sensors to help it move through
crowded environments, including touch sensors and a scanning laser range finder. GRACE has high-quality
synthesized speech and can understand others using speech recognition software.
Almost Human: Making Robots Think
At the 2002 conference, GRACE started at the front door of the conference venue, found the elevator by asking
participants and made her way to the registration area. GRACE tried to find the end of the line, finally elbowing the
end person in the line out of the way (either because it was unable to tell if the person was in fact in line, or because
it did not want to wait!). GRACE then waited patiently and registered successfully.
In the Media
In May 2007 Gutkind appeared as a guest author on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart to talk about robots, the
future, and his new book.
External links
• The official website of Almost Human: Making Robots Think
• Video clip of Lee Gutkind on the Daily Show
• Lee Gutkind's official Website
• Robotics Institute Official Website
[1] http:/ / www. theRobotBook. com/
[2] https:/ / www. creativenonfiction.org/vid. html/
[3] http:// www. leegutkind. com/
[4] http:/ / www. ri.cmu. edu/
Android science
Android science is an interdisciplinary framework for studying human interaction and cognition based on the
premise that a very humanlike robot (that is, an android) can elicit human-directed social responses in human

The android's ability to elicit human-directed social responses enables researchers to employ an android
in experiments with human participants as an apparatus that can be controlled more precisely than a human actor.
While mechanical-looking robots may be able to elicit social responses to some extent, a robot that looks and acts
like a human being is in a better position to stand in for a human actor in social, psychological, cognitive, or
neuroscientific experiments.
This gives experiments with androids a level of ecological validity with respect to
human interaction found lacking in experiments with mechanical-looking robots.
An experimental setting for human-android interaction also provides a testing ground for models concerning how
cognitive or neural processing influence human interaction, because models can be implemented in the android and
tested in interaction with human participants. In android science, cognitive science and engineering are understood as
enjoying a synergistic relationship in which the results from a deepening understanding of human interaction and the
development of increasingly humanlike androids feed into each other.
Some researchers broadly construe android science to include all the effects of engineered human likeness, such as
the impact of humanlike robots on society or the study of the relationship between anthropomorphism and human
perception. The latter relates to an observation made by Masahiro Mori that human beings are more sensitive to
deviations from humanlike behavior or appearance in near-human forms. Mori refers to this phenomenon as the
uncanny valley.
In android science this heightened sensitivity is seen as a diagnostic tool for enhancing the human
likeness of an android.
Android science
Conferences, workshops, and symposia
• Uncanny Valley
panel. Siggraph 2007: The 34th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer
Graphics and Interactive Techniques. San Diego, August 5–9, 2007.
• Toward Social Mechanisms of Android Science
long symposium at the Fifth International Conference of the
Cognitive Science
, July 26, 2006 at Sheraton Vancouver Wall Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
• Views of the Uncanny Valley
, A Humanoids 2005 Workshop, IEEE-RAS International Conference on
Humanoid Robots
, Echopal Tsukuba International Congress Center, Tsukuba, Japan, 5 December 2005.
• Toward Social Mechanisms of Android Science
workshop at the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive
Science Society
, July 25 and 26, 2005 at Regina Palace Hotel, Stresa, Italy.
[1] Reeves, B. & Nass, C. (2002). The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places.
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1-57586-053-4
[2] MacDorman, K. F., Minato, T., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Cowley, S. J., & Ishiguro, H. (2005). Assessing human likeness by eye contact in an
android testbed. In Proceedings of the XXVII Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. July 25–26, Stresa, Italy.
[3] MacDorman, K. F. (http:// www. macdorman.com) & Ishiguro, H. (http:// www.ed. ams. eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/ ) (2006). The uncanny
advantage of using androids in cognitive science research. (http:// www.macdorman.com/ kfm/writings/ pubs/
MacDorman2006AndroidScience. pdf) Interaction Studies, 7(3), 297-337.
[4] MacDorman, K. F. (http:// www. macdorman.com) & Ishiguro, H. (http:// www.ed. ams. eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/ ) (2006). Opening Pandora’s
uncanny box: Reply to commentaries on “The uncanny advantage of using androids in social and cognitive science research.” (http:// www.
macdorman.com/kfm/ writings/ pubs/ MacDorman2006OpeningPandorasUncannyBox. pdf) Interaction Studies, 7(3), 361-368.
[5] Macdorman, K. F.; Ishiguro, H. (2006). "The uncanny advantage of using androids in cognitive and social science research". Interaction
Studies 7 (3): 297–337. doi:10.1075/is.7.3.03mac.
[6] Ishiguro, H. (2005). Android science: Toward a new cross-disciplinary framework. In Toward social mechanisms of android science: A
CogSci 2005 Workshop. July 25–26, Stresa, Italy, pp. 1-6.
[7] Mori, M. (1970). Bukimi no tani (The uncanny valley; K. F. MacDorman & T. Minato, Trans.). Energy, 7(4), 33–35.
[8] http:/ / www. siggraph. org/s2007/ presenters/ panels/
[9] http:/ / www. androidscience. com
[10] http:/ / www. jcss. gr. jp/ meetings/ ICCS2006/ ICCS2006.html
[11] http:// www. theuncannyvalley. org
[12] http:/ / www. humanoidrobots. org/humanoids2005/
[13] http:// www. androidscience. com/
[14] http:/ / www. psych. unito. it/ csc/ cogsci05/
External links
• Android Science Center (http:// informatics.iupui. edu/ android/)
• MacDorman, K.F. (http:/ / www. macdorman. com) & Ishiguro, H. (http:// www.ed. ams. eng.osaka-u. ac. jp)
(2006). The uncanny advantage of using androids in social and cognitive science research (http:/ / www.
macdorman. com/ kfm/ writings/ pubs/ MacDorman2006AndroidScience. pdf). Interaction Studies, 7(3).
• MacDorman, K. F. (http:/ / www. macdorman. com), Minato, T., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Cowley, S. J. (http://
www. psy. herts. ac. uk/ pub/ sjcowley/ index. html) & Ishiguro, H. (http:// www.ed.ams. eng. osaka-u. ac.jp)
(2005). Assessing human likeness by eye contact in an android testbed. (http:/ / www. macdorman.com/ kfm/
writings/pubs/ MacDormani2005AssessHumanLikenessCogSci. pdf) Proceedings of the XXVII Annual Meeting
of the Cognitive Science Society. July 21 – 23, 2005. Stresa, Italy.
• Android Science (http:// 199. 246. 67. 28/ exnmedia/ exn20050324-android.asf) segment on the Daily Planet
Goes to Japan, the Discovery Channel, March 24, 2005.
Anthrobotics is the science of developing and studying robots that are either entirely or in some way human-like.
The term anthrobotics was originally coined by Mark Rosheim in a paper entitled "Design of An Omnidirectional
Arm" presented at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, May 13–18, 1990,
pp. 2162–2167. Rosheim says he derived the term from "...Anthropomorphic and Robotics to distinguish the new
generation of dexterous robots from its simple industrial robot forbears." The word gained wider recognition as a
result of its use in the title of Rosheim's subsequent book Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, which
focussed on facsimiles of human physical and psychological skills and attributes.
However, a wider definition of the term anthrobotics has been proposed, in which the meaning is derived from
anthropology rather than anthropomorphic. This usage includes robots that respond to input in a human-like fashion,
rather than simply mimicking human actions, thus theoretically being able to respond more flexibly or to adapt to
unforeseen circumstances. This expanded definition also encompasses robots that are situated in social environments
with the ability to respond to those environments appropriately, such as insect robots, robotic pets, and the like.
Anthrobotics is now taught at some universities, encouraging students not only to design and build robots for
environments beyond current industrial applications, but also to speculate on the future of robotics that are embedded
in the world at large, as mobile phones and computers are today.
External links
• Design of An Omnidirectional Arm paper
• Mark Rosheim's company site
[1] http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee. org:80/xpl/ abs_free.jsp?isNumber=3534& prod=CNF& arnumber=126324&arSt=2162&ared=2167+vol. 3&
arAuthor=Rosheim%2C+M. E.& arNumber=126324&a_id0=126311&a_id1=126312& a_id2=126313& a_id3=126314&a_id4=126315&
a_id5=126316&a_id6=126317&a_id7=126318& a_id8=126319& a_id9=126320&a_id10=126321& a_id11=126322&a_id12=126323&
a_id13=126324& a_id14=126325&count=15
[2] http:// www. anthrobot.com/
Any-angle path planning
Any-angle path planning
Any-angle path planning algorithms search for paths on a cell decomposition of a continuous configuration space
(such as a two-dimensional terrain).
Consider, for example, a uniform grid with blocked and unblocked cells. Searching the corresponding visibility
graph finds a shortest path from a given start vertex to a given goal vertex but is typically very slow since the
number of edges can grow quadratically in the number of vertices. Searching the corresponding grid graph typically
finds suboptimal paths (since, for example, the heading changes of the resulting path are constrained to multiples of
45 degrees on an eight-neighbor grid graph) but is fast since the number of edges grows no faster than linearly in the
number of vertices. Optimizing the path after the search typically shortens the path but does not change the topology
of the path. It does not find a shortest path, for example, if the path found by the search algorithm passes a blocked
cell on the left but the shortest path passes the same blocked cell on the right. Thus, there is an advantage to
interleaving the search and the optimization. Any-angle path planning algorithms propagate information along grid
edges (to search fast) without constraining their paths to grid edges (to find short paths). Thus, the heading changes
of their paths are not constrained to specific angles, which explains their name.
So far, two main any-angle path planning algorithms have been developed, both based on the heuristic search
algorithm A*
. Field D* uses interpolation during each vertex expansion,
and Theta* checks for shortcuts
during each vertex expansion.
Both of them find short paths but neither one of them is guaranteed to find shortest
[1] A. Nash, K. Daniel, S. Koenig and A. Felner. Theta*: Any-Angle Path Planning on Grids. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on
Artificial Intelligence, pages 1177-1183, 2007.
[2] P. Hart, N. Nilsson and B. Raphael, A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths, IEEE Trans. Syst. Science and
Cybernetics, SSC-4(2), 100-107, 1968.
[3] D. Ferguson and A. Stentz. Field D*: An Interpolation-Based Path Planner and Replanner. Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Robotics Research, 2005.
Arduino Software
A screenshot of the Arduino IDE showing a simple example program.
Developer(s) Arduino Software
Stable release 0022 / December 24, 2010
Written in Java
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Integrated development environment
License LGPL or GPL license
Website http:// arduino.cc/ en/
Arduino compared to a human hand
Arduino is an open-source single-board microcontroller, descendant of
the open-source Wiring platform

, designed to make the process
of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. The
hardware consists of a simple open hardware design for the Arduino
board with an Atmel AVR processor and on-board I/O support. The
software consists of a standard programming language compiler and
the boot loader that runs on the board.
Arduino hardware is programmed using a Wiring-based language
(syntax + libraries), similar to C++ with some simplifications and
modifications, and a Processing-based IDE.
Currently shipping versions can be purchased pre-assembled; hardware design information is available for those who
would like to assemble an Arduino by hand. Additionally, variations of the Italian-made Arduino—with varying
levels of compatibility—have been released by third parties.
The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars

The name is an Italian masculine first name, meaning "strong friend". The English pronunciation is "Hardwin", a
namesake of Arduino of Ivrea.
The project began in Ivrea, Italy in 2005 to make a device for controlling student-built interaction design projects
less expensively than other prototyping systems available at the time. As of February 2010 more than 120,000
Arduino boards had been shipped.
Founders Massimo Banzi and David Cuartielles named the project after a local
bar named Arduino.
The Arduino project is a fork of the open-source Wiring platform[9]. Wiring was created by Colombian artist and
programmer Hernando Barragán as a master's thesis at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, under the supervision of
Massimo Banzi and Casey Reas. Conversely, Wiring is based on Processing and its integrated development
environment created by Casey Reas and Ben Fry.

Arduino was built around the Wiring project of Hernando Barragan. Wiring was Hernando's thesis project at the Interaction Design Institute
Ivrea. It was intended to be an electronics version of Processing that used our programming environment and was patterned after the
Processing syntax. It was supervised by myself and Massimo Banzi, an Arduino founder. I don't think Arduino would exist without Wiring
and I don't think Wiring would exist without Processing. And I know Processing would certainly not exist without Design By Numbers and
John Maeda.

An official Arduino Duemilanove (rev 2009b).
An Arduino board consists of an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller
with complementary components to facilitate programming and
incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is
the standard way that connectors are exposed, allowing the CPU board
to be connected to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules
(known as shields). Official Arduinos have used the megaAVR series
of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, and
ATmega1280. A handful of other processors have been used by
Arduino compatibles. Most boards include a 5 volt linear regulator and
a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants),
although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense
with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino's microcontroller is also
pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared
with other devices that typically need an external chip programmer.
At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino software stack, all boards are programmed over an RS-232 serial
connection, but the way this is implemented varies by hardware version. Serial Arduino boards contain a simple
inverter circuit to convert between RS-232-level and TTL-level signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via
USB, implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some variants, such as the Arduino
Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other
methods. (When used with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR ISP
programming is used.)
The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller's I/O pins for use by other circuits. The Diecimila, now
superseded by the Duemilanove, for example, provides 14 digital I/O pins, six of which can produce PWM signals,
and six analog inputs. These pins are on the top of the board, via female 0.1 inch headers. Several plug-in application
"shields" are also commercially available.
The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards provide male header pins on
the underside of the board to be plugged into solderless breadboards.
Arduino board models
Processor Flash
ATmega168 16 0.5 1 14 6 6 FTDI 2.7" x 2.1" 68.6mm x
ATmega168/328P 16/32 0.5/1 1/2 14 6 6 FTDI 2.7" x 2.1" 68.6mm x
ATmega328P 32 1 2 14 6 6 ATmega8U2 2.7" x 2.1" 68.6mm x
ATmega1280 128 4 8 54 14 16 FTDI 4" x 2.1" 101.6mm x
ATmega2560 256 4 8 54 14 16 ATmega8U2 4" x 2.1" 101.6mm x
ATmega328P 32 1 2 14 6 8 None 1.6" x 1.1" 40.6mm x
ATmega168 or
16/32 0.5/1 1/2 14 6 8 FTDI 1.70" x
43mm x 18mm
ATmega168V or
16 0.5 1 14 6 6 None 2" ø 50mm ø
The Arduino IDE is a cross-platform application written in Java, and is derived from the IDE for the Processing
programming language and the Wiring project. It is designed to introduce programming to artists and other
newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax
highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading programs to
the board with a single click. There is typically no need to edit makefiles or run programs on the command line.
The Arduino IDE comes with a C/C++ library called "Wiring" (from the project of the same name), which makes
many common input/output operations much easier. Arduino programs are written in C/C++, although users only
need define two functions to make a runnable program:
• setup() – a function run once at the start of a program that can initialize settings
• loop() – a function called repeatedly until the board powers off
A typical first program for a microcontroller simply blinks a LED (light-emitting diode) on and off. In the Arduino
environment, the user might write a program like this:
#define LED_PIN 13
void setup () {
pinMode (LED_PIN, OUTPUT); // enable pin 13 for digital output
void loop () {
digitalWrite (LED_PIN, HIGH); // turn on the LED
delay (1000); // wait one second (1000
digitalWrite (LED_PIN, LOW); // turn off the LED
delay (1000); // wait one second
The above code would not be seen by a standard C++ compiler as a valid program, so when the user clicks the
"Upload to I/O board" button in the IDE, a copy of the code is written to a temporary file with an extra include
header at the top and a very simple main() function at the bottom, to make it a valid C++ program.
The Arduino IDE uses the GNU toolchain and AVR Libc to compile programs, and uses avrdude to upload programs
to the board.
Official hardware
The Arduino Diecimila
The original Arduino hardware is manufactured by the Italian company
Smart Projects
. Some Arduino-branded boards have been designed
by the American company SparkFun Electronics.
Thirteen versions of the Arduino hardware have been commercially
produced to date:
1. The Serial Arduino, programmed with a DE-9 serial connection and
using an ATmega8
2. The Arduino Extreme, with a USB interface for programming and
using an ATmega8
3. The Arduino Mini, a miniature version of the Arduino using a surface-mounted ATmega168
4. The Arduino Nano, an even smaller, USB powered version of the Arduino using a surface-mounted ATmega168
(ATmega328 for newer version)
5. The LilyPad Arduino, a minimalist design for wearable application using a surface-mounted ATmega168
6. The Arduino NG, with a USB interface for programming and using an ATmega8
7. The Arduino NG plus, with a USB interface for programming and using an ATmega168
8. The Arduino Bluetooth, with a Bluetooth interface for programming using an ATmega168
9. The Arduino Diecimila, with a USB interface and utilizes an ATmega168 in a DIL28 package (pictured)
10. The Arduino Duemilanove ("2009"), using the ATmega168 (ATmega328 for newer version) and powered via
USB/DC power, switching automatically
11. The Arduino Mega, using a surface-mounted ATmega1280 for additional I/O and memory.
12. The Arduino Uno, uses the same ATmega328 as late-model Duemilanove, but whereas the Duemilanove used
an FTDI chipset for USB, the Uno uses an ATmega8U2 programmed as a serial converter.
13. The Arduino Mega2560, uses a surface-mounted ATmega2560, bringing the total memory to 256 kB. It also
incorporates the new ATmega8U2 USB chipset.
Open hardware and open source
The Arduino hardware reference designs are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5
license and are available on the Arduino Web site. Layout and production files for some versions of the Arduino
hardware are also available. The source code for the IDE and the on-board library are available and released under
the GPLv2 license.
Accessory hardware
A prototyping shield, mounted on an Arduino
Arduino and Arduino-compatible boards make use of shields, which
are printed circuit boards that sit atop an Arduino, and plug into the
normally supplied pin-headers. These are expansions to the base
Arduino. There are many functions of shields, from motor controls, to
breadboarding (prototyping).
For example:
• Arduino Ethernet Shield
• XBee Shield
• TouchShield
from Liquidware
• Datalog Shield
: RTC, SD card storage, temperature sensing, etc.
From NuElectronics
• USB Host Shield
from Circuits@Home
• Cosmo WiFi Connect
from JT5
A list of Arduino-compatible shields is maintained at the Arduino Shield List
Arduino-compatible boards
Although the hardware and software designs are freely available under copyleft licenses, the developers have
requested that the name "Arduino" be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derivative works without
permission. The official policy document on the use of the Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to
incorporating work by others into the official product.
As a result of the protected naming conventions of the Arduino, a group of Arduino users forked the Arduino
Diecimila, releasing an equivalent board called Freeduino. The name "Freeduino" is not trademarked and is free to
use for any purpose.
Several Arduino-compatible products commercially released have avoided the "Arduino" name by using "-duino"
name variants.
Arduino footprint-compatible boards
Example of a Arduino-compatible board: the
Freetronics TwentyTen
The following boards are fully or almost fully compatible with both the
Arduino hardware and software, including being able to accept "shield"
• The 'Freeduino SB
', manufactured and sold as a mini-kit by
Solarbotics Ltd.
• The 'Cosmo Black Star
', manufactured and sold by JT5
• The 'Freeduino MaxSerial
', a board with a standard DE-9 serial
port. It was manufactured and sold assembled or as a kit by
Fundamental Logic until May 2010.
• The 'Freeduino Through-Hole
', a board that avoids
surface-mount soldering, manufactured and sold as a kit by NKC
• The 'Illuminato Genesis
', a board that uses an ATmega644 instead of an ATmega168. This provides 64 kB of
flash, 4 kB of RAM and 42 general I/O pins. Hardware and firmware are open source.
• The 'metaboard
', a board that is designed to have a very low complexity and thus a very low price. Hardware
and firmware are open source. It was developed by Metalab, a hackerspace in Vienna.
• The 'Seeeduino
', derived from the Diecimila.
• The 'eJackino
', kit by CQ publisher in Japan. Similar to Seeeduino, eJackino can use Universal boards as
Shields. On back side, there is a "Akihabara station" silk, just like Italia on Arduino.
• The 'Japanino
' is a kit by Otonano Kagaku publisher in Japan. The board an a POV kit was included in Vol.
27 of the eponymous series. An ATmega168 powers it. It is unique in having a regular size USB A connector.
• The 'Wiseduino
' is an Arduino-compatible microcontroller board, which includes a DS1307 real-time clock
(RTC) with backup battery, a 24LC256 EEPROM chip and a connector for XBee adapter for wireless
• The 'TwentyTen
' is an Arduino-compatible microcontroller board, based on the Duemilanove, with some
improvements, including a prototyping area, rearranged LEDs, mini-USB connector, and altered pin 13 circuitry
so that the LED and resistor do not interfere with pin function when acting as an input.
• The 'Volksduino
' is a low cost, high power, shield compatible, complete Arduino-compatible board kit. Based
on the Duemilanove, it comes with a 5 V / 1 A voltage regulator and has an option for a 3.3 V regulator. The
Volksduino was designed by Applied Platonics
to have a low component count and to be "easy for anyone of
any age to put together".
• The 'ZArdino
' is a South African Arduino-compatible board derived from the Duemilanove, features mostly
through hole construction with the exception of the SMD FT232RL IC, power selection switches, option for a
phoenix power connector instead of DC jack, extra I/O pads for using Veroboard as shields, designed to be easy
to construct in countries where exotic components are hard to find.
• The 'Zigduino
', is an Arduino using the ATmega128RFA1 to integrate Zigbee (IEEE 802.15.4). It can be used
with other 802.15.4 network standards as well as ZigBee. The board is the same shape as the Duemilanove and
includes an external RPSMA jack on the side of the board opposite the power jack. It is compatible with shields
that work with other 3.3 V boards. Due for release Q1 2011 and now taking reservations for the first production
• The 'InduinoX
' is an Arduino using the ATmega168 and designed for training. It includes on board
peripherals such as an RGB LED, switches, and IR Tx/Rx. It was developed and marketed by Simplelabs.
Special purpose Arduino-compatible boards
Special purpose Arduino-compatible boards add additional hardware optimised for a specific application. It is kind
of like having an Arduino and a shield on a single board. Some are shield compatible, others are not.
• The "DFRobotShop Rover
" is a versatile, minimalist tracked platform based on the Arduino Duemilanove.
The PCB incorporates an ATmega328 chip with Arduino bootloader, as well as a dual H-bridge and additional
prototyping space and headers. The PCB is compatible with many shields, though four digital pins are used when
operating the motor controller. In addition to this, there is an onboard voltage regulator, additional LEDs, a
temperature sensor, and a light sensor. The DFRobotShop Rover kit includes a twin motor gearbox, tracks, and
minimalist frame to create a tracked mobile robot.
• The "Lightuino
", a Arduino-compatible shield that drives LEDs (70 constant-current channels) and LED
matrices (1100 LEDs). It also features an adjustable voltage regulator to power the LEDs, an ambient light sensor
to decide when to turn "on", and an IR receiver to control your project.
• The "ArduPilot
", an Arduino-compatible board designed for auto-piloting and autonomous navigation of
aircraft, cars, and boats. It uses GPS for navigation and thermopile sensors or an IMU for stabilization.
Arduino-compatible boards with software-compatibility only
These boards are compatible with the Arduino software but do not accept standard shields. They have different
connectors for power and I/O, such as a series of pins on the underside of the board for use with breadboards for easy
prototyping, or more specific connectors. One of the important choices made by Arduino-compatible board designers
is whether or not to include USB circuitry in the Arduino-compatible board. It is easy to put that circuitry in the
cable between development PC and board, thus making each instance of the board less expensive. For many Arduino
tasks, the USB circuitry is redundant once the device has been programmed.
• The "Ardweeny
" - an inexpensive, even more compact breadboardable device from Solarbotics.
• The "Bare Bones Board
" (BBB) and "Really Bare Bones Board
" (RBBB) by Modern Device - compact
inexpensive Arduino-compatible boards suitable for breadboarding.
• The "Boarduino
" - an inexpensive Arduino-Diecimila-compatible board made for breadboarding, produced by
• The "Breaduino
" - a complete, very low cost Arduino-compatible kit made to be assembled entirely on a
breadboard, made by Applied Platonics
• The "Diavolino
" - another Arduino compatible board from Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories.
• The "DragonFly
", a compact board with Molex connectors, aimed at environments where vibration could be
an issue. DragonFly features the ATmega1280 and have all 86 IO lines pinned out to connectors.
• The "Femtoduino
" - an ultra-small (20.7x15.2 mm) Arduino compatible board designed by Fabio Varesano
. Femtoduino is currently the smallest Arduino compatible board available.
• The "iDuino
", a USB board for breadboarding, manufactured and sold as a kit by Fundamental Logic.
• The "JeeNode
" is a low-cost, low-size, radio-enabled Arduino-compatible board running at 3.3v. Inspired by
the Modern Device RBBB (above) with a HopeRF RFM12B wireless module and a modular I/O design
supporting a wide range of interfaces
• The "LEDuino
", a board with enhanced I²C, DCC decoder and CAN-bus interfaces. Manufactured using
surface mount and sold assembled by Siliconrailway.
• The "NB1A
", is an Arduino-compatible board that includes a battery backed up real-time clock and a four
channel DAC. Most Arduino-compatible boards require an additional shield for these resources.
• The "NB2A
", is an Sanguino-compatible board that includes a battery backed up real-time clock and a two
channel DAC. Sanguino's feature the ATmega644P, which has additional memory, I/O lines and a second UART.
• The "Nymph
", a compact board with Molex connectors, aimed at environments where vibration could be an
issue. Nymph features the ATmega328P.
• The "Oak Micros om328p
" - an Arduino Duemilanove compacted down to a breadboardable device (36 mm x
18 mm) that can be inserted into a standard 600 mil 28-pin socket, with USB capability, ATmega328P, and 6
onboard LEDs.
• The "Rainbowduino
", is an Arduino-compatible board designed specifically for driving LEDs. It is generally
used to drive an 8x8 RGB LED matrix using row scanning, but can be used for other things.
• The "Roboduino
", designed for robotics. All of its connections have neighboring power buses that
accommodate servos and sensors. Additional headers for power and serial communication are also provided. It
was developed by Curious Inventor, LLC.
• The "Sanguino
" - An open source enhanced Arduino-compatible board that uses an ATMega644P instead of
an ATMega168. This provides 64 kB of flash, 4 kB of RAM and 32 general I/O pins in a 40 pin DIP device. It
was developed with the RepRap Project in mind.
• The "Seeeduino Mega
", is an Arduino-Mega-compatible board with 16 extra I/O Pins.
• The "Spider Controller
", is an Arduino Mega compatible board designed specifically for robots requiring
large numbers of servos. A built in 3A switchmode power supply allows servos to plug directly into the board.
Pin spacing allows custom sheilds to be made from standard prototype board.
• The "Stickduino
", similar to a USB key.
• The "Wireless Widget
", is a compact (35 mm x 70 mm), low voltage, battery powered Arduino-compatible
board with onboard wireless capable of ranges up to 120 m. The Wireless Widget was designed for both portable
and low cost Wireless sensor network applications.
• The "Teensy
and Teensy++
" - a pair of boards from PJRC.com that run most Arduino sketches using the
Teensyduino software add-on to the Arduino IDE.
• The "ZB1
", is an Arduino-compatible board that includes a Zigbee radio (XBee). The ZB1 can be powered by
USB, a wall adapter or an external battery source. It is designed for low-cost Wireless sensor network
Non-ATmega boards
The following boards accept Arduino "shield" daughter boards but do not use ATmega micro-controllers, and are
therefore incompatible with the Arduino IDE.
• The "Amicus18
", The Amicus18 is an embedded system platform based on PIC architecture (18F25K20). Can
be programmed with any programming language, though the Amicus IDE is completely free and extremely
• The "PROplus
", ARM 100 MHz Cortex M3 and ARM7TDMI-based shield-compatible boards from
Coridium, programmable in BASIC or C.
• The "Cortino
", a development system for the 32-bit ARM Cortex M3 Microprocessor.
• The "Pinguino
", is a board based on a PIC microcontroller, with native USB support and compatibility with
the Arduino programing language plus an IDE built with Python and sdcc as compiler.
• The "Unduino
", is a board based on the dsPIC33FJ128MC202 microcontroller, with integrated motor control
• The "Leaflabs Maple
", a 72 MHz 32-bit ARM Cortex M3 micro-controller with USB support, compatibility
with Arduino shields, and 39 GP I/O pins. Programmable with the open source Maple IDE
(which is a branch
of the Arduino library) or low-level native code (with support from the libmaple
C library).
• The "Netduino
", a 48 MHz 32-bit ARM7 micro-controller board with support for the .NET Micro
Framework. Pin compatible with Arduino shields although drivers are required for some shields.
• The "Vinculo
", a USB development board for the FTDI Vinculum II microcontroller.
• The "FEZ Domino" and "FEZ Panda", 72 MHz 32-bit ARM (GHI Electronics USBizi chips) micro-controller
boards with support for the .NET Micro Framework. Pin compatible with Arduino shields, although drivers are
required for some shields.
Development team
The core Arduino developer team is composed of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino,
David Mellis and Nicholas Zambetti. Massimo Banzi was interviewed on the March 21st, 2009 episode (Episode 61)
of FLOSS Weekly on the TWiT.tv network, in which he discussed the history and goals of the Arduino project.
[1] "Interview with Casey Reas and Ben Fry" (http:/ / rhizome.org/editorial/ 2009/ sep/ 23/ interview-with-casey-reas-and-ben-fry/). .
[2] (http:// wiring.org.co/ )
[3] "Project homepage" (http:// arduino.cc). .
[4] "Ars Electronica Archiv" (http:/ / 90. 146. 8. 18/ de/ archives/ prix_archive/prix_year_cat.asp?iProjectID=13638&iCategoryID=12420) (in
German). . Retrieved 2009-02-18.
[5] "Ars Electronica Archiv / ANERKENNUNG" (http:/ / 90.146. 8. 18/ de/ archives/ prix_archive/prix_projekt.asp?iProjectID=13789#) (in
German). . Retrieved 2009-02-18.
[6] "Italian Baby Names" (http:// italian. about. com/ library/name/ blname_arduino.htm). . Retrieved 2010-09-26.
[7] Cuartielles, David (2010-02-17). "Öppnade hårdvaran och skapade Arduino" (http:// www.flickr.com/ photos/ dcuartielles/ 4381919054/
sizes/ l/ ). Metro Teknik: 10. . Retrieved 2010-06-20.
[8] "Taking an Open-Source Approach to Hardware" (http:/ / proquest.umi.com/ pqdweb?did=1908804331). Wall Street Journal. 2009-11-27. .
Retrieved 2010-09-26.
[9] http:// wiring.org. co/
[10] Reas, Casey; Fry, Ben (2010). Getting Started With Processing. Sebastopol: O'Reilly. ISBN 978-1-449-37980-3.
[11] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ Hardware
[12] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardDiecimila
[13] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardDuemilanove
[14] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardUno
[15] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardMega
[16] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardMega2560
[17] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardFio
[18] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardNano
[19] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardLilyPad
[20] (http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Tutorial/Blink)
[21] http:// smartprj.com/
[22] "ArduinoBoardMega" (http:/ / arduino. cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoBoardMega). Arduino. . Retrieved 2009-03-26.
[23] http:// arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoEthernetShield
[24] http:/ / arduino.cc/ en/ Main/ ArduinoXbeeShield
[25] http:/ / www. liquidware.com/ shop/ show/ TSL/TouchShield+Slide
[26] http:// sheepdogguides. com/ arduino/ ar3nd.htm
[27] http:// circuitsathome.com/ products-page/arduino-shields/ usb-host-shield-for-arduino
[28] http:// jt5.ru/shields/ cosmo-wifi/
[29] http:// shieldlist. org
[30] "Freeduino Open Designs" (http:/ / www.freeduino.org/freeduino_open_designs.html). . Retrieved 2008-03-03.
[31] http:// solarbotics. com/ products/ 28920/
[32] http:// solarbotics. com/
[33] http:/ / jt5.ru/products/ cosmo/
[34] http:// jt5.ru/
[35] http:/ / store.fundamentallogic.com/ ecom/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=3
[36] http:/ / www. nkcelectronics. com/ freeduino-arduino-diecimila-compatible-board-complete-kit.html
[37] http:// www. liquidware.com/ shop/ show/ ILLI/Illuminato::Genesis
[38] http:/ / metalab.at/ wiki/ Metaboard
[39] http:// seeedstudio. com/ depot/ seeeduino-v221-atmega-168p-p-690.html
[40] http:// shop. cqpub. co. jp/ hanbai/ books/ 12/ 12551. html
[41] http:/ / otonanokagaku. net/ magazine/ vol27/
[42] http:// timewitharduino.blogspot. com/
[43] http:/ / www. freetronics.com/ products/ twentyten
[44] http:// appliedplatonics. com/ volksduino/
[45] http:// appliedplatonics. com
[46] http:/ / www. geekstudio. co. za/ products/ zardino
[47] http:/ / www. logos-electro.com/ zigduino/
[48] http:// build.simplelabs. co. in/ content/ induinox-low-cost-arduino-usb-clone-board-added-features
[49] http:/ / www. robotshop. com/ dfrobotshop-rover-tracked-robot-basic-kit.html
[50] http:// toastedcircuits. makersmarket.com
[51] http:/ / diydrones. com/ profiles/blogs/ ardupilot-main-page
[52] http:// www. solarbotics. com/ products/ kardw/
[53] http:/ / www. moderndevice. com/ products/bbb-kit
[54] http:// www. moderndevice. com/ products/rbbb-kit
[55] http:// www. ladyada. net/ make/ boarduino/index. html
[56] http:/ / appliedplatonics. com/ breaduino/
[57] http:// www. evilmadscientist. com/ article. php/ diavolino
[58] http:/ / www. circuitmonkey.com/ index. php?name=Catalog& mode=i&item=000106
[59] http:/ / www. varesano. net/ projects/ hardware/Femtoduino
[60] http:/ / www. varesano. net/
[61] http:/ / www. spiffie.org/ store/ index. php?main_page=product_info&cPath=2& products_id=10
[62] http:// jeelabs. net/ projects/ hardware/wiki/ JN6
[63] http:/ / jeelabs. net/ projects/ hardware/wiki/
[64] http:// www. siliconrailway. com
[65] http:/ / wiblocks. luciani. org/NB1/ NB1A-index. html
[66] http:/ / wiblocks. luciani. org/NB2/ index.html
[67] http:/ / www. circuitmonkey.com/ index. php?name=Catalog& mode=i&item=000013
[68] http:/ / oakmicros.com/ content/ om328p. html
[69] http:// www. seeedstudio. com/ depot/ rainbowduino-led-driver-platform-plug-and-shine-p-371.html
[70] http:/ / www. curiousinventor.com/ kits/ roboduino
[71] http:// sanguino. cc/
[72] http:/ / www. seeedstudio. com/ depot/ seeeduino-mega-fully-assembled-p-438.html
[73] http:/ / letsmakerobots. com/ node/ 26054
[74] http:// spiffie.org/ kits/ stickduino/
[75] http:// code.google. com/ p/ strobit
[76] http:/ / www. pjrc.com/ teensy/
[77] http:// wiblocks. luciani. org/ZB1/ index. html
[78] http:/ / digital-diy.com/ home/ amicus18/ beginner-guides/195-introducing-the-amicus18.html
[79] http:/ / www. coridiumcorp.com/ PROplus. php
[80] http:// www. bugblat. com/ products/ cor.html
[81] http:/ / www. hackinglab. org/pinguino/ index. html
[82] http:/ / www. unduino. com
[83] http:/ / leaflabs.com/ devices/ maple/
[84] http:// github.com/ leaflabs/ maple-ide
[85] http:// github.com/ leaflabs/ libmaple
[86] http:// netduino. com/
[87] "Netduino Hardware" (http:/ / netduino. com/ netduino/ ). . Retrieved 2010-09-13.
[88] http:// www. ftdichip.com/ Products/ Modules/ DevelopmentModules. htm#Vinculo
[89] (http:// tinyclr.com/ compare/), TinyCLR.com - Comparison, 4 February 2010
[90] http:// twit.tv/ floss61
• Banzi, Massimo (March 24, 2009). Getting Started with Arduino (http:/ / oreilly. com/ catalog/ 9780596155520/ )
(1st ed.). O'Reilly Media/Make. pp. 128. ISBN 978-0-596-15551-3.
• Monk, Simon (August 23, 2010). 30 Arduino Projects for the Evil Genius (http:/ / astore. amazon. com/ ardui-20/
detail/007174133X) (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 208. ISBN 978-0-071-74133-0.
• Oxer, Jonathan; Blemings, Hugh (December 28, 2009). Practical Arduino: Cool Projects for Open Source
Hardware (http:/ / www. apress. com/ book/ view/ 9781430224778) (1st ed.). Apress. pp. 450.
ISBN 978-1-430-22477-8.
• Pardue, Joe (January 15, 2010). An Arduino Workshop (http:// smileymicros. com/ index.
php?module=pagemaster& PAGE_user_op=view_page&PAGE_id=82) (1st ed.). Smiley Micros. pp. 214.
ISBN 978-0-976-68222-6.
• Schmidt, Maik (March 10, 2011). Arduino: A Quick Start Guide (http:// pragprog.com/ titles/ msard/ arduino)
(1st ed.). The Pragmatic Bookshelf. pp. 296. ISBN 978-1-93435-666-1.
• Warren, John-David; Adams, Josh; Molle, Harald (January 31, 2011). Arduino Robotics (http:/ / www.apress.
com/ book/ view/ 9781430231837) (1st ed.). Apress. pp. 450. ISBN 978-1-430-23183-7.
• F. Barrett, Steven; Thornton, Mitchell (April 30, 2010). Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone! (http:/
/ isbnlib. com/ isbn/ 1608454371/
Arduino-Microcontroller-Processing-for-Everyone-Synthesis-Lectures-on-Digital-Ci) (1st ed.). Morgan and
Claypool Publishers. pp. 344. ISBN 978-1-608-45437-2.
• Margolis, Michael; Robert Weldin, Nicholas (March 15, 2011). Arduino Cookbook (http:/ / oreilly.com/ catalog/
9780596802479) (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. pp. 660. ISBN 978-0-596-80247-9.
• McRoberts, Michael (December 20, 2010). Beginning Arduino (http:// www.apress. com/ book/ view/
9781430232407) (1st ed.). Apress. pp. 350. ISBN 978-1-430-23240-7.
• Noble, Joshua (July 15, 2009). Programming Interactivity: A Designer's Guide to Processing, Arduino, and
openFrameworks (http:/ / oreilly.com/ catalog/ 9780596154141/ ) (1st ed.). O'Reilly Media. pp. 736.
ISBN 978-0-596-15414-1.
External links
• Arduino project main page (http:// arduino.cc/ )
• Arduino Forum (http:/ / arduino.cc/ cgi-bin/yabb2/ YaBB. pl/ )
• Arduino Shield List (http:/ / shieldlist. org/)
• Arduino Cheat Sheet (http:/ / robodino.org/resources/ arduino)
• Regularly updated Arduino tutorials (http:/ / tronixstuff.wordpress.com/ tutorials)
• Basic Arduino projects & tutorials with code, parts and pictures (http:/ / luckylarry.co.uk/ category/
arduino-projects/ )
• Collection of Arduino Electronics Projects (http:// bristolwatch. com/ arduino/index. htm)
• Arduino tutorial at Adafruit Industries (http:// ladyada. net/ learn/ arduino/)
• RTOS (Real Time Operating System) list for Arduino (http:/ / www.out--there.com/ blog/ rtos-for-arduino/)
• Free online course (http:/ / sheepdogguides. com/ arduino/FA1main. htm) from SheepdogGuides. Designed to be
ten year old accessible... and for older readers.
• Arduino "How To" articles (http:/ / sheepdogguides. com/ arduino/ ahttoc. htm) from SheepdogGuides.
• Basic Arduino Duemilanove tutorial (http:// www.vermulstweb. nl/ index.php?page=avrtutorial) step-by-step
tutorial using AVR Studio and C.
• Graphical programming environment for Arduino (http:// www.kickstarter.com/ projects/ 791396812/
Areas of robotics
Areas of robotics
Robotics incorporates aspects of many disciplines including electronics, engineering, mechanics, software and arts.
Areas of robotics
Control of the robots relies on many areas of robotics, including:
• Adaptive Control
• Artificial Intelligence
• Bayesian Learning
• Behavior-based robotics
• Bionics
• Cognitive robotics
• Clustering
• Computational Neuroscience
• Control
• Conventions
• Data Mining Techniques
• Degrees of freedom
• Digital Control
• Digital Image Processing
• Dimensionality Reduction
• Distributed robotics
• Evolutionary Computation
• Extended Kalman Filters
• Flexible Distribution Functions
• Feedback Control and Regulation
• Kinematics
• Learning
• Manifold Learning
• Manipulation
• Mapping
• Motion planning
• Motor Control
• Neural Networks
• Reinforcement Learning
• Robot Programming
• Sensing
• Simultaneous localization and mapping
• Software Engineering
• Support Vector Machines
• Swarm robotics
• Visual Servoing
• Vision Systems
Areas of robotics
[1] http:/ / robots. newcastle. edu. au/
Articulated robot
A six-axis articulated welding robot reaching into a fixture to weld.
An articulated robot is a robot with rotary
joints (e.g. a legged robot or an industrial
robot). Articulated robots can range from
simple two-jointed structures to systems
with 10 or more interacting joints. They are
powered by a variety of means, including
electric motors.
Some types of robots, such as robotic arms,
can be articulated or non-articulated.

Articulated Robots in Action
Loading Tooling machine Robots palletizing food
Manufacturing of
steel bridges, cutting
Flat-glas handling, heavy duty
robot with 500 kg payload
Automation in foundry
industry, heat resistant robot
Spot Welding Robot
Articulated robot
Articulated Robot: See Figure. An articulated robot is one which uses rotary joints to access its work space. Usually
the joints are arranged in a “chain”, so that one joint supports another further in the chain.
Continuous Path: A control scheme whereby the inputs or commands specify every point along a desired path of
motion. The path is controlled by the coordinated motion of the manipulator joints.
Degrees Of Freedom (DOF): The number of independent motions in which the end effector can move, defined by
the number of axes of motion of the manipulator.
Gripper: A device for grasping or holding, attached to the free end of the last manipulator link; also called the
robot’s hand or end-effector.
Payload: The maximum payload is the amount of weight carried by the robot manipulator at reduced speed while
maintaining rated precision. Nominal payload is measured at maximum speed while maintaining rated precision.
These ratings are highly dependent on the size and shape of the payload.
Pick And Place Cycle: See Figure. Pick and place Cycle is the time, in seconds, to execute the following motion
sequence: Move down one inch, grasp a rated payload; move up one inch; move across twelve inches; move down
one inch; ungrasp; move up one inch; and return to start location.
Reach: The maximum horizontal distance from the center of the robot base to the end of its wrist.
Accuracy: See Figure. The difference between the point that a robot is trying to achieve and the actual resultant
position. Absolute accuracy is the difference between a point instructed by the robot control system and the point
actually achieved by the manipulator arm, while repeatability is the cycle-to-cycle variation of the manipulator arm
when aimed at the same point.
Repeatability: See Figure. The ability of a system or mechanism to repeat the same motion or achieve the same
points when presented with the same control signals. The cycle-to-cycle error of a system when trying to perform a
specific task
Resolution: See Figure. The smallest increment of motion or distance that can be detected or controlled by the
control system of a mechanism. The resolution of any joint is a function of encoder pulses per revolution and drive
ratio, and dependent on the distance between the tool center point and the joint axis.
Robot Program: A robot communication program for IBM and compatible personal computers. Provides terminal
emulation and utility functions. This program can record all of the user memory, and some of the system memory to
disk files.
Maximum Speed: The compounded maximum speed of the tip of a robot moving at full extension with all joints
moving simultaneously in complimentary directions. This speed is the theoretical maximum and should under no
circumstances be used to estimate cycle time for a particular application. A better measure of real world speed is the
standard twelve inch pick and place cycle time. For critical applications, the best indicator of achievable cycle time
is a physical simulation.
Servo Controlled: Controlled by a driving signal which is determined by the error between the mechanism's present
position and the desired output position.
Via Point: A point through which the robot's tool should pass without stopping; via points are programmed in order
to move beyond obstacles or to bring the arm into a lower inertia posture for part of the motion.
Work Envelope: A three-dimensional shape that defines the boundaries that the robot manipulator can reach; also
known as reach envelope.
Articulated robot
[1] OSHA TECHNICAL MANUAL - SECTION IV: CHAPTER 4 (http:// www.osha.gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/otm_iv_4. html)
[2] http:// www. ssl. umd. edu/ projects/ rangertsx/ data/ spacerobotics-UNDSPST470.pdf , pg 9
External links
• Articulated Robots in Action (http:/ / www. robots. com/ movies. php)
Artificial Ants
When a colony of ants is confronted with the choice of reaching their food via two
different routes of which one is much shorter than the other, their choice is entirely
random. However, those who use the shorter route move faster and therefore go back and
forth more often between the anthill and the food
In computer science, Artificial Ants
stand for multi-agent methods inspired
by the behavior of real ants. The
pheromone-based communication of
biological ants is often the
predominant paradigm used.
Combinations of Artificial Ants and
local search algorithms have become a
method of choice for numerous
optimization tasks involving some sort
of graph, e. g., vehicle routing and
internet routing. The burgeoning
activity in this field has led to
conferences dedicated solely to
Artificial Ants, and to numerous
commercial applications by specialized
companies such as AntOptima. As an
example, Ant colony optimization
a class of optimization algorithms
modeled on the actions of an ant
colony. Artificial 'ants' (e.g. simulation
agents) locate optimal solutions by moving through a parameter space representing all possible solutions. Real ants
lay down pheromones directing each other to resources while exploring their environment. The simulated 'ants'
similarly record their positions and the quality of their solutions, so that in later simulation iterations more ants locate
better solutions.
One variation on this approach is the bees algorithm, which is more analogous to the foraging
patterns of the honey bee, another social insect.
The inventors are Frans Moyson and Bernard Manderick. Pioneers of the field include Marco Dorigo, Luca Maria
For more details, see the page of the paradigm Ant Colony Optimization
Artificial Ants
Ambient networks of intelligent objects
New concepts are required since “intelligence” is no longer centralized but can be found throughout all minuscule
objects. Anthropocentric concepts have always led us to the production of IT systems in which data processing,
control units and calculating forces are centralized. These centralized units have continually increased their
performance and can be compared to the human brain. The model of the brain has become the ultimate vision of
computers. Ambient networks of intelligent objects and, sooner or later, a new generation of information systems
which are even more diffused and based on nanotechnology, will profoundly change this concept. Small devices that
can be compared to insects do not dispose of a high intelligence on their own. Indeed, their intelligence can be
classed as fairly limited. It is, for example, impossible to integrate a high performance calculator with the power to
solve any kind of mathematical problem into a biochip that is implanted into the human body or integrated in an
intelligent tag which is designed to trace commercial articles. However, once those objects are interconnected they
dispose of a form of intelligence that can be compared to a colony of ants or bees. In the case of certain problems,
this type of intelligence can be superior to the reasoning of a centralized system similar to the brain
Nature has given us several examples of how minuscule organisms, if they all follow the same basic rule, can create
a form of collective intelligence on the macroscopic level. Colonies of social insects perfectly illustrate this model
which greatly differs from human societies. This model is based on the co-operation of independent units with
simple and unpredictable behavior
. They move through their surrounding area to carry out certain tasks and only
possess a very limited amount of information to do so. A colony of ants, for example, represents numerous qualities
that can also be applied to a network of ambient objects. Colonies of ants have a very high capacity to adapt
themselves to changes in the environment as well as an enormous strength in dealing with situations where one
individual fails to carry out a given task. This kind of flexibility would also be very useful for mobile networks of
objects which are perpetually developing. Parcels of information that move from a computer to a digital object
behave in the same way as ants would do. They move through the network and pass from one knot to the next with
the objective of arriving at their final destination as quickly as possible
[1] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE John Wiley & Sons. p. 225. ISBN 1847040020.
[2] Monmarché Nicolas, Guinand Frédéric and Siarry Patrick (2010). Artificial Ants. Wiley-ISTE. ISBN 78-1-84821-194-0.
[3] Dorigo, Gambardella, M, L.M. (1997). Learning Approach to the Traveling Salesman Problem. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary
Computation, 1 (1). pp. p214.
[4] Ant Colony Optimization by Marco Dorigo and Thomas Stützle, MIT Press, 2004. ISBN 0-262-04219-3
[5] Manderick, Moyson, Bernard, Frans (1988). The collective behavior of ants: An example of self-organization in massive parallelism..
Stanford: Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Parallel Models of Intelligence.
[6] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE John Wiley & Sons. p. 214. ISBN 1847040020.
[7] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2007). Inventer l'Ordinateur du XXIème Siècle (http:/ / fr.wikipedia.org/ w/ index.php?title=Special:Booksources&
isbn=2746215160). London: Hermes Science. pp. 259–265. ISBN 2746215160.
[8] Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE John Wiley & Sons. p. 215. ISBN 1847040020.
Artificial brain
Artificial brain
Artificial brain is a term commonly used in the media
to describe research that aims to develop software and
hardware with cognitive abilities similar to the animal or human brain. Research investigating "artificial brains"
plays three important roles in science:
1. An ongoing attempt by neuroscientists to understand how the human brain works, known as cognitive
2. A thought experiment in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, demonstrating that it is possible, in theory, to
create a machine that has all the capabilities of a human being.
3. A serious long term project to create machines capable of general intelligent action or Artificial General
Intelligence. This idea has been popularised by Ray Kurzweil
as strong AI (taken to mean a machine as
intelligent as a human being).
An example of the first objective is the project reported by Aston University in Birmingham, England
researchers are using biological cells to create "neurospheres" (small clusters of neurons) in order to develop new
treatments for diseases including Alzheimer's, Motor Neurone and Parkinson's Disease.
The second objective is a reply to arguments such as John Searle's Chinese room argument, Hubert Dreyfus' critique
of AI or Roger Penrose's argument in The Emperor's New Mind. These critics argued that there are aspects of human
consciousness or expertise that can not be simulated by machines. One reply to their arguments is that the biological
processes inside the brain can be simulated to any degree of accuracy. This reply was made as early as 1950, by Alan
Turing in his classic paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence".
The third objective is generally called artificial general intelligence by researchers.
However Kurzweil prefers the
more memorable term Strong AI. In his book The Singularity is Near he focuses on whole brain emulation using
conventional computing machines as an approach to implementing artificial brains, and claims (on grounds of
computer power continuing an exponential growth trend) that this could be done by 2025. Henry Markram, director
of the Blue Brain project (which is attempting brain emulation), made a similar claim (2020) at the Oxford TED
conference in 2009.
Approaches to brain simulation
Although direct brain emulation using artificial neural networks on a high-performance computing engine is a
common approach,
there are other approaches. An alternative artificial brain implementation could be based on
Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT)
non linear phase coherence/decoherence principles. The analogy has
been made to quantum processes through the core synaptic algorithm which has strong similarities to the QM wave
is a form of evolutionary software that can evolve "brainlike" neural networks, such as the network
immediately behind the retina.
Since November 2008, IBM received a $4.9 million grant from the Pentagon for research into creating intelligent
computers. The Blue Brain project is being conducted with the assistance of IBM in Lausanne
. The project is
based on the premise that it is possible to artificially link the neurons "in the computer" by placing thirty million
synapses in their proper three-dimensional position.
In March 2008, Blue Brain project was progressing faster than expected: "Consciousness is just a massive amount of
information being exchanged by trillions of brain cells
." Some proponents of strong AI speculate that computers
in connection with Blue Brain and Soul Catcher may exceed human intellectual capacity by around 2015, and that it
is likely that we will be able to download the human brain at some time around 2050
There are good reasons to believe that, regardless of implementation strategy, the predictions of realising artificial
brains in the near future are optimistic. In particular brains (including the human brain) and cognition are not
Artificial brain
currently well understood, and the scale of computation required is unknown. In addition there seem to be power
constraints. The brain consumes about 20W of power whereas supercomputers may use as much as 1MW or an order
of 100,000 more (note: Landauer limit is 3.5x10
op/sec/watt at room temperature).
Artificial brain thought experiment
Some critics of brain simulation
believe that it is simpler to create general intelligent action directly without
imitating nature. Some commentators
have used the analogy that early attempts to construct flying machines
modeled them after birds, but that modern aircraft do not look like birds. A computational argument is used in AI -
What is this
, where it is shown that, if we have a formal definition of general AI, the corresponding program can
be found by enumerating all possible programs and then testing each of them to see whether it matches the
definition. No appropriate definition currently exists.
In addition, there are ethical issues that should be resolved. The construction and sustenance of an artificial brain
raises moral questions, namely regarding personhood, freedom, and death. Does a "brain in a box" constitute a
person? What rights would such an entity have, under law or otherwise? Once activated, would human beings have
the obligation to continue its operation? Would the shutdown of an artificial brain constitute death, sleep,
unconsciousness, or some other state for which no human description exists? After all, an artificial brain is not
subject to post-mortem cellular decay (and associated loss of function) as human brains are, so an artificial brain
could, theoretically, resume functionality exactly as it was before it was shut down.
[1] Artificial brain '10 years away' 2009 BBC news (http:// news. bbc.co. uk/ 1/ hi/technology/ 8164060. stm)
[2] Kurzweil, Ray (2005), The Singularity is Near, Viking Press
[3] Aston University's news report about the project (http:// www1.aston. ac.uk/ about/news/ releases/ 2009/ march/
scientists-create-living-model-of-basic-units-of-human-brain/ )
[4] The critics:
• Searle, John (1980), "Minds, Brains and Programs" (http:// web.archive.org/web/ 20071210043312/ http:/ / members.aol. com/
NeoNoetics/ MindsBrainsPrograms. html), Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3): 417–457, doi:10.1017/S0140525X00005756, , retrieved
May 13, 2009
• Dreyfus, Hubert (1972), What Computers Can't Do, New York: MIT Press, ISBN 0-06-090613-8
• Penrose, Roger (1989), The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics, Oxford University Press,
ISBN 0-14-014534-6
Turing's (pre-emptive) response:
• Turing, Alan (October 1950), "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (http:/ / loebner. net/ Prizef/TuringArticle.html), Mind LIX
(236): 433–460, doi:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423, , retrieved 2008-08-18
Other sources that agree with Turing:
• Moravec, Hans (1988), Mind Children, Harvard University Press
• Kurzweil, Ray (2005), The Singularity is Near, New York: Viking Press, ISBN 0-670-03384-7.
[5] Voss, Peter (2006), Goertzel, Ben; Pennachin, Cassio, eds., Essentials of general intelligence Artificial General Intelligence (http:// www.
adaptiveai. com/ research/ index. htm#different_approach), Springer, ISBN 3-540-23733-X, Essentials of general intelligence
[6] see Artificial Intelligence System, CAM brain machine (http:// portal.acm.org/citation. cfm?id=591856) and cat brain for examples
[7] http:// www. andcorporation.com/
[8] Jung, Sung Young, "A Topographical Development Method of Neural Networks for Artificial Brain Evolution" (http:// mitpress. mit. edu/
catalog/ item/ default.asp?ttype=6& tid=18358), Artificial Life, The MIT Press, vol. 11, issue 3 - summer, 2005, pp. 293-316
[9] Blue Brain in BBC News (http:/ / newsvote. bbc. co. uk/ mpapps/ pagetools/ print/ news.bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/7740484.
[10] (English) Out of the blue (http:// seedmagazine. com/ content/ article/ out_of_the_blue/)
[11] (English) Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein, Me the media: rise of the conversation society, VINT reseach Institute of
Sogeti, 2009, p.273.
[12] Goertzel, Ben (Dec 2007). "Human-level artificial general intelligence and the possibility of a technological singularity: a reaction to Ray
Kurzweil's The Singularity Is Near, and McDermott's critique of Kurzweil" (http:// scholar.google.com/ scholar?hl=sv& lr=&
cluster=15189798216526465792). Artificial Intelligence 171 (18, Special Review Issue): 1161–1173. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2007.10.011. .
Retrieved 1 April 2009.
Artificial brain
[13] Fox and Hayes quoted in Nilsson, Nils (1998), Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis, p581 Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN
[14] http:/ / dobrev.com/ AI/ definition.html
External links
• Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT) (http:// www.andcorporation.com/ )
• http:/ / www. artificialbrains.com
• Lucidica and their Virtual Brain Project (http:// www.lucidica. com/ intelligence/ index. html)
• Kurzweil AI.net (http:/ / www. kurzweilai.net/ meme/ frame.html?m=3)
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Association for the Advancement of Artificial
Association for the Advancement of
Artificial Intelligence
Formation 1979
Headquarters Menlo Park, California
President Henry Kautz
Website http:// www.aaai.org/
The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence or AAAI is an international, nonprofit, scientific
society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent
behavior and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial
intelligence (AI), improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners
and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions.
The organization was founded in 1979 under the name "American Association for Artificial Intelligence" and
changed its name in 2007 to "Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence". It has in excess of 6,000
members worldwide. In its early history, the organization was presided over by notable figures in computer science
such as Allen Newell, Edward Feigenbaum, Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy. The previous president is Eric
Horvitz, the president is Henry Kautz, and the president elect is Manuela Veloso
The AAAI provides many services to the Artificial Intelligence community. The AAAI sponsors many conferences
and symposia each year as well as providing support to 14 journals in the field of artificial intelligence. The AAAI
also established the "AAAI Press" in association with the MIT Press in 1979 to produce books of relevance to
artificial intelligence research. Additionally, the AAAI produces a quarterly publication, AI Magazine, which is
written in such a way that it allows researchers to broaden the scope of their knowledge beyond their sub-fields. This
magazine was first published in 1980.
AAAI organises the "AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence",
which is considered to be one of the top
conferences in the field of artificial intelligence.

Every other year, AAAI works with other AI organizations
worldwide to put together the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI).
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
[1] "AAAI Officials" (http:// www.aaai. org/Organization/ officers.php). . Retrieved 2011-3-3.
[2] "AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence" (http:/ / www.aaai.org/Conferences/ AAAI/aaai.php). . Retrieved 2009-10-16.
[3] "2007 Australian Ranking of ICT Conferences" (http:/ / www.core.edu.au/ rankings/ Conference Ranking Main. html). . Retrieved
2009-10-16. Tier A+.
[4] "Top-ranked Conferences in "Artificial Intelligence"" (http:// libra.msra. cn/ CSDirectory/conf_category_5.htm). Microsoft Academic
Search. . Retrieved 2009-10-16. Rank 2.
External links
• AAAI.org (http:// www. aaai. org/), AAAI official website
Astrochicken is the name given to a thought experiment expounded by theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson. In his
book Disturbing the Universe (1979), Dyson contemplated how humanity could build a small, self-replicating
automaton that could explore space more efficiently than a manned craft could. He attributed the general idea to John
von Neumann, based on a lecture von Neumann gave in 1948 entitled The General and Logical Theory of Automata.
Dyson expanded on von Neumann's automata theories and added a biological component to them.
Astrochicken, Dyson explained, would be a one-kilogram spacecraft unlike any before it. It would be a creation of
the intersection of biology, artificial intelligence and modern microelectronics—a blend of organic and electronic
components. Astrochicken would be launched by a conventional spacecraft into space, like an egg being laid into
space. Astrochicken would then hatch and start growing a solar energy collector. The solar collector would feed an
ion drive engine that would power the craft. Once Astrochicken entered a planet's vicinity, it would collect material
from the moons and rings of the planet, taking in nutrients. It could land and take off using an auxiliary chemical
rocket similar to that used by bombardier beetles. It would periodically transmit details of its journey when it could
make radio contact with Earth.
The term "astrochicken" does not occur in Dyson's earliest essays regarding von Neumann-inspired automata. When
Dyson was giving a lecture in Adelaide, Australia on the subject of space exploration with biotechnology, an
audience member called out "Oh, you mean this is an astro-chicken." The whimsical name caught on, and Dyson
began to use it himself in subsequent essays he wrote on his theoretical biotechnology spacecraft.
Today, Dyson's Astrochicken resonates with several theories of how space exploration might proceed in the future.
Computer scientist Rodney Brooks has proposed sending a multitude of cheap, bug-like robots to explore Mars
instead of solitary, expensive rovers. Cheaper and smaller means of studying space have also been the primary
design philosophy of NASA for many years, perhaps best exemplified by the Mars Pathfinder mission. Physicist and
noted author Michio Kaku wrote in his work Hyperspace, "Small, lightweight, and intelligent, Astrochicken is a
versatile space probe that has a clear advantage over the bulky, exorbitantly expensive space missions of the past,
which have been a bottleneck to space exploration. ... It will not need huge quantities of rocket fuel; it will be bred
and programmed to 'eat' ice and hydrocarbons found in the rings surrounding the outer planets".
In recent years, Dyson has referred to Astrochicken as a "joke", though it is not quite certain what he means by this.
He went on to say "I think it's a sensible idea, but one shouldn't take it literally. We don’t have the science yet; we
don't have the technology. It would be a disaster if NASA tried to do this in the bureaucratic NASA style."
As a noted author of essays on the possibilities of science in the future, Dyson's theories, such as the Dyson sphere
and the Dyson tree, have become popular in the scientific and science fiction communities. The more whimsically
named "Astrochicken" has not achieved this same level of fame.
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
TOPIO, a robot with extensive sensing abilities, played ping pong at Tokyo International
Robot Exhibition (IREX) 2009.
Robotic sensing is a branch of
robotics science intended to give
robots sensing capabilities, so that
robots are more human-like. Robotic
sensing mainly gives robots the ability
to see


, touch


, hear

and move


and uses
algorithms that require environmental
The visual sensing system can be
based on anything from the traditional
camera, sonar, and laser to the new technology radio frequency identification (RFID)
, which transmits radio
signals to a tag on an object that emits back an identification code. All four methods aim for three
procedures—sensation, estimation, and matching.
Image processing
Image quality is important in applications that require excellent robotic vision. Algorithm based on wavelet
transform for fusing images of different spectra and different foci improves image quality
. Robots can gather
more accurate information from the resulting improved image.
Visual sensors help robots to identify the surrounding and take appropriate action
. Robots analyze the image of
the immediate environment imported from the visual sensor. The result is compared to the ideal intermediate or end
image, so that appropriate movement can be determined to reach the intermediate or final goal.
Signal processing
Touch sensory signals can be generated by the robot's own movements. It is important to identify only the external
tactile signals for accurate operations. Previous solutions employed the Wiener filter, which relies on the prior
knowledge of signal statistics that are assumed to be stationary. Recent solution applies an adaptive filter to the
robot’s logic
. It enables the robot to predict the resulting sensor signals of its internal motions, screening these
false signals out. The new method improves contact detection and reduces false interpretation.
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
Touch patterns enable robot to interprete human emotions in interactive applications. Four measurable
features—force, contact time, repetition, and contact area change—can effectively categorize touch patterns through
the temporal decision tree classifier to account for the time delay. and associate them to human emotions with up to
83% accuracy
. The Consistency Index
is applied at the end to evaluate the level of confidence of the system to
prevent inconsistent reactions.
Robots use touch signals to map the profile of a surface in hostile environment such as a water pipe. Traditionally, a
predetermined path was programmed into the robot. Currently, with the integration of touch sensors, the robots first
acquire a random data point, the algorithm
of the robot will then determine the ideal position of the next
measurement according to a set of predefined geometric primitives. This improves the efficiency by 42%
Signal processing
Accurate audio sensor requires low internal noise contribution. Traditionally, audio sensors combine acoustical
arrays and microphones to reduce internal noise level. Recent solutions combine also piezoelectric devices
. These
passive devices use the piezoelectric effect to transform force to voltage, so that the vibration that is causing the
internal noise could be eliminated. On average, internal noise up to about 7dB can be reduced
Robots may interpret strayed noise as speech instructions. Current voice activity detection (VAD) system uses the
complex spectrum circle centroid (CSCC) method and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamformer
Because humans usually look at their partners when conducting conversations, the VAD system with two
microphones enable the robot to locate the instructional speech by comparing the signal strengths of the two
microphones. Current system is able to cope with background noise generated by televisions and sounding devices
that come from the sides.
Robots can perceive our emotion through the way we talk. Acoustic and linguistic features are generally used to
characterize emotions. The combination of seven acoustic features and four linguistic features improves the
recognition performance when compared to using only one set of features
Acoustic feature
• Duration
• Energy
• Pitch
• Spectrum
• Cepstral
• Voice quality
• Wavelets
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
Linguistic feature
• Bag of words
• Part-of-speech
• Higher semantics
• Varia
Automated robots require a guidance system to determine the ideal path to perform its task. However, in the
molecular scale, nano-robots lack such guidance system because individual molecules cannot store complex motions
and programs. Therefore, the only way to achieve motion in such environment is to replace sensors with chemical
reactions. Currently, a molecular spider that has one streptavidin molecule as an inert body and three catalytic legs is
able to start, follow, turn and stop when came across different DNA origami
. The DNA-based nano-robots can
move over 100nm with a speed of 3nm/min
In a TSI operation, which is an effective way to identify tumors and potentially cancer by measuring the distributed
pressure at the sensor’s contacting surface, excessive force may inflict a damage and have the chance of destroying
the tissue. The application of robotic control to determine the ideal path of operation can reduce the maximum forces
by 35% and gain a 50% increase in accuracy
compared to human doctors.
Efficient robotic exploration saves time and resources. The efficiency is measured by optimality and
competitiveness. Optimal boundary exploration is possible only when a robot has square sensing area, starts at the
boundary, and uses the Manhattan metric
. In complicated geometries and settings, a square sensing area is more
efficient and can achieve better competitiveness regardless of the metric and of the starting point
[1] "A Ping-Pong-Playing Terminator" (http:// www. popsci. com/ technhttp:/ / en. wikipedia. org/wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Train2104ology/
article/ 2010-02/ping-pong-playing-terminator). Popular Science. .
[2] Roh SG, Choi HR (Jan 2009). "3-D Tag-Based RFID System for Recognition of Object." IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and
Engineering 6 (1): 55–65.
[3] Arivazhagan S, Ganesan L, Kumar TGS (Jun 2009). "A modified statistical approach for image fusion using wavelet transform." Signal
Image and Video Processing 3 (2): 137-144.
[4] Jafar FA, et al (Mar 2011). "An Environmental Visual Features Based Navigation Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots." International
Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control 7 (3): 1341-1355.
[5] Anderson S, et al (Dec 2010). "Adaptive Cancelation of Self-Generated Sensory Signals in a Whisking Robot." IEEE Transactions on
Robotics 26 (6): 1065-1076.
[6] Kim YM, et al (Aug 2010)."A Robust Online Touch Pattern Recognition for Dynamic Human-robot Interaction." IEEE Transactions on
Consumer Electronics 56 (3): 1979-1987.
[7] Mazzini F, et al (Feb 2011). "Tactile Robotic Mapping of Unknown Surfaces, with Application to Oil Wells." IEEE Transactions on
Instrumentation and Measurement 60 (2): 420-429.
[8] Matsumoto M, Hashimoto S (2010). "Internal Noise Reduction Using Piezoelectric Device under Blind Condition." International Journal of
Robotics and Automation 25 (3): 204-209.
[9] Kim HD, et al (2009). "Target Speech Detection and Separation for Communication with Humanoid Robots in Noisy Home Environments."
Advanced Robotics 23 (15): 2093-2111.
[10] Batliner A, et al (Jan 2011). "Searching for the most important feature types signalling emotion-related user states in speech." Computer
Speech and Language 25 (1): 4-28.
[11] Lund K, et al (May 2010). "Molecular robots guided by prescriptive landscapes." Nature 465 (7295): 206-210.
[12] Trejos AL, et al (Sep 2009). "Robot-assisted Tactile Sensing for Minimally Invasive Tumor Localization." International Journal of Robotics
Research 28 (9): 1118-1133.
User:Atonfyk/Robotic sensing
[13] Czyzowicz J, Labourel A, Pelc A (Jan 2011). "Optimality and Competitiveness of Exploring Polygons by Mobile Robots." Information and
Computation 209 (1): 74-88.
Automated planning and scheduling
Automated planning and scheduling is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realization of strategies
or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles. Unlike
classical control and classification problems, the solutions are complex and must be discovered and optimized in
multidimensional space.
In known environments with available models, planning can be done offline. Solutions can be found and evaluated
prior to execution. In dynamically unknown environments, the strategy often needs to be revised online. Models and
policies must be adapted. Solutions usually resort to iterative trial and error processes commonly seen in artificial
intelligence. These include dynamic programming, reinforcement learning and combinatorial optimization.
A typical planner takes three inputs: a description of the initial state of the world, a description of the desired goal,
and a set of possible actions, all encoded in a formal language such as STRIPS or PDDL. The planner produces a
sequence of actions that lead from the initial state to a state meeting the goal. An alternative language for describing
planning problems is that of hierarchical task networks, in which a set of tasks is given, and each task can be either
realized by a primitive action or decomposed into a set of other tasks.
The difficulty of planning is dependent on the simplifying assumptions employed, such as atomic time, deterministic
time, and complete observability. Classical planners, which make all of these assumptions, have been studied most
fully. Some popular techniques include forward chaining and backward chaining state space search, possibly
enhanced by the use of relationships among conditions (see graphplan) or heuristics synthesized from the problem,
search through plan space, and translation to propositional satisfiability (satplan).
Dropping the assumption of determinism and adopting a probabilistic model of uncertainty leads to the problem of
policy generation for a Markov decision process (MDP) or (in the general case) partially observable Markov
decision process (POMDP).
Preference-based planning
In preference-based planning, the objective is not only to produce a plan but also to satisfy user-specified
Conditional Planning
Conditional planning operates on an IF (condition) THEN (action) ELSE (action) model. The branching model does
not have to be binary. Conditional planners examine the current model and then determine the action to take based
on that. This process allows the planning algorithm to examine all possible contingencies and then perform the best
action possible given the current status. Conditional planning is, however, limited in that if the number of conditions
is sufficiently large the problem can quickly become intractable. In addition, conditional planners are limited in that
they can only act upon the specifically enumerated conditions.
Automated planning and scheduling
Continuous Planning
Continuous planning operates by performing some number of actions, examining the current status of the world, and
then re-evaluating it's goals. Continuous planners are allowed to revise their goals in order to satisfy current needs in
the process of reaching their ultimate goal. For instance, a continuous planning algorithm may decide that in order to
reach its goal, it must first plan for the completion of a sub-goal. This planning process allows continuous planners to
operate autonomously as they are built on an open-world assumption.
• The Hubble Space Telescope uses a short-term system called SPSS
and a long-term planning system called
External links
• International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling
• Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach
(2nd ed.), Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, pp. 375–459, ISBN 0-13-790395-2
• Ghallab, Malik; Nau, Dana S.; Traverso, Paolo (2004), Automated Planning: Theory and Practice
, Morgan
Kaufmann, ISBN 1-55860-856-7
[1] http:/ / www. pst. stsci. edu/ spss/ doc/ spss-abs. html
[2] http:// www. stsci. edu/ resources/ software_hardware/spike/
[3] http:/ / www. icaps-conference.org/
[4] http:/ / aima.cs. berkeley.edu/
[5] http:// www. laas. fr/planning/
Automatic painting (robotic)
Automatic painting (robotic)
Automatic painting is also used to describe painting using a machine or robot.
Industrial robots have been used for decades in automotive applications, including painting, from the first hydraulic
versions, which are still in use today but cannot match the quality or safety of the electric robots, to the latest electric
offerings from the robot Original Equipment Manufacturers. The newest robots are more accurate and deliver better
results with uniform film builds and precise thicknesses.
Originally, industrial paint robots were big and expensive, but today the price of the robots, new and used, have
come down to the point that general industry can now afford to have the same level of automation that only the big
automotive manufacturers could only once afford.
The selection of today’s paint robots is much greater; they vary in size and payload to allow many configurations for
painting big items like Boeing 747s and small items like door handles. The prices vary as well, as the new robot
market becomes more competitive and the used robot market continues to expand. It is possible to purchase a good
used paint robot for as little as $25K.
Painting robots are generally equipped with five to six degrees of freedom, three for the base motions and up to three
for applicator orientation. These robots can be used in any explosion hazard Class 1 Division 1 environment.
The Digesting Duck by Jacques de Vaucanson,
hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating
machine. The word is sometimes used to describe a robot, more
specifically an autonomous robot. An alternative spelling, now
obsolete, is automation.
The word Automaton is the latinization of the Greek αὐτόματον,...
automaton, (neuter) “acting of one’s own will”. It is more often used to
describe non-electronic moving machines, especially those that have
been made to resemble human or animal actions, such as the jacks on
old public striking clocks, or the cuckoo and any other animated
figures on a cuckoo clock.
Ancient automata
The automata in the Hellenistic world were intended as toys, religious idols, or tools for demonstrating basic
scientific principles, including those built by Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (sometimes known as Heron).
When his writings on hydraulics, pneumatics, and mechanics were translated into Latin in the sixteenth century,
Hero’s readers initiated reconstruction of his machines, which included siphons, a fire engine, a water organ, the
aeolipile, and a programmable cart.

Complex mechanical devices are known to have existed in ancient Greece, though the only surviving example is the
Antikythera mechanism. It is thought to have come originally from Rhodes, where there was apparently a tradition of
mechanical engineering; The island was renowned for its automata; to quote Pindar's seventh Olympic Ode:
The animated figures stand
Adorning every public street
And seem to breathe in stone, or
move their marble feet.
However, the information gleaned from recent scans of the fragments indicate that it may have come from the
colonies of Corinth in Sicily and implies a connection with Archimedes.
There are also examples from myth: Daedalus used quicksilver to install a voice in his statues. Hephaestus created
automata for his workshop: Talos, an artificial man of bronze, and, according to Hesiod, the woman Pandora.
According to Jewish tradition, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed
him as king when he ascended it; upon sitting down an eagle would place a crown upon his head, and a dove would
bring him a Torah scroll.
In ancient China, a curious account on automata is found in the Lie Zi text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it
there is a description of a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023-957 BC) and a mechanical
engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure
of his mechanical handiwork (Wade-Giles spelling):
The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down,
so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The artificer touched its chin, and it began
singing, perfectly in tune. He touched its hand, and it began posturing, keeping perfect time...As the
performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in
attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih [Yan Shi] executed on
the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it really
was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue and lacquer, variously
coloured white, black, red and blue. Examining it closely, the king found all the internal organs
complete—liver, gall, heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys, stomach and intestines; and over these again,
muscles, bones and limbs with their joints, skin, teeth and hair, all of them artificial...The king tried the
effect of taking away the heart, and found that the mouth could no longer speak; he took away the liver
and the eyes could no longer see; he took away the kidneys and the legs lost their power of locomotion.
The king was delighted.
Other notable examples of automata include Archytas's dove, mentioned by Aulus Gellius.
Similar Chinese
accounts of flying automata are written of the 5th century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his contemporary Lu
Ban, who made artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly according to the Han Fei Zi and other
Medieval automata
In the mid-8th century, the first wind powered automata were built: "statues that turned with the wind over the
domes of the four gates and the palace complex of the Round City of Baghdad". The "public spectacle of
wind-powered statues had its private counterpart in the 'Abbasid palaces where automata of various types were
predominantly displayed."
Also in the 8th century, the Muslim alchemist, Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), included
recipes for constructing artificial snakes, scorpions, and humans which would be subject to their creator's control in
his coded Book of Stones. In 827, Caliph Al-Ma'mun had a silver and golden tree in his palace in Baghdad, which
had the features of an automatic machine. There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches
of this tree built by Muslim inventors and engineers at the time.
The Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir also had a
golden tree in his palace in Baghdad in 915, with birds on it flapping their wings and singing.
In the 9th century,
the Banū Mūsā brothers invented a programmable automatic flute player and which they described in their Book of
Ingenious Devices.
Automaton in the Swiss Museum CIMA
Al-Jazari described complex programmable humanoid automata
amongst other machines he designed and constructed in the “Book of
Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices” in 1206.
automaton was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a
lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a
programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little
levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play
different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved
According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a
"robot band" which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions
during each musical selection."
Al-Jazari also constructed a hand washing automaton first employing
the flush mechanism now used in modern flush toilets. It features a
female automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user
pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the
His "peacock fountain" was another more sophisticated hand
washing device featuring humanoid automata as servants which offer
soap and towels. Mark E. Rosheim describes it as follows: "Pulling a
plug on the peacock's tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float
rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer
soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant
figure — with a towel!"
Al-Jazari thus appears to have been the first inventor to display an interest in creating
human-like machines for practical purposes such as manipulating the environment for human comfort.
Villard de Honnecourt, in his 1230s sketchbook, show plans for animal automata and an angel that perpetually turns
to face the sun.
The Chinese author Xiao Xun wrote that when the Ming Dynasty founder Hongwu (r. 1368–1398) was destroying
the palaces of Khanbaliq belonging to the previous Yuan Dynasty, there were—amongst many other mechanical
devices—automatons found that were in the shape of tigers.
Renaissance and Early Modern automata
The Renaissance witnessed a considerable revival of interest in automata. Hero's treatises were edited and translated
into Latin and Italian. Giovanni Fontana created mechanical devils and rocket-propelled animal automataons.
Numerous clockwork automata were manufactured in the 16th century, principally by the goldsmiths of the Free
Imperial Cities of central Europe. These wondrous devices found a home in the cabinet of curiosities or
Wunderkammern of the princely courts of Europe. Hydraulic and pneumatic automata, similar to those described by
Hero, were created for garden grottoes.
Leonardo da Vinci sketched a more complex automaton around the year 1495. The design of Leonardo's robot was
not rediscovered until the 1950s. The robot, which appears in Leonardo's sketches, could, if built successfully, move
its arms, twist its head, and sit up.
The Smithsonian Institution has in its collection a clockwork monk, about 15 in (380 mm) high, possibly dating as
early as 1560. The monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his
right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand, turning and nodding his head,
rolling his eyes, and mouthing silent obsequies. From time to time, he brings the cross to his lips and kisses it. It is
believed that the monk was manufactured by Juanelo Turriano, mechanician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles
A new attitude towards automata is to be found in Descartes when he suggested that the bodies of animals are
nothing more than complex machines - the bones, muscles and organs could be replaced with cogs, pistons and
cams. Thus mechanism became the standard to which Nature and the organism was compared. France in the 17th
century was the birthplace of those ingenious mechanical toys that were to become prototypes for the engines of the
Industrial Revolution. Thus, in 1649, when Louis XIV was still a child, an artisan named Camus designed for him a
miniature coach, and horses complete with footmen, page and a lady within the coach; all these figures exhibited a
perfect movement. According to P. Labat, General de Gennes constructed, in 1688, in addition to machines for
gunnery and navigation, a peacock that walked and ate. The Jesuit Athanasius Kircher produced many automatons to
create Jesuit shows, including a statue which spoke and listened via a speaking tube.
Tea-serving Japanese automaton, "karakuri
ningyō", with mechanism (right), 19th century.
The world's first successfully-built biomechanical automaton is
considered to be The Flute Player, invented by the French engineer
Jacques de Vaucanson in 1737. He also constructed the Digesting
Duck, a mechanical duck that gave the false illusion of eating and
defecating, seeming to endorse Cartesian ideas that animals are no
more than machines of flesh.
In 1769, a chess-playing machine called the Turk, created by Wolfgang
von Kempelen, made the rounds of the courts of Europe purporting to
be an automaton. The Turk was operated from inside by a hidden
human director, and was not a true automaton.
Other 18th century automaton makers include the prolific Frenchman
Pierre Jaquet-Droz (see Jaquet-Droz automata) and his contemporary
Henri Maillardet. Maillardet, a Swiss mechanician, created an
automaton capable of drawing four pictures and writing three poems. Maillardet's Automaton is now part of the
collections at the Franklin Institute Science Museum in Philadelphia. Belgian-born John Joseph Merlin created the
mechanism of the Silver Swan automaton, now at Bowes Museum.
According to philosopher Michel Foucault, Frederick the Great, king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, was "obsessed"
with automata.
According to Manuel de Landa, "he put together his armies as a well-oiled clockwork mechanism
whose components were robot-like warriors."
Japan adopted automata during the Edo period (1603–1867); they were known as karakuri ningyō.
Modern automata
The famous magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin (1805–1871) was known for creating automata for his stage
The period 1860 to 1910 is known as "The Golden Age of Automata". During this period many small family based
companies of Automata makers thrived in Paris. From their workshops they exported thousands of clockwork
automata and mechanical singing birds around the world. It is these French automata that are collected today,
although now rare and expensive they attract collectors worldwide. The main French makers were Vichy, Roullet &
Decamps, Lambert, Phalibois, Renou and Bontems.
Contemporary automata continue this tradition with an emphasis on art, rather than technological sophistication.
Contemporary automata are represented by the works of Cabaret Mechanical Theatre in the United Kingdom, Dug
North and Chomick+Meder,
Thomas Kuntz,
Arthur Ganson, Joe Jones in the United States, and Le Défenseur
du Temps by French artist Jacques Monestier.
An evolution of the mechanized toys developed during the 18th and 19th centuries is represented by automata made
with paper. Despite the relative simplicity of the material, paper automata intrinsically are objects with a high degree
of technology, where the principles of mechanics meet the artistic creativity.
• Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. England: Cambridge University Press.
• From music boxes to street organs R.DEWAARD 1967
• ENCYCLOPEDIA of Automatic Musical Instruments Q.David Bowers 1972
• Silver Anniversary Collection MUSICAL BOX SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL 1974
• The Marvelous World of Music Machines Heinrich Weiss-Stauffache r 1976
• ANDROIDS The Jaquet-Droz automaton F.M. Ricci 1979
• Musical Box W.J.G.ORD-HUME 1980
• The Musical Box Handbook Cylinder Boxes Graham Webb 1984
• Von der Aolsharfe zum Digitalspieler Jan _Brauers 1984
• Clock and watch museum Geneva 1990 Musee d’art et d’histoire
• Museums of Horology La Chaux-de-Fonds Le Locle Francois Mercier 1991
• All’epoca dell Scatole musicali
• AUTOMATES ET MUSIQUES Pendules Anne Winter-Jensen M.E.L.D.L. Geneve 1987
• L'Oregue de Barbarie Helmut Zeraschi Payot Lausanne 1980
• Faszinierende Welt der Automaten Annette Beyer Callwey Verlag Munchen 1983
• Automaten Christian Bailly Hirmer
• Automata: The Golden Age 1848-1914 Christian Bailly ISBN 0709074034
[1] "U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Patent# 40891, Toy Automation" (http:// www.google.com/ patents?id=QhIAAAAAEBAJ&
dq=patent:40891|). Google Patents. . Retrieved 2007-01-07.
[2] Noel Sharkey (July 4, 2007), A programmable robot from 60 AD (http:// www.newscientist. com/ blog/ technology/ 2007/ 07/
programmable-robot-from-60ad.html), 2611, New Scientist,
[3] Brett, Gerard (1954-07), "The Automata in the Byzantine "Throne of Solomon"", Speculum 29 (3): 477–487, doi:10.2307/2846790,
ISSN 00387134, JSTOR 2846790.
[4] Needham, Volume 2, 53.
[5] Noct. Att. L. 10
[6] Needham, Volume 2, 54.
[7] Meri, Josef W. (2005), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, 2, Routledge, p. 711, ISBN 0415966906
[8] Ismail b. Ali Ebu'l Feda history, Weltgeschichte, hrsg. von Fleischer and Reiske 1789-94, 1831.
[9] A. Marigny (1760). Histoire de Arabes. Paris, Bd. 3, S.206.
[10] Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine
theory 36, p. 590-591.
[11] Al-Jazari - the Mechanical Genius (http:// muslimheritage. com/ topics/ default.cfm?ArticleID=188), MuslimHeritage.com
[12] A 13th Century Programmable Robot (http:// www. shef. ac. uk/ marcoms/ eview/ articles58/ robot.html), University of Sheffield
[13] Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967), "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments", Music Educators Journal (MENC_ The
National Association for Music Education) 54 (2): 45–49, doi:10.2307/3391092, JSTOR 3391092
[14] Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, pp. 9–10, ISBN 0471026220 also at Google
Books (http:// books. google. se/ books?id=IxtL54iiDPUC&lpg=PP1& ots=3QqGkatkH9& dq=Rosheim, Mark E.(1994), Robot Evolution:
The Development of Anthrobotics&hl=en& pg=PA9#v=onepage&q& f=false)
[15] Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, p. 9, ISBN 0471026220 also at Google Books
(http:/ / books. google. se/ books?id=IxtL54iiDPUC&lpg=PP1& ots=3QqGkatkH9& dq=Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The
Development of Anthrobotics&hl=en& pg=PA9#v=onepage&q& f=false)
[16] Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, p. 36, ISBN 0471026220
[17] Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 133 & 508.
[18] King, Elizabeth. "Clockwork Prayer: A Sixteenth-Century Mechanical Monk" Blackbird 1.1 (2002) (http:// www. blackbird.vcu.edu/
v1n1/nonfiction/king_e/ prayer_introduction.htm)
[19] Bowes Museum: History of the Silver Swan (http:/ / www.thebowesmuseum. org.uk/ collections/ swan)
[20] See Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish, New York, Vintage Books, 1979, p.136: "The classical age discovered the body as object and
target of power... The great book of Man-the-Machine was written simultaneously on two registers: the anatomico-metaphysical register, of
which Descartes wrote the first pages and which the physicians and philosophers continued, and the technico-political register, which was
constituted by a whole set of regulations and by empirical and calculated methods relating to the army, the school and the hospital, for
controlling or correcting the operations of the body. These two registers are quite distinct, since it was a question, on one hand, of submission
and use and, on the other, of functioning and explanation: there was a useful body and an intelligible body... The celebrated automata [of the
18th century] were not only a way of illustrating an organism, they were also political puppets, small-scale models of power: Frederick, the
meticulous king of small machines, well-trained regiments and long exercises, was obsessed with them."
[21] Chomick+Meder (http:/ / www.chomickmeder.com)
[22] Artomic Automata (http:/ / www.artomic.com/ gallery/ automata/ automata. html)
External links
• The Automata and Art Bots mailing list home page (http:/ / homepage. ntlworld.com/ kinetic-arts/ sculpture/
automata. htm)
• History (http:// automata. co. uk/ History page.htm)
• AutomatomaniA - The largest online gallery of automata (http:// www.automatomania. com)
• Maillardet's Automaton (http:/ / www. fi.edu/ pieces/ knox/ automaton/ index. html)
• Japanese Karakuri (http:/ / www. karakuri.info/)
• Another Antique Automatas (http:/ / www. lovelyfineantiques. com/ )
• J. Douglas Bruce, 'Human Automata in Classical Tradition and Mediaeval Romance', Modern Philology, Vol. 10,
No. 4 (Apr., 1913), pp. 511-526 (http:// links. jstor. org/sici?sici=0026-8232(191304)10:4<511:HAICTA>2.0.
• M. B. Ogle, 'The Perilous Bridge and Human Automata', Modern Language Notes, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Mar., 1920),
pp. 129-136 (http:/ / links. jstor.org/sici?sici=0149-6611(192003)35:3<129:TPBAHA>2.0. CO;2-#)
• conservation of automata (http:/ / www. cite-automate.fr)
Autonomous research robot
Autonomous research robot
The Denning Mobile Robot company of Boston was the first to offer ready-made autonomous robots, which were
purchased primarily by researchers. Grinnell More's Real World Interface, Inc. (RWI) and James Slater's Nomadic
Technologies in the US and Francesco Mondada's K-Team in Switzerland were also among the pioneers to address
the need for ready-made robots for robotics researchers with the B-21 from RWI, XR4000 from Nomadic and tiny
Khepera mobile robot from K-Team; however, prices meant that only a few graduate students and military
researchers could afford them. The low-cost Pioneer robot was introduced by a collaboration between RWI and
ActivMedia Robotics in 1995, making robots available to many and opening the floodgates to new research in
mobile robotics.
By 1999, the Denning company was defunct. In 1998, RWI joined with ISRobotics to form the iRobot corporation.
There Grinnell More introduced the PackBot remote control robot, veering away from autonomous development and
research robots to pursue military venues. Nomadic Technologies also left the field. MobileRobots Inc and K-Team
continued to build on autonomy and provide for the research community.
In 2003 the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contracted with Segway to convert fifteen
Segway PTs into Segway Robotic Mobility Platforms. Segway developed the platform to serve as a reliable,
cost-effective tool for research institutions and delivered the units to DARPA in April. In June 2003 DARPA worked
with SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego to distribute the units to 14 government and university research
institutions to use in robotic research projects.
Autonomous navigation techniques
An ActivMedia Pioneer 3-AT robot at the
Georgia Institute of Technology
Research robots made great strides in autonomous indoor navigation
between the 1990s and the 2000s. Currently, a number of ready-made
research bases have the sensing, mobility, and computational power
necessary for such autonomy: The Pioneer, PatrolBot, PowerBot and
PeopleBot platforms can map buildings and navigate out-of-the box,
using SLAM and a variation on Monte Carlo method/Markov
localization and modified value-iterated search navigation techniques,
with any sensor of the 2-D range-finder class. This method creates a
human readable map of the robot's workspace that can be used to
control and track robots of this type as they move. Evolution Robotics
offers single-camera VSLAM software, which replaces range-finding
with visual pattern-matching, but this system cannot create a human
readable map with which to monitor robots' position. Other groups are building stereocam-based VSLAM. Because
the stereocam provides range-finding data using the disparity between the lenses, maps can be made and robots
tracked. The K-Team Khepera, Segway-based platforms and other research robots can link to external computing
resources to use such software.
The precision of any of these methods depends upon the precision of the sensor, the granularity of data tracked and
the speed of calculation. Range-finding lasers may have +/-1 cm accuracy while digital stereocamera accuracy is
limited to a quarter pixel and thus is highly range-dependent. Vision-based systems require more computational
resources than simple range-finding systems such as lasers, but may do the computation on a digital signal processor
embedded with the camera. Because of cost and precision trade-offs, less expensive vision-based systems tend to be
used on consumer robots while commercial and industrial robots and automated guided vehicles (AGVs) tend to use
laser-based systems.
Autonomous research robot
Outdoors, localization is primarily handled with GPS, however, satellite signals can frequently be lost due to
weather, trees, buildings or other obstructions. When the signal is lost, the robot typically navigates using dead
reckoning and inertial motion tracking. Dead reckoning relies on relative wheel motion and is highly subject to
cumulative slippage errors. Inertial motion tracking uses rate gyroscopes and accelerometers to determine actual
motion of the platform. The accuracy of inertial motion tracking depends upon the quality and calibration of the
sensors employed. The Segway RMP 400 and Seekur robots are two of the few research platforms designed for such
research; most other outdoor research robots are jerry-rigged by researchers from existing vehicles.
In constrained areas, some robots, such as the John Deere Gator, simply surround the perimeter with radio beacons
and use simple triangulation from three or more beacons to localize and navigate. Beacons are also used indoors by
older AGVs in factories.
Autonomous Solutions is a leader in the field of outdoor navigation software; their system is used by John Deere
tractors and by some military platforms.
Programming research robots
Much research software for autonomous robots is Free Software or Open Source Software, including Carmen from
Carnegie Mellon, Player/Stage/Gazebo from the University of Southern California and the ARIA API libraries
from MobileRobots, Inc. There is also commercial software: Webots has been continuously developed since 1998
and is currently used by more than 500 universities. It runs on Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. More recently, in
June 2006, Microsoft Research began offering free beta-test copies of a Robotics Studio software development kit
with Pioneer robots in simulation for Windows XP in an attempt to counter Linux dominance onboard mobile robot
platforms. An older platform: URBI with a Free Software SDK is used in many universities. The plethora of
autonomous mobile robots and software available for researchers has greatly sped the pace of development in the
robotics field.
[1] http:/ / www. segway. com/ downloads/ pdfs/ Segway-Company-Milestones. pdf
[2] http:// robots. mobilerobots. com
Autonomous weapon
Autonomous weapon
Autonomous weapons are weapons capable of accomplishing a mission with limited or no human intervention.
These systems are capable of self-propulsion, independent processing of the environment, and independent response
to the environment.
Autonomous weapons range from semi-autonomous to fully autonomous depending on the degree of involvement by
a man-in-the-loop. In addition, they vary in lethality. Some autonomous weapons operate fully autonomously in a
non-lethal manner, such as surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. These systems do not possess the capability to
engage targets without the consent or control of a man-in-the- loop. Future AW designs will be able to operate and
lethally engage targets autonomously without a MITL. Examples include the U.S. Navy's Unmanned Underwater
Vehicle's capability of autonomous underwater de-mining; the U.S. Air Force's Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle
and Autonomous Wide Area Search Munition; the U.S. Army's Future Combat System; and the U.S. Marine Corps'
Gladiator Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle.
[1] Guetlein, Michael A., Lethal Autonomous Weapons—Ethical and Doctrinal Implications (http:/ / www.dtic. mil/ cgi-bin/
GetTRDoc?AD=ADA464896&Locat), Joint Military Operations Department, Naval War College, 2005.
Bang-bang robot
Bang-bang robot is a robot in which motions are controlled by driving each axis or degree of freedom against a
mechanical limit stop. Also known as a pick and place robot.
Baseball robot
Baseball robot
A baseball batting robot is a robot that can hit a pitched ball, like a human baseball player would.
Several engineers have independently attempted to build one.
• Frank Barnes alias Robocross has built a robot called The Headless Batter which can hit balls pitched at high
speeds by a baseball pitching machine [1]. This semi-android robot performs the same actions - hips swivel, the
shoulders drop and the arms extend - as a human batter.
• Hiroshima University associate professor Idaku Ishii has developed a robot able to hit a pitch coming at speeds up
to 300 kilometers per hour [2].
• Researchers Masatoshi Ishikawa and colleagues at Tokyo University have developed a baseball batting robot that
works for balls thrown to it at slower speeds, but with much greater accuracy. It can bat the balls into a basket at a
desired location [3].
External links
• Video of The Headless Batter on Gizmodo
• Engadget article on Ishii batting robot
• New Scientist article on Ishikawa batting robot
[1] http:/ / absolut. gizmodo. com/ gadgets/ robots/ baseballplaying-robot-refuses-to-be-walked-221296.php
[2] http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2005/ 06/ 06/ japanese-baseball-robot-can-hit-a-300km-h-pitch-whut
[3] http:/ / www. newscientisttech. com/ article/ dn10775-top-tech-movies-baseball-bots-and-more.html
Beer Launching Fridge
Beer Launching Fridge
The Beer Launching Fridge is a modified mini-fridge that catapults beer to the desired drinker by use of a keyless
remote system. It has been featured on the Late Show with David Letterman, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, and The
Colbert Report.
The Beer Launching Fridge was a device created by John W. Cornwell, an electrical engineer who recently
graduated from the Duke University Pratt School of Engineering in 2006. After video of the device was released to
the public in February 2007, the Launcher and its creator became an overnight internet celebrity. The video was
featured on Metacafe and briefly on YouTube before it was taken down at the request of Cornwell for violation of
his copyright.
This video clip participates in Metacafe Producer Reward program and has generated over $9,400 for Cornwell.
The device works by loading a beer from the refrigerator to an elevator leading outside of the fridge. From there, the
beer is loaded to a catapult. The prototype device is controlled by a remote keyless control which can determine and
lock the speed, launch angle, and direction just by the press of a button. Then the catapult launches the beer to the
target user on command.
John Cornwell demonstrated his device on the Late Show with David Letterman and The Ellen DeGeneres Show.
The beer launching fridge was also covered on several major web sites including Metacafe
and Digg
as well as The Colbert Report in March 2007.
John Cornwell
[1] http:/ / www. metacafe. com/ tags/ beer_launching_fridge/
[2] http:/ / slashdot. org/ article.pl?sid=07/ 03/ 08/ 1939220
[3] http:/ / digg.com/ gadgets/ Beer_launching_fridge
[4] http:// www. duke. edu/ ~jwc13/
Behavior-based robotics
Behavior-based robotics
Behavior-based robotics or behavioral robotics is the branch of robotics that incorporates modular or behavior
based AI (BBAI).
How they work
Most behavior-based systems are also reactive, which means they use relatively little internal variable state to model
the environment. For instance, there is no programming in the robot of what a chair looks like, or what kind of
surface the robot is moving on - all the information is gleaned from the input of the robot's sensors. The robot uses
that information to react to the changes in its environment.
Behavior-based robots (BBR) usually show more biological-appearing actions than their computing-intensive
counterparts, which are very deliberate in their actions. A BBR often makes mistakes, repeats actions, and appears
confused, but can also show the anthropomorphic quality of tenacity. Comparisons between BBRs and insects are
frequent because of these actions. BBRs are sometimes considered examples of Weak artificial intelligence, although
some have claimed they are models of all intelligence (Brooks 1991).
The school of behavior-based robots owes much to work undertaken in the 1980s at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology by Professor Rodney Brooks, who with students and colleagues built a series of wheeled and legged
robots utilising the subsumption architecture. Brooks' papers, often written with lighthearted titles such as "Planning
is just a way of avoiding figuring out what to do next", the anthropomorphic qualities of his robots, and the relatively
low cost of developing such robots, popularized the behavior-based approach.
Brooks' work builds - whether by accident or not - on two prior milestones in the behavior-based approach. In the
1950s, W. Grey Walter, an English scientist with a background in neurological research, built a pair of vacuum
tube-based robots that were exhibited at the 1951 Festival of Britain, and which have simple but effective
behavior-based control systems.
The second milestone is Valentino Braitenberg's 1984 book, "Vehicles - Experiments in Synthetic Psychology" (MIT
Press). He describes a series of thought experiments demonstrating how simply wired sensor/motor connections can
result in some complex-appearing behaviors such as fear and love.
Later work in BBR is from the BEAM robotics community, which has built upon the work of Mark Tilden. Tilden
was inspired by the reduction in the computational power needed for walking mechanisms from Brooks' experiments
(which used one microcontroller for each leg), and further reduced the computational requirements to that of logic
chips, transistor-based electronics, and analog circuit design.
A different direction of development includes extensions of behavior-based robotics to multi-robot teams.


The focus in this work is on developing simple generic mechanisms that result in coordinated group behavior, either
implicitly or explicitly.
leJOS, a substitute firmware and additional library for programming Lego Mindstorms, provides Java classes that
support behavior based robotics.
Behavior-based robotics
[1] Parker, L. E. On the design of behavior-based multi-robot teams, Advanced Robotics, 1996.
[2] Kaminka G. A. and Frenkel, I. Flexible Teamwork in Behavior-Based Robots (http:// www.cs. biu.ac. il/ ~galk/ Publications/
b2hd-aaai05bite.html). In Proceedings of the Twentieth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-05) , 2005.
[3] Kaminka G. A. and Frenkel, I. Integration of Coordination Mechanisms in the BITE Multi-Robot Architecture (http:// www.cs. biu.ac. il/
~galk/Publications/ b2hd-icra07bite.html). In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA-07), 2007.
• Brooks, Rodney A. (1991) "Intelligence Without Representation", Artificial Intelligence 47:139-159.
• Jones, Joseph L. (2004) "Robot Programming: A practical guide to Behavior-Based Robotics", ISBN
External links
• Behavior based robotics (http:/ / www. inl.gov/ adaptiverobotics/ behaviorbasedrobotics/ ), Idaho National
• Behaviour Based Robotics & Deliberative Robotics (http:/ / www.tamie. org/bbr.html), Tamie Salters
• Skilligent Robot Learning and Behavior Coordination System (commercial product) (http:// www.skilligent.
com/ )
• TAO (Think As One)-- Behavior Based Architecture for multi (and single) robots (commercial product) (http://
www. cogniteam. com/ )
• Behavior for BEAM robots (on the BEAM Wiki) (http:// www.beam-wiki.org/wiki/ index.
Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton
The Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) is a robotic device that attaches to the lower body. Its
purpose is to complement the pilot's strength by adding extra force to one's lower extremity bodily movements. The
BLEEX was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and developed by the Berkeley
Robotics and Human Engineering Laboratory, a unit within the University of California, Berkeley Department of
Mechanical Engineering. DARPA provided the intitial $50 million of start-up funds in 2001.
[1] Singer, Peter W. "How to Be All That You Can Be: A Look at the Pentagon's Five Step Plan For Making Iron Man Real" (http:/ / www.
brookings.edu/ articles/ 2008/ 0502_iron_man_singer.aspx), The Brookings Institution (http:/ / www.brookings.edu/ ), 2 May 2008.
External links
• The BLEEX project (http:// bleex. me. berkeley.edu/ bleex. htm)
• A UCBerkeleyNews news release (http:/ / www.berkeley.edu/ news/ media/ releases/ 2004/ 03/ 03_exo.shtml)
Big Trak
Big Trak
A UK BigTrak
BigTrak main board
BIG TRAK / bigtrak was a programmable electric vehicle
created by Milton Bradley in 1979.
It was a six-wheeled tank with a front-mounted blue photon beam
headlamp, and a keypad on top. The toy could remember up to 16
commands which it then executed in sequence such as "go forward
5 lengths", "pause", "turn 15 minutes right (90 Degrees)", "fire
phaser" and so on. There was a "repeat" instruction allowing
simple loop to be performed, but the language was not Turing
complete, lacking branching instructions; the Big Trak also lacked
any sort of sensor input other than the wheel sensors.
There is now a small but dedicated Internet community who have
reverse engineered the BIG TRAK and the Texas Instruments
TMS1000 microcontroller inside it.
The US and GB/European versions were noticeably different. The
US version was moulded in gray plastic and labelled "BIG TRAK"
whereas the GB version was white and labelled "bigtrak" with a
different keypad.
Bigtrak also included an optional trailer accessory. Once hooked
to Bigtrak, this trailer could be programmed to dump its payload.
Soviet clone
Elektronika IM-11
In the Soviet Union, a clone was made under "Elektronika IM-11"
designation. The early production version was named Lunokhod after
the Lunokhod programme. It featured an obstruction sensor disguised
as a plastic front bumper, which would stop the program when the toy
got stuck. However, there was no provision for an accessory, and its
motion sensor was based on a cheaper reed switch instead of an
opto-isolator. A later version, named "Planetokhod," additionally
featured a shootable rotor blade as an accessory, LED head and rear
lamps, and the on/off switch was relocated to the rear side. A Soviet
popular science journal Nauka i Zhizn published a detailed article on
the IM-11.
Big Trak
Programmable keypad
BigTrak Keypad (US)
UK version of the keypad
All programming to BigTrak was done through the keypad shown
here. There were no LED displays or ways to display program
instructions, beyond actually running the program, which was
done by pressing "GO". Other function keys included:
• Forward/Backwards: Move forward or backwards in units of
body length
• Left/Right: Turn left or right in units of roughly 1/60th of a full
• HOLD: Pause in 1/10 of second time units (GB version; P:
• FIRE: Fire the light bulb "laser" (GB; Photon Symbol)
• CLR: Clear the program (GB; CM: Clear Memory)
• CLS: Clear Last Step (GB; CE; Clear last step)
• RPT: Repeat a number of steps (primitive loop) (GB; x2:
Repeat key)
• TEST: Run short test program
• CK: Check last instruction (GB; Tick symbol)
• Out: Dump optional trailer accessory
• In: Reserved for future expansion (GB; missing. Disabled or
not implemented on most if not all BigTraks)
Big Trak
Zeon 2010 Bigtrak - no stickers affixed.
In 2010 Zeon Ltd released a replica of the original toy.

colour and graphic scheme are based on the U.K. version and all
stickers have been redrawn as a direct copy of the original
A simple iPhone app, bigtrak iCalc
is available that emulates
the original bigtrack sounds.
Bigtrak Jr
Dubreq Ltd
under license from Zeon Ltd has released a desktop
version of the Bigtrak toy called "Bigtrack Jr".
Bigtrak Jr is 190mm long and runs on 3 AA batteries. It has an
"active" accessory port and planned accessories include a rocket
launcher and a digital camera.
[1] "Big Trak 2010 - History" (http:// www.bigtrak2010.co.uk/ history. html). . Retrieved 14 December 2010.
[2] "Lunokhod for informatics study." - Nauka i Zhizn,1988,№4 (Russian magazine)
[3] (http:/ / www. bigtrakisback. com) New bigtrak by Zeon Ltd
[4] (http:/ / stuff. tv/ news/ Big-Trak-returns-from-pre-programmed-trip-to-the-80s/13967/ ) Stuff.tv article
[5] (http:/ / itunes. apple. com/ us/ app/ bigtrak-icalc/id380959319?mt=8) bigtrak iCalc iPhone app
[6] "Bigtrak Jr" (http:/ / www.bigtrakjr.com). .
• Zeon Ltd's new Bigtrack (http:// www. bigtrakisback. com/ )
• a BIGTRAK hobbyist Page (http:/ / www. thebigtrak.com)
• Original instruction manual (PDF) (http:// www. hasbro. com/ common/ instruct/ BigTrak.PDF)
• Original operators manual (full colour navigable pdf) (http:// www.bigtrakisback. com/ sites/ all/ themes/
bigtrak/ download/ Bigtrak_Operators_manual.zip)
• Transport instruction manual (PDF) (http:// www.hasbro. com/ common/ instruct/ Big_Trak_Transport.PDF)
• Robot Room - Inside the Bigtrak (http:/ / www.robotroom.com/ BigTrak. html)
Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a
collective study.
Biorobotics is often used to refer to a real subfield of robotics: studying how to make robots that emulate or simulate
living biological organisms mechanically or even chemically. The term is also used in a reverse definition: making
biological organisms as manipulatable and functional as robots, or making biological organisms as components of
In the latter sense biorobotics can be referred to as a theoretical discipline of comprehensive genetic engineering in
which organisms are created and designed by artificial means. The creation of life from non-living matter for
example, would be biorobotics. The field is in its infancy and is sometimes known as synthetic biology or
The replicants in the film Blade Runner would be considered biorobotic in nature: (synthetic) organisms of living
tissue and cells yet created artificially. Instead of microchips, their brain is based on ganglions/artificial neurons.
A small group of cyberpunk and mecha anime, manga and role-playing games have used the term bioroid sometimes
generally for a partially or fully biological robot or for a breed of genetically engineered human slaves, similar to the
replicants in Blade Runner. In 1985 the animated Robotech television series popularized the term when it reused the
term from the 1984 Japanese series The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross. An alternative term biot is a
portmanteau of "biological robot" and was originally coined by Arthur C. Clarke in his 1972 novel Rendezvous with
Practical experimentation
A biological brain, grown from cultured neurons which were originally separated, has been developed as the
neurological entity subsequently embodied within a robot body by Kevin Warwick and his team at University of
Reading. The brain receives input from sensors on the robot body and the resultant output from the brain provides
the robot's only motor signals. The biological brain is the only brain of the robot.
[1] Xydas, S.; Norcott, D.; Warwick, K.; Whalley, B.; Nasuto, S.; Becerra, V.; Hammond, M.; Downes, J. et al. (March 2008), "Architecture for
Neuronal Cell Control of a Mobile Robot", European Robotics Symposium 2008 (Prague: Springer): pp. 23–31,
External links
• Bioroïdes (http:/ / blog. empyree.org/ ?2005/ 11/ 23/ 670-bioroides) - A timeline of the popularization of the idea
(in French)
• BioRobotics Lab in Korea (http:/ / robot.kut. ac.kr)
• Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Italy (http:/ / www.biorobotics. it)
• Tiny backpacks for cells (MIT News) (http:// web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2008/cellbackpack-1106. html)
• Bio-Robotics and Human Modeling Laboratory - Georgia Institute of Technology (http:/ / www.biorobotics.
gatech. edu)
User talk:Blibrestez55
User talk:Blibrestez55
http:/ / upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/ commons/ 7/ 7f/Collection_Extension -_ _Create_a_collection_box.png
Robotic book scanner
A robotic book scanner is a machine which is used to scan books, integrating automated components that allow the
device to exceed the speed of traditional manual imaging devices such as camera stands. A robotic scanner usually
consists of three basic parts: a mechanical device to turn the pages; a cradle or table to hold the book in place, and a
camera or imaging sensor to capture images. Images are then automatically shuttled to a central computer repository,
where automated processing may take place in order to perform cropping, de-skewing, and other image enhancement
functions. During the process, the book remains intact.
Several high-end commercial robotic scanners use traditional air and suction technology while others take advantage
of optical sensor technology to separate and turn pages one at a time.
External links
• Robotic Book Scanning at Stanford
• How to Make a Full Auto Book Scanner
• Qidenus Technologies - QiScan RBSpro robotic bookscanner
• Treventus - Robotic bookscanner ScanRobot
• Kirtas Technologies KABIS III Robotic Book Scanner
[1] http:/ / www-sul. stanford.edu/ depts/ dlp/ bookscanning/
[2] http:/ / www. geocities. jp/ takascience/ lego/ fabs_en. html
[3] http:// www. roboticbookscan. com
[4] http:/ / www. treventus. com/ bookscanner_pageturner.html
[5] http:// www. kirtas.com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article&id=69&Itemid=88
Boustrophedon cell decomposition
Boustrophedon cell decomposition
The boustrophedon cell decomposition (BCD) is a method used in artificial intelligence and robotics for
configuration space solutions. Like other cellular decomposition methods, this method transforms the configuration
space into cell regions that can be used for path planning.
A strength of the boustrophedon cell decomposition is that it allows for more diverse, non-polygonal obstacles
within a configuration space.
The representation still depicts polygonal obstacles, but the representations are
complex enough that they are very effective when describing things like rounded surfaces, jagged edges, etc.
It is a goal of the method to optimize a path that can be chosen by an intelligent system.
While a BCD can
represent the existence of objects in a physical space, it does very little to nothing in terms of recognizing the
objects. This would be done using another method, one which most likely requires additional sensory data in order to
be used.
[1] Choset, Howie. Coverage of Known Spaces: The Boustrophedon Cellular Decomposition (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/
[2] http:// planning.cs. uiuc. edu/ node352. html
Bow Leg
The Bow Leg is a highly resilient leg being developed for running robots at Carnegie Mellon University's Robotics
Institute. The key technology is the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) spring that bends like a bow to store elastic
[1] "The BowGo Project" (http:// www. cs. cmu. edu/ ~bowgo/ ). .
Bowler Communications System
Bowler Communications System
The Bowler Communications System is an open protocol developed by Neuron Robotics for simplified
communications between components in cyber-physical systems.
Campus Party
Campus Party
Established 1997
Headquarters Madrid, Spain
Region Spain
Website Campus-Party.org
Founder Paco Regageles
Belinda Galindo
Campus Party (CP) is an annual week-long technology festival and LAN party.
Founded in 1997 as a gaming and demoscene event, the event was first held in in Málaga, Spain, but has now run at
several locations in Spain, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador and Chile—with plans for a future event
in Venezuela.
In 2012, the event will be held for the first time in the United States in Silicon Valley, California.
The event has evolved into a 7-day, 24-hour festival connecting online communities, gamers, programmers,
bloggers, governments, universities and students
and has a broad focus, covering technology innovation and
electronic entertainment, with an emphasis on free software, programming, astronomy, social media, gaming, green
technology, robotics, security networks and computer modeling.


Their stated goal is to bring together the
best talent in areas regarding technology and Internet to share experiences and innovate for a "better tomorrow".
In December 1996 EnRED, a Spanish youth organization, wanted to found a small, private LAN party held at the
Benalmádena Youth Center in Andalucía, Spain. Paco Regageles, then director of Channel 100, suggested they
expand the event, and promoted it as a LAN party under the original name, the "Ben-Al Party" in reference to the
event's location in Benalmádena.
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia,
In April 1998 the second Ben-Al Party was held, attracting 5 times the
number of participants and national media attention to the gaming
EnRED abandoned the project as it grew, and in April 1999
Paco Regageles along with Belinda Galiano, Yolanda Rueda, Pablo
Antón, Juanma Moreno and Rafa Revert founded the non-profit
organization E3 Futura, with the broader objective of making
technology in all forms more accessible to society. Asociación E3
Futura founded Futura Networks to organize the Campus Party
festivals, Campus IT Summer University and the Cibervoluntariado
digital inclusion movement.
In 2000 Manuel Toharia, a speaker at previous Campus Parties, and director of Príncipe Felipe's Museum of
Sciences in Valencia's City of arts and Sciences suggested that Ragageles expand and make the event more
international by moving it to the famous museum. That year, Campus Party doubled in size, attracting 1,600
participants to the 6-day festival.
Campus Party
Futura Networks
Futura Networks' logo
Futura Networks was founded by the non-profit E3 Futura in 1999 to
create forums and educational programs, such as Campus Party, to
promote innovation and responsible participation in digital culture.
Their headquarters are in Madrid, Spain with satellite offices in
Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, London and most recently San Francisco.
Futura Networks employs 87 people, and hires approximately 20 local
organizers and hundreds of volunteers for each Campus Party event.
Content and focus
Something Better
Something Better is an initiative announced on January 17, 2011 at Campus Party Brazil by CP co-founder Paco
Ragageles and José María Álvarez-Pallete, President of Telefónica Latin America. Its goals are to promote the idea
that the "Internet isn't a network of computers, but a network of people" and to encourage responsible and proper use
of the networks.
Paco Ragageles said that the new initiative aims to start a movement of civic and social
responsibility on the web that promotes innovation and collaboration, and addresses common issues such as Internet
privacy, piracy, spam and cyberbullying.
One of the reported objectives of Something Better is to create an
Internet use education program through Ministries of Education globally.
The first development of Something Better is Geeks Sans Frontières, a volunteer ambassador program which is
based on the concept of Médecins Sans Frontières. Their goal is to help foster growth of technology infrastructure
and access to information in developing countries in order to facilitate the exchange of ideas between all
communities and cultures. The first destinations for the project are Colombia and Ghana.
Free and Open Source Software
Jon "Maddog" Hall at Campus Party Brazil 2011
Free software is rooted in the origins of Campus Party. They believe
that free and open source software is a "new way of writing the rules of
digital society" and demonstrates a "profound change in the
relationship between the industry, software creators and all who
participate in the construction of a world where knowledge knows no
Some of the most popular events at the Campus are
Linux and Ubuntu download fests where free software advocates can
recruit new converts.
Executive Director of Linux International, Jon
"Maddog" Hall has spoken at the event four times, most recently in
Brazil in 2011 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of Linux.
2009 he created the multimedia "maddog challenge," a video contest
sponsored by Telefónica to raise the awareness of free software and Creative Commons licenses.
Campus Party
Green Campus
Winners of the Green Apps Business Challenge at CP
Mexico 2010
Campus Party's Green Campus initiative began in 2007 with the
goal of making the technology and construction of the event
focused on green technology and improving the environment. The
organization has made the commitment to reduce CO2 emissions,
and to encourage innovation through sponsored competitions in
the sectors of green tech. In 2007 Futura Networks planted a tree
for every Campusero who attended the event with the Nature
Foundation. Al Gore has attended the event twice to lead
discussions and debates about climate change and responsible
energy use.
The Green Campus initiative asks for participation
in their green tech projects and proposals for future programs.
Software development
Campus Party is a hub for programmers and developers to share ideas and code. Participants have the opportunity to
work with some of the biggest names in software, game and application development through workshops and demos,
and have the opportunity to present their own projects with programming enthusiasts.
Network and security
Campus Party holds debates, roundtables and talks related to network security vulnerabilities, new protocols, such as
IPv6 and content privacy online.
Ex-hacker turned computer security expert Kevin Mitnick has spoken at several
editions about system vulnerabilities and how to protect content and systems,
and Joaquín Ayuso, co-founder of
Spanish social networking site Tuenti will present on ownership of personal information and security concerns on
social platforms in Valencia in 2011.
Each Campus Party edition has various competitions ranging from start-ups and multimedia presentations to app and
game development.
Campus Party Spain awards over $300,000 in prizes at each event.
Digital Inclusion
One of Campus Party's main missions is to bring the Internet to every citizen, and to bridge the digital divide in
communities and countries most effected by lack of access. They hold activities focussed on addressing unequal
access to information including "digital baptisms" for low-income groups, seminars, debates and about digital
inclusion. Campus Party considers itself a "nucleus for digital inclusion" for less privileged populations through a
program created with Telefónica and local public institutions. So far they report that the program has initiated over
30,000 people from Brazil, Colombia, Spain and Mexico in the use of information technologies since the program's
founding in 2008.
The program works with educators to create programs addressing digital inequalities and training in information
technology systems for companies, primarily in Ibero-American countries.
Campus Party
The Campus
Locations and layout
"Campuseros" take a break and watch some TV.
Brazil 2011
Campus Party is typically held in large indoor arenas and split into
several sections: the exposition center, the stages and LAN party and
the Campus Party Village which includes camping, restaurants and a
dining hall, and a relaxation zone that has couches, bean bags, TVs and
gaming consoles, free massages and in Valencia, a sport arena with
basketball and football fields.
The stages are split into areas of concentration
• Science: astronomy, modeling and simulations
• Creativity: design, social media, photography and music
• Innovation: programming, security and networks
• Free software
• Gaming
Computers set up at Campus Party 2004
Campus Party attracts a wide audience of gammers, programmers, technology
enthusiasts, online communities and industry experts; however, the primary
demographic is male college students between the ages of 18 and 29.
Participants refer to themselves as "Campuseros" creating a tight-knit
community and attending Campus Party each year to reconnect with friends.
Attendees are encouraged to bring their own computer as the event centers
largely around online participation, computers are provided on-site, but are
often in high demand. Campuseros bring both laptops and desktop computers and set up on tables in the center of the
exposition hall.
Tents at the Campus Party Village in
Brazil 2011
Most participants camp out on site for the seven-day festival in the Campus
Party Village where they can be part of the event 24 hours a day. The tents
are included in the price of admission. The village features restaurants,
microwaves, showers, lockers, gaming and sport arenas and rest areas with
couches and beanbags for those needing a break.
Campus Party
Campus Media
Campus TV
CampusTV live streaming talks in Brazil 2011
CampusTV films the entire event and live-streams presentations,
competitions and other events online, and posts them online makes
them available online for each edition of Campus Party on their
website and YouTube.
Campus Blog
CampusBlog live blogs and tracks the event through social networks,

videoblogging and digital literature. They often
post competitions and special content through their blog.


Campus Party has had a wide range of speakers in its 14-year history, including ex-US Vice President Al Gore,
scientist Stephen Hawking, creator of the World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee and director Alfonso Cuarón. The
focus on astronomy at the event as drawn astronauts Neil Armstrong, Jean-François Clervoy, Ellen Baker and Neri
Vela to Campus Party.
The organization's work with bridging the digital divide has brought politicians and government figures, including
High Commissioner for the United Nations for the Millennium Objective Eveline Herfkens, Brazilian Presidential
candidates Marina Silva and Dilma Rousseff and Grammy Award-winning musician Gilberto Gil, the Brazilian
Minister of Culture from 2003–2008, as well as ex-Mayor of New York City, Rudolph Giuliani have spoken.
President of the Robotics Society of America David Calkins, video game industry icon Tommy Tallarico and
founding member of Blizzard Entertainment, Frank Pearce and Linux International Executive Director Jon "maddog"
Hall have all spoken at the event.
Campus Party Spain
The Spanish edition of Campus Party has been held at the Colegio Miguel Hernández, Ceulaj, and the Municipal
Sport Arena of Benalmádena in Málaga, Spain; and at both the Valencia County Fair and the City of Arts and
Sciences in Valencia over the past 15 years.
In July 2011 the 15th edition of Campus Party Spain will be held at the City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia. Over
$350,000 will be awarded for competition winners during the week-long event.
Kevin Mitnick, David Calkins,
Amira Al Hussaini, Carlos Schmukler, Gianluca Fratellini, Jon "Maddog" Hall, Stuart Clark and David Bravo are
confirmed speakers at the event.
Campus Party
In 2008 the Campus Party crossed the Atlantic Ocean to be celebrated in the Americas, the first Latin American
edition was held in São Paulo in February, and the second in Bogotá in June of the same year. Since 2008 the festival
has been held annually in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, with a special Ibero-America edition in El Salvador in June
2008. In 2011 Futura Networks announced they will be founding Campus Parties in Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, and
the United States in 2012.
Campus Party Brazil
Campus Party's first edition in São Paulo was held at the São Paulo Art Biennial, since 2009 it has taken place at the
Centro de Exposicoes Imigrantes.
The first Latin American edition of Campus Party took place at the São Paulo Art Biennial and drew 3,000 people to
the event. The party was connected by a 5.5GB network, and featured 360 official activities including presentations,
workshops, debates and competitions. Numerous government and educational institutions and NGOs participated in
the event. Major presenters included Jon "Maddog" Hall, Mari Moon, Marcos Pontes and Steven Berlin Johnson.
In January 2009 Campus Party Brazil was held at the Center Exposições Imigrantes, and attended by 6,655
Campuseros. The event featured a 10GB connection, 11 different content areas and a total of 468 activities
throughout the week. The event was headlined by Tim Berners-Lee creator of The World Wide Web, who spoke
about the universality of the Internet and "web 3.0." Demi Getschko, who has been involved in the creation of the
international networking since 1987 and was part of the team that created the first Internet connection in Brazil.
Gilberto Gil, Brazil's former culture minister, spoke about technology's role in government and brought his guitar
along for a concert. Jon "Maddog" Hall, challenged the campuseros to make their own creations multimedia music
and video using only free software under the Creative Commons licensing policy. The public open exhibition zone
was attended by 119,000 people, and 6,819 of the attendees attended the Digital Inclusion area where they had the
opportunity to learn more about the world of computers, the web and information technology.
Creative Commons unveiled Version 3.0 of the Creative Commons licenses at Campus Party 2010. The new license
is translated and adapted to Brazilian Law, and introduced a range of improvements without changing the licenses'
basic structure or function.
The keynote was given by Creative Commons' Lawrence Lessig and Brazil's Campus
Party director, Ronaldo Lemos.
Brazil's 4th Campus Party took place from January 17–23rd at the Centro Imigrantes exposition hall. Over 6,800
Campuseros, primarily between the ages of 18 and 29, attended the event on a 10GB connection, over 1,000 times
faster than a typical home connection, which was sponsored by Telefonica, the Brazilian Federal Government, and
São Paulo City Government.
The content of the event was split into five main areas: science, creativity, innovation, digital entertainment, and the
campus forum which includes open debates, and start-up competitions.
Campus Party founder Paco Ragageles and José María Álvarez-Pallete, President of Telefónica Latin America
announced the Something Better initiative at the event, and Al Gore and Tim Berners-Lee shared the stage to discuss
the early days of the web and to discuss their visions for its future.
Campus Party
Digital inclusion was a major topic at the event, as only a quater of Brazilians have Internet access at home, and just
over 40% of the population has a home computer. A pannel including Brazilian Communications Minister Paulo
Bernardo discussed the need to improve the infrastructure of mobile and web networks.
The event sponsored 27 competitions from FIFA championships to modeling and Astrophotography, with awards to
future events and funding for technology related start-ups.
Steve Wozniak keynoted the event, speaking to the
over 6,000 Campuseros about his history as a developer and the founding of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
More code, video, photos and blogs were uploaded than downloaded during the event, with network traffic peaking
at 3AM each morning.
Campus Party Colombia
Campus Party is held annually at the Bogotá Corferias Convention Center in Bogotá.
Campus Party Colombia 2009 took place from July 6–12, 2009. 3,671 Campuseros attended the event, which
featured over 300 hours of training, workshops and collaborative activities.
Speakers and attendees included Kevin Mitnick, famous hacker turned network security expert, Linux International
Executive Director Jon "Maddog" Hall, founding member of Creative Commons Michael Carroll, and President of
Wikimedia Argentina, Patricio Lorente, who led a conference about Wikipedia.
The open public area, which included interactive zones, educational workshops and virtual reality and gaming
expositions, was attended by over 90,000 visitors during the week.
In a partnership with the Mayor of Bogotá and the Ministry of Economic Development, Campus Party trained 8,400
people through their Digital Baptism program. The program offers workshops and sessions where people become
familiar with available software and applications to help innovate new forms of interaction and communication. In a
joint effort with the Ministry of Education, 130 teachers from across Colombia came together to share their
experiences and brainstorm access to knowledge and technological resources for use in the classroom.
Campus Party Ibero-America
Campus Party Ibero-America was sponsored by the Secretary General of Ibero-America as part of the official agenda
of the 18th Ibero-America Summit of Heads of State and Government. The event took place from October 28 to
November 1, 2008 in the Sports City Merlot in San Salvador, El Salvador, and brought together 600 Internet
enthusiasts from 22 countries and 2,000 digital literacy visitors to share their expertise and interests to find solutions
to close the technological gap and improving social conditions and development in their countries.
Speakers included government representatives Antonio Saca, President of El Salvador, Secretary General of the
SEGIB, Enrique Iglesias, and Eugenio Ravinet, Secretary General of the Iberoamerican Youth Organization, whose
talks focused on technology appropriation, or how people shape technology to make it their own.
Astronaut Marcos Pontes, Mexican director Alfonso Cuaron, and Spanish video game developer Gonzo Suarez
spoke at the event as well.
Campus Party
Campus Party México
Campus Party's Mexico City edition began in 2009, and has been held at the Expo Santa Fe Center.
Mexico's first Campus Party took place on November 12–16 at the Bancomer Convention Center with 3,527
Campuseros, and 20,000 visitors to the public expo. Guests included Tim Berners-Lee the inventor of the World
Wide Web, Jon "maddog" Hall, president of Linux International, and Rodolfo Neri Vela, the first Mexican to travel
to space, among others. The event clocked in at over 250 hours of collaborative activities and workshops, supplied a
8Gb network, and hosted 1,500 campers.
The second edition of the event was from August 9–15 and hosted almost double the number of attendees with 6,519
registered Campuseros.
Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple, Kevin Mitnick, Akira Yamaoka, Ben Hammersley and Wikimedia
Foundation's Head of Business Partnerships Kul Wadhwa spoke at the event.
The event featured 27 competitions such as Iron Geek, whose winner received a three-month contract with
Telefónica in Spain, the PEMEX Energy Innovation Award, The Great Mind Challenge sponsored by IBM, Mobile
Modding and VoIP Hacker Challenges. And in honor of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, a football match
played my robots was held for two nights on the main stage.
European Union edition
The Campus Party Europe was held April 14–18, 2010 at the Caja Mágica in Madrid, Spain with 800 participants
from each of the 27 European Union member states. Sponsored by the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation
and the European Commission, the event was held in conjunction with the Spanish Presidency of the European
Union and centered around three areas of knowledge: science, digital creativity and innovation. Costs for
transportation and accommodations were covered by Futura Networks for all 800 participants.
The world's biggest robot building society, Let's Make Robots, was invited to provide an international focus on robot
building as a hobby. Students from northern Portugal's Braga University built football playing robots to kick a ball
around with Cristiano Ronaldo and Raúl González in celebration of the 2010 World Cup.
The European Union event featured competitions that university students and industry professionals could enter, and
showcased inventions from a computer-toaster hybrid to a video game to promote healthy eating habits in
The major sponsored competitions included:
• Innovation Awards: Winner - "The foot APM" by Bram Vanderborght, Belguim, a passive prosthesis that doesn't
require external power as energy is stored and released. It closely imitates the best possible functioning normal
• MICINN Challenge: Winner: MobileDoc - a database of services and doctor expertises and application developed
with graphics to be easily localized and isn't limited by illiteracy, that instantly finds nearby hospitals or medicine
men in locations where emergency care is scarce, such as Nigeria.

• Imagine Cup - Sponsored by Microsoft as the largest international student competition focusing on software
technological innovation that leads to a better world.
Microsoft created an honorary mention for Campus Party
participants. The winners had the opportunity to present their creations at a European Union seminar to corporate
representatives and Internet entrepreneurs.
• FIRST Latam - A European Union funded project that aims to foster the development of Internet innovation in
Latin America through international cooperation. FIRST holds competitions for individuals to present their
Campus Party
proposals for future projects and then finds resources and funding for the projects.
Due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland, the party ended up with a massive challenge for the organisers, who had to
arrange return trips the 800 stranded European participants, without any flights available.
Campus Party Silicon Valley
The first USA edition of Campus Party will be held in 2012 in Silicon Valley, California. Al Gore, Tim Berners-Lee
and Vint Cerf are co-chairing the event, and hope to draw 10,000 to the technology festival .
On March 24, 2011,
Futura Networks announced a partnership with CTIA Wireless to provide mobile infrastructure and other wireless
resources for Campus Party Silicon Valley and future Campus Party events.
Campus Party editions
Date Location Venue
Main Speakers
August 8–10,
Benalmádena, Málaga,
Colegio Miguel Hernández 50
August 8–10,
Mollina, Málaga,
August 1998 Benalmádena, Málaga,
Municipal Sport Arena of
July 31- August
2, 1998
Mollina, Málaga,
August 2–8,
Mollina, Málaga,
August 7–13,
Valencia, Spain Príncipe Felipe Science
Museum in the City of Arts
and Sciences
1,600 Manuel Toharia
August 7–10,
Valencia, Spain Príncipe Felipe Science
Museum in the City of Arts
and Sciences
1,600 Al Gore, Nicholas Negroponte
August 5–11,
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 3,000
July 27–31,
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 4,500 Yago Lamela
July 25–31,
Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 5,500 Neil Armstrong, Kevin Warwick
July 24–30,
Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 5,500 Stephen Hawking, Eveline Herfkens, Tom Kalil,
Rudolph Giuliani, David Calkins, Frank Pearce, Stefano
Maffulli, Raúl Albiol, Juan Carlos Ferrero
July 23–29,
Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 8,100 Jon "Maddog" Hall, Mark Shuttleworth, Tommy
Tallarico, Jani Pönkkö, Barbara Lippe, Jun Ho Oh,
Marcelo Tossati, Kimiko Ryokai
February 11–17,
São Paulo, Brazil São Paulo Art Biennial 3,000 Jon "Maddog" Hall, Mari Moon, Marcos Pontes Steven
Berlin Johnson, Heather Camp
June 23–29,
Bogotá, Colombia Bogotá Corferias Convention
2,430 Jon "Maddog" Hall, Vander Caballero
Campus Party
July 28- August
3, 2008
Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 8,973 Tim Berners-Lee, Jean-François Clervoy, Mary Hodder,
Tony Guntharp, Rosalía Lloret
October 28 -
November 1,
El Salvador Special
Ibero-America edition
Polideportivo Ciudad Merliot 600 Alfonso Cuarón, Gonzo Suárez
July 6–12, 2009 Bogotá, Colombia Bogotá Corferias Convention
3,671 Michael W. Carroll, Jordan Powell Hargrave, Kevin
January 19–25,
São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes 6,655 Demi Getschko, Gilberto Gil, Lobão, Tim Berners-Lee
July 27- August
2, 2009
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 6,077 Ellen Baker, Nacho Vigalondo, Paulina Bozek, Rodrigo
12–16, 2009
Mexico City, Mexico Bancomer Convention Center 3,527 Neri Vela, Jon "Maddog" Hall, Tim Berners-Lee
January 25–31,
São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes 6,500 Lawrence Lessig, Gilberto Gil, Luiz Fernando Pezao,
Danese Cooper
April 14–18,
Madrid, Spain Special
European Edition
Caja Mágica 800 Jean-François Clervoy, Stuart Clark
July 26-August
1, 2010
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 6,077 Jean-François Clervoy, Stuart Clark, Karlheinz
Brandenburg, Paul Bennett
August 9–15,
Mexico City, Mexico Expo Santa Fe 6,519 Jesus Ramirez, Octavío Ruíz Cervera, Akira Yamaoka
January 17–23,
São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes 6,800 Al Gore, Steve Wozniak, Tim Berners-Lee, Ben
Hammersley, Jon "Maddog" Hall, Kul Wadhwa,
Stephen Crocker
July 11–17,
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences - Kevin Mitnick
October 2011 Ecuador TBA - TBA
December 2011 Chile TBA - TBA
March 2011 Bogotá, Colombia TBA - TBA
2011 Venezuela TBA - TBA
2011 Mexico City, Mexico TBA - TBA
2012 USA Silicon Valley, California - TBA
[1] campus-party.org
[2] "Blog Campus Party Brasil" (http:/ / blog. campus-party.com.br/ index.php/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ em-pouco-menos-de-um-ano-estados-unidos/).
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[4] "At least 6,600 people attend Campus Party Brazil 2009 : northxsouth : free software news from latin america" (http://news. northxsouth.
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[7] "#somethingbetter" (http:/ / www.campus-party. org/somethingbetter-en.html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
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[9] "Campus Party - HP Networking" (http:// h10147. www1.hp. com/ case-studies/ campus_party.htm). H10147.www1.hp.com. . Retrieved
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[11] ::: Futura Networks ::: (http:/ / www.futuranetworks.com/ )
[12] "#somethingbetter, problemas" (http:// www.campus-party. org/problemas.html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[13] "#Geeksansfrontiers" (http:// www.campus-party. org/Geeksansfrontiers.html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[14] "Free Software" (http:// www.campus-party. org/FreeSoftware.html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[15] "Campus Party, February 11–17, 2008, Sao Paulo, Brazil" (http:// www.linuxjournal. com/ content/
campus-party-february-11-17-2008-sao-paulo-brazil). Linux Journal. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[16] "Main Speakers at Campus Party 2009" (http:// www.campus-party.org/ 09en.html). Campus Party. 1957-10-11. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[17] Aug 16, 2009 4:58pm GMT Jon maddog Hall (2009-08-16). "Winners of maddogs Colombian Multimedia Challenge - Linux Magazine
Online" (http:/ / www. linuxpromagazine.com/ Online/ Blogs/ Paw-Prints-Writings-of-the-maddog/
Winners-of-maddogs-Colombian-Multimedia-Challenge/ (kategorie)/0). Linuxpromagazine.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[18] "Green Campus" (http:// www.campus-party.org/ GreenCampus. html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[19] "Developers" (http:// www. campus-party. org/Developers.html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[20] "Campus Party Valencia - Seguridad y Redes - Campus Party Valencia 2011" (http:// www. campus-party.es/ 2011/ seguridad-y-redes.
html#Mitnick). Campus-party.es. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[21] "Campus Party Valencia - Seguridad y Redes - Campus Party Valencia 2011" (http:/ / www. campus-party.es/ 2011/ seguridad-y-redes.
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[22] "Campus Party Valencia - Desarrollo de Software - Campus Party Valencia 20111" (http:/ / www. campus-party.es/ 2011/
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[23] "Campus Party Valencia - Competiciones - Campus Party Valencia 2011" (http:// www.campus-party.es/ 2011/ Competiciones. html).
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[24] "Digital Inclusion" (http:/ / www. campus-party. org/DigitalInclusion. html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[25] "Campus Party Valencia - Village - Campus Party Valencia 2011" (http:// www.campus-party.es/ 2011/ Village.html). Campus-party.es. .
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[26] "Campus TV - Campus Party Brasil 2011. #cpbr4" (http:/ / tv. campus-party.org/ ). Tv.campus-party.org. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[27] https:// twitter.com/ CPartyNews#
[28] https:/ / twitter.com/ campusparty#
[29] "Blog Campus Party Valencia" (http:/ / blog. campus-party. es/ ). Blog.campus-party.es. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[30] "Blog Campus Party Brasil" (http:// blog. campus-party.com.br/ ). Blog.campus-party.com.br. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[31] "Blog Campus Party México" (http:/ / blog. campus-party.com. mx/ ). Blog.campus-party.com.mx. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
[32] "Competitions" (http:/ / www. campus-party. es/ 2011/ Competiciones. html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-07.
[33] "New Editions" (http:/ / www.campus-party. org/new-editions. html). Campus Party. . Retrieved 2011-03-07.
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[35] "Brazil’s 3.0 to go live at Campus Party" (https:// creativecommons.org/ weblog/ entry/20317). Creative Commons. 2010-01-29. .
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[36] "With record subscribers, Campus Party starts next Monday" (http:/ / pcworld.uol. com.br/noticias/ 2011/ 01/ 12/
com-recorde-de-inscritos-campus-party-comeca-na-proxima-segunda/). PC World. 2011-01-12. . Retrieved 2011-03-07.
[37] ""Bandwidth is not essential Brazilians, but access to the Internet is, " says Getschko" (http:// www.ipnews. com. br/ telefoniaip/index.
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[38] "Public opening of Campus Party 2011" (http:// olhardigital.uol. com.br/jovem/ digital_news/ noticias/
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all-things-technical-at-spain-campus-party). Bangkok Post. 2010-04-18. . Retrieved 2011-03-03.
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[50] Ceulaj (http:// www. ceulaj. injuve. es/ )
External links
• Official Website (http:// www. campus-party.org/)
• Spanish edition (http:/ / www. campus-party.es/ )
• Brazilian edition (http:// www. campus-party. com. br/)
• Mexican edition (http:/ / www. campus-party.com. mx/ )
• Colombian edition (http:/ / www. campus-party.com. co/ )
• Venezuelan edition (http:/ / venezuela. campus-party. org/)
• Campus Party on Flickr (http:/ / www. flickr.com/ groups/ campusparty)
• Campus Party Youtube channel (http:/ / es. youtube. com/ campusparty)
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
The care-providing robotic system
FRIEND (Functional Robot arm with
user-frIENdly interface for Disabled
people) is a semi-autonomous robot
designed to support disabled and
elderly people in their daily life
activities, like preparing and serving a
meal, or reintegration in professional
life. FRIEND make it possible for such
people, e.g. patients which are
paraplegic, have muscle diseases or
serious paralysis, e.g. due to strokes,
to perform special tasks in daily life
self-determined and without help from
other people like therapists or nursing
The robot FRIEND is the third
generation of such robots developed at
the Institute of Automation (IAT)
University of Bremen
different research projects



Within the last project AMaRob
, an
interdisciplinary consortium,
consisting of technicians, designers as well as therapists and further representatives of various interest groups,
influences the development of
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
FRIEND. Besides covering the various technical aspects, also design
aspects were included as well as requirements from daily practice
given by therapists, in order to develop a care-providing robot that is
suitable for daily life activities. The AMaRob project was founded by
the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research ("BMBF -
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung") within the
"Leitinnovation Servicerobotik"
FRIEND is built from reliable industrial components. It is based on the wheelchair platform Nemo Vertical, which is
an electrical wheelchair from Meyra
. This basic platform has been equipped with various additional components,
which are described in the following.
• Robot Arm / Manipulator: The Light Weight Robotic Arm 3 (LWA3) is a 7 degrees of freedom manipulator of
Schunk mounted on an automated panning arm. So the arm can park behind the seat in order to navigate FRIEND
in narrow passages. The robot arm is equipped with the prosthetic hand "SensorHand Speed" from Otto Bock
which has built-in slip sensors in order to detect the slipping of gripped object and adapt the force accordingly. At
the robot's wrist a force-torque sensor is mounted to perform force-torque-based reactive manipulative operations
and to detect collisions.
• TFT-Display: The TFT display provides visual information to the user and is also mounted on a panning arm.
• Intelligent Tray: In front of the user an intelligent tray is available on which objects can be placed down by the
manipulator. This tray is based on infra-red (IR) devices to acquire precise information about object locations,
which should be manipulated.
• Stereo Camera System: A Bumblebee 2 stereo camera system with built-in calibration, synchronization and stereo
projective calculation features is used to acquire information of the environment. It is mounted at the top of the
system on a pan-tilt-head unit, which itself is installed on a special rack behind the seat.
• Computer System: A high-end PC unit is mounted on the wheelchair platform behind the user. The mounting as
depicted is still in a prototype state.
• Input devices: There are several input devices which are available for FRIEND or under development: chin
joystick, hand joystick, speech control (in- and output), brain-computer interface (BCI) and eye control. The input
devices are adapted according to the impairments of the user or his preferences.
• Infra-red Communication and Appliances: An infra-red control unit, development by IGEL
, for
communication with various appliances in the robot's environment is integrated underneath the pan-tilt-head unit.
Thus, e.g. an automatic door opening mechanism in the refrigerator and the microwave, the configuration and
control of the microwave itself or various consumer electronic components can be operated wireless.
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Within the AMaRob (AMaRob web page
) project three scenarios were developed that support disabled and
elderly people in their Activities of Daily Life (ADL) as well as in professional life.
This scenario enables the user to prepare and eat a meal. A special meal-tray has been designed which can be gripped
by the manipulator. First the meal-tray is fetched from a refrigerator which is equipped with an automatic door
opener. Then the manipulator puts the meal-tray in a remote controlled microwave oven to cook the meal. After
cooking the meal-tray is fetched from the microwave oven and placed on the tray of the wheelchair. After that
FRIEND supports the user to eat the meal. With a special designed spoon the manipulator can take a bit meal and
feed the user. After the eating procedure the meal-tray is put away. The handles are designed in such a way that they
can be robustly recognized by the vision system and easily grasped by manipulator's gripper.
The first professional scenario is situated at a library service desk. Professional scenarios are very important for
disabled people from the viewpoint of re-integration into daily life activities. With FRIEND the user can manage
tasks like lending and return of books.
The second professional scenario takes place in a rehabilitation workshop. The realized scenario is representative for
many quality control tasks in industry and consists of checking the functionality of keypads for public telephone
boxes. A keypad has to be taken from a keypad magazine by the gripper and put into a test adapter to check the
correct working of pad's electronics. After that each keypad has to be inspected visually by the user to detect cracks
or similar damages. Based on the results the keypad have to be sorted.
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Fig. 2: Hybrid multi-layer control architecture for semi-autonomous service robots
with verified task execution.
The realization of semi-autonomy is based
on the central idea to include human tasks
into task execution. A good explanation of
this principle is given in the following
"When we think of interfaces between
human beings and computers, we
usually assume that the human being
is the one requesting that a task be
completed, and the computer is
completing the task and providing the
results. What if this process were
reversed and a computer program
could ask a human being to perform a
task and return the results?
[Mechanical Turk - amazon.com]"
With respect to a semi-autonomous service
robotic system this means that the user's
cognitive capabilities are taken into account,
whenever a robust and reliable technical
solution is unavailable. It is obvious that the
acceptance of such a system will be low in
general. But for people that are dependent
on a personnel assistant, like the disabled or
elderly, this approach offers the opportunity to decrease this dependency and therefore to increase their quality of
life. A service robot has to be able to pursue a certain mission goal as commanded from its user but also needs to
react flexibly to dynamic changes within the workspace. To meet these requirements, hybrid multi-layer control
architectures have been successfully applied

. These architectures usually consist of three layers:
• A deliberative layer, which contains a task planner to generate a sequence of operations to reach a certain goal
with respect to the user's input command.
• A reactive layer, which has access to the system's sensors and actuators and provides reactive behavior which is
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Fig. 3: Task knowledge specification, verification and execution concept in
Fig. 4: Human Machine Interface (HMI) of care-providing robot FRIEND.
robust even under environmental
disturbances, for example with the help
of closed-loop control.
• A sequencer that mediates between
deliberator and reactive layer i.e.
activates or deactivates reactive
operations according to the deliberator's
The software framework MASSiVE
(Multi-layer Architecture for
Semi-autonomous Service robots with
Verified task Execution)

is a special
kind of hybrid multi-layer control
architecture which is tailored to the
requirements of semi-autonomous and
distributed systems, like the care-providing
robot FRIEND, acting in environments with
distributed smart components. These
intelligent wheelchair mounted manipulator
systems allow to benefit from the inclusion
of the user's cognitive capabilities into task
execution and consequently lower the
system complexity compared to a fully
autonomous system. The semi-autonomous
control requires a sophisticated integration
of a human-machine-interface (HMI) which
is able to couple input devices according to
the user's impairment
, for example a
haptic suit, eye-mouse, speech-recognition,
chin joystick or a brain-computer interface

. The resulting MASSiVE
control architecture with special emphasis
on the HMI component is depicted in Fig. 2.
Here, the deliberator has been moved to the
sequencer component, and the HMI has
direct access to control the actuators in the
reactive layer during user interactions (e.g.,
to move the camera, until the desired object
to be manipulated is in field of view).
Besides the focus on semi-autonomous system control, the MASSiVE framework includes a second main paradigm,
namely the pre-structuring of task knowledge. This task planner input is specified offline in a scenario and model
driven approach with the help of so-called process-structures on two levels of abstraction, the abstract level and the
elementary level
. After specification and before being used for task execution, the task knowledge is verified
offline, to guarantee a robust runtime behavior. This development process model provides a structured guidance and
enforce consistency throughout the whole process, so that uniform implementations and maintainability are
achieved. Furthermore it guides through development and test of system core functionality (skills). The whole
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
paradigm is depicted in Fig. 3.
The tasks is selected and started by the user via the HMI, depicted in Fig. 4, on a high level of abstraction, e.g. "cook
meal". After initial monitoring to define the current state of the system and the environment, the tasks execution is
performed and a list of elementary operations are created which can be executed autonomously by the system. These
elementary operations consists of, e.g. image processing algorithm to recognize objects in the environment or
manipulative algorithms to calculate a special trajectory to grasp an object.
Besides these layers, a world model is included in the control architecture that contains the current system's
perspective on the world according to the task to be executed. Due to the hybrid architecture a separation of
world-model data into two categories is mandatory: The deliberator operates with symbolic object representations
(e.g. "C" for the representation of a cup), while the reactive layer deals with the sensor percepts taken from these
objects, so-called sub-symbolic information. Examples for sub-symbolic information are the color, size, shape,
location or weight of an object.
Image processing
The main problem with service robotic systems such as the care-providing robot FRIEND is that they have to
operate in dynamic surroundings where the state of the environment is unpredictable and changes stochastically,
hence two main problems have been encountered when developing image processing systems for service robotics:
unstructured environment and variable illumination conditions. They have to cope with a large amount of visual
information and for the implementation of the vision system a high degree of complexity is necessary. A second
major problem in robot vision is the wide spectrum of illumination conditions that appear during the on-line
operation of the machine vision system, since colors are one important attribute in object recognition. The human
visual system has the ability to compute color descriptors that stay constant even in variable illumination conditions,
which is not the case for machine vision systems. A key requirement in this field is the reliable recognition of objects
in the robot's camera image, extraction of object features from the images and, based on the extracted features,
subsequent correct object localization in a complex 3D environment so that these information can be used for
reliable object grasping and manipulation.
Fig. 5: Block diagram of ROVIS, the robust vision architecture for care-providing robot
In order to cope with the above
described problems in the
care-providing robot FRIEND the
special vision system ROVIS (RObust
machine VIsion for Service robotics)

was developed. The structure
of ROVIS is depicted in Fig. 5. There
are two main ROVIS components:
hardware and object recognition and
reconstruction chain. The connection
between ROVIS and the overall robot
control system is represented by the
World Model where ROVIS stores the processed visual information. At the initialization phase of ROVIS the
extrinsic camera parameters needed for 3D object reconstruction and the transformation between stereo camera and
manipulator which is necessary for vision based object manipulation are calculated by the Camera Calibration
module. The object recognition and reconstruction chain consists of robust algorithms for object recognition and 3D
reconstruction for the purpose of reliable manipulation motion planning and grasping in unstructured environments
and variable illumination conditions. Therefore an accuracy of 5mm for the estimated 3D pose is necessary which
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
enforces very good and precise algorithms. In ROVIS, robustness must be understood as the capability to the system
to adapt to varying operational conditions and is realized through the inclusion feedback mechanisms at the image
processing level and also between different hardware and software components of the vision system
. A core part
of the system is the automatic, closed-loop calculation of an image Region of Interest (ROI) on which vision
methods are applied. By using a ROI the performance of object recognition and 3D reconstruction can be improved
since the scene complexity is reduced.
Within ROVIS there are several methods used for object recognition, e.g. robust region based color segmentation
and robust edge detection. The first one is for objects with uniform color and without texture (e.g. bottle, glass,
handles) and the second one for objects with textures (e.g. books). In order to recognize objects in FRIEND's
environment robustly special feature are extracted which are used to identify objects and to determine their pose
For big objects like refrigerator or microwave an improved SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm is
used, which was developed at the Institute of Automation at the University of Bremen
Motion Planning
Fig. 6: A scene from the Mapped Virtual Reality (MVR) for a
FRIEND task: move to the inside of a refrigerator.
Primary task of the motion planning is to find a collision
free trajectory. Nevertheless, in service robotics, other
aspects must be additionally taken into account like
safety and smoothness of the trajectories. In order to
suffice all these requirements for FRIEND a
sensor-based motion planning for the manipulator was
developed. The procedure is based on Cartesian space
, and therefore computationally efficient
as well as with a high precision. The object grasping
frames are calculated on-line which increases the
flexibility of the system during execution. All
implemented algorithms are suitable for real-time
applications in service robotics but also for industrial
The motion planning is performed based on a Mapped
Virtual Reality (MVR), displayed in Fig. 6. This
3D-model of the environment is built from the
information within the world model which was perceived
by the sensors. Before any motion of the robot arm is
performed the trajectory from the current to the goal
configuration is calculated within this 3D-model. During
motion on-line collision checking is done, since obstacles
can move during motion. Obstacles are in this case all
objects of the environment, which are not included in the
current motion, also in some tasks the user in the
wheelchair. It is important that there is at any time no danger for the user.
At the wrist of the manipulator a force-torque-sensor is installed. The information from this sensor is used to detect
collisions or for fine-tuning during manipulative operations, e.g. when the robot arm should put a gripped object in a
small opening. This ensures robustness during execution.
In general the trajectories calculated from the motion planning algorithms are robot like, i.e. clipped and jerky. In
order to enhance this and make the movement of the manipulator more pleasant to the user the trajectories are
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
smoothed and the quality is enhanced
. Therefore the used robot arm is helpful. Since six degrees of freedom are
sufficient to define a 3D pose in the environment (three degrees for position and three degrees for orientation) and
FRIEND's manipulator has seven degrees of freedom, one degree of freedom can be chosen optional, i.e. the
manipulator can turn its elbow joint by 360 degrees without changing gripper's pose. This can be used to find the
best trajectory from a start to a goal configuration among an infeasible set of possible configurations. This seventh
degree of freedom is also used to solve and avoid dead-locks during the motion process and to keep a minimal
distance to obstacles.
External links
• Webpage FRIEND
• Webpage AMaRob
• Institute of Automation (IAT)
• University of Bremen
• Meyra GmbH & Co. KG
• SCHUNK GmbH & Co. KG
• Otto Bock Healthcare
• Stiftung Friedehorst
• Institut für integriertes Design
• "Leitinnovation Servicerobotik"
[1] http:/ / www. iat. uni-bremen.de
[2] http:// www. uni-bremen.de
[3] Martens, C., Prenzel, O., Gräser, A. (2007). "The Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I & II: Daily Life Independency through Semi-Autonomous
Task-Execution" (http:/ / intechweb. org/downloadpdf.php?id=556). I-Tech Education and Publishing (Vienna, Austria): 137–162.
ISBN 978-3-902613-04-2. .
[4] Ivlev, O., Martens, C., Gräser, A. (2005). "Rehabilitation Robots FRIEND-I and FRIEND-II with the dexterous lightweight manipulator".
Restoration of Wheeled Mobility in SCI Rehabilitation 17.
[5] Volosyak, I., Ivlev, O., Gräser, A. (2005). "Rehabilitation robot FRIEND II - the general concept and current implementation". Proc. 9th
International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics ICORR 2005: 540–544.
[6] Volosyak, I., Kuzmicheva, O., Ristic, D., Gräser, A. (2005). "Improvement of visual perceptual capabilities by feedback structures for robotic
system FRIEND". IEEE Trans. Syst. , Man., Cybern. C. 35 (1): 66–74. doi:10.1109/TSMCC.2004.840036.
[7] http:// www. amarob.de
[8] http:/ / www. service-robotik.de
[9] http:/ / www. meyra.de
[10] http:/ / www. igel. rehavista. de
[11] Schlegel, C., Wörz, R. (1999). "The software framework smartsoft for implementing sensorimotor systems.". In Proceedings of the
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (Korea): 1610–1616.
[12] Simmons, R. (2000). "Architecture, the backbone of robotic systems". In Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on
Robotics and Automation (San Francisco, CA).
[13] Martens, C. (2003). "Teilautonome Aufgabenbearbeitung bei Rehabilitationsrobotern mit Manipulator - Konzeption und Realisierung eines
softwaretechnischen und algorithmischen Rahmenwerkes.". PhD dissertation, University of Bremen, Faculty I: Physics / Electrical
Engineering. (In German) (Bremen).
[14] Martens, C., Prenzel, O., Feuser, J., Gräser, A. (2006). "MASSiVE: Multi-Layer Architecture for Semi-Atunomous Service Robots with
Verified Task Execution.". In Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipments -
OPTIM 2006 (Brasov, Romania: Transylvania University Press, Brasov) 3: 107–112. ISBN 973-653-705-8.
[15] Prenzel, O., Martens, C., Cyriacks, M., Wang, C., Gräser, A. (2007). "System-controlled user interaction within the service robotic control
architecture massive". Robotica, Special Issue (Cambridge University Press) 25 (2): 237–244. ISSN 0263-5747.
[16] Lüth, T., Graimann, B., Valbuena, D., Cyriacks, M., Ojdanic, D., Prenzel, O., Gräser, A. (2003). "A Brain-Computer Interface for
Controlling a Rehabilitation Robot". In BCI Meets Robotics: Challenging Issues in Brain-Computer Interaction and Shared Control (Leuven,
Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Belgium): 19–20.
[17] Lüth, T., Graimann, B., Valbuena, D., Cyriacks, M., Ojdanic, D., Prenzel, O., Gräser, A. (2003). "A Low Level Control in a
Semi-autonomous Rehabilitation Robotic System via a Brain-Computer Interface". In Proceedings of 10th International Conference on
Rehabilitation Robotics - ICORR (Nordwijk, The Netherlands).
[18] Prenzel, O. (2009). "Process Model for the Development of Semi-Autonomous Service Robots" (http:// www2.iat. uni-bremen.de/
~amarob/paper/PhD_Prenzel.pdf). PhD dissertation, University of Bremen, Faculty I: Physics / Electrical Engineering (Shaker Verlag
GmbH, Germany). ISBN 978-3-8322-8424-4. .
[19] Grigorescu, S. M. (2010). "Robust Machine Vision for Service Robotics". PhD dissertation (University of Bremen, Faculty I: Physics /
Electrical Engineering, Germany).
[20] Grigorescu, S. M., Ristic-Durrant, D., Gräser, A. (2009). "RObust machine VIsion for Service robotic system FRIEND.". In Proceedings of
the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent RObots and Systems (IROS) (St. Louis, USA).
[21] Grigorescu, S. M., Ristic-Durrant, D., Vupalla, S. K., Gräser, A. (2008). "Closed-Loop Control in Image Processing for Improvement of
Object Recognition". In Proceedings of the 17th IFAC World Congress (Seoul, Korea).
[22] Vuppala, S. K., Grigorescu, S. M., Ristic-Durrant, D., Gräser, A. (2007). "Robust Color Object Recognition for a Service Robotic Task in
the System FRIEND II". In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics - ICORR Conference (Noordwijk,
The Netherlands).
[23] Grigorescu, S. M., Ristic-Durrant, D. (2008). "Robust Extraction of Object Features in the System FRIEND II". In Methods and
Applications in Automation (Shaker Verlag).
[24] Alhwarin, F., Wang, C., Ristic-Durrant, D., Gräser, A. (2008). "Improved SIFT-Features Matching for Object Recognition". BCS
International Academic Conference 2008. Visions of Computer Science: 179–190.
[25] Ojdanic, D. (2009). "Using Cartesian Space for Manipulator Motion Planning - Application in Service Robotics" (http:/ / www2.iat.
uni-bremen. de/ ~amarob/paper/ PhD_Ojdanic. pdf). PhD dissertation, University of Bremen, Faculty I: Physics / Electrical Engineering
(Bremen: Shaker Verlag GmbH). ISBN 3832281762. .
[26] Ojdanic, D., Gräser, A. (2009). "Improving the Trajectory Quality of a 7 DoF Manipulator". In Proceedings of the Robotic Conference
(Munich, Germany).
[27] http:// www. iat. uni-bremen.de/ sixcms/ detail. php?id=1078
[28] http:/ / www. schunk. de
[29] http:// www. ottobock. de
[30] http:/ / www. friedehorst.de
[31] http:/ / www. iidbremen.de
[32] http:/ / www. bmbf.de/
Established 2003
Type Public
Location Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, Spain
www.upc.edu/cetpd [1]
The Technical Research Centre for Dependency Care and Autonomous Living (CETpD) is an applied research
and technology transfer centre created for the Universitat Politèncica de Catalunya and the Fundació Hospital
Comarcal Sant Antoni Abat on behalf of the Consorci de Servei a les Persones de Vilanova i la Geltrú, with the aim
of covering the demand for research and development in the field of Gerontechnology, Ambient Intelligence,
Assistive Robotics and User Experience Technologies.
The CETpD carried out important applied research work and innovation on socially relevant developments,
especially on technologies and systems designed to enhance independent living of elderly and disabled people.
Ambient Intelligence
Ambient Intelligence (AmI) implies an environtment of distributed computing systems, unobstrusive and often
invisible, with user friendly interfaces capable of learning and adapting to the particular needs of the users. CETpD
AmI projects are included in the assistance field mainly for housing and health application. We are looking for
technological solutions that have the potential to include everyone, that are affordable and build trust and confidence
directed to improve the quality of life of any person specially elders and disabled.
Assistive Robotics
The priority lines of work are three:
• To develop new architectures of control and forms of signal processing which the robots allow to capture
knowledge and being cognitive through the human-machine interaction.
• To research in the more suitable forms of interaction, so they are motivating and satisfying for the user.
• To develop in an effective way robotic systems that are capable of supplying with personalised individual
assistance to people with dependence (permanent, rehabilitation or convalescence). Therefore, the research
implies areas like HRI, control and systems of computational learning in complex, changing and uncertain
environments, integrating processes of perception, representation and interaction with people.
The purpose of the user experience field, usability, is to provide relevant information about users expectations,
capabilities and preferences, in order to ensure that products and services would meet end users -and other
stakeholders- functional and affective needs. All the CETpD projects incorporates user's experience feedback in the
process of contextual product and services development.
Balance, Gaits and Falls
Gait alterations, balance alterations and falls are major causes of disability in the elderly population. Such
pathologies seriously impair elders' quality of life; furthermore, their consequences have high economic and social
impact. Therefore, clinical and epedimiological studies on these pathologies are conducted at the CETpD in order to
gain insight into their causes and to find novel therapeutics.
A major objective in geriatrics is to maintain elderly persons' independence to carry out their daily life activities and
to interact with their environment. In this regard, technology may be an essential tool to facilitate elderly persons'
autonomy. At the CETpD, they develop technology aimed to their environment, as well as remote diagnosis devices
designed for early detection of health alterations in frail persons or persons living alone.
[1] http:/ / www. upc. edu/ cetpd
External links
• CETpD web site (http:// www.upc. edu/ cetpd)
• CETpD youtube channel (http:/ / es. youtube. com/ user/ CETpD)
• UPC web site (http:/ / www. upc.edu)
• Fundació Hospital Comarcal Sant Antoni Abat web site (http:/ / www.fhcsaa. cat/ )
User:Chaosdruid/List of Androids
User:Chaosdruid/List of Androids
This is a list of Androids.
For fictional androids see List of fictional robots and androids
Image Name Year Created by Country Purpose Notes Website Videos
iCub 2004 RobotCub Consortium Europe
Meinü 2006 Chinese Academy of Sciences China
EveR-1 EveR-1
Kokoro Dreams Korea
Repliee Q2
DER 01 Osaka University
Kokoro Company Ltd. (manuf.)
Ibn Sina Robot
[1] http:/ / www. robotcub.org/
[2] http:/ / www. robotcub.org/ index. php/ robotcub/gallery/ videos
Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion
Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion
The Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion is a criterion that determines the degree of freedom of a kinematic
chain, that is, a coupling of rigid bodies by means of mechanical constraints.
Notes and references
[1] Jorge Angeles, Clifford Truesdell (1989). Rational Kinematics (http:// books.google.com/ books?id=2TIwUAqQu-IC&pg=PA100&
dq=Chebychev Grübler Kutzbach&lr=&as_brr=0&sig=ACfU3U3IlacHCvbHMXv1MKJZp734pKaAxA#PPA78,M1). Springer.
p. Chapter 6, p. 78ff. ISBN 038796813X. .
External links
• Basic kinematics of rigid bodies (http:/ / www.cs. cmu. edu/ ~rapidproto// mechanisms/ chpt4. html)
• Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach's criterion for mobility calculation of multi-loop mechanisms revisited via theory
of linear transformations (http:// www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&
_udi=B6VKW-4FDNBTB-1& _user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&
_acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=444d409bf7d22dbee0923782b3cd19d8)
Clanking replicator
A clanking replicator is an artificial self-replicating system that relies on conventional large-scale technology and
automation. The term evolved to distinguish such systems from the microscopic "assemblers" that nanotechnology
may make possible. They are also sometimes called "Auxons", from the Greek word auxein which means "to grow",
or "von Neumann machines" after John von Neumann, who first rigorously studied the idea. This last term ("von
Neumann machine") is less specific and also refers to a completely unrelated computer architecture proposed by von
Neumann, so its use is discouraged where accuracy is important. Von Neumann himself used the term Universal
The term clanking replicator was used by Drexler,
is informal and is rarely used by others in popular or technical
Basic concept
A self-replicating machine would need to have the capacity to gather energy and raw materials, process the raw
materials into finished components, and then assemble them into a copy of itself. It is unlikely that this would all be
contained within a single monolithic structure, but would rather be a group of cooperating machines or an automated
factory that is capable of manufacturing all of the machines that make it up. The factory could produce mining robots
to collect raw materials, construction robots to put new machines together, and repair robots to maintain itself against
wear and tear, all without human intervention or direction. The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to
expand its own capacity rapidly and without additional human effort; in essence, the initial investment required to
construct the first clanking replicator would have an arbitrarily large payoff with no additional labor cost, with future
returns discounted by their present value.
Such a machine violates no physical laws, and we already possess the basic technologies necessary for some of the
more detailed proposed designs.
Noting another proof that self-replicating machines are possible is the simple fact that all living organisms are self
replicating by definition.
Clanking replicator
History of the concept
The idea of non-biological self-replicating systems was introduced in Samuel Butler's article "Darwin Among the
Machines" published only a few years after The Origin of Species. As a serious proposal, it was first suggested by
mathematician John Von Neumann in the late 1940s when he proposed a kinematic self-reproducing automaton
model as a thought experiment. See Von Neumann, J., 1966, The Theory of Self-reproducing Automata, A. Burks,
ed., Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Advanced Automation for Space Missions
In 1980, NASA conducted a summer study entitled Advanced Automation for Space Missions, edited by Robert
Freitas, to produce a detailed proposal for self-replicating factories to develop lunar resources without requiring
additional launches or human workers on-site. The proposed system would have been capable of exponentially
increasing productive capacity. The design could be modified to build Von Neumann probes to explore the galaxy.
The reference design specified small computer-controlled electric carts running on rails. Each cart could have a
simple hand or a small bull-dozer shovel, forming a basic robot.
Power would be provided by a "canopy" of solar cells supported on pillars. The other machinery could run under the
The study identified four key manufacturing capabilities out of the hundreds commonly used in modern industry:
1. Plaster casting for molded parts
2. Laser machining for etching and fine tuning
3. Vapor deposition for electronics, solar cells, and mirror surfaces
4. Extrusion of spun basalt fiber for electrical insulation and fiberglass
A "casting robot" would use a robotic arm with a few sculpting tools to make plaster molds. Plaster molds are easy to
make, and can make precise parts with good surface finishes. The robot would then cast most of the parts either from
nonconductive molten rock (basalt) or purified metals. An electric or solar oven would melt the materials. A carbon
dioxide laser cutting and welding system was also included.
A more speculative, more complex "chip factory" was specified to produce the computer and electronic systems, but
the designers also said that it might prove practical to ship the chips from Earth as if they were "vitamins."
Much of the design study was concerned with a simple, flexible chemical system for processing the ores, and the
differences between the ratio of elements needed by the replicator, and the ratios available in lunar regolith. The
element that most limited the growth rate was chlorine, needed to process regolith for aluminium. Chlorine is very
rare in lunar regolith, so the design recycled it.
Other references
• Freeman Dyson expanded upon Neumann's automata theories, and advanced a biotechnology-inspired theory. See
• The first technical design study of a self-replicating interstellar probe was published in a 1980 paper
by Robert
• Clanking replicators are also mentioned briefly in the fourth chapter
of K. Eric Drexler's 1986 book Engines of
• Article about a proposed clanking replicator system to be used for developing Earthly deserts in the October 1995
Discover Magazine, featuring forests of solar panels that powered desalination equipment to irrigate the land.
• In 1995, Nick Szabo proposed
a challenge to build a macroscale replicator from Lego(tm) robot kits and
similar basic parts. Szabo wrote that this approach was easier than previous proposals for macroscale replicators,
but successfully predicted that even this method would not lead to a macroscale replicator within ten years.
Clanking replicator
• In 1998, Chris Phoenix suggested
a general idea for a macroscale replicator on the sci.nanotech newsgroup,
operating in a pool of ultraviolet-cured liquid plastic, selectively solidifying the plastic to form solid parts.
Computation could be done by fluidic logic. Power for the process could be supplied by a pressurized source of
the liquid.
• In 2001, Peter Ward mentioned an escaped clanking replicator destroying the human race in his book Future
• In 2004, General Dynamics completed a study
for NASA's Institute for Advanced Concepts. It concluded that
complexity of the development was equal to that of a Pentium 4, and promoted a design based on cellular
• In 2004, Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle published the first comprehensive review of the field of self-replication,
in their book Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines
, which includes 3000+ literature references.
• In 2005, Adrian Bowyer of the University of Bath started the RepRap project to develop a rapid prototyping
machine which would be able to replicate itself, making such machines cheap enough for people to buy and use in
their homes. The project is releasing material under the GNU GPL. [8]
Clanking replicators in fiction
In fiction, the idea dates back at least as far as Karel Čapek's 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).
A. E. van Vogt used the idea as a plot device in his story "M33 in Andromeda" (1943), which was later combined
with the three other Space Beagle stories to became the novel, The Voyage of the Space Beagle. The story describes
the creation of self-replicating weapons factories designed to destroy the Anabis, a galaxy-spanning malevolent life
form bent on destruction of the human race.
An early treatment was the short story Autofac by Philip K. Dick, published in 1955, which precedes von Neumann's
original paper about self-reproducing machines. Dick also touched on this theme in his earlier 1953 short story
Second Variety. Another example can be found in the 1962 short story Epilogue by Poul Anderson, in which
self-replicating factory barges were proposed that used minerals extracted from ocean water as raw materials.
In his short story "Crabs on the Island" (1958) Anatoli Dneprov speculated on the idea that since the replication
process is never 100% accurate, leading to slight differences in the descendants, over several generations of
replication the machines would be subjected to evolution similar to that of living organisms. In the story, a machine
is designed, the sole purpose of which is to find metal to produce copies of itself, intended to be used as a weapon
against an enemy's war machines. The machines are released on a deserted island, the idea being that once the
available metal is all used and they start fighting each other, natural selection will enhance their design. However,
the evolution has stopped by itself when the last descendant, an enormously large crab, was created, being unable to
reproduce itself due to lack of energy and materials.
Stanisław Lem has also studied the same idea in his novel The Invincible (1964), in which the crew of a spacecraft
landing on a distant planet finds non-biological life-form, which is the product of long, possibly of millions of years
of mechanical evolution. This phenomenon is also key to the aforementioned Anderson story.
John Sladek used the concept to humorous ends in his first novel The Reproductive System (1968, also titled
Mechasm in some markets), where a U.S. military research project goes out of control.
NASA's Advanced Automation for Space Missions study directly inspired the science fiction novel Code of the
Lifemaker (1983) by author James P. Hogan.
The movie Screamers, based on Dick's short story Second Variety, features a group of robot weapons created by
mankind to act as Von Neumann devices / berserkers. The original robots are subterranean buzzsaws that make a
screaming sound as they approach a potential victim beneath the soil. These machines are self-replicating and, as is
found out through the course of the movie, they are quite intelligent and have managed to "evolve" into newer, more
dangerous forms, most notably human forms which the real humans in the movie cannot tell apart from other real
Clanking replicator
humans except by trial and error.
Other notable fiction literature containing clanking replicators
• "Autofac" by Philip K. Dick
• The Berserker series of books and short stories by Fred Saberhagen
• The Forge of God by Greg Bear
• 2010: Odyssey Two by Arthur C. Clarke
• The World at the End of Time by Frederik Pohl
• Recursion by Tony Ballantyne ISBN 0330426990
• Evolution by Stephen Baxter
• Prey by Michael Crichton
• The popular TV series Stargate SG-1 introduces 'Replicators' as some of the deadliest enemies of life.
[1] Drexler, K. Eric (1986). "Engines of Abundance (Chapter 4) Clanking Replicators" (http:// www.e-drexler.com/ d/ 06/ 00/ EOC/
EOC_Chapter_4. html#section01of03). Engines of Creation. .
[2] http:// www. rfreitas.com/ Astro/ ReproJBISJuly1980. htm
[3] http:/ / www. foresight.org/ EOC/ EOC_Chapter_4.html#section01of03
[4] http:/ / www. lucifer.com/ ~sean/ N-FX/macro.html
[5] http:/ / groups. google. com/ groups?hl=en& selm=6f0nui%248ih%241%40news.nanospace. com
[6] http:/ / www. niac. usra. edu/ files/ studies/ final_report/883Toth-Fejel.pdf
[7] http:// www. MolecularAssembler. com/ KSRM. htm
[8] http:/ / staff.bath. ac. uk/ ensab/ replicator/
[9] The nanorobot swarm in "Prey" are not true replicators but are rather nonhuman nanorobot/gamma assembler/bacteria cyborgs which gain the
ability to build structures to reproduce themselves and eventually become symbiotic with humans.
Prospects for implementation
As the use of industrial automation has expanded over time, some factories have begun to approach a semblance of
self-sufficiency that is suggestive of clanking replicators. However, such factories are unlikely to achieve "full
closure" until the cost and flexibility of automated machinery comes close to that of human labour and the
manufacture of spare parts and other components locally becomes more economical than transporting them from
elsewhere. Fully-capable machine replicators are most useful for developing resources in dangerous environments
which are not easily reached by existing transportation systems (such as outer space).
A clanking replicator can be considered to be a form of artificial life. Depending on its design, it might be subject to
evolution over long time periods. However, with robust error correction, and the possibility of external intervention,
the common science fiction theme of robotic life run amok is unlikely in the near term.
It should probably be noted that clanking is an example of onomatopoeia, understandable to some English speakers,
but not to all. The term is meant to evoke the image of a nineteenth century factory, powered by steam, pushing
gears and rods, noisy and clamorous.
Two hexapod robots at the Georgia Institute of
Technology with CMUCams mounted on top
A CMUcam is a low cost computer vision device intended for robotics
research. CMUcams consist of a small video camera and a
microcontroller with a serial interface. While other digital cameras
typically use a much higher bandwidth connector, the CMUcam's
lightweight interface allows it to be accessed by microcontrollers.
More importantly, the on-board microprocessor supports simple image
processing and color blob tracking, making rudimentary computer
vision capable in systems that would previously have far too little
power to do such a thing. It has been used in the past few years of the
FIRST high-school robotics competition as a way of letting
participants' robots track field elements and navigate autonomously.
The CMUcam also has an extremely small form factor. For these
reasons, it is relatively popular for making small, mobile robots.
The original design was originally made by Carnegie Mellon University, who has licensed it to various
External links
• CMU's CMUcam website
[1] http:/ / www. cs. cmu. edu/ ~cmucam/
Cognitive robotics
Cognitive robotics
A robot is an input-output device that is built from inanimate matter. Its behavior in response to the environment is
deterministic, based on how the robot was designed. Cognition is the process of acquiring and using knowledge
about the world for goal-oriented purposes, such as survival. Cognitive robotics is then the branch of robotics that is
concerned with endowing the robot with intelligent behavior by providing the robot with a processing architecture
that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world. While
traditional cognitive modeling approaches have assumed symbolic coding schemes as a means for depicting the
world, translating the world into these kinds of symbolic representations has proven to be problematic if not
untenable. Perception and action and the notion of symbolic representation are therefore core issues to be addressed
in cognitive robotics.
Cognitive robotics views animal cognition as a starting point for the development of robotic information processing,
as opposed to more traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques. Target robotic cognitive capabilities include
perception processing, attention allocation, anticipation, planning, complex motor coordination, reasoning about
other agents and perhaps even about their own mental states. Robotic cognition embodies the behavior of intelligent
agents in the physical world (or a virtual world, in the case of simulated cognitive robotics). Ultimately the robot
must be able to act in the real world.
A cognitive robot should exhibit:
• informational attitudes such as knowledge and beliefs
• motivational attitudes such as preferences and goals
• cognitive capabilities such as revising mental attitudes, reasoning, decision making, planning, as well as
observing and communicating
• physical capabilities to move in the physical world, and to interact safely with objects in that world, including
manipulation of these objects
One of the learning techniques that are used for robots is learning by imitation: the robot, provided with all the
sensors and physical hardware needed to perform a human task, is monitoring the human performing a task, and then
the robot tries to imitate the same movements that the human performed in order to achieve the task. Using its
sensors, the robot should be able to create a three-dimensional image of the environment, and to recognize the
objects in that image. A major challenge is hence to interpret the scene, and to understand what objects are needed in
the task and which are not.
A more complex learning approach is autonomous knowledge acquisition: the robot now uses its sensors and its
knowledge about the physical properties of the world, and is then left to explore the environment on its own. One of
the terminologies of this behavior is called motor babbling. The idea of this approach is to let the robot discover its
capabilities on its own.
Some researchers in cognitive robotics have begun using architectures such as (ACT-R and Soar (cognitive
architecture)) as a basis of their cognitive robotics programs. These architectures have been successfully used to
simulate operator performance and human performance when modeling laboratory data. The idea is to extend these
architectures to handle real-world sensory input as that input continuously unfolds through time.
Some of the fundamental questions to still be answered in cognitive robotics are:
• How much human programming should or can be involved to support the learning processes?
• How can one quantify progress? Some of the adopted ways is the reward and punishment. But what kind of
reward and what kind of punishment? In humans, when teaching a little infant for example, the reward would be a
chocolate or some encouragement, and the punishment will have many ways. But what is the effective way with
Cognitive robotics
• [1] The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)
• Intelligent Systems Group - University of Utrecht
• The Cognitive Robotics Group - University of Toronto
• Cognitive Robotics Lab
of Juergen Schmidhuber at IDSIA and Technical University of Munich
• What Does the Future Hold for Cognitive Robots? - Idaho National Laboratory
• Cognitive Robotics at the Naval Research Laboratory
• Cognitive robotics at ENSTA
autonomous embodied systems, evolving in complex and non-constraint
environments, using mainly vision as sensor.
• The Center for Intelligent Systems - Vanderbilt University
• CoR-Lab AT Bielefeld University
• SocioCognitive Robotics at Delft University of Technology
• Autonomous Systems Laboratory at Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
External links
• iRobis Announces Complete Cognitive Software System for Robots
• The Xpero project
• RobotCub
• Institute of Robotics in Scandinavia AB
• RoboBusiness: Robots that Dream of Being Better
• www.Conscious-Robots.com
[1] http:/ / www. ss-rics. org/
[2] http:// www. cs. uu. nl/ groups/ IS/robotics/ robotics. html
[3] http:/ / www. cs. toronto.edu/ cogrobo/main/
[4] http:/ / www. inl. gov/ adaptiverobotics/ humanoidrobotics/ future.shtml
[5] http:/ / www. nrl.navy. mil/ aic/ iss/ aas/ CognitiveRobots. php
[6] http:/ / cogrob.ensta. fr/
[7] http:/ / eecs. vanderbilt.edu/ cis/ cishome. shtml
[8] http:/ / www. cor-lab.de/ corlab/cms/
[9] http:// mmi.tudelft.nl/ SocioCognitiveRobotics/
[10] http:// www. aslab. upm. es/
[11] http:// www. defpro.com/ news/ details/ 4056/
[12] http:/ / www. xpero.org
[13] http:/ / www. irobis. com/
[14] http:/ / mensnewsdaily. com/ 2007/ 05/ 16/ robobusiness-robots-with-imagination/
[15] http:/ / www. conscious-robots. com/ en/ conscious-machines/ the-field-of-machine-consciousness/cognitive-rob.html
Common normal (robotics)
Common normal (robotics)
A model of a robotic arm with joints.
In robotics the common normal of two non-intersecting
joint axes is a line perpendicular to both axes.
The common normal can be used to characterize robot
arm links, by using the "common normal distance" and
the angle between the link axes in a plane perpendicular
to the common normal.
When two consecutive joint
axes are parallel, the common normal is not unique and
an arbitrary common normal may be used, usually one
that passes through the center of a coordinate system.
The common normal is widely used in the representation
of the frames of reference for robot joints and links, and
the selection of minimal representations with the
Denavit-Hartenberg parameters.
[1] Introduction to Robotics by Saeed Niku ISBN 0470604468 page 75
[2] Robot manipulators: mathematics, programming, and control by Richard P. Paul 1981 ISBN 026216082X page 51
[3] Foundations of Robotics: Analysis and Control by Tsuneo Yoshikawa 1990 ISBN 0262240289 page 33
Computationally enhanced craft item
A Computationally enhanced craft item (CETI) is a simple mechanical device that is fitted with a small computer
or computer interface and a servo system. A larger computer programs or directly controls the CETI according to the
wishes of the user-programmer. CETIs are educational devices, but they can possibly provide guidance towards a
future of user-programmable robots and ubiquitous computing. Tom Wrensch was one of the earliest proponents of
External links
• Eisenberg, Michael; Elumeze, Nwanua; Wrensch, Thomas. "Computationally-Enhanced Craft Items"
• The rototack
[1] http:/ / nwanua.aniomagic. com/ papers/ 04-DCC-CECIPrinciples.pdf
[2] http:/ / portal.acm. org/ citation. cfm?id=354676&dl=GUIDE&coll=GUIDE
Computer-assisted surgery
Computer-assisted surgery
Computer assisted surgery (CAS) represents a surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology
for presurgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions. CAS is also known as computer
aided surgery, computer assisted intervention, image guided surgery and surgical navigation, but these terms
that are more or less synonyms with CAS. CAS has been a lead in factor for the development of robotic surgery.
General principles
Image gathering ("segmentation") on the LUCAS
Creating a virtual image of the patient
The most important component for CAS is the development of an
accurate model of the patient. This can be conducted through a number
of medical imaging technologies including CT, MRI, x-rays,
ultrasound plus many more. For the generation of this model, the
anatomical region to be operated has to be scanned and uploaded into
the computer system. It is possible to employ a number of scanning
methods, with the datasets combined through data fusion techniques.
The final objective is the creation of a 3D dataset that reproduces the
exact geometrical situation of the normal and pathological tissues and
structures of that region. Of the available scanning methods, the CT is
because MRI data sets are known to have volumetric deformations that may lead to inaccuracies. An
example data set can include the collection of data compiled with 180 CT slices, that are 1 mm apart, each having
512 by 512 pixels. The contrasts of the 3D dataset (with its tens of millions of pixels) provide the detail of soft vs
hard tissue structures, and thus allow a computer to differentiate, and visually separate for a human, the different
tissues and structures. The image data taken from a patient will often include intentional landmark features, in order
to be able to later realign the virtual dataset against the actual patient during surgery. See patient registration.
Image analysis and processing
Image analysis involves the manipulation of the patients 3D model to extract relevant information from the data.
Using the differing contrast levels of the different tissues within the imagery, as examples, a model can be changed
to show just hard structures such as bone, or view the flow of arteries and veins through the brain.
Diagnostic, preoperative planning, surgical simulation
Using specialized software, such as OsiriX, the gathered dataset can be rendered as a virtual 3D model of the patient,
this model can be easily manipulated by a surgeon to provide views from any angle and at any depth within the
volume. Thus the surgeon can better assess the case and establish a more accurate diagnostic. Furthermore, the
surgical intervention will be planned and simulated virtually, before actual surgery takes place. Using dedicated
software, the surgical robot will be programmed to carry out the pre-planned actions during the actual surgical
Computer-assisted surgery
Surgical navigation
In computer assisted surgery, the actual intervention is defined as surgical navigation. This consists of the correlated
actions of the surgeon and the surgical robot (that has been programmed to carry out certain actions during the
preoperative planning procedure). A surgical robot is a mechanical device (generally looking like a robotic arm) that
is computer controlled. Robotic surgery can be divided into three types, depending on the degree of surgeon
interaction during the procedure: supervisory-controlled, telesurgical, and shared-control
. In a
supervisory-controlled system, the procedure is executed solely by the robot, which will perform the
pre-programmed actions. A telesurgical system, also known as remote surgery, requires the surgeon to manipulate
the robotic arms during the procedure rather than allowing the robotic arms to work from a predetermined program.
With shared-control systems, the surgeon carries out the procedure with the use of a robot that offers steady-hand
manipulations of the instrument. In most robots, the working mode can be chosen for each separate intervention,
depending on the surgical complexity and the particularities of the case.
Computer assisted surgery is the beginning of a revolution in surgery. It already makes a great difference in high
precision surgical domains, but it is also used in standard surgical procedures.
Computer assisted neurosurgery
Telemanipulators have been used for the first time in neurosurgery, in the 1980s. This allowed a greater development
in brain microsurgery (compensating surgeon’s physiological tremor by 10-fold), increased accuracy and precision of
the intervention. It also opened a new gate to minimally invasive brain surgery, furthermore reducing the risk of
post-surgical morbidity by accidentally damaging adjacent centers.
Computer assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery
Bone segment navigation is the modern surgical approach in orthognathic surgery (correction of the anomalies of the
jaws and skull), in temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) surgery, or in the reconstruction of the mid-face and orbit.
Computer assisted ENT surgery
Robotic surgery fits most of the surgeon’s needs in areas with limited surgical access and requiring high-precision
actions, such as middle-ear surgery
. .
Computer assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS)
The application of robotic surgery is widespread in orthopedics, especially in routine interventions, like total hip
. It is also useful in pre-planning and guiding the correct anatomical position of displaced bone
fragments in fractures, allowing a good fixation by osteosynthesis. Early CAOS systems include the HipNav,
OrthoPilot, and Praxim.
Computer assisted visceral surgery
With the advent of Computer assisted surgery, great progresses have been made in general surgery towards minimal
invasive approaches. Laparoscopy in abdominal and gynecologic surgery is one of the beneficiaries, allowing
surgical robots to perform routine operations, like colecystectomies, or even hysterectomies. In cardiac surgery,
shared control systems can perform mitral valve replacement or ventricular pacing by small thoracotomies. In
urology, surgical robots contributed in laparoscopic approaches for pyeloplasty or nephrectomy or prostatic

Computer-assisted surgery
Computer assisted radiosurgery
Radiosurgery is also incorporating advanced robotic systems. CyberKnife is such a system that has a lightweight
linear accelerator mounted on the robotic arm. It is guided towards tumor processes, using the skeletal structures as a
reference system (Stereotactic Radiosurgery System). During the procedure, real time X-ray is used to accurately
position the device before delivering radiation beam.
Advantages of computer assisted surgery
CAS starts with the premise of a much better visualization of the operative field, thus allowing a more accurate
preoperative diagnostic and a well-defined surgical planning, by using surgical planning in a preoperative virtual
environment. This way, the surgeon can easily assess most of the surgical difficulties and risks and have a clear idea
about how to optimize the surgical approach and decrease surgical morbidity.cience of designing user interction with
equipment and work places to fit the user. During the operation, the computer guidance improves the geometrical
accuracy of the surgical gestures and also reduce the redundancy of the surgeon’s acts. This significantly improves
[[ergonomy]which is the s] in the operating theatre, decreases the risk of surgical errors and reduces the operating
Most notable computer assisted surgery systems
From 1989 to 2007, more than 200 CAS systems have been developed by different universities and research
institutes, almost remaining experimental devices. Currently, commercially available systems approved for a clinical
use are mainly StealthStation (Medtronic, USA), eNLight and NavSuite (Stryker Corporation, USA), VectorVision
(Brainlab, Germany), DigiPointeur (Dr Lombard / Ste COLLIN, France). All but DigiPointeur and StealthStation use
an optical IR tracking system. DigiPointeur is an electromagnetically tracking system, and StealthStation uses
electromagnetic (PoleStar) or optical IR tracking system. The StealthStation provides both optical and
electromagnetic tracking systems. The first surgical robot was called Aesop (Computer Motion, USA); Aesop 1000
received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1993. It had multiple improvements and
variants, such as Zeus or Hermes. The daVinci Surgical System was developed by Intuitive Surgical, derived from
the Stanford Research Institute, USA. In 1997 it had received the FDA approval to assist the surgeon, and was the
first Remote manipulator to have the FDA approval to perform stand-alone surgery, in 2000. It is a telesurgical
system, mostly used for laparoscopic abdominal surgery. After harsh disputes and trials, the two producers merged,
still under the brand name of Intuitive Surgical. Orthodoc and Robodoc are robots developed for assistance in
orthopedic surgery, developed by Integrated Surgical Systems. The same company has produced Neuromate, to be
used in conjunction with Orthodoc/Robodoc in neurosurgery. CyberKnife (Accuray Incorporated) is a robot that
incorporates a linear accelerator, and is used since 2001 in radiosurgery.
Ethical issues
New and developing technologies in the medical/surgical field, and furthermore experimental devices might rise new
and unforeseen risks for the patient and/or the surgical team. Ethical committees of the medical institutions have to
analyze the ethical issues involved for each and every new developed device or technology. Furthermore, the high
costs of the initial development of such technologies, that can be covered mostly by major hospitals, might rise
questions about providing equal access to medical care for the patients.
Computer-assisted surgery
[1] Mischkowski RA, Zinser MJ, Ritter L, Neugebauer J, Keeve E, Zoeller JE (2007b) Intraoperative navigation in the maxillofacial area based
on 3D imaging obtained by a cone-beam device. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 36:687-694
[2] Bale RJ, Melzer A et al.: Robotics for interventional procedures. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe
Newsletter, 2006
[3] Marmulla R, Niederdellmann H: Computer-assisted bone segment navigation. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg 26:347-359, 1998
[4] Berlinger NT:Robotic Surgery - Squeezing into Tight Places. New England Journal of Medicine 354:2099-2101, 2006
[5] Haaker RG, Stockheim M, Kamp M, Proff G, Breitenfelder J, Ottersbach A: Computer-assisted navigation increases precision of component
placement in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 433:152-9, 2005
[6] Muntener M, Ursu D, Patriciu A, Petrisor D, Stoianovici D: Robotic prostate surgery. Expert Rev Med Devices 3(5):575-84
[7] Guillonneau, Bertrand: What Robotics in Urology? A Current Point of View. European Urology. 43: 103-105 2003
Covariance intersection
Covariance intersection is an algorithm for combining two or more estimates of state variables in a Kalman filter
when the correlation between them is unknown.


Items of information a and b are known and are to be fused into information item c. We know a and b have
mean/covariance , and , , but the cross correlation is not known. The covariance intersection update
gives mean and covariance for c as
The weighting coefficient ω is chosen so to have reasonable properties as the sizes of A and B vary: such a
consideration gives
Corresponding formulae for the combination of more than two estimates are available.
[1] Sonia Marques (2007) "Covariance intersection algorithm for formation flying spacecraft navigation from RF measurements" (http:// islab.
isr.ist. utl.pt/ htdocs/ workshop4/ presentations/ sonia. pdf), 4 ISLAB workshop, 12 November 2007
[2] Simon J. Julier and Jeffrey K. Uhlmann (2007) "Using covariance intersection for SLAM" (http:// citeseerx.ist. psu. edu/ viewdoc/
download?doi=10.1. 1. 106. 8515& rep=rep1&type=pdf), Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 55,(7), 3-20
[3] Lingji Chen, Pablo O. Arambel and Raman K. Mehra (2002) "Fusion under unknown correlation - Covariance intersection as a special case"
(http:// www. isif.org/ fusion/ proceedings/ fusion02CD/ pdffiles/ papers/ W1A02.pdf), International Society of Information Fusion
Conference 2002
[4] Niehsen, W., Bosch, R. (2002) Information Fusion based on Fast Covariance Intersection Filtering (http:/ / www.isif. org/ fusion/
proceedings/fusion02CD/ pdffiles/papers/ W1A01. pdf), International Society of Information Fusion Conference 2002
Part of the series on
Bionics / Biomimicry
Biomedical engineering
Distributed cognition
Genetic engineering
Human ecosystem
Human enhancement
Whole brain emulation
Cyborg theory
Cyborg Anthropology
Cognitive liberty
Cyborg feminism
Morphological freedom
A cyborg is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts. The term was
coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating
human-machine systems in outer space.
D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an
introduction which spoke of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship
between 'inner space' to 'outer space' — a bridge...between mind and matter."
The term cyborg is often today applied to an organism that has enhanced abilities due to technology,
though this
perhaps oversimplifies the necessity of feedback for regulating the subsystem. The earlier and more strict definition
of Cyborg was almost always considered as increasing or enhancing normal capabilities, whereas now the term can
also be applied to those organisms which use technology to repair or overcome their physical and mental constraints:
including artificial limbs and hands as well as a device for helping colour-blind people to "hear" in colour. While
cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism and the term
"Cybernetic organism" has been applied to networks, such as road systems, corporations and governments, which
have been classed as such. The term can also apply to micro-orgasnisms which are modified to perform at higher
levels than their unmodified counterparts.
Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts, and frequently pose the question of
difference between human and machine as one concerned with morality, free will, and empathy. Fictional cyborgs
may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star
Trek); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the Terminators from the Terminator films, the "Human"
Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica etc.) The 1970s television series The Six Million Dollar Man
featured one of the most famous fictional cyborgs, referred to as a bionic man. Cyborgs in fiction often play up a
human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that
seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human
counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).
According to some definitions of the term, the metaphysical and physical attachments humanity has with even the
most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.
In a typical example, a human fitted with a heart
pacemaker or an insulin pump (if the person has diabetes) might be considered a cyborg, since these mechanical
parts enhance the body's "natural" mechanisms through synthetic feedback mechanisms. Some theorists cite such
modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to
enhance their biological capabilities; however, these modifications are no more cybernetic than would be a pen or a
wooden leg. Cochlear implants that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are more
accurately cyborg enhancements.
The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes artifacts that may not
popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. Augmented with these
technologies, and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of
much more than they were before. This is like computers, which gain power by using Internet protocols to connect
with other computers. Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants,
libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work
Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is
made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).
Unlike human
cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally, a Lobster looks inhuman externally but
contains a human internally. The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar,
where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster" (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).
The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843,
Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In
1908, Jean de la Hire introduced Nyctalope (perhaps the first true superhero was also the first literary cyborg) in the
novel L'Homme Qui Peut Vivre Dans L'eau (The Man Who Can Live in the Water). Edmond Hamilton presented
space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured
the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures
of his famous hero, Captain Future. In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a
dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple
mechanical body.
The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced
human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:
For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system
unconsciously, we propose the term ‘Cyborg'. Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline
Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine
as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to take place. A designer of physiological instrumentation
and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation
Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.
The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological
Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.
A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are
modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from
the normal one.
A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable computer was published by
Doubleday in 2001. Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.
Individual cyborgs
Neil Harbisson is sometimes claimed to be a
Generally, the term "cyborg" is used to refer to a human with bionic, or
robotic, implants.
In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto
Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been
amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the
artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate
the user's natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.
like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some
to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world
cyborg applications. Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic
implants which provide people with a sense that they would not
otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.
In 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin
Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired in to his nervous system
in order to link his nervous system into the Internet. With this in place
he successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending
his nervous system over the Internet to control a robotic hand, a
loudspeaker and amplifier. This is a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication
between the nervous systems of two humans.
In 2004, under the heading Bridging the Island of the Colourblind Project, a British and completely colorblind artist,
Neil Harbisson, started wearing an eyeborg on his head in order to hear colors.
His prosthetic device was included
within his passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.
Social cyborgs
More broadly, the full term "cybernetic organism" is used to describe larger networks of communication and control.
For example, cities, networks of roads, networks of software, corporations, markets, governments, and the collection
of these things together. A corporation can be considered as an artificial intelligence that makes use of replaceable
human components to function. People at all ranks can be considered replaceable agents of their functionally
intelligent government institutions, whether such a view is desirable or not. The example above is reminiscent of the
"organic paradigm" popular in the late 19th century due to the era's breakthroughs in understanding of cellular
Jaap van Till tries to quantify this effect with his Synthecracy Network Law: V ~ N !, where V is value and N is
number of connected people. This factorial growth is what he claims leads to a herd or hive like thinking between
large, electronically connected groups.
Cyborg proliferation in society
In medicine
In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: these are the restorative and the enhanced.
Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.
The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is
the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement
to the original faculties and processes that were lost.
On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance:
maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the
process) ”.
Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were
not originally present.
Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice,
bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael
Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled "Rebuilt: How Becoming Part
Computer Made Me More Human."
Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb
through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.
2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.
The continued technological development of bionic and
nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which
surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of "enhancement prosthetics"
have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can
assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as
other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of
the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such
technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people
which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of
definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.
A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device,
effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey
matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed
people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people
who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals
sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also
eventually be used with healthy people also.
Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore
vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an
abnormally low amount of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a
substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)
While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of
electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the
subject , such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A
chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve
endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If
technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore
vision to most of them.
A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would
do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a
surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby
sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would
control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound
which could be shaped into words by the mouth.
In the military
Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for inter-species
relationships for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing
"cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect's motion
would be controlled from a MEMS, or Micro-Electro-Mechanical System, and would conceivably surveil an
environment and detect explosives or gas.
Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control
the movement of sharks. The shark's unique senses would be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy
ship movement and underwater explosives.
In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems
(MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the “first wireless flying-insect cyborg.”
Engineers at the
University of California at Berkeley pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle,” funded by the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).Videographic evidence of this can be viewed here
The success of the Beetle Borg has sparked an onslaught of research and the creation of a program called Hybrid
Insect MEMS or HI-MEMS. The goal for HI-MEMS, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to
develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the
early stages of metamorphosis.
Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, moths, beetles, bees, sharks, rats, and even
“The intimate control of insects with embedded microsystems will enable insect cyborgs, which could
carry one or more sensors, such as a microphone or a gas sensor, to relay back information gathered from the target
For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 meters from a starting point, guided via
computer into a controlled landing within 5 meters of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must
remain in place.
In art
The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public
awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such
works are Neil Harbisson, Patricia Piccinini, Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle, Steve Mann, Orlan, H.R. Giger, Lee Bul,
Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.
Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical
instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate,
intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has
performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 1976-1988 he completed 25 body suspension performances
with hooks into the skin. For 'Third Ear' he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet
enabled, making it an publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.
He is presently performing
as his avatar from his second life site.
Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are
combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson's piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent
on technology.
Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically
implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.
For one year, beginning December 15, 2010,
an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to [33] and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of
Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal's location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the
back of the head was to make an "allegorical statement about the things we don't see and leave behind."
As a
professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does
not take photographs in NYU buildings.
Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen
and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in
generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire
musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.
In popular culture
Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Examples of fictional
biologically based cyborgs include Spartans from Halo, RoboCop, Replicants, Star Trek's Borg and Star Wars' Darth
Vader as well as Luke Skywalker and General Grievous and Steve Austin's The Six Million Dollar Man.
Mechanically based cyborgs include Cylons, Terminators, Grox, Snatchers, and various manga and anime characters
such as 8 Man, Kamen Rider, many Fullmetal Alchemist characters such as Alphonse Elric, along with several
Dragon Ball characters including Dr. Gero, Android 17, Android 18 and Android 20.
The Cyborg in Feminist Theory
A key text in feminist-cyborg studies is A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the
Late Twentieth Century, first published in 1991 by Donna Haraway. According to Haraway, we are all cyborgs. The
figure of the cyborg is invoked as a representation of the “boundary ruptures” in the late twentieth century that
influence issues such as embodiment, identity and desire. Haraway employs the metaphor of the cyborg as a means
of understanding and navigating one’s place in a rapidly ever-changing techno-scientific world as well as challenging
what it means to be human. The figure of the cyborg is also used to encompass the category of “women of color”
because of their intersecting identities based on race and gender. Haraway situates her cyborg in a “post-gender”
world, but other feminist theorists, such as Kaye Mitchell, have refuted this claim and argue that it is not possible to
become “unsexed”.
Cyborg Foundation
In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world's first international organization dedicated to help humans
become cyborgs.
The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the
growing amount of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.
The foundation's main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions
to the body,
to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.
In 2010, the
foundation, based in Mataró (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus
[1] "Cyborgs and Space (http:/ / web. mit.edu/ digitalapollo/ Documents/ Chapter1/ cyborgs. pdf)," in Astronautics (September 1960), by
Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.
[2] D. S. Halacy, Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1965), 7.
[3] Technology as extension of human functional architecture (http:// www. lucifer.com/ ~sasha/ articles/ techuman.html) by Alexander
[4] A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century (http:/ / www. stanford.edu/ dept/ HPS/
Haraway/ CyborgManifesto. html) by Donna Haraway
[5] Sterling, Bruce. Schismatrix. Arbor House. 1985.
[6] Manfred E. Clynes, and Nathan S. Kline, (1960) "Cyborgs and space," Astronautics, September, pp. 26-27 and 74-75; reprinted in Gray,
Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera, eds., The Cyborg Handbook, New York: Routledge, 1995, pp. 29-34. (hardback: ISBN 0-415-90848-5;
paperback: ISBN 0-415-90849-3)
[7] OED On-line (http:/ / www.oed.com/ bbcwordhunt/ cyborg.html)
[8] *Miah, Andy / Rich, Emma. The medicalization of cyberspace (http:/ / books.google.es/ books?id=382wJB2DPCwC& pg=PA130&
dq="neil+ harbisson& hl=en& ei=GsDlS-iFNceE-Qapx9DoAw&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=3&
ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q="neil harbisson& f=false), Routledge (New York, 2008). p.130 ISBN 978-0-415-37622-8
• Brooks, Richard. "Colour-blind artist learns to paint by hearing" (http:// entertainment.timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/
visual_arts/ article3423446.ece), The Sunday Times, 24 February 2008.
• Ingram, Jay. Daily Planet. The Ultimate Book of Everyday Science (http:/ / www.penguin.ca/ nf/ Book/ BookDisplay/
0,,9780143177869,00. html?DAILY_PLANET_Jay_Ingram), Penguin (Canada, 2010). p.1 & p.232-235 ISBN 978-0-143-17786-9
• Gordon, Bryony. "Eyes opened to sound of socks" (http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/ health/ main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=P8&
xml=/health/ 2005/ 01/ 12/ hcolor12.xml), The Daily Telegraph, 12 January 2005.
• Alfredo M. Ronchi: Eculture: Cultural Content in the Digital Age. Springer (New York, 2009). p.319 ISBN 978-3-540-75273-8
• "La veo en blanco y negro pero la oigo en colores" (http:// www.lavanguardia.es/ free/edicionimpresa/ 20100710/53961073929.html),
La Contra de La Vanguardia, 10 July 2010.
• "Cyborgs and Stem Cells" (http:// www.research-tv.com/ stories/ health/ eyesight/ ), Research TV, 18 January 2005
[9] Otto Bock HealthCare : a global leader in healthcare products | Otto Bock (http:// www. ottobockus. com/ PRODUCTS/
LOWER_LIMB_PROSTHETICS/cleg_technology. asp)
[10] Warwick, K, Gasson, M, Hutt, B, Goodhew, I, Kyberd, P, Schulzrinne, H and Wu, X: “Thought Communication and Control: A First Step
using Radiotelegraphy”, IEE Proceedings on Communications, 151(3), pp.185-189, 2004
[11] Alfredo M. Ronchi: Eculture: Cultural Content in the Digital Age. Springer (New York, 2009). p.319 ISBN 978-3-540-75273-8
[12] Andy Miah, Emma Rich: The Medicalization of Cyberspace Routledge (New York, 2008) p.130 (Hardcover:ISBN 978-0-415-37622-8
Papercover: ISBN 978-0-415-39364-5)
[13] Gray, Chris Hables, ed. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1995
[14] Lyotard, Jean François: The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984
[15] Chorost, Michael. "The Naked Ear." Technology Review 111.1 (2008): 72-74. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
[16] Murray, Chuck. "Re-wiring the Body." Design News 60.15 (2005): 67-72. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
[17] Haddad, Michel, et al. "Improved Early Survival with the Total Artificial Heart." Artificial Organs 28.2 (2004): 161-165. Academic Search
Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
[18] Marsen, Sky. "Becoming More Than Human: Technology and the Post-Human Condition Introduction." Journal of Evolution & Technology
19.1 (2008): 1-5. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2010.
[19] Baker, Sherry. "RISE OF THE CYBORGS." Discover 29.10 (2008): 50-57. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
[20] Thurston, Bonnie. "Was blind, but now I see." 11. Christian Century Foundation, 2007. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Mar.
[21] Washington Times - Military seeks to develop 'insect cyborgs' (http:// www.washingtontimes. com/ national/ 20060313-120147-9229r.
[22] Military Plans Cyborg Sharks | LiveScience (http:/ / www. livescience. com/ technology/ 060307_shark_implant. html)
[23] Ornes, Stephen. "THE PENTAGON'S BEETLE BORGS." Discover 30.5 (2009): 14. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 1 Mar.
[24] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_i-_1QdY2Zc&feature=related
[25] Judy, Jack, Phd. "Hybrid Insect MEMS (HI-MEMS)." HI-MEMS - Programs - Microsystem Technology Office. DARPA, Web. 5 Mar
[26] Guizzo, Eric. "Moth Pupa + MEMS Chip = Remote Controlled Cyborg Insect." Automan. IEEE Spectrum, 17 Feb 2009. Web. 1 Mar
[27] Judy, Jack, Phd. "Hybrid Insect MEMS (HI-MEMS)." HI-MEMS - Programs - Microsystem Technology Office. DARPA, Web. 5 Mar
[28] Guizzo, Eric. "Moth Pupa + MEMS Chip = Remote Controlled Cyborg Insect." Automan. IEEE Spectrum, 17 Feb 2009. Web. 1 Mar
[29] http:/ / www. stanford.edu/ dept/ HPS/ stelarc/ a29-extended_body. html
[30] (http:// v2. stelarc. org/ index2. html)
[31] (http:// www. tfaoi. com/ aa/ 4aa/ 4aa590. htm)
[32] http:/ / www. bing.com/ videos/ watch/ video/ man-has-camera-screwed-into-head/ufrwn8c7?q=Wafaa+Bilal& FROM=LKVR5&
[33] http:// www. 3rdi.me
[34] http:/ / www. huffingtonpost.com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ wafaa-bilal-nyu-artist-ge_n_787446.html
[35] http:// www. huffingtonpost.com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ wafaa-bilal-nyu-artist-ge_n_787446.html
[36] Generative Music - Brian Eno - In Motion Magazine (http:// www.inmotionmagazine. com/ eno1. html)
[37] García, F.C. "Nace una fundación dedicada a convertir humanos en ciborgs" (http:// www.lavanguardia.es/ vida/ 20110301/ 54121537968/
nace-una-fundacion-dedicada-a-convertir-humanos-en-ciborgs. html.), La Vanguardia, 1 March 2011.
[38] Rottenschlage, Andreas "The Sound of the Cyborg" (http:// www.redbull. com/ cs/ Satellite/ en_INT/Article/
Thesoundofthecyborg-021242963775427) The Red Bulletin, 1 Mar 2011.
[39] Redacción "Una fundación se dedica a convertir humanos en ciborgs" (http:/ / elcomercio.pe/ tecnologia/ 721054/
noticia-fundacion-se-dedica-convertir-humanos-ciborgs) El Comercio (Peru), 1 Mar 2011.
[40] Calls, Albert "“Les noves tecnologies seran part del nostre cos i extensió del cervell”" (http:// www.tribunamaresme.com/ noticies/ noticia.
php?id=6672) La Tribuna, 3 Jan 2011.
[41] Martínez, Ll. "La Fundació Cyborg s'endú el primer premi dels Cre@tic" (http:/ / www.avui. cat/ noticia/ article/ 2-societat/ 5-societat/
333597-la-fundacio-cyborg-sendu-el-primer-premi-dels-cretic.html), Avui, 20 Nov 2010
• Haraway, Donna. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth
Century.” The Transgender Studies Reader. Eds. Susan Stryker and Stephan Whittle. New York: Routledge, 2006.
pp. 103-118.
• Mitchell, Kaye. “Bodies That Matter: Science Fiction, Technoculture, and the Gendered Body.” Science Fiction
Studies.Vol. 33, No. 1, Technoculture and Science Fiction (Mar., 2006), pp. 109-128
Further reading
• Balsamo, Anne. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Durham: Duke University Press,
• Caidin, Martin. Cyborg; A Novel. New York: Arbor House, 1972.
• Clark, Andy. Natural-Born Cyborgs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
• Crittenden, Chris. "Self-Deselection: Technopsychotic Annihilation via Cyborg." Ethics & the Environment 7.2
(Autumn 2002): 127-152.
• Franchi , Stefano, and Güven Güzeldere, eds. Mechanical Bodies, Computational Minds: Artificial Intelligence
from Automata to Cyborgs. MIT Press, 2005.
• Flanagan, Mary, and Austin Booth, eds. Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT
Press, 2002.
• Gray, Chris Hables. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2001.
• Gray, Chris Hables, ed. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1995.
• Grenville, Bruce, ed. The Uncanny: Experiments in Cyborg Culture. Arsenal Pulp Press, 2002.
• Halacy, D. S. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
• Halberstam, Judith, and Ira Livingston. Posthuman Bodies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
• Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women; The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1990.
• Klugman, Craig. "From Cyborg Fiction to Medical Reality." Literature and Medicine 20.1 (Spring 2001): 39-54.
• Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking, 2005.
• Mann, Steve. "Telematic Tubs against Terror: Bathing in the Immersive Interactive Media of the Post-Cyborg
Age." Leonardo 37.5 (October 2004): 372-373.
• Mann, Steve, and Hal Niedzviecki. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable
computer Doubleday, 2001. ISBN 0-385-65825-7 (A paperback version also exists, ISBN 0-385-65826-5).
• Masamune Shirow, Ghost in the Shell. Endnotes, 1991. Kodansha ISBN 4-7700-2919-5.
• Mertz, David. "Cyborgs" (http:/ / gnosis. cx/ publish/ mertz/Cyborgs. pdf). International Encyclopedia of
Communications. Blackwell 2008. ISBN 0195049942. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
• Mitchell, William. Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.
• Muri, Allison. The Enlightenment Cyborg: A History of Communications and Control in the Human Machine,
1660–1830. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.
• Muri, Allison. Of Shit and the Soul: Tropes of Cybernetic Disembodiment (http://headlesschicken. ca/ archive/
Shit& Soul.pdf). Body & Society 9.3 (2003): 73–92.
• Nishime, LeiLani. "The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future." Cinema Journal 44.2 (Winter 2005),
• The Oxford English dictionary. 2nd ed. edited by J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. Oxford: Clarendon Press;
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol 4 p. 188.
• Rorvik, David M. As Man Becomes Machine: the Evolution of the Cyborg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
• Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
• Smith, Marquard, and Joanne Morra, eds. The Prosthetic Impulse: From a Posthuman Present to a Biocultural
Future. MIT Press, 2005.
• The science fiction handbook for readers and writers. By George S. Elrick. Chicago: Chicago Review Press,
1978, p. 77.
• The science fiction encyclopaedia. General editor, Peter Nicholls, associate editor, John Clute, technical editor,
Carolyn Eardley, contributing editors, Malcolm Edwards, Brian Stableford. 1st ed. Garden City, N.Y.:
Doubleday, 1979, p. 151.
• Warwick, Kevin. I,Cyborg, University of Illinois Press, 2004.
• Yoshito Ikada, Bio Materials: an approach to Artificial Organs
External links
• Cyborgs in SciFi (http:/ / www. fantastique-arts.com/ en/ definition-of-cyborg.php)
D* is any one of the following three related incremental search algorithms:
• The original D*
(pronounced: D star) is an uninformed incremental search algorithm.
• Focused D*
is an informed incremental heuristic search algorithm by Anthony Stentz that combines ideas of
and the original D*. Focused D* resulted from a further development of the original D*.
• D* Lite
is an incremental heuristic search algorithm by Sven Koenig and Maxim Likhachev that builds on
, an incremental heuristic search algorithm that combines ideas of A* and Dynamic SWSF-FP
All three search algorithms solve the same assumption-based path planning problems, including planning with the
freespace assumption
, where a robot has to navigate to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. It makes
assumptions about the unknown part of the terrain (for example: that it contains no obstacles) and finds a shortest
path from its current coordinates to the goal coordinates under these assumptions. The robot then follows the path.
When it observes new map information (such as previously unknown obstacles), it adds the information to its map
and, if necessary, replans a new shortest path from its current coordinates to the given goal coordinates. It repeats the
process until it reaches the goal coordinates or determines that the goal coordinates cannot be reached. When
traversing unknown terrain, new obstacles may be discovered frequently, so this replanning needs to be fast.
Incremental (heuristic) search algorithms speed up searches for sequences of similar search problems by using
experience with the previous problems to speed up the search for the current one. Assuming the goal coordinates do
not change, all three search algorithms are more efficient than repeated A* searches.
D* and its variants have been widely used for mobile robot and autonomous vehicle navigation. Current systems are
typically based on D* Lite rather than the original D* or Focused D*. In fact, even Stentz's lab uses D* Lite rather
than D* in some implementations.
Such navigation systems include a prototype system tested on the Mars rovers
Opportunity and Spirit and the navigation system of the winning entry in the DARPA Urban Challenge, both
developed at Carnegie Mellon University.
The original D* was introduced by Anthony Stentz in 1994. The name D* comes from the term "Dynamic A*",
because the algorithm behaves like A* except that the arc costs can change as the algorithm runs.
The basic operation of D* is outlined below.
Like Dijkstra's algorithm and A*, D* maintains a list of nodes to be evaluated, known as the "OPEN list". Nodes are
marked as having one of several states:
• NEW, meaning it has never been placed on the OPEN list
• OPEN, meaning it is currently on the OPEN list
• CLOSED, meaning it is no longer on the OPEN list
• RAISE, indicating its cost is higher than the last time it was on the OPEN list
• LOWER, indicating its cost is lower than the last time it was on the OPEN list
The algorithm works by iteratively selecting a node from the OPEN list and evaluating it. It then propagates the
node's changes to all of the neighboring nodes and places them on the OPEN list. This propagation process is termed
"expansion". In contrast to A*, which follows the path from start to finish, D* begins by searching backwards from
the goal node. Each expanded node has a backpointer which refers to the next node leading to the target, and each
node knows the exact cost to the target. When the start node is the next node to be expanded, the algorithm is done,
and the path to the goal can be found by simply following the backpointers.
Obstacle handling
When an obstruction is detected along the intended path, all the points that are affected are again placed on the
OPEN list, this time marked RAISE. Before a RAISED node increases in cost, however, the algorithm checks its
neighbors and examines whether it can reduce the node's cost. If not, the RAISE state is propagated to all of the
nodes' descendants, that is, nodes which have backpointers to it. These nodes are then evaluated, and the RAISE
state passed on, forming a wave. When a RAISED node can be reduced, its backpointer is updated, and passes the
LOWER state to its neighbors. These waves of RAISE and LOWER states are the heart of D*.
By this point, a whole series of other points are prevented from being "touched" by the waves. The algorithm has
therefore only worked on the points which are affected by change of cost.
Another deadlock occurs
This time, the deadlock cannot be bypassed so elegantly. None of the points can find a new route via a neighbor to
the destination. Therefore, they continue to propagate their cost increase. Only outside of the channel can points be
found, which can lead to destination via a viable route. This is how two Lower waves develop, which expand as
unattainably marked points with new route information.
Focused D*
As its name suggests, Focused D* is an extension of D* which uses a heuristic to focus the propagation of RAISE
and LOWER toward the robot. In this way, only the states that matter are updated, in the same way that A* only
computes costs for some of the nodes.
D* Lite
D* Lite is not based on the original D* or Focused D*, but implements the same behavior. It is simpler to understand
and can be implemented in fewer lines of code, hence the name "D* Lite". Performance-wise, it is as good or better
than Focused D*. D* Lite is based on Lifelong Planning A*, which was introduced by Koenig a few years earlier.
Minimum cost versus current cost
For D*, it is important to distinguish between current and minimum costs. The former is only important at the time
of collection and the latter is critical because it sorts the OpenList. The function which returns the minimum cost is
always the lowest cost to the current point since it is the first entry of the OpenList.
[1] Stentz, Anthony (1994), "Optimal and Efficient Path Planning for Partially-Known Environments" (http:// citeseerx.ist. psu. edu/ viewdoc/
summary?doi=10.1. 1. 15. 3683), Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation: 3310–3317,
[2] Stentz, Anthony (1995), "The Focussed D* Algorithm for Real-Time Replanning" (http:// citeseerx.ist.psu. edu/ viewdoc/ summary?doi=10.
1. 1. 41. 8257), In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence: 1652–1659,
[3] P. Hart, N. Nilsson and B. Raphael, A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths, IEEE Trans. Syst. Science and
Cybernetics, SSC-4(2), 100–107, 1968.
[4] S. Koenig and M. Likhachev. Fast Replanning for Navigation in Unknown Terrain. Transactions on Robotics, 21, (3), 354–363, 2005.
[5] S. Koenig, M. Likhachev and D. Furcy. Lifelong Planning A*. Artificial Intelligence Journal, 155, (1–2), 93–146, 2004.
[6] G. Ramalingam, T. Reps, An incremental algorithm for a generalization of the shortest-path problem, Journal of Algorithms 21 (1996)
[7] S. Koenig, Y. Smirnov and C. Tovey. Performance Bounds for Planning in Unknown Terrain. Artificial Intelligence Journal, 147, (1–2),
253–279, 2003.
[8] D. Wooden, Graph-based Path Planning for Mobile Robots, Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006.
External links
• Sven Koenig's web page (http:// idm-lab.org/project-a.html)
• Anthony Stentz' web page (http:/ / www. frc.ri.cmu. edu/ ~axs/ dynamic_plan. html)
Delta robot
Delta robot
A delta robot is a type of parallel robot. It consists of three arms connected to
universal joints at the base. The key design feature is the use of parallelograms in
the arms, which maintains the orientation of the end effector. By contrast a
Stewart platform can change the orientation of its end effector.
The delta robots have popular usage in picking and packaging in factories
because they can be quite fast, some executing up to 300 picks per minute.
The Delta robot (a parallel arm robot) was invented in the early 1980s by
Reymond Clavel at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL,
The purpose of this new type of robot was to manipulate light
and small objects at a very high speed, an industrial need at that time. In 1987,
the company Demaurex purchased a license for the Delta robot and started the
production of Delta robots for the packaging industry. In 1991 Reymond Clavel
presents his doctoral thesis 'Conception d'un robot parallèle rapide à 4 degrés de liberté' and receives the golden
robot award in 1999 for his work and development of the Delta robot. Also in 1999, ABB Flexible Automation starts
selling its Delta robot, the FlexPicker. By the end of 1999 the Delta robots are also sold by Sigpack Systems.
The Delta robot is a parallel robot, i.e. it consists of multiple kinematic chains interconnecting the base with the
platform. The robot can also be seen as a spatial generalisation of a four-bar linkage. It has four degrees of freedom:
three translational and one rotational. The key concept of the Delta robot is the use of parallelograms. These
parallelograms restrict the movement of the end platform to pure translation (only movement in the X, Y or Z
direction). The robot's base is mounted above the workspace. All the actuators are located in this base. From the
base, three middle jointed arms extend. The arms are made of lightweight composite material. The ends of the three
arms are connected to a small triangular platform. Actuation of the input links will move the triangular platform in
the X, Y or Z direction. Actuation can be done with linear or rotational actuators. From the base, a fourth leg extends
to the middle of the triangular platform to give the end effector a fourth, rotational degree of freedom.
Because the actuators are all located in the base, and the arms can be made of a light composite material the moving
parts of the Delta robot have a small inertia. This allows for very high accelerations. Accelerations can be up to 30 g
and speeds of 10 m/s can be reached.
Delta robot
Industries that take advantage of the high speed of the Delta robot are the packaging industry, medical and
pharmaceutical industry. Other possible applications include assembly tasks or operation in a clean room for
electronic components. The structure of the Delta robot can also be used to create haptic controllers
, such as the
Force Dimension
omega.x, delta.x and sigma.x devices, or the Novint Falcon game controller.
[1] http:/ / www. botjunkie. com/ 2009/ 11/ 03/ adept-quattro-is-fastest-ever-for-the-moment/
[2] US 4976582 (http:// v3. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4976582)
[3] Sunny Bains (8 August 2007). "Feeling virtual worlds" (http:// sunnybains. typepad.com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ feeling-virtual.html). .
[4] http:// www. forcedimension.com
• Clavel, R. (1991) Conception d'un robot parallèle rapide à 4 degrés de liberté (http:// library.epfl.ch/ theses/
?nr=925). Ph.D. Thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
• Bonev, I. (2001) Delta Parallel Robot — the Story of Success, Online article available at http:/ / www.parallemic.
org/ Reviews/ Review002. html
External links
• "Sketchy, a home-constructed drawing robot" (http:// www.jarkman.co. uk/ catalog/ robots/ sketchy. htm).
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
A commonly used convention for selecting frames of reference in robotics applications is the Denavit and
Hartenberg (D-H) convention which was introduced by Jaques Denavit and Richard S. Hartenberg. In this
convention, each homogeneous transformation is represented as a product of four basic transformations. The
common normal between two lines was the main geometric concept that allowed Denavit and Hartenberg to find a
minimal representation. The reference frames are laid out as follows:
1. the -axis is in the direction of the joint axis
2. the -axis is parallel to the common normal:
If there is no unique common normal (parallel axes), then (below) is a free parameter. The direction of
is from to , as shown in the video below.
3. the -axis follows from the - and -axis by choosing it to be a right-handed coordinate system.
The transformation is then described by the following four parameters known as D-H Parameters:
• : offset along previous to the common normal
• : angle about previous , from old to new
• : length of the common normal (aka , but if using this notation, do not confuse with ). Assuming a
revolute joint, this is the radius about previous .
• : angle about common normal, from old axis to new axis
visualization of D-H parameterization. Also available: YouTube
, 1280x720 MPEG-4
, 640x360 MPEG-4
There is some choice in frame layout as to whether the previous axis or the next points along the common
normal. The latter system allows branching chains more efficiently, as multiple frames can all point away from their
common ancestor, but in the alternative layout the ancestor can only point toward one successor. Thus the commonly
used notation places each down-chain axis collinear with the common normal, yielding the transformation
calculations shown below.
We can note constraints on the relationships between the axes:
• the -axis is perpendicular to both the and axes
• the -axis intersects both and axes
• the origin of joint is at the intersection of and
• completes a right-handed reference frame based on and
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
Every link/joint pair can be described as a coordinate transformation from the previous coordinate system to the next
coordinate system.
Note that these are 2 screws after oneanother. See Screw (motion).
The matrices mentioned above are as follows:
This gives:
where is the submatrix describing rotation and is the submatrix describing translation.
Use of Denavit and Hartenberg matricies
The Denavit and Hartenberg notation gives a standard methodology to write the kinematic equations of a
manipulator. This is specially useful for serial manipulators where a matrix is use to represent the pose (position and
orientation) of one body with respect to another.
The position of body with respect to may be represented by a position matrix indicated with the symbol
This matrix is also used to trasform a point from frame to
Where the upper left submatrix of represents the relative orientation of the two bodies, and the upper
right represents their relative position.
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
The position of body with respect to body can be obtained as the product of the matrices representing the pose
of with respect of and that of with respect of
An important properties of the Denavit and Hartemberg matrices is

Further matrices can be defined to represents velocity and acceleration of bodies.
The velocity of body with respect to body can be represented in frame by the matrix
where is the angular velocity of body with respect to body and all the components are expressed in frame
; is the velocity of one point of body with respect to body (the pole). The pole is the point of passing
through the origin of frame .
The acceleration matrix can be defined as the sum of the time derivative of the velocity plus the velocity squared
The velocity and the acceleration in frame of a point of body can be evaluated as
It is also possible to prove that
Velocity and acceleration matrices add up according to the following rules
in other words the absolute velocity is the sum of the drag plus the relative velocity; for the acceleration the Coriolis'
term is also present.
The components of velocity and acceleration matrices are expressed in an arbitrary frame and transform from one
frame to another by the following rule
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
For the dynamics 3 further matrices are necessary to describe the inertia , the linear and angular momentum ,
and the forces and torques applied to a body.
Inertia :
where is the mass, represent the position of the center of mass, and the terms
represent inertia and are defined as
Action matrix , containing force and torque :
Momentum matrix , containing linear and angular momentum
the all the matrices are represented with the vector components in a certain frame . Transformation of the
components from frame to frame follows to rule
The matrices described allow the writing of the dynamic equations in a concise way.
Newton's law:
The first of these equations express the Newton's law and is the equivalent of the vector equation (force
equal mass times acceleration) plus (angular acceleration in function of inertia and angular
velocity); the second equation permits the evaluation of the linear and angular momentum when velocity and inertia
are known.
Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters
[1] Spong, M., M. Vidyasagar, ”Robot Dynamics and Control”, John Wiley and Sons, 1989, ISBN 047161243X
[2] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=rA9tm0gTln8
[3] http:// tekkotsu. no-ip.org/movie/ dh-hd.mp4
[4] http:/ / tekkotsu. no-ip.org/movie/ dh-sd. mp4
[5] Giovanni Legnani, Federico Casolo, Paolo Righettini and Bruno Zappa ”A homogeneous matrix approach to 3D kinematics and dynamics —
I”. Theory Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 31, Issue 5, July 1996, Pages 573-587
[6] Giovanni Legnani, Federico Casalo, Paolo Righettini and Bruno Zappa ”A homogeneous matrix approach to 3D kinematics and
dynamics—II”. Applications to chains of rigid bodies and serial manipulators Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 31, Issue 5, July
1996, Pages 589-605
Developmental robotics
Developmental Robotics (DevRob), sometimes called epigenetic robotics, is a methodology that uses metaphors
from neural development and developmental psychology to develop the mind for autonomous robots. The focus is on
a single or multiple robots going through stages of autonomous mental development (AMD). Researchers in this
field study artificial emotions, self-motivation, and other methods of self-organization. The program that simulates
the functions of genome to develop a robot's mental capabilities is called a developmental program.
Different from traditional machine learning, some major features of developmental robotics are:
Task-nonspecificity: Since it is difficult for the genome to predict what tasks the baby will learn and perform in his
life, the developmental program is body-specific (species specific) but not task-specific.
Environmental openness: Due to the task-nonspecificity, AMD must deal with unknown and uncontrolled
environments, including various human environments.
Raw sensors: AMD must directly deal with continuous raw signals from sensors (e.g., vision, audition and touch),
since different tasks require different information in the sensors. Only raw signals have all.
Online processing: At each time instant, what the machine will sense next depends on what the machine does now.
Incremental processing: Acquired skills must be used to assist in the acquisition of new skills, as a form of
scaffolding. This requires incremental processing.
DevRob is related to, but differs from, evolutionary robotics (ER). ER uses populations of robots that evolve over
time, whereas DevRob is interested in how the organization of a single robot's control system develops through
experience, over time.
DevRob is also related to work done in the domains of Robotics, Artificial Life.
Cresceptron (ICCV 1992
, IJCV 1997
) was the first published developmental learning method for detecting and
recognizing a general object in a complex natural background based on a composite image view. It also segments the
detected object from the complex natural background. Human-machine interactions through the sensory-end and the
motor-end teach the Cresceptron, while the internal self-organization is fully autonomous.
The NSF/DARPA funded Workshop on Development and Learning
was held April 5–7, 2000 at Michigan State
University. It was the first international meeting devoted to computational understanding of mental development by
robots and animals. The term "by" was used since the agents are active during development.
DevRob was explained in Weng et al. Autonomous mental development by robots and animals. Science
291:599-600, 2001. Its major uniqueness is the task nonspecificity concept of a new kind of program: developmental
program (DP). A DP simulates the developmental functions of the "genome".
Developmental robotics
The first undergraduate courses
in DevRob were offered at Bryn Mawr College and Swarthmore College in the
Spring of 2003 by Douglas Blank and Lisa Meeden, respectively.
The first graduate course
in DevRob was offered at Iowa State University by Alexander Stoytchev in the Fall of
Main Journals
• IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development: http:// www.ieee-cis. org/pubs/ tamd/
• AMD Newsletter: http:/ / www. cse. msu. edu/ amdtc/ amdnl/
Main Conferences
• International Conference on Development and Learning: http:// www.cogsci. ucsd. edu/ ~triesch/ icdl/
• Epigenetic Robotics: http:/ / www. epigenetic-robotics.org/
• Developmental Robotics: http:/ / cs. brynmawr.edu/ DevRob05/
External links
Academic institutions and researchers in the field
• FeelixGrowing Project
: A European-funded project to study socio-emotional development in robots, humans,
and non-human primates. See also its Wikipedia entry
• Michigan State University -- Embodied Intelligence Lab
• Sony Computer Science Laboratory
, Paris, France
, France: Exploration, interaction and learning in developmental robotics
• University of Tokyo—Intelligent Systems and Informatics Lab
• Cognitive Robotics Lab
of Juergen Schmidhuber at IDSIA and Technical University of Munich
• LIRA-Lab
, University of Genova, Italy
• The University of Texas at Austin, UTCS Intelligent Robotics Lab
• RobotCub Project
: A 5 years European founded project to study cognition with a robot like a two years old
• Bryn Mawr College's Developmental Robotics Project
: research projects by faculty and students at
Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr Colleges, Philadelphia, PA, USA
• Jean Project
: Information Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California
• Cognitive Robotics (including Hide and Seek) at the Naval Research Laboratory
• The Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics
, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Developmental robotics
Blogs and Other Links
• The Mental Development Repository: http:/ / www.mentaldev. org
• Developing Intelligence: http:// develintel. blogspot. com
• Developmental Robotics: http:/ / developmentalrobotics. org : general information about developmental robotics
[1] http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee. org/iel2/ 632/ 7149/ 00287150. pdf?arnumber=287150
[2] http:// www. cse. msu. edu/ ~weng/ research/ IJCVrvsd2. pdf
[3] http:// www. cse. msu. edu/ dl/
[4] http:/ / dangermouse. brynmawr.edu/ cs380/
[5] http:// www. cs. iastate. edu/ ~alex/ classes/ 2005_Fall_610as/
[6] http:// www. feelix-growing.org/
[7] http:/ / www. cse. msu. edu/ ei
[8] http:/ / www. csl. sony.fr/Research/ Topics/ DevelopmentalRobotics/
[9] http:// flowers.inria. Fr
[10] http:/ / www. isi. imi. i. u-tokyo.ac. jp/
[11] http:/ / www. liralab.it
[12] http:/ / www. cs. utexas. edu/ users/ qr/robotics/ bootstrap-learning.html
[13] http:// cs. brynmawr.edu/ devrob/
[14] http:// eksl. isi. edu/ cgi-bin/ page. cgi?page=project-jean.html
[15] http:/ / www-robotics.cs. umass. edu/ index. php
Established 1997
Headquarters Madrid, Spain
Region Spain
Website Campus-Party.org
Founder Paco Regageles
Belinda Galindo
Campus Party (CP) is a week-long LAN party and technology festival founded in 1997 in Málaga, Spain as a
gaming event that linked Internet users throughout the country. In the past 14 years, it has evolved into a 7-day,
24-hour festival connecting online communities, gamers, programmers, bloggers, governments, universities and
students. As of 2011, Campus Party is held annually in four countries; making it Spain and Latin America's largest
technology event.
In 2012, the event will be held for the first time in the United States in Silicon Valley,
Campus Party has a broad focus, covering technology innovation and electronic entertainment, with an emphasis on
free software, programming, astronomy, social media, gaming, green technology, robotics, security networks and
computer modeling.


In December 1996 EnRED, a Spanish youth organization, wanted to found a small, private LAN party held at the
Benalmádena Youth Center in Andalucía, Spain. Paco Regageles, then director of Channel 100, suggested they
expand the event, and promoted it as a LAN party under the original name, the "Ben-Al Party" in reference to the
event's location in Benalmádena.
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia,
In April 1998 the second Ben-Al Party was held, attracting 5 times the
number of participants and national media attention to the gaming
EnRED abandoned the project as it grew, and in April 1999
Paco Regageles along with Belinda Galiano, Yolanda Rueda, Pablo
Antón, Juanma Moreno and Rafa Revert founded the non-profit
organization E3 Futura, with the broader objective of making
technology in all forms more accessible to society. Asociación E3
Futura organizes the Campus Party festivals through their associate
company, Futura Networks, the Campus IT Summer University and the
Cibervoluntariado digital inclusion movement.
In 2000 Manuel Toharia, a speaker at previous Campus Parties, and director of Príncipe Felipe's Museum of
Sciences in Valencia's City of arts and Sciences suggested that Ragageles expand and make the event more
international by moving it to the famous museum. That year, Campus Party doubled in size, attracting 1,600
participants to the 6-day festival.
Futura Networks
Futura Networks was founded by the non-profit E3 Futura in 1999 to create forums and educational programs, such
as Campus Party, to promote innovation and responsible participation in digital culture.
Their headquarters are in
Madrid, Spain with satellite offices in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, London and most recently San Francisco. Futura
Networks employs 88 people, and hires approximately 20 local organizers and hundreds of volunteers for each
Campus Party event.
Something Better
Something Better is an initiative announced on January 17th, 2011 at Campus Party Brazil by CP co-founder Paco
Ragageles and José María Álvarez-Pallete, President of Telefonica Latin America. Its goals are to promote the idea
that the "Internet isn't a network of computers, but a network of people" and to encourage responsible and proper use
of the networks.
Paco Ragageles said that the new initiative aims to start a movement of civic and social
responsibility on the web that promotes innovation and collaboration, and addresses common issues such as Internet
privacy, piracy, spam and cyberbullying.
One of the reported objectives of Something Better is to create an
Internet use education program through Ministries of Education globally.
The first development of Something Better is Geeks Sans Frontières, a volunteer ambassador program which is
based on the concept of Médecins Sans Frontières, to help bring technology education to developing countries.
Free Software
• Linux and ubuntu install fests
• Maddog
Green Technology
Green Campus
• Al Gore
Programming, developing and modeling
Innovation and startups
The Campus
Tents at the Campus Party village
Campus TV
Campus TV streaming live talks
Editions and expansion
-location etc To Latin America Formation of other editions
Campus Party editions by date
Date Location Venue
Main Speakers
1997 Benalmádena,
Málaga, Spain
Colegio Miguel Hernández 50
August 8-10,
Mollina, Málaga,
1998 Benalmádena,
Málaga, Spain
Municipal Sport Arena of
July 31- August
2, 1998
Mollina, Málaga,
August 2-8, 1999 Mollina, Málaga,
August 7-13,
Valencia, Spain Príncipe Felipe Science
Museum in the City of Arts
and Sciences
1,600 Manuel Toharia
August 7-10,
Valencia, Spain Príncipe Felipe Science
Museum in the City of Arts
and Sciences
1,600 Al Gore, Nicholas Negroponte
August 5-11,
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 3,000
July 27-31, 2004 Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 4,500 Yago Lamela
July 25-31, 2005 Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 5,500 Neil Armstrong, Kevin Warwick,
July 24-30, 2006 Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 5,500 Stephen Hawking, Eveline Herfkens, Tom Kalil, Rudolph
Giuliani, David Calkins, Frank Pearce, Stefano Maffulli,
Raúl Albiol, Juan Carlos Ferrero
July 23-29, 2007 Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 8,100 John "Maddog" Hall, Mark Shuttleworth, Tommy
Tallarico, Jani Pönkkö, Barbara Lippe, Jun Ho Oh,
Marcelo Tossati, Kimiko Ryokai
February 11-17,
São Paulo, Brazil São Paulo Art Biennial 3,000 John "Maddog" Hall, Mari Moon, Marcos Pontes Steven
Johnson, Heather Camp
June 23-29, 2008 Bogotá, Columbia Bogotá Corferias Convention
2,430 John "Maddog" Hall, Vander Caballero
July 28- August
3, 2008
Valencia, Spain Valencia County Fair 8,973 Tim Berners-Lee, Jean-François Clervoy, Mary Hodder,
Tony Guntharp, Rosalía Lloret
October 28 -
November 1,
El Salvador Polideportivo Ciudad Merliot 600 Alfonso Cuarón, Gonzo Suárez
July 6-12, 2009 Bogotá, Columbia Bogotá Corferias Convention
3,671 Michael W. Carroll, Jordan Powell Hargrave, Kevin
2009 São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes Demi Getschko, Gilberto Gil, Lobão, Tim Berners-Lee
July 27- August
2, 2009
Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences 6,077 Ellen Baker, Nacho Vigalondo, Paulina Bozek, Rodrigo
November 12-16,
Mexico City,
Bancomer Convention Center 3,527 Neri Vela, John "Maddog" Hall, Tim Berners-Lee
January 25-31,
São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes 6,500 Lawrence Lessig, Gilberto Gil, Luiz Fernando Pezao,
Danese Cooper
2010 Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences Jean-François Clervoy, Stuart Clark, Karlheinz
Brandenburg, Paul Bennett
January 17-23,
São Paulo, Brazil Centro Imigrantes 6,800 Al Gore, Steve Wozniak, Tim Berners-Lee, Ben
Hammesley, John "Maddog" Hall, Kul Wadhwa, Stephen
July 11-17, 2011 Valencia, Spain City of Arts and Sciences Kevin Mitnick
October 2011 Ecuador TBA - TBA
December 2011 Chile TBA - TBA
March 2011 Bogotá, Colombia TBA - TBA
2011 Venezuela TBA - TBA
2011 Mexico City,
2012 USA Silicon Valley, California - TBA
[1] campus-party.org
[2] http:/ / blog.campus-party.com. br/ index. php/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ em-pouco-menos-de-um-ano-estados-unidos/
[3] http:/ / news. northxsouth. com/ 2009/ 02/12/ over-6600-people-attend-campus-party-brazil-2009/
[4] http:/ / www. campus-party. org/Contents. html
[5] http:// www. madrimasd. org/cienciaysociedad/ entrevistas/ revista-madrimasd/detalleEmpresa. asp?id=77
[6] http:// www. youtube. com/ watch?v=yZdpDhdMpcA
[7] http:// h10147. www1. hp. com/ case-studies/ campus_party. htm
[8] http:// www. futuranetworks.com/ campus. html
[9] http:// www. futuranetworks.com/
[10] http:/ / www. campus-party. org/somethingbetter-en.html
[11] http:// www. campus-party. org/problemas. html
[12] http:// www. campus-party. org/Geeksansfrontiers. html
[13] http:// www. ceulaj. injuve. es/
External links
• Official Website (http:// www. campus-party.org)
• Spanish edition (http:/ / www. campus-party.es)
• Mexican edition (http:/ / www. campus-party.com. mx/ )
• Party Spain (http:// www. partyspain. org/) (Database of Lan Partys in Spain)
• Server in mIRC: irc.irc-hispano.org Official channel: #campus-party (the nick must be registered to access the
• Pictures of the Campus Party (bandaancha.st) (http:/ / max. bandaancha. st/ campus/ )
• Flickr.com Campus Party (http:// www. flickr.com/ groups/ campusparty)
• Youtube Campus Party (http:/ / es. youtube. com/ campusparty)
Dynamic window approach
Dynamic window approach
In robotics, the dynamic window approach is a real-time collision avoidance strategy developed by Dieter Fox,
Wolfram Burgard, and Sebastian Thrun in 1997.
Unlike other avoidance methods, the dynamic window approach
is derived directly from the dynamics of the robot, and is especially designed to deal with the constraints imposed by
limited velocities and accelerations of the robot.
[1] Fox, D.; Burgard, W.; Thrun, S. (1997). "The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance" (http:// ieeexplore.ieee. org/xpls/ abs_all.
jsp?arnumber=580977). Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE 4 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1109/100.580977. . Retrieved 2008-06-30.
In robotics, EKF SLAM is a class of algorithms which utilizes the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for simultaneous
localization and mapping (SLAM). Typically, EKF SLAM algorithms are feature based, and use the maximum
likelihood algorithm for data association. For the past decade, the EKF SLAM has been the de facto method for
SLAM, until the introduction of FastSLAM.
Associated with the EKF is the gaussian noise assumption, which significantly impairs EKF SLAM's ability to deal
with uncertainty. With greater amount of uncertainty in the posterior, the linearization in the EKF fails.
[1] Montemerlo, M.; Thrun, S.; Koller, D.; Wegbreit, B. (2002). "FastSLAM: A factored solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping
problem" (http:// www.cs. cmu. edu/ ~mmde/ mmdeaaai2002. pdf). Proceedings of the AAAI National Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
pp. 593–598. .
[2] Thrun, S.; Burgard, W.; Fox, D. (2005). Probabilistic Robotics. Cambridge: The MIT Press. ISBN 0262201623.
Electroadhesion is the electrostatic effect of astriction between two surfaces subjected to an electrical field.
Applications include the retention of paper on plotter surfaces, astrictive robotic prehension (electrostatic grippers)
etc. Clamping pressures in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 N/cm
(0.8 to 2.3 psi) have been claimed.
Electroadhesion can be loosely divided into two basic forms: that which concerns the prehension of electrically
conducting materials where the general laws of capacitance hold (D = E ε) and that used with electrically insulating
subjects where the more advanced theory of electrostatics (D = E ε + P) applies.
[1] SRI International's Electroadhesive Robots (http:// www.sri. com/ rd/electroadhesion.html)
(http:// www. hizook. com/ blog/ 2009/ 08/ 06/ electroadhesive-robot-climbers)
External links
• Monkman. G.J., S. Hesse, R. Steinmann & H. Schunk – Robot Grippers - Wiley, Berlin 2007.
• Hesse. S, G.J. Monkman, R. Steinmann & H. Schunk - Robotergreifer - Hanser, München 2004.
• Monkman. G.J,. - 24:1 - Electroadhesive Microgrippers - Assembly Automation - Vol 24, No. 1, pp 326–330 -
MCB University Press, October 2003.
• Monkman. G.J. - Workpiece Retention during Machine Processing - Assembly Automation - Vol 20, issue 4,
MCB University Press, 2000.
• Monkman. G.J. - An analysis of astrictive prehension - International Journal of Robotics Research - Vol 16, No. 1
- February 1997.
• Monkman. G.J. - Robot Grippers for use with Fibrous Materials - International Journal of Robotics Research -
Vol 14, No. 2, pp. 144–151 - April 1995.
• Monkman. G.J. ‑ Compliant Robotic Devices and Electroadhesion ‑ Robotica ‑ Volume 10, pp. 183‑185,
February 1992.
• Monkman. G.J., P.M. Taylor & G.J. Farnworth ‑ Principles of Electroadhesion in Clothing Technology ‑
International Journal of Clothing Science & Technology, vol 1 , No. 3, pp. 14‑20. ‑ MCB University Press, 1989.
External links
• BBC News. Robots scale new heights (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7493460.stm). 2008-07-08
"materials with electro-adhesive properties". Retrieved 2008-07-08
• Electroadhesive Robot Climbers * (http:// www.hizook. com/ blog/ 2009/ 08/ 06/
Embodied cognitive science
Embodied cognitive science
For approaches to cognitive science that emphasize the embodied mind, see embodied mind thesis
Embodied Cognitive Science is an interdisciplinary field of research, the aim of which is to explain the mechanisms
underlying intelligent behavior. It comprises three main methodologies: 1) the modeling of psychological and
biological systems in a holistic manner that considers the mind and body as a single entity, 2) the formation of a
common set of general principles of intelligent behavior, and 3) the experimental use of robotic agents in controlled
Embodied cognitive science borrows heavily from embodied philosophy and the related research fields of cognitive
science, psychology, neuroscience and artificial intelligence. From the perspective of neuroscience, research in this
field was led by Gerald Edelman of the Neurosciences Institute at La Jolla, the late Francisco Varela of CNRS in
France, and J. A. Scott Kelso of Florida Atlantic University. From the perspective of psychology, research by
Michael Turvey and Eleanor Rosch. From the perspective of language acquisition, Eric Lenneberg and Philip Rubin
at Haskins Laboratories. From the perspective of autonomous agent design, early work is sometimes attributed to
Rodney Brooks or Valentino Braitenberg. From the perspective of artificial intelligence, see Understanding
Intelligence by Rolf Pfeifer and Christian Scheier or How the body shapes the way we think, also by Rolf Pfeifer and
Josh C. Bongard. From the perspective of philosophy see Andy Clark, Shaun Gallagher, and Evan Thompson.
Turing proposed that a machine may need a human-like body to think and speak:
It can also be maintained that it is best to provide the machine with the best sense organs that money
can buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English. That process could follow the normal
teaching of a child. Things would be pointed out and named, etc. Again, I do not know what the right
answer is, but I think both approaches should be tried (Turing, 1950).
General principles of intelligent behavior
In the formation of general principles of intelligent behavior, Pfeifer intended to be contrary to older principles given
in Traditional Artificial Intelligence. The most dramatic difference is that the principles are applicable only to
situated robotic agents in the real world, a domain where Traditional Artificial Intelligence showed the least promise.
Principle of Cheap Design and Redundancy: Pfeifer realized that implicit assumptions made by engineers often
substantially influence a control architecture's complexity.
This insight is reflected in discussions of the scalability
problem in robotics. The internal processing needed for some bad architectures can grow out of proportion to new
tasks needed of an agent.
One of the primary reasons for scalability problems is that the amount of programming and knowledge
engineering that the robot designers have to perform grows very rapidly with the complexity of the
robot's tasks. There is mounting evidence that pre-programming cannot be the solution to the scalability
problem ... The problem is that programmers introduce too many hidden assumptions in the robot's
The proposed solutions are to have the agent exploit the inherent physics of its environment, to exploit the
constraints of its niche, and to have agent morphology based on parsimony and the principle of Redundancy.
Redundancy reflects the desire for the error-correction of signals afforded by duplicating like channels. Additionally,
it reflects the desire to exploit the associations between sensory modalities. (See redundant modalities). In terms of
design, this implies that redundancy should be introduced with respect not only to one sensory modality but to
It has been suggested that the fusion and transfer of knowledge between modalities can be the basis of
reducing the size of the sense data taken from the real world.
This again addresses the scalability problem.
Principle of Parallel, Loosely-coupled Processes: An alternative to hierarchical methods of knowledge and action
selection. This design principle differs most importantly from the Sense-Think-Act cycle of traditional AI. Since it
Embodied cognitive science
does not involve this famous cycle, it is not affected by the Frame problem.
Principle of Sensory-Motor Coordination: Ideally, internal mechanisms in an agent should give rise to things like
memory and choice-making in an emergent fashion, rather than being prescriptively programmed from the
beginning. These kinds of things are allowed to emerge as the agent interacts with the environment. The motto is,
build fewer assumptions into the agent's controller now, so that learning can be more robust and idiosyncratic in the
Principle of Ecological Balance: This is more a theory than a principle, but its implications are widespread. Its claim
is that the internal processing of an agent cannot be made more complex unless there is a corresponding increase in
complexity of the motors, limbs, and sensors of the agent. In other words, the extra complexity added to the brain of
a simple robot will not create any discernible change in its behavior. The robot's morphology must already contain
the complexity in itself to allow enough "breathing room" for more internal processing to develop.
The Value Principle: This was the architecture developed in the Darwin III robot of Gerald Edelman. It relies heavily
on connectionism.
[1] Turing, Alan (October 1950), "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (http:/ / loebner.net/ Prizef/TuringArticle.html),
Mind LIX (236): 433–460, doi:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423, , retrieved 2008-08-18
[2] Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., Understanding Intelligence (MIT Press, 2001) ISBN 0-262-66125-X (436)
[3] Stoytchev, A. (2006). Five Basic Principles of Developmental Robotics (http:// www. cs. iastate.edu/ ~alex/ papers/
NIPS_Workshop_2006.pdf) NIPS 2006 Workshop on Grounding Perception, Knowledge and Cognition in
Sensori-Motor Experience. Department of Computer Science, Iowa State U
[4] Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., Understanding Intelligence (MIT Press, 2001) ISBN 0-262-66125-X (448)
[5] Konijn, Paul (2007). Summer Workshop on Multi-Sensory Modalities in Cognitive Science (http:// www.
diracproject.org/workshop-2007/ pdf/DIRAC-Summer-Workshop.pdf) Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues.
DIRAC EU IP IST project, Switzerland.
Further reading
• Braitenberg, Valentino (1986). Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
ISBN 0262521121
• Brooks, Rodney A. (1999). Cambrian Intelligence: The Early History of the New AI. Cambridge, MA: The MIT
Press. ISBN 0262522632
• Edelman, G. Wider than the Sky (Yale University Press, 2004) ISBN 0-300-10229-1
• Fowler, C., Rubin, P. E., Remez, R. E., & Turvey, M. T. (1980). Implications for speech production of a general
theory of action. In B. Butterworth (Ed.), Language Production, Vol. I: Speech and Talk (pp. 373–420). New
York: Academic Press. ISBN 0121475018
• Lenneberg, Eric H. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471526266
• Pfeifer, R. and Bongard J. C., How the body shapes the way we think: a new view of intelligence (The MIT Press,
2007). ISBN 0-262-16239-3
External links
• AI lectures from Tokyo hosted by Rolf Pfeiffer (http:// tokyolectures. org/lectures)
• synthetic neural modelling in DARWIN IV (http:/ / www.pnas. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 89/ 15/ 7267)
• Society for the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (http:// www.isab. org.uk)
Envelope (motion)
Envelope (motion)
In mechanical engineering, an envelope is a solid representing all positions which may be occupied by an object
during its normal range of motion.
Another (jargon) word for this is a "flop".
Wheel envelope
In automobile design, a wheel envelope may be used to model all positions a wheel and tire combo may be expected
to occupy during driving. This will take into account the maximum jounce and rebound allowed by the suspension
system and the maximum turn and tilt allowed by the steering mechanism. Minimum and maximum tire inflation
pressures and wear conditions may also be considered when generating the envelope.
This envelope is then compared with the wheel housing and other components in the area to perform an
interference/collision analysis. The results of this analysis tell the engineers whether that wheel/tire combo will strike
the housing and components under normal driving conditions. If so, either a redesign is in order, or that wheel/tire
combo will not be recommended.
A different wheel envelope must be generated for each wheel/tire combo for which the vehicle is rated. Much of this
analysis is done using CAD/CAE systems running on computers. Of course, high speed collisions, during an
accident, are not considered "normal driving conditions", so the wheel and tire may very well contact other parts of
the vehicle at that time.
Robot's working envelope
In robotics, the working envelope or work area is the volume of working or reaching space . Some factors of a
robot's design (configurations, axes or degrees of freedom) influence its working envelope.
[1] OSHA TECHNICAL MANUAL - SECTION IV: CHAPTER 4 (http:// www.osha.gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/otm_iv_4. html)
Evolutionary developmental robotics
Evolutionary developmental robotics
Evolutionary developmental robotics (evo-devo-robo for short), formally suggested and fully discussed in
refers to methodologies that systematically integrate evolutionary robotics, epigenetic robotics and morphogenetic
robotics to study the evolution, physical and mental development and learning of natural intelligent systems in
robotic systems. The theoretical foundation of evo-devo-robo includes evolutionary developmental biology
(evo-devo), evolutionary developmental psychology, developmental cognitive neuroscience etc. Further discussions
on evolution, development and learning in robotics and design can be found in



, in hardware systems
, and in computing tissues
[1] Y. Jin and Y. Meng, "Morphogenetic robotics: A new emerging field in developmental robotics. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, Part C: Reviews and Applications, 2010 (accepted)
[2] H. Lipson, Evolutionary robotics and open-ended design automation.
[3] J. Kodjabachian and J.-A. Meyer, Development, learning and evolution in animates. From Perception to Action, IEEE Press, 1994
[4] D. Floreano, and J. Urzelai. Neural morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and evolution. Theory in Biosciences, 120(3-4):225-240, 2001
[5] J. Kodjabachian and J.-A. Meyer. Evolution and development of neural controllers for locomotion, gradient-following and obstacle avoidance
in artificial insects. IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 9(5):796-812, 1998
[6] M. Sipper et al. A phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and epigenetic view of bio-inspired hardware systems. IEEE Trans. on Evolutionary
Computation. 1(1):83-97, 1997
[7] H. Guo, Y. Meng, and Y. Jin. A cellular mechanism for multi-robot construction via evolutionary multi-objective optimization of a gene
regulatory network. BioSystems, 98(3):193-203, 2009
[8] C. Teuscher, D. Mange, A. Stauffer, and G. Tempesti. Bio-inspired computing tissues: Towards machines that evolve, grow, and learn.
IPCAT'2001, April 2001
Evolutionary robotics
Evolutionary robotics (ER) is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to develop controllers for
autonomous robots. Algorithms in ER frequently operate on populations of candidate controllers, initially selected
from some distribution. This population is then repeatedly modified according to a fitness function. In the case of
genetic algorithms (or "GAs"), a common method in evolutionary computation, the population of candidate
controllers is repeatedly grown according to crossover, mutation and other GA operators and then culled according
to the fitness function. The candidate controllers used in ER applications may be drawn from some subset of the set
of artificial neural networks, although some applications (including SAMUEL, developed at the Naval Center for
Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence) use collections of "IF THEN ELSE" rules as the constituent parts of an
individual controller. It is theoretically possible to use any set of symbolic formulations of a control laws (sometimes
called a policies in the machine learning community) as the space of possible candidate controllers. Artificial neural
networks can also be used for robot learning outside of the context of evolutionary robotics. In particular, other
forms of reinforcement learning can be used for learning robot controllers.
Developmental robotics is related to, but differs from, evolutionary robotics. ER uses populations of robots that
evolve over time, whereas DevRob is interested in how the organization of a single robot's control system develops
through experience, over time.
Evolutionary robotics
The foundation of ER was laid with work at the national research council in Rome in the 90s, but the initial idea of
encoding a robot control system into a genome and have artificial evolution improve on it dates back to the late 80s.
In 1992 and 1993 two teams, a team surrounding Floreano and Mondada at the EPFL in Lausanne and a research
group at the COGS at the University of Sussex reported experiments on artificial evolution of autonomous robots.
The success of this early research triggered a wave of activity in labs around the world trying to harness the potential
of the approach.
Lately, the difficulty in "scaling up" the complexity of the robot tasks has shifted attention somewhat towards the
theoretical end of the field rather than the engineering end.
Evolutionary robotics is done with many different objectives, often at the same time. These include creating useful
controllers for real-world robot tasks, exploring the intricacies of evolutionary theory (such as the Baldwin effect),
reproducing psychological phenomena, and finding out about biological neural networks by studying artificial ones.
Creating controllers via artificial evolution requires a large number of evaluations of a large population. This is very
time consuming, which is one of the reasons why controller evolution is usually done in software. Also, initial
random controllers may exhibit potentially harmful behaviour, such as repeatedly crashing into a wall, which may
damage the robot. Transferring controllers evolved in simulation to physical robots is very difficult and a major
challenge in using the ER approach. The reason is that evolution is free to explore all possibilities to obtain a high
fitness, including any inaccuracies of the simulation . This need for a large number of evaluations, requiring fast yet
accurate computer simulations, is one of the limiting factors of the ER approach .
In rare cases, evolutionary computation may be used to design the physical structure of the robot, in addition to the
controller. One of the most notable examples of this was Karl Sims' demo for Thinking Machines Corporation.
Motivation for evolutionary robotics
Many of the commonly used machine learning algorithms require a set of training examples consisting of both a
hypothetical input and a desired answer. In many robot learning applications the desired answer is an action for the
robot to take. These actions are usually not known explicitly a priori, instead the robot can, at best, receive a value
indicating the success or failure of a given action taken. Evolutionary algorithms are natural solutions to this sort of
problem framework, as the fitness function need only encode the success or failure of a given controller, rather than
the precise actions the controller should have taken. An alternative to the use of evolutionary computation in robot
learning is the use of other forms of reinforcement learning, such as q-learning, to learn the fitness of any particular
action, and then use predicted fitness values indirectly to create a controller.
Evolutionary robotics
Conferences and institutes
Main conferences
• Evolutionary Robotics
• IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation
• European Conference on Artificial Life
• ALife
Octavia interactive robot of Navy Center for
Applied Research In Artificial Intelligence
Academic institutes and researchers
• Chalmers University of Technology: Peter Nordin, The Humanoid
• University of Sussex: Inman Harvey, Phil Husbands, Ezequiel Di
Paolo, Eric Vaughan, Thomas Buehrmann
• CNR: Stefano Nolfi, Domenico Parisi, Gianluca Baldassarre, Vito
Trianni, Onofrio Gigliotta, Gianluca Massera, Mariagiovanna
• EPFL: Dario Floreano
• University of Zürich: Rolf Pfeifer
• Cornell University: Hod Lipson
• University of Vermont: Josh Bongard
• Indiana University: Randall Beer
• Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines
, North Carolina State University: Eddie Grant, Andrew Nelson
• University College London: Peter J. Bentley, Siavash Haroun Mahdavi
• University of Essex: Simon Lucas
• Brandeis University: Jordan Pollack
• IDSIA and Technical University of Munich: Juergen Schmidhuber's Robot Lab
• University College of Skövde: Tom Ziemke
• U.S. Naval Research Laboratory's, Navy Center for Applied Research In Artificial Intelligence
: Alan C.
Schultz, Mitchell A. Potter, Kenneth De Jong
• University of Osnabrueck, Neurocybernetics Group
: Frank Pasemann
• Evolved Virtual Creatures
by Karl Sims (GenArts)
• Ken Rinaldo artificial life robotics
• University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU): Robótica Evolutiva, Pablo González-Nalda (in Spanish)
(in English)
• University of Plymouth: Angelo Cangelosi
, Davide Marocco
, Fabio Ruini
, * Martin Peniak
• Heriot-Watt University
: Patricia A. Vargas
• Pierre and Marie Curie University, ISIR
: Stephane Doncieux
, Jean-Baptiste Mouret
• Paris-Sud University and INRIA, IAO/TAO
: Nicolas Bredeche
• RIKEN Brain Science Institute: Fady Alnajjar
Evolutionary robotics
• Evolutionary Robotics by Stefano Nolfi and Dario Floreano. ISBN 0-262-14070-5
• Advances in the Evolutionary Synthesis of Intelligent Agents by Mukesh Patel, Vasant Honavar and Karthik
Balakrishnan (Ed). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 2001. ISBN 0-262-16201-6
External links
• Institute of Robotics in Scandinavia AB (iRobis)
• An Evolutionary Architecture for a Humanoid Robot
• An introduction to Evolutionary Robotics with annotated bibliography
• The Evolutionary Robotics Homepage
• A gentle introduction to ER
[1] http:/ / humanoid. fy.chalmers. se/
[2] http:// crim.ece.ncsu. edu/ index. php
[3] http:/ / www. nelsonrobotics. org/
[4] http:// www. nrl.navy. mil/ aic/ iss/ aas/
[5] http:// www. ikw. uni-osnabrueck. de/~neurokybernetik/
[6] http:// www. ikw. uni-osnabrueck. de/~neurokybernetik/people/ fpasemann.html
[7] http:// www. genarts. com/ karl/evolved-virtual-creatures.html
[8] http:/ / www. kenrinaldo.com
[9] http:/ / lsi. vc.ehu. es/ pablogn/
[10] http:/ / lsi. vc.ehu. es/ pablogn/ topos/ investig/ ficheros/ NeurocompTopos.pdf
[11] http:/ / www. tech. plym. ac. uk/ soc/ staff/angelo/
[12] http:// www. plymouth. ac. uk/ pages/ dynamic. asp?page=staffdetails& id=dmarocco#/
[13] http:// www. fabioruini.eu/
[14] http:/ / www. martinpeniak.com
[15] http:/ / www. macs. hw. ac. uk/
[16] http:/ / www. macs. hw. ac. uk/ ~pav1/
[17] http:/ / www. isir. upmc. fr
[18] http:// people.isir. upmc. fr/doncieux
[19] http:// people.isir. upmc. fr/mouret
[20] http:// tao.lri.fr
[21] http:/ / www. lri.fr/~bredeche
[22] http:// humanoid.fy.chalmers. se/ text/ cuba. pdf
[23] http:/ / www. evolutionaryrobotics.org/
[24] http:/ / laral.istc. cnr.it/ evorobot/
[25] http:// lis. epfl.ch/ resources/ documentation/ EvolutionaryRobotics/ index. php
Exploration problem
Exploration problem
In robotics, the exploration problem deals with the use of a robot to maximize the knowledge over a particular area.
The exploration problem arises in mapping and search & rescue situations, where an environment might be
dangerous or inaccessible to humans.
The exploration problem naturally arises in situations in which a robot is utilized to survey an area that is dangerous
or inaccessible for humans. The field of robotic explorations draws from various fields of information gathering and
decision theory, and have been studied as far back as the 1950s.
The earliest work in robotic exploration was done in the context of simple finite state automata known as bandits,
where algorithms were designed to distinguish and map different states in a finite state automaton. Since then, the
primary emphasis has been shifted to the robotics system development domain, where exploration-algorithms guided
robot have been used to survey volcanos,
search and rescue, and abandoned mines mapping.
Current state of the
art system include advanced techniques on active localization, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)
based exploration, and multi-agent cooperative exploration.
Information gain
The key concept in the exploration problem is the notion of information gain, that is, the amount of knowledge
acquired while pushing the frontiers. A probabilistic measure of information gain is defined by the entropy
The function is maximized if p is a uniform distribution and minimized when p is a point mass distribution.
By minimizing the expected entropy of belief, information gain is maximized as
[1] Thrun, S.; Burgard, W.; Fox, D. (2005). Probabilistic Robotics. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0262201623.
[2] Bares, J.E.; Wettergreen, D.S. (1999). "Dante II: Technical Description, Results, and Lessons Learned" (http:// ijr.sagepub. com/ cgi/
content/abstract/ 18/ 7/ 621). The International Journal of Robotics Research 18 (7): 621. doi:10.1177/02783649922066475. . Retrieved
[3] Thrun, S.; Hahnel, D.; Ferguson, D.; Montemerlo, M.; Triebel, R.; Burgard, W.; Baker, C.; Omohundro, Z.; Thayer, S.; Whittaker, W. (2003).
"A system for volumetric robotic mapping of abandoned mines" (http:// ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/ abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1242260). Robotics
and Automation, 2003. Proceedings. ICRA'03. IEEE International Conference on. 3. .
Extended Kalman filter
Extended Kalman filter
In estimation theory, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear version of the Kalman filter which
linearizes about the current mean and covariance. The EKF has been considered
the de facto standard in the theory
of nonlinear state estimation,
navigation systems and GPS.
In the extended Kalman filter, the state transition and observation models need not be linear functions of the state but
may instead be differentiable functions.
Where w
and v
are the process and observation noises which are both assumed to be zero mean multivariate
Gaussian noises with covariance Q
and R
The function f can be used to compute the predicted state from the previous estimate and similarly the function h can
be used to compute the predicted measurement from the predicted state. However, f and h cannot be applied to the
covariance directly. Instead a matrix of partial derivatives (the Jacobian) is computed.
At each timestep the Jacobian is evaluated with current predicted states. These matrices can be used in the Kalman
filter equations. This process essentially linearizes the non-linear function around the current estimate.
Predict and update equations
Predicted state estimate
Predicted estimate covariance
Innovation or measurement residual
Innovation (or residual) covariance
Near-Optimal Kalman gain
Updated state estimate
Updated estimate covariance
where the state transition and observation matrices are defined to be the following Jacobians
Extended Kalman filter
Continuous-time extended Kalman filter
Unlike discrete-time extended Kalman filter, the prediction and update steps are coupled in continuous-time
extended Kalman filter.
Continuous-discrete extended Kalman filter
Most physical systems are represented as continuous-time models while discrete-time measurements are frequently
taken for state estimation via a digital processor. Therefore, the system model and measurement model are given by
where .
Extended Kalman filter
The update equations are identical to those of discrete-time extended Kalman filter.
Disadvantages of the extended Kalman filter
Unlike its linear counterpart, the extended Kalman filter in general is not an optimal estimator (of course it is optimal
if the measurement and the state transition model are both linear, as in that case the extended Kalman filter is
identical to the regular one). In addition, if the initial estimate of the state is wrong, or if the process is modeled
incorrectly, the filter may quickly diverge, owing to its linearization. Another problem with the extended Kalman
filter is that the estimated covariance matrix tends to underestimate the true covariance matrix and therefore risks
becoming inconsistent in the statistical sense without the addition of "stabilising noise".
Having stated this, the extended Kalman filter can give reasonable performance, and is arguably the de facto
standard in navigation systems and GPS.
Unscented Kalman filters
An improvement to the extended Kalman filter led to the development of the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), also a
nonlinear filter. In the UKF, the probability density is approximated by the nonlinear transformation of a random
variable, which returns much more accurate results than the first-order Taylor expansion of the nonlinear functions in
the EKF. The approximation utilizes a set of sample points, which guarantees accuracy with the posterior mean and
covariance to the second order for any nonlinearity. The UKF tends to be more robust and more accurate than the
EKF in its estimation of error.
"The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is probably the most widely used estimation algorithm for nonlinear
systems. However, more than 35 years of experience in the estimation community has shown that is
difficult to implement, difficult to tune, and only reliable for systems that are almost linear on the time
scale of the updates. Many of these difficulties arise from its use of linearization."
Invariant extended Kalman filter
The invariant extended Kalman filter (IEKF) is a modified version of the EKF for nonlinear systems possessing
symmetries (or invariances). It combines the advantages of both the EKF and the recently introduced
symmetry-preserving filters. Indeed, instead of using a linear correction term based on a linear output error, it uses a
geometrically adapted correction term based on an invariant output error; in the same way the gain matrix is not
updated from a linear state error, but from an invariant state error. The main benefit is that the gain and covariance
equations converge to constant values on a much bigger set of trajectories than equilibrium points as it is the case for
the EKF, which results in a better convergence of the estimation.
[1] Julier, S.J.; Uhlmann, J.K. (2004). "Unscented filtering and nonlinear estimation" (http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/ abs_all.
jsp?arnumber=1271397&tag=1). Proceedings of the IEEE: 401–422. .
[2] ,. Comparison of Kalman Filter Estimation Approaches for State Space Models with Nonlinear Measurements (http:// www.idi. ntnu. no/
~fredrior/files/ orderud05sims. pdf). . Retrieved 2008-07-16.
[3] Courses, E.; Surveys, T. (2006). "Sigma-Point Filters: An Overview with Applications to Integrated Navigation and Vision Assisted Control"
(http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee. org/xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=4378854). Nonlinear Statistical Signal Processing Workshop, 2006 IEEE: 201–202.
doi:10.1109/NSSPW.2006.4378854. . Retrieved 2008-07-14.
Feelix Growing
Feelix Growing
Feelix Growing is a research project that is working to design robots that can detect and respond to human
emotional cues. The project involves six countries and 25 roboticists, developmental psychologists and
The aim of the project was to build robots that "learn from humans and respond in a socially and emotionally
appropriate manner".
The robots are designed to respond to emotional cues from humans and use them to adapt
their own behavior. The project designers wanted to facilitate integration of robots into human society so that they
could more easily provide services. The project aims to create robots that can "recognize" a given emotion, such as
anger or fear, in a human, and adapt its behavior to the most appropriate response after repeated interactions.
the project emphasizes development over time.
Robots are expected to be able to read emotions by picking up on physical cues like movement of body and facial
muscles, posture, speed of movement, eyebrow position,
and distance between the human and the robot.
participants want to design the robots to detect those emotional cues that are universal to people, rather than those
specific to individuals and cultures.
The robots are made not only to detect emotions in people but also to have their own. According to Dr. Lola
Cañamero, who is running the project, "Emotions foster adaptation to environment, so robots would be better at
learning things. For example, anything that damages the body would be painful, so a robot would learn not to do it
Cañamero says that the robots will be given the equivalent of a system of pleasure and pain.
The robots will have artificial neural networks. Rather than building complex hardware, the project coordinators plan
to focus on designing software and to use mostly "off the shelf" hardware that is already available. The only part
they plan to build themselves are heads with artificial faces capable of forming facial expressions.
The scheme for 2.5 million euros is financed by the European Commission
(the executive body of the European
Union) and is set to last for three years. Project participants hope to have a model of robot that can be used in homes
and hospitals by the scheduled end date of the project.
The name Feelix is derived from the words feel, interact, and express.
External links
• Feelix Growing homepage
. Retrieved on March 4, 2007.
• Evan Blass. February 23, 2007. Researchers teaching robots to read emotional cues, sense our fear
Engadget.com. Humorous post to a list about the project. Retrieved on March 4, 2007.
• Louis Ramirez. February 23, 2007. Feelix Growing Project Looking to Build Robots with Attitude
Gizmodo.com. Humorous post to a list about the project. Retrieved on March 4, 2007.
Feelix Growing
[1] Javier Sampedro. March 4, 2007. ¿Qué sienten las máquinas? (http:/ / www.elpais.com/ articulo/ sociedad/ sienten/ maquinas/ elpepusoc/
20070304elpepisoc_2/Tes) ELPAIS.com. Retrieved on March 5, 2007.
[2] BBC News. 23 February 2007. Emotion robots learn from people (http:// news. bbc.co.uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 6389105. stm). Retrieved on
March 4, 2007.
[3] Kate Wighton. March 3, 2007. Robo-doc’s on call today (http:// women.timesonline.co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ women/ body_and_soul/
article1461121.ece). Times Online. Retrieved on March 5, 2007.
[4] http:// www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 02/ 23/ researchers-teaching-robots-to-read-emotional-cues-sense-our-fe/
[5] http:/ / gizmodo.com/ gadgets/ robots/feelix-growing-project-looking-to-build-robots-with-attitude-239123.php
Festo AG & Co. KG
Type KG
Founded Esslingen am Neckar, Germany (1925)
Founder(s) Gottlieb Stoll
Number of locations Sankt Ingbert
Key people Eberhard Veit
Revenue €1.7 billion (2008)
Employees 13,500 (2007)
Festo is a German industrial control and automation company based in Esslingen am Neckar, Germany.
Festo is
an engineering-driven company that sells pneumatic and electric actuators primarily to the automation industry.
Festo was founded in 1925 by Gottlieb Stoll and Albert Fezer. Initially it manufactured wood cutting tools and later
diversified into the automation industry. In 2000 its portable power tool activities were spun off into an independent
company, Festool.
Festo also offers Engineering Services via its Customer Solutions department. These "solutions" range from simple
assemblies and kits, to full automation solutions utilizing Festo and third party components. Typical tasks include
custom machine design and process automation.
Festo has links with universities, institutes and development companies through their Bionic Learning Network
They are using this to explore ideas and initiatives which go beyond the core business of automation and
didactics and may lead to future products and product areas, currently these projects involve their new line of
pneumatic actuators. Some of these projects are the Aqua Jelly,

the Aqua Ray,
Airic’s arm,
the Airacuda,
and SmartBird.
[1] http:/ / www. festo. com/ cms/ en-gb_gb/index. htm
[2] Company Profile (http:// goliath. ecnext. com/ coms2/ product-compint-0000463878-page.html), Goliath
[3] Bionic Learning Network (http:/ / www.festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 4981. htm), Festo.com
[4] Aqua Jelly (http:/ / www. festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 5889_6037.htm#id_6036)
[5] AquaPenguin (http:// www.festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 10290.htm), Festo.com
[6] "Festo's robotic penguins are bionic, cuter than Man from Atlantis" (http:// dvice.com/ archives/ 2009/ 04/ festos-robotic.php). Dvice.com. .
Retrieved 2009-04-26.
[7] Aqua Ray (http:/ / www.festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 5007.htm)
[8] Airic’s_arm (http:// www.festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 5009. htm)
[9] Airacuda (http:/ / www.festo. com/ cms/ en-us_us/ 4969. htm)
[10] Smartbird (http:// www. festo. com/ cms/ en_corp/11369.htm)
External links
• Official website (http:// www. festo. com)
• Festo UK Website (http:/ / www. festo. co. uk)
• Festo US Website (http:/ / www. festo. us)
Forest of stars
A forest of stars is a set of star worlds whose adjacency matrix is a tree. This means that no intersecting star worlds
create a cycle, or hole, in the overall space. If an object or space can be represented by a forest of stars, it can be
mapped onto a sphere-world by mapping each star world onto the boundary of its parent star world in the adjacency
tree. The root of an adjacency tree can be picked arbitrarily.
All star worlds in a forest of stars must have intersections that are also star worlds with respect to their center point.
Forests of stars are used in robot navigation to create navigation functions such as artificial potential functions. A
forest of stars is used to represent robots or obstacles that have shapes which can be approximated by the union of
separate stars.
Relation to sphere worlds
A sphere world is a space whose boundary is a sphere of the same dimension as the space. A star world is any world
whose boundary can be mapped onto the boundary of a sphere world. Since a forest of stars is the union of a number
of star worlds, the forest can be recursively mapped onto a single sphere world, and then navigation techniques for
sphere worlds can be used.
Forward kinematic animation
Forward kinematic animation is a method in 3D computer graphics for animating models.
The essential concept of forward kinematic animation is that the positions of particular parts of the model at a
specified time are calculated from the position and orientation of the object, together with any information on the
joints of an articulated model. So for example if the object to be animated is an arm with the shoulder remaining at a
fixed location, the location of the tip of the thumb would be calculated from the angles of the shoulder, elbow, wrist,
thumb and knuckle joints. Three of these joints (the shoulder, wrist and the base of the thumb) have more than one
degree of freedom, all of which must be taken into account. If the model were an entire human figure, then the
location of the shoulder would also have to be calculated from other properties of the model.
Forward kinematic animation can be distinguished from inverse kinematic animation by this means of calculation -
in inverse kinematics the orientation of articulated parts is calculated from the desired position of certain points on
the model. It is also distinguished from other animation systems by the fact that the motion of the model is defined
directly by the animator - no account is taken of any physical laws that might be in effect on the model, such as
gravity or collision with other models.
Forward kinematic animation
External links
• Control Skeleton for Animation
• Salient Feature Extraction of 2D/3D Shapes
[1] http:/ / mecca.louisville. edu/ ~msabry/ projects/ cskel. htm
[2] http:// mecca.louisville. edu/ ~msabry/ projects/ lsg. htm
Forward kinematics
An articulated 7 DOF robotic arm would use forward kinematics to determine the
location of the gripper.
Forward kinematics is computation of the
position and orientation of robot's end
effector as a function of its joint angles. It is
widely used in robotics, computer games,
and animation. The reverse process is
known as inverse kinematics.
For a serial chain of n links, and let be
the angle of link i. Given ... , the
frame of link n relative to link 0 is:
Where is the transformation matrix from the frame of link to link . In robotics, these are
conventionally described by Denavit-Hartenberg parameters.
Simple Introduction
• For a detailed introduction to transformation matrices and forward kinematics, see.
[1] Learn About Robots. "Robot Forward Kinematics" (http:/ / www.learnaboutrobots.com/ forwardKinematics.htm). . Retrieved 2007-02-01.
[2] Jennifer Kay. "Introduction to Homogeneous Transformations & Robot Kinematics" (http:// elvis. rowan.edu/ ~kay/ papers/ kinematics.
pdf). . Retrieved 2010-09-11.
Foton-M is series of robotic spacecraft used by Russia and the European Space Agency for research conducted in
the microgravity environment of Earth orbit. The Foton-M design is based on the design of the Foton, with several
improvements including a new telemetry and telecommand unit for increased data flow rate, increased battery
capacity, and a better thermal control system. It is produced by TsSKB-Progress in Samara.
The first launch, of Foton-M1, failed because of a malfunction of the Soyuz-U launcher. The second launch, of
Foton-M2, was however a success.
Foton-M3 was launched on 14 September 2007 carried by a Soyuz-U rocket
lifting off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
It returned successfully to Earth on September 26,
2007, landing in Kazakhstan at 7:58 GMT
[1] "European experiments successfully launched aboard Foton spacecraft" (http:// www.esa. int/ esaCP/ SEMZDJ0DU8E_index_0.html).
ESA. .
[2] "Lift-off for Foton microgravity mission" (http:/ / www.esa. int/ esaCP/ SEMQDB13J6F_index_0. html). ESA. .
[3] "Foton-M3 experiments return to Earth" (http:/ / www.esa. int/ esaCP/ SEMFVO6H07F_index_0. html). . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
Frankenstein complex
In Isaac Asimov's robot novels, the Frankenstein complex is a term that he coined for the fear of mechanical men.
Some of Asimov's S.F. short stories and novels predict that this phobia will become strongest and most widespread
when being directed against "mechanical men" that most-closely resemble human beings (see android), but it is also
present on a lower level against robots that are plainly electromechanical automatons. The "Frankenstein Complex"
is similar in many respects to Masahiro Mori's uncanny valley hypothesis.
The name, "Frankenstein Complex", derives from the name of Victor Frankenstein in the groundbreaking novel,
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley in about the year 1818. In Ms.
Shelley's story, Frankenstein created an intelligent, somewhat superhuman being. He finds that his creation is
horrifying to behold, and he abandons it. This ultimately leads to Victor's death at the conclusion of a vendetta
between himself and his embittered creation.
Note the distinction between "Frankenstein" the creator and Frankenstein's monster: a Frankenstein complex is not a
fear of roboticists, scientists, or even mad scientists, but rather, a fear of artificial human beings, although fear of one
generally implies some fear of the other.
The general attitude of the public towards robots in much of Dr. Asimov's fiction is fear and suspicion: ordinary
people fear that robots will either replace them or dominate them. Although dominance is impossible under the
specifications of the Three Laws of Robotics, which state clearly,
A robot may not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm,
the fictitious earthly public does not generally listen to this logic, but rather they listen to their fears. In I, Robot's
short story "Little Lost Robot" is an example of the "fear of robots" that Asimov described.
In Asimov's robot novels, the Frankenstein Complex is a major problem for roboticists and robot manufacturers.
They do all they can to calm the public and show that robots are harmless, sometimes even hiding the truth because
the public would misunderstand it and take it to the extreme. The fear by the public and the response of the
manufacturers is an example of the theme of paternalism, the dread of paternalism, and the conflicts that arise from it
Frankenstein complex
in Asimov's fiction.
Freddy II
Freddy II Robot, 1973-6
Freddy (1969–1971) and Freddy II
(1973–1976) were experimental
robots built in the Department of Machine Intelligence and Perception
(later Department of Artificial Intelligence, now part of the School of
Informatics at the University of Edinburgh).
Technical innovations involving Freddy were at the forefront of the
70s robotics field. Freddy was one of the earliest robots to integrate
vision, manipulation and intelligent systems as well as having
versatility in the system and ease in retraining and reprogramming for
new tasks. The idea of moving the table instead of the arm simplified
the construction. Freddy also used a method of recognising the parts
visually by using graph matching on the detected features. The system used an innovative collection of high level
procedures for programming the arm movements which could be reused for each new task.
Lighthill controversy
In the mid 1970s there was controversy about the utility of pursuing a general purpose robotics programme in both
the USA and the UK. A BBC TV programme in 1973, referred to as the "Lighthill Debate" (on-line versions
available here
), pitched James Lighthill, who had written a critical report for the science and engineering research
funding agencies in the UK, against Donald Michie from the University of Edinburgh and John McCarthy from
Stanford University. The Edinburgh Freddy II and Stanford/SRI Shakey robots were used to illustrate the
state-of-the-art at the time in intelligent robotics systems.
Freddy I and II
Freddy Mark 1 Robot, 1969-1971
Freddy Mark I (1969–1971) was an experimental prototype, with 3
degrees-of-freedom created by a rotating platform driven by a pair of
independent wheels. The other main components were a video camera
and bump sensors connected to a computer. The computer moved the
platform so that the camera could see and then recognise the objects.
Freddy II (1973–1976) was a 5 degrees of freedom manipulator with a
large vertical 'hand' that could move up and down, rotate about the
vertical axis and rotate objects held in its gripper around one horizontal
axis. Two remaining translational degrees of freedom were generated by a work surface that moved beneath the
gripper. The gripper was a two finger pinch gripper. A video camera was added as well as a later a light stripe
The Freddy and Freddy II projects were initiated and overseen by Donald Michie. The mechanical hardware and
analogue electronics were designed and built by Stephen Salter (who also pioneered renewable energy from waves
(see Salter Duck)), and the digital electronics and computer interfacing were designed by Harry Barrow. The
Freddy II
software was developed by a team led by Rod Burstall, Robin Popplestone and Harry Barrow which used the POP-2
programming language,
one of the world's first functional programming languages. The computing hardware was
an Elliot 4130 computer with 384KB (128K 24-bit words) RAM and a hard disk linked to a small Honeywell H-16
computer with 16KB of RAM which directly performed sensing and control.
Freddy was a versatile system which could be trained and reprogrammed to perform a new task in a day or two. The
tasks included putting rings on pegs and assembling simple model toys consisting of wooden blocks of different
shapes, a boat with a mast and a car with axles and wheels.
Information about part locations was obtained using the video camera, and then matched to previously stored models
of the parts.
It was soon realised in the Freddy project that the 'move here, do this, move there' style of robot behavior
programming (actuator or joint level programming) is tedious and also did not allow for the robot to cope with
variations in part position, part shape and sensor noise. Consequently, the RAPT robot programming language

was developed, in which robot behavior was specified at the object level.
This meant that robot goals were specified in terms of desired position relationships between the robot, objects and
the scene, leaving the details of how to achieve the goals to the underlying software system. Although developed in
the 1970s RAPT is still considerably more advanced than most commercial robot programming languages.
The team of people who contributed to the project were leaders in the field at the time and included Pat Ambler,
Harry Barrow, Ilona Bellos, Chris Brown, Gregan Crawford, Jim Howe, Austin Tate and Ken Turner.
Also of interest in the project was the use of a structured-light 3D scanner to obtain the 3D shape and position of the
parts being manipulated.
The Freddy II robot is currently on display at the Royal Museum in Edinburgh, Scotland, with a segment of the
assembly video shown in a continuous loop.
[1] A. P. Ambler, H. G. Barrow, C. M. Brown, R. M. Burstall, and R. J. Popplestone, A versatile system for computer controlled assembly,
Artificial Intelligence 6(2): pp 129-156, 1975. sciencedirect link (http:// www. sciencedirect.com/ ijcai?_ob=ArticleURL&
_udi=B6TYF-4808VV4-1F&_user=7091764& _coverDate=09/30/ 1975& _rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&
_srch=doc-info(#toc#5617#1975#999939997#393683#FLP#display#Volume)& _cdi=5617& _sort=d& _docanchor=&_ct=7&
_acct=C000069519& _version=1& _urlVersion=0&_userid=7091764& md5=2ed75d09fc07c2c9df7f3ecce0eb9a78)
[2] http:/ / media.aiai. ed. ac. uk/ Video/ Lighthill1973/
[3] H.G. Barrow and S.H. Salter, Design of low-cost equipment for cognitive robot research, in Machine Intelligence 5, B. Meltzer and D. Michie
(eds.), Edinburgh University Press, pp 555-566, 1969.
[4] H. G. Barrow & G. F. Crawford, The Mark 1.5 Edinburgh Robot Facility, Machine Intelligence 7, Edinburgh University Press, chapter 25,
pages 465-480, 1972.
[5] R. Burstall, J. Collins and R. Popplestone, Programming in Pop-2, University Press, Edinburgh, 1968.
[6] H. G. Barrow and R. M. Burstall, Subgraph isomorphism, matching relational structures and maximal cliques, Information Processing
Letters 4(4): pp 83-84, 1976.
[7] R. J. Popplestone, A. P. Ambler, I. Bellos, RAPT: A language for describing assemblies, Industrial Robot, 5(3):131--137, 1978. RAPT article
(http:// www. emeraldinsight. com/ Insight/ viewContentItem. do?contentId=1670149&contentType=Article)
[8] R. J. Popplestone, Specifying Manipulation in Terms of Spatial Relationships, Dept. of Artificial Intelligence Research Report No. 117,
University of Edinburgh, 1979.
[9] R. J. Popplestone, C. M. Brown, A. P. Ambler, G. F. Crawford, Forming models of plane-and-cylinder faceted bodies from light stripes, Proc.
4th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp 664-668,September, 1975. photocopy of paper (http:// dli.iiit.ac.in/ ijcai/ IJCAI-73/ PDF/
033. pdf)
Freddy II
External links
• Edinburgh's Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute page (http:// www.aiai. ed. ac. uk/ project/ freddy/)
More information.
• Freddy II (http:/ / groups. inf.ed. ac. uk/ vision/ ROBOTICS/ FREDDY/ Freddy_II_original.wmv) A video (167
Mb WMV) from 1973 of Freddy II in action assembling a model car and ship simultaneously. Harry Barrow is
the narrator. Pat Ambler, Harry Barrow, and Robin Popplestone appear briefly in the video.
• historical overview of the Freddy project (http:/ / groups.inf. ed.ac. uk/ vision/ ROBOTICS/ FREDDY/ ambler1.
htm) by Pat Ambler.
• Record of experiences (http:/ / groups. inf.ed. ac.uk/ vision/ ROBOTICS/ FREDDY/ barrow1.txt) Harry Barrow
writes on interfacing Freddy I to a computer.
• Presentation slide (http:/ / www. ki2006. fb3.uni-bremen.de/ pdf/3_sloman. pdf) Freddy is mentioned in Aaron
Sloman's (slide 23) (PDF)
• public symposium on 50 years of AI (http:/ / www.ki2006. fb3.uni-bremen.de/ 50years. htm) Aaron Sloman at
the University of Bremen in June 2006
• BBC Robotics Timeline (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ 1/ hi/ in_depth/ sci_tech/ 2001/ artificial_intelligence/
1531432.stm) list includes Freddy II.
Friendly Robotics
Friendly Robotics is a retailer of autonomous Lawnmowers (eg Robomow) and vacuum cleaners (eg Friendly Vac).
The products sold by Friendly Robotics are geared towards removing the stress of routine chores. It was founded in
Pardesia, Israel in 1995, by Udi Peless and Shai Abramson. It supplies its products to the markets of the United
States, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Future plans for the Company include a robotic mop.
The company has been mentioned in several magazines including Design News, Business Wire, Washington Home
and Garden
, and Vanity Fair
. Prices on the firm's products range from several hundred to a few thousand
dollars. The products are rechargeable, environmentally safe, and child friendly.
Friendly Machines started in 1995 with the goal of constructing robots that will, as Udi Peless says in Space Daily,
"move in and around the home, doing the mundane tasks that people do not like to do anymore",
automating many
chores at home. The company name was changed to Friendly Robotics in 2000.
In 1998 the first Robomow was
released in Israel.
Around this time the Robotroll, an automatic golf caddy, had been produced.
In early 1999 the
Robomow was released in Continental Europe and the UK.
Following this Friendly Robotics signed a strategic
alliance with Stiga concerning the distribution of robotic lawnmowers in Europe.
An alliance was also made with
Toro Co. for distribution in the United States, where Toro Marketed them under the brand name "Imow".
In 2002
Friendly Robotics entered into an alliance with the Hoover Co.
In 2004 Friendly Robotics introduced a robotic vacuum cleaner called the "Friendly Vac".
All products of the
company have zero emissions and are green.
Zimbio.com describes the Friendly Robotics 85400 Robomower
RM400 Robotic Cordless Electric Lawn Mower as "Environmentally friendly; zero emissions and extremely
The firm's customer service and sales in the US are handled by IRT. According to Dr. Love they chose IRT
because they "...offer a one-stop solution that provides consistency to all of our customer contact programs. They
were able to quickly certify the proper agents we require to meet our technical and customer service standards, and
provide us with customized reports that help us to effectively manage, analyze and respond to customer needs."
Friendly Robotics
Future Plans
As of 1998 Mr Peless said they had many ideas for other robots ranging from snow removers to floor polishers. In an
April 2006 phone interview Chief Executive Udi Peless did say that future products were anywhere from 5 to 10
years away.
During this time Peless has said that new model's of the Robomow will be worked on, but no
information about them will be given out.
Key Executives
Name Position
Udi Peless Co-Founder
Shai Abramson Co-Founder
Cindo H. Love President and Chief Operating system
Eitan Rotem Chief Financial Officer
Kostia Mandel Vice President of production and Operations
[1] http:/ / friendlyrobotics.ca
[2] http:/ / www. spacedaily. com/ reports/Friendly_Robots_Want_To_Do_Your_Chores.html
[3] http:/ / www. whgmag. com/ index. php/ home-garden/robomowwow.html
[4] http:// www. vanityfair.com/ culture/features/ 2007/ 10/ lazyamerica200710
[5] http:// www. spacedaily. com/ reports/Friendly_Robots_Want_To_Do_Your_Chores.html
[6] http:/ / investing. businessweek. com/ research/ stocks/ private/snapshot. asp?privcapId=425488
[7] Siciliano, Bruno, and Oussama Khatib. "Fields and Service Robotics." Springer Handbook of Robotics. Berlin: Springer, 2008. 1260. Print.
[8] http:// www. independent. co. uk/ news/ one-robomow-went-to-mow-a-meadow-1163418.html
[9] http:/ / www. callcentermagazine. com/shared/ article/ showArticle. jhtml?articleId=8701732&pgno=4
[10] "Friendly Robotics Partners With Stiga.." Robotics World 1 Nov. 2000: 1. Web. 12 Sep 2010.
[11] http:// www. wired.com/ science/ discoveries/ news/ 2004/ 04/ 62853
[12] Wolf, Alan. "Hoover Developing Robo Vacuum." Consumer Electronics, Video, Home Audio, Retail Appliances, Digital Devices, 3DTV |
TWICE. 15 Apr. 2002. Web. 08 Sept. 2010.<http://www.twice.com/>.
[13] Siciliano, Bruno, and Oussama Khatib. "Fields and Service Robotics." Springer Handbook of Robotics. Berlin: Springer, 2008. 1260. Print.
[14] http:/ / www. robomow.com/ about/
[15] http:// www. zimbio. com/ Tools+ and+Equipment/ articles/ ZvU4pWwfTRP/Friendly+Robotics+ 85400+ Robomower+RM400+
[16] "Friendly Robotics Chooses IRT for Customer Relationship Management; Leading Consumer Robotics... ." Business Wire 10 Jan 2001: 1.
Web. 12 Sep 2010.
[17] http:// www. physorg. com/ news63290242. html
[18] http:/ / www. israel21c. org/technology/ israeli-lawn-mowing-robot-makes-the-cut
[19] http:// investing. businessweek. com/ research/ stocks/ private/snapshot. asp?privcapId=425488
Future of robotics
Future of robotics
TOPIO, a robot can play table tennis with humans.
This article is about the future of robotics for civil use.
Types of robots
Humanoid robots:
• Lara is the first female humanoid robot with
artificial muscles (metal alloy strands that instantly
contract when heated by electric current) [1] [2]
instead of electric motors (2006).
• Asimo is one of the most advanced projects as of
Modular robots: can be built from standard building
blocks that can be combined in different ways.
• Utility fog
• M-Tran
- a snake-like modular robot that uses
genetic algorithms to evolve walking programs
• Self replicating robots
[5] [6] - modular robots
that can produce copies of themselves using existing
• Swarmanoid [7] [8] is a project that uses 3
specialized classes of robots (footbots, handbots and
eyebots) to create an effective swarm. Such swarm
should be able, for example, tidy a bedroom with each robot doing what it is best at.
• Self-Reconfiguring Modular Robotics
Educational toy robots:
• Educational toy robots
Sports robots:
• RoboCup
• Caterpillar plans to develop remote controlled machines and expects to develop fully autonomous heavy robots by
2021 [9]. Some cranes already are remote controlled.
• It was demonstrated that a robot can perform a herding [10] task.
• Robots are increasingly used in manufacturing (since 1960s). In auto industry they can amount for more than half
of the "labor". There are even "lights off" factories such as an IBM keyboard manufacturing factory in Texas that
are 100% automated
• Robots such as HOSPI [12] are used as couriers in hospitals, etc. Other hospital tasks performed by robots are
receptionists, guides and porters helpers, [13] (not to mention surgical robot helpers such as Da Vinci)
• Robots can serve as waiters [14] [15] and cooks [16].
Future of robotics
Market evolution
Today's market is not fully mature. One or more software compatibility layers have yet to emerge to allow the
development of a rich robotics ecosystem (similar to today's personal computers one). The most commonly used
software in the robotics research are Free Software solutions such as Player/Stage or cross-platform technologies
such as URBI. Microsoft is currently working in this direction with its new proprietary software Microsoft Robotics
Studio. The use of open source tools helps in continued improvement of the tools and algorithms for robotic research
from the point one team leaves it.
Robotics Timeline
• Robots capable of manual labour tasks--
• 2009 - robots that perform searching and fetching tasks in unmodified library environment, Professor Angel
del Pobil (University Jaume I, Spain), 2004
• 2015-2020 - every South Korean household will have a robot and many European, The Ministry of
Information and Communication (South Korea), 2007
• 2018 - robots will routinely carry out surgery, South Korea government 2007
• 2022 - intelligent robots that sense their environment, make decisions, and learn are used in 30% of households
and organizations - TechCast
• 2030 - robots capable of performing at human level at most manual jobs Marshall Brain
• 2034 - robots (home automation systems) performing most household tasks, Helen Greiner, Chairman of
• Military robots
• 2015 - one third of US fighting strength will be composed of robots - US Department of Defense, 2006
• 2035 - first completely autonomous robot soldiers in operation - US Department of Defense, 2006
• 2038 - first completely autonomous robot flying car in operation - US Department of Technology, 2007
• Developments related to robotics from the Japan NISTEP
2030 report :
• 2013-2014 — agricultural robots (AgRobots
• 2013-2017 — robots that care for the elderly
• 2017 — medical robots performing low-invasive surgery
• 2017-2019 — household robots with full use.
• 2019-2021 — Nanorobots
• 2021-2022 — Transhumanism
Legal rights for robots
According to research commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Innovation's Horizon Scanning Centre
robots could one day demand the same citizen's rights as humans. The study also warns that the rise of robots could
put a strain on resources and the environment.
• http:/ / future.wikia.com/ wiki/ Robot
[1] http:/ / robocup.informatik.tu-darmstadt. de/ humanoid/ index.en.php?language=en
[2] http:// robocup.informatik.tu-darmstadt. de/ humanoid/ lara/ueberlara.html
[3] http:// unit.aist. go. jp/ is/ dsysd/ mtran/ English/ experimentE.htm
[4] http:/ / hardware.slashdot. org/ article.pl?sid=05/ 05/ 11/ 2242239& from=rss
Future of robotics
[5] http:/ / abcnews. go.com/ Technology/wireStory?id=748180
[6] http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ sci/ tech/ 4538547. stm
[7] http:/ / www. swarmanoid. org/
[8] http:/ / www. wired.com/ news/ technology/ 0,72176-0.html?tw=wn_technology_1
[9] http:/ / www. communistrobot. com/ viewblog. php?id=241
[10] http:/ / web.comlab. ox. ac. uk/ oucl/ work/stephen. cameron/sheepdog/
[11] http:/ / www. automationworld.com/ news-220
[12] http:// www. mew.co. jp/ corp/news/ 0610/ 0610-11.htm
[13] http:// news. yahoo. com/ s/ afp/ 20061104/ tc_afp/japanrobotmedical_061104212903
[14] http:// www. spacedaily. com/ reports/At_Hong_Kong_High_Tech_Cafe_Everything_Is_Served_With_Microchips_999.html
[15] http:/ / www. communistrobot. com/ viewblog. php?id=175
[16] http:/ / www. chinadaily. com. cn/ china/ 2006-10/18/ content_710686. htm
[17] Robots get bookish in libraries (http:// news. bbc. co.uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 3897583.stm), BBC News
[18] Robotic age poses ethical dilemma (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ go/ pr/ fr/-/ 1/ hi/ technology/6425927.stm), BBC News
[19] Latest Forecast Results, TechCast (http:// www. techcast. org/Forecasts. aspx)
[20] 2003 Robotic Nation (http:/ / www.marshallbrain.com/ robotic-nation.htm), Marshall Brain
[21] Interview: Helen Greiner, Chairman and Cofounder of iRobot, Corp (http:// features.engadget.com/ entry/8154940951659251/ )
[22] Launching a new kind of warfare (http:/ / technology. guardian. co. uk/ weekly/ story/ 0,,1930960,00.html), Guardian Online
[23] Nistep Homepage (http:// www.nistep. go. jp/ )
[24] UIUC Agricultural Engineering | Faculty and Staff (http:/ / age-web.age.uiuc. edu/ faculty/teg/ Research/ BiosystemsAutomation/
AgRobots/AgRobots. asp)
[25] service-robots.org - agriculture & harvesting (http:/ / www.service-robots.org/applications/ agriculture.htm)
[26] Robots could demand legal rights (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 6200005. stm)
External links
• Future of Robotics (http:// www. razorrobotics.com/ future.html)
• Investigation of social robots (http:/ / www. ai. mit. edu/ projects/ humanoid-robotics-group/index. html) -
Robots that mimic human behaviors and gestures.
• Wired's guide (http:/ / www. wired.com/ wired/archive/14.01/ robots. html) to the '50 best robots ever', a mix of
robots in fiction (Hal, R2D2, K9) to real robots (Roomba, Mobot, Aibo).
• RobotNet (http:/ / robots. net/ ) has its finger on the pulse of recent developments in robotics.
• Robotic Nation (http:/ / marshallbrain.com/ robotic-nation.htm) How robots will affect our economy.
• ANDROID WORLD (http:/ / www. androidworld.com/ index. htm)
• Robot Info (http:/ / www. robotinfo.net) directory of robotics news, books, videos, magazines, forums and
• Quacktu robotics (http:/ / www. quacktu. com) resources, links and a directory for robotics hobbyists.
• www.associatedcontent.com/article/5790196/future_of_robotics_mapping_the_human
Glossary of robotics
Glossary of robotics
The following is a list of common definitions related to the Robotics field.
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to
deploy a device that will detonate a buried
improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah,
Contents: Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
• Actuator, a motor that translates control signals into mechanical movement. The control signals are usually
electrical but may, more rarely, be pneumatic or hydraulic. The power supply may likewise be any of these. It is
common for electrical control to be used to modulate a high-power pneumatic or hydraulic motor.

• Aerobot a robot capable of independent flight on other planets.
• Android a humanoid robot.

• Arduino The current platform of choice for small-scale robotic experimentation and physical computing.
• Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.
• Aura (satellite) a robotic spacecraft launched by NASA in 2004 which collects atmospheric data from Earth.
• Automaton, an early self-operating robot, performing exactly the same actions, over and over.
• Autonomous vehicle a vehicle equipped with an autopilot system, which is capable of driving from one point to
another without input from a human operator.
• Biomimetic. See Bionics.
• Bionics: also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering is the application
of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern
• CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing). These systems and their data may be
integrated into robotic operations.
• Čapek, Karel, Czech author who coined the term 'robot' in his 1921 play, Rossum's Universal Robots.
Glossary of robotics
• Chandra X-ray Observatory a robotic spacecraft launched by NASA in 1999 to collect astronomical data.
• Cleanroom an environment that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes,
aerosol particles and chemical vapors; often used in robot assembly.
• Combat, robot, a hobby or sport event where two or more robots fight in an arena to disable each other. This has
developed from a hobby in the 1990s to several TV series worldwide.
• Cruise missile a robot-controlled guided missile that carries an explosive payload.
• Cyborg also known as a cybernetic organism, a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic,
mechanical or robotic) parts.
• Degrees of freedom - the extent to which a robot can move itself; expressed in terms of Cartesian coordinates (x,
y, and z) and angular movements (yaw, pitch, and roll).
• Delta robot - a tripod linkage, used to construct fast-acting manipulators with a wide range of movement.
• Drive Power - The energy source or sources for the robot actuators.
• Emergent behaviour, a complicated resultant behaviour that emerges from the repeated operation of simple
underlying behaviours.
• End-effector An accessory device or tool specifically designed for attachment to the robot wrist or tool mounting
plate to enable the robot to perform its intended task. (Examples may include gripper, spot-weld gun, arc-weld
gun, spray- paint gun, or any other application tools.)
• Envelope (Space), Maximum The volume of space encompassing the maximum designed movements of all robot
parts including the end-effector, workpiece, and attachments.
• Explosive ordnance disposal robot A mobile robot designed to assess whether an object contains explosives; some
carry detonators that can be deposited at the object and activated after the robot withdraws.
• FIRST. or For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, is an organization founded by inventor
Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields.
• Forward chaining a process in which events or received data are considered by an entity to intelligently adapt its
• Gynoid A humanoid robot designed to look like a human female.
Glossary of robotics
• Haptic tactile feedback technology using the operator's sense of touch. Also sometimes applied to robot
manipulators with their own touch sensitivity.
• Hexapod (platform) A movable platform using six linear actuators. Often used in flight simulators and fairground
rides, they also have applications as a robotic manipulator.
See Stewart platform
• Hexapod (walker) A six-legged walking robot, using a simple insect-like locomotion.
• Human–computer interaction.
• Humanoid A robotic entity designed to resemble a human being in form, function, or both.
• Hydraulics, the control of mechanical force and movement, generated by the application of liquid under pressure.
c.f. pneumatics.
• Industrial robot A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or
specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
• Insect robot A small robot designed to imitate insect behaviors rather than complex human behaviors.
• Kalman filter, a mathematical technique to estimate the value of a sensor measurement, from a series of
intermittent and noisy values.
• Kinematics, the study of motion, as applied to robots. This includes both the design of linkages to perform
motion, their power, control and stability; also their planning, such as choosing a sequence of movements to
achieve a broader task.
• Klann linkage, a simple linkage for walking robots.
• Linear actuator A form of motor that generates a linear movement directly.
• Manipulator or gripper. A robotic 'hand'.
• Mobile Robot A self-propelled and self-contained robot that is capable of moving over a mechanically
unconstrained course.
• Muting The deactivation of a presence-sensing safeguarding device during a portion of the robot cycle.
Glossary of robotics
• Parallel manipulator an articulated robot or manipulator based on a number of kinematic chains, actuators and
joints, in parallel. c.f. serial manipulator.
• Pendant Any portable control device that permits an operator to control the robot from within the restricted
envelope (space) of the robot.
• Pneumatics, the control of mechanical force and movement, generated by the application of compressed gas. c.f.
• Prosthetic robots are programmable manipulators or devices for missing human limbs.
• Remote manipulator A manipulator under direct human control, often used for work with hazardous materials.
• Robonaut a development project conducted by NASA to create humanoid robots capable of using space tools and
working in similar environments to suited astronauts.
• Serial manipulator an articulated robot or manipulator with a single series kinematic chain of actuators. c.f.
parallel manipulator.
• Service robots are machines that extend human capabilities.
• Servo, a motor that moves to and maintains a set position under command, rather than continuously moving.
• Servomechanism An automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the performance of a
• Single Point of Control The ability to operate the robot such that initiation or robot motion from one source of
control is possible only from that source and cannot be overridden from another source.
• Slow Speed Control A mode of robot motion control where the velocity of the robot is limited to allow persons
sufficient time either to withdraw the hazardous motion or stop the robot.
• Snake robot A robot component resembling a tentacle or elephant's trunk, where many small actuators are used to
allow continuous curved motion of a robot component, with many degrees of freedom. This is usually applied to
snake-arm robots, which use this as a flexible manipulator. A rarer application is the snakebot, where the entire
robot is mobile and snake-like, so as to gain access through narrow spaces.
• Stepper motor
• Stewart platform A movable platform using six linear actuators, hence also known as a Hexapod.
• Subsumption architecture A robot architecture that uses a modular, bottom-up design beginning with the least
complex behavioral tasks.
• Surgical robot, a remote manipulator used for keyhole surgery
• Swarm robotics involve large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. Their actions may seek to incorporate
emergent behavior observed in social insects (swarm intelligence).
• Synchro
Glossary of robotics
• Teach Mode The control state that allows the generation and storage of positional data points effected by moving
the robot arm through a path of intended motions.
• Three Laws of Robotics, coined by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov, one of the first serious considerations
of the ethics and robopsychological aspects of robotics.
• Tool Center Point (TCP) The origin of the tool coordinate system.
• Uncanny valley A hypothesized point at which humanoid robot behavior and appearance is so close to that of
actual humans as to cause revulsion.
• Unimate, the first off-the-shelf industrial robot, of 1961.
• Waldo, a short story by Robert Heinlein, that gave its name to a popular nickname for remote manipulators.
• Walking robot, a robot capable of locomotion by walking. Owing to the difficulties of balance, two-legged
walking robots have so far been rare and most walking robots have used insect-like multilegged walking gaits.
• Zero Moment Point. Zero Moment Point is a concept related with dynamics and control of legged locomotion,
e.g., for humanoid robots. It specifies the point with respect to which dynamic reaction force at the contact of the
foot with the ground does not produce any moment, i.e. the point where total inertia force equals 0 (zero).
• ZMP. See Zero Moment Point.
External links
Online Robotics glossary repositories:
• Learn About Robots
• Robot Glossary - Industrial Technology Defined
• Robomatrix Robotics Glossary
• JPL Robotics Glossary
• GoRobotics Robotics Glossary
• Robotics Resources at CMU
• NASA Robotics
• Robotics and Intelligent Machines at Georgia Tech
• Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon
• Society of Robots
• The evolution of robotics research
 This article incorporates public domain material from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(retrieved on 2011-01-28).
Glossary of robotics
[1] Joseph A. Angelo (2007). Robotics: a reference guide to the new technology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=73kNFV4sDx8C&
pg=PA258&dq=robotics+glossary+ terms& hl=en& ei=IN1CTcm1DYScgQfQoPyDAg&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=2&
ved=0CEQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q& f=false). Libraries Unlimited. pp. 258–327. ISBN 9781573563376. . Retrieved 28 January 2011.
gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/ otm_iv_4. html#app_iv:4_1). Occupational Safety and Health Administration. . Retrieved 2011-01-28.
[3] V. Daniel Hunt (1983), "Appendix A - Glossary", Industrial robotics handbook, Industrial Press Inc., ISBN 9780831111489
[4] Helena Domaine (2006), "Glossary", Robotics, Lerner Publications, ISBN 9780822521129
[5] http:/ / www. learnaboutrobots.com/ glossary. htm
[6] http:/ / www. robots. com/ glossary. php
[7] http:/ / www. robotmatrix.org/RobotGlossary. htm
[8] http:// www-robotics.jpl. nasa. gov/ glossary/ index. cfm
[9] http:// www. gorobotics. net/ articles/ miscellaneous/ robotics-glossary
[10] http:/ / www. cs. cmu. edu/ ~chuck/ robotpg/robo_rsrc.html
[11] http:// robotics.nasa. gov/
[12] http:// robotics.gatech. edu/
[13] http:/ / www. societyofrobots. com/
[14] http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee. org/search/ srchabstract. jsp?arnumber=4141037&isnumber=4141014& punumber=100&
k2dockey=4141037@ieeejrns&query=%28%28robotics%29%3Cin%3Emetadata%29&pos=0& access=no
[15] http:/ / www. osha. gov/ dts/ osta/ otm/ otm_iv/ otm_iv_4. html#app_iv:4_1
In robotics, GraphSLAM is a Simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm which uses sparse information
matrices produced by generating a graph of observation interdependencies (two observations are related if they
contain data about the same landmark).
[1] Thrun, S.; Burgard, W.; Fox, D. (2005). Probabilistic Robotics. Cambridge: The MIT Press. ISBN 0262201623.
Guidance, Navigation and Control
Guidance, Navigation and Control
Guidance, Navigation and Control (abbreviated GNC, GN&C, or G&C) is a branch of engineering dealing with
the design of systems to control the movement of vehicles, especially, automobiles, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. In
many cases these functions can be performed by trained humans. However, because of the speed of a rocket's
dynamics, human reaction time is too slow to control this movement. Therefore, systems---now almost exclusively
based around digital electronics---are used for such control. Even in cases where humans can perform these
functions, it is often the case that GNC systems provide benefits such as alleviating operator work load, smoothing
turbulence, fuel savings, etc. In addition, sophisticated applications of GNC enable automatic or remote control. In
• Navigation refers to the determination, at a given time, of the vehicle's location and velocity (the "state vector") as
well as its attitude,
• Guidance refers to the determination of the desired path of travel (the "trajectory") from the vehicle's current
location to a designated target, as well as desired changes in velocity, rotation and acceleration for following that
path, and
• Control refers to the manipulation of the forces, by way of steering controls, thrustors, etc., needed to track
guidance commands while maintaining vehicle stability.
Examples for GNC systems include:
• Autopilots
• Driverless cars, like Mars rovers or those participating in the DARPA Grand Challenge
• Guided missiles
• precision-guided airdrop systems
• Spacecraft launch vehicles
Handy Board
Handy Board
The Handy Board is a popular handheld robotics controller. The Handy Board was developed at MIT by Fred G.
Martin, and was closely based on a previous controller designed by Martin and Randy Sargent for the MIT LEGO
Robot Contest
. The Handy Board design is licensed free of charge. Thus, several manufacturers make Handy
Boards. The Handy Board is used by hundreds of schools worldwide and by many hobbyists for their robot projects.
Handy Board specs
• 68HC11 8-bit microcontroller @ 2 MHz
• 32KB battery-backed SRAM
• 2x16 LCD character display
• Support for four 1A motors
• 6 Servo motor controllers
• 7 Digital and 9 Analog inputs
• 8 Digital and 16 Analog outputs
• Infrared I/O capabilities
• Serial interface capabilities
• Sound output
• 11 cm x 8.5 cm x 5.25 cm (lxwxh – with battery, expansion board, and lcd screen)
External links
• Official Handy Board website
• Sourceforge page for UMass Lowell Handy Board Bootloader
(George Pantazopoulos, Mike Bohan)
• GNU binutils+gcc port for the m68hc1x
[1] http:/ / web.mit. edu/ 6. 270/ www/
[2] "Serial IO for the Handyboard" (http:/ / www.handyboard. com/ software/contrib/drushel/ serialio. c). . Retrieved 2009-02-18.
[3] http:// www. handyboard.com
[4] http:/ / sourceforge.net/ projects/ hbloader-uml
[5] http:// www. gnu-m68hc11.org/
Hexapod (robotics)
Hexapod (robotics)
A six-legged walking robot should not be confused with a Stewart platform, a kind of parallel manipulator used in
robotics applications
A desktop sized hexapod.
A hexapod robot is a mechanical vehicle that walks on six legs. Since
a robot can be statically stable on three or more legs, a hexapod robot
has a great deal of flexibility in how it can move. If legs become
disabled, the robot may still be able to walk. Furthermore, not all of the
robot's legs are needed for stability; other legs are free to reach new
foot placements or manipulate a payload.
Many hexapod robots are biologically inspired by Hexapoda
locomotion. Hexapods may be used to test biological theories about
insect locomotion, motor control, and neurobiology.
Two hexapod robots at the Georgia Institute of
Technology with CMUCams mounted on top
Hexapod designs vary in leg arrangement. Insect-inspired robots are
typically laterally symmetric, such as the RiSE
robot at Carnegie
Mellon. A radially symmetric hexapod is ATHLETE
Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer) robot at JPL.
Typically, individual legs range from two to six degrees of freedom.
Hexapod feet are typically pointed, but can also be tipped with
adhesive material to help climb walls or wheels so the robot can drive
quickly when the ground is flat.
Most often, hexapods are controlled by gaits, which allow the robot to move forward, turn, and perhaps side-step.
Some of the most common gaits are as follows:
• Alternating tripod: 3 legs on the ground at a time.
• Quadruped.
• Crawl: move just one leg at a time.
Gaits for hexapods are often stable, even in slightly rocky and uneven terrain.
Motion may also be nongaited, which means the sequence of leg motions is not fixed, but rather chosen by the
computer in response to the sensed environment. This may be most helpful in very rocky terrain, but existing
techniques for motion planning are computationally expensive.
Hexapod (robotics)
Biologically inspired
Insects are chosen as models because their nervous system is simpler than other animal species. Also, complex
behaviours can be attributed to just a few neurons and the pathway between sensory input and motor output is
relatively shorter. Insects' walking behaviour and neural architecture are used to improve robot locomotion.
Alternatively, biologists can use hexapod robots for testing different hypotheses.
Biologically inspired hexapod robots largely depend on the insect species used as a model. The cockroach and the
stick insect are the two most commonly used insect species; both have been ethologically and neurophysiologically
extensively studied. At present no complete nervous system is known, therefore, models usually combine different
insect models, including those of other insects.
Insect gaits are usually obtained by two approaches: the centralized and the decentralized control architectures.
Centralized controllers directly specify transitions of all legs, whereas in decentralized architectures, six nodes (legs)
are connected in a parallel network; gaits arise by the interaction between neighbouring legs.
List of robots
• DIGbot at Case Western Reserve University and The University of South Florida
• The RiSE robot at Carnegie Mellon
• The ATHLETE rover at JPL
• Autonomous walking machine AMOS
• Hexbug (insectoid toy robot)
• Stiquito (inexpensive insectoid robot)
• Per's Hexapod (hobbyist's prototype robot)
• Rhex
• Amphibious and swimming hexpod
• Whegs
External links
• Biological Cybernetics/Theoretical Biology
• Poly-pedal Laboratory at Berkeley
• Hexapod project and competition at the University of Applied Sciences of UA at Hagenberg
- (German)
• iC Hexapod - An interactive face tracking hexapod robot
• Hexapod Controller - On The Fly Inverse Kinematics - See A-POD
[1] http:/ / www. msl. ri.cmu. edu/ projects/ rise/
[2] http:/ / www-robotics.jpl. nasa. gov/ systems/ system. cfm?System=11
[3] http:// www. cse. usf. edu/ ~palmer/climbing. htm
[4] http:/ / www. nld. ds. mpg. de/ ~poramate/AMOSWD06. html
[5] http:// hexapod. lindquists. se
[6] http:// www. aquarobot.net
[7] http:/ / www. uni-bielefeld.de/ biologie/ Kybernetik/
[8] http:// polypedal.berkeley.edu/
[9] http:/ / www. hexapod. at
[10] http:/ / www. hexapodrobot.com
[11] http:/ / www. basicmicro. com/ ARC32_p_141. html
History of robots
History of robots
The history of robots has its roots as far back as ancient myths and legends.
Modern concepts were begun to be developed when the Industrial Revolution allowed the use of more complex
mechanics and the subsequent introduction of electricity made it possible to power machines with small compact
motors. After the 1920s the modern formulation of a humanoid machine was developed to the stage where it was
possible to envisage human sized robots with the capacity for near human thoughts and movements, first envisaged
millennia before. The first uses of modern robots were in factories as industrial robots - simple fixed machines
capable of manufacturing tasks which allowed production without the need for human assistance. Digitally
controlled industrial robots and robots making use of artificial intelligence have been built since the 1960s.
Chinese accounts relate a history of automata back to the 10th century BC when Yan Shi is credited with making an
automaton resembling a human in an account from the Lie Zi text.
Western and Eastern civilisations have concepts of artificial servants and companions with a long history. Many
ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus
(Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend.
Likely fictional, the Iliad illustrates the concept of robotics by stating that the god Hephaestus made talking
mechanical handmaidens out of gold.
Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum is reputed to have built a
mechanical pigeon around 400 BC, possibly powered by steam, capable of flying. The clepsydra was made in 250
BC by Ctesibius of Alexandria, a physicist and inventor from Ptolemaic Egypt. Heron of Alexandria (10–70 AD)
created programmable devices in the late 1st century AD, including one that allegedly could speak.
Aristotle took up an earlier reference in Homer's Iliad and speculated that automatons could someday bring about
human equality by making the abolition of slavery possible in his book Politics (ca. 322 BC).
History of robots
Ancient beginnings
The water-powered mechanism of Su Song's
astronomical clock tower, featuring a clepsydra
tank, waterwheel, escapement mechanism, and
chain drive to power an armillary sphere and 113
striking clock jacks to sound the hours and to
display informative plaques
In ancient China, a curious account on automata is found in the Lie Zi
text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it there is a description of a
much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023-957 BC) and
a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. The latter
proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his
mechanical handiwork.
The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked
with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that
anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The
artificer touched its chin, and it began singing, perfectly in
tune. He touched its hand, and it began posturing, keeping
perfect time...As the performance was drawing to an end,
the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies
in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and
would have had Yen Shih [Yan Shi] executed on the spot
had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot
to pieces to let him see what it really was. And, indeed, it
turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue
and lacquer, variously coloured white, black, red and blue.
Examining it closely, the king found all the internal organs
complete—liver, gall, heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys,
stomach and intestines; and over these again, muscles,
bones and limbs with their joints, skin, teeth and hair, all
of them artificial...The king tried the effect of taking away the heart, and found that the mouth could no
longer speak; he took away the liver and the eyes could no longer see; he took away the kidneys and the
legs lost their power of locomotion. The king was delighted.
Early water clocks are sometimes grouped in with the beginning of robotics. They began in China in the 6th century
and the Greco-Roman world in the 4th century BC where the Clepsydra is known to have been used as a
stop-watch for imposing a time limit on clients' visits in Athenian brothels.
The idea of artificial people in western mythology dates at least as far back as the ancient legends of Cadmus, who
sowed dragon teeth that turned into soldiers, and the myth of Pygmalion, whose statue of Galatea came to life. In
Greek mythology, the deformed god of metalwork (Vulcan or Hephaestus) created mechanical servants, ranging
from intelligent, golden handmaidens to more utilitarian three-legged tables that could move about under their own
power, and the bronze man Talos defended Crete.
Concepts akin to a robot can be found as long ago as the 4th century BC, when the Greek mathematician Archytas of
Tarentum postulated a mechanical bird he called "The Pigeon" which was propelled by steam. Yet another early
automaton was the clepsydra, made in 250 BC by Ctesibius of Alexandria, a physicist and inventor from Ptolemaic
Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) made numerous innovations in the field of automata, including one that
allegedly could speak.
Taking up the earlier reference in Homer's Iliad, Aristotle speculated in his Politics (ca. 322 BC, book 1, part 4) that
automatons could someday bring about human equality by making possible the abolition of slavery:
— There is only one condition in which we can imagine managers not needing subordinates, and masters not needing slaves.
This condition would be that each instrument could do its own work, at the word of command or by intelligent anticipation,
like the statues of Daedalus or the tripods made by Hephaestus, of which Homer relates that "Of their own motion they entered
History of robots
the conclave of Gods on Olympus", as if a shuttle should weave of itself, and a plectrum should do its own harp playing.
Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) created numerous "programmable" automated devices, including one that allegedly
could speak.
The Bible mentions the Jewish legend of the Golem, a clay creature animated by Kabbalistic magic. Similarly, in the
Younger Edda, Norse mythology tells of a clay giant, Mökkurkálfi or Mistcalf, constructed to aid the troll Hrungnir
in a duel with Thor, the God of Thunder.
500 to 1500
Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robots.
The Cosmic Engine, a 10-metre (33 ft) clock tower built by Su Song in
Kaifeng, China in 1088, featured mechanical mannequins that chimed
the hours, ringing gongs or bells among other devices.

(1136–1206), an Arab Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty,
designed and constructed a number of automatic machines, including
kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first
programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was a boat
with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests
at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum
machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to
play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.
Interest in automata was either mostly non-existent in medieval Europe, or unrecorded.


Oriental automata
did, however, find their way into the imaginary worlds of medieval literature. For instance, the Middle Dutch tale
Roman van Walewein ("The Romance of Walewein", early 13th century) describes mechanical birds and angels
producing sound by means of systems of pipes.

One of the first recorded designs of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) in around 1495.
Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight in armour which
was able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.
The design is likely to be based on his anatomical
research recorded in the Vitruvian Man but it is not known whether he attempted to build the robot (see: Leonardo's
1500 to 1800
Between 1500 and 1800, many automatons were built including ones capable of acting, drawing, flying, and playing
several mechanical calculators were also built in this time period, some of the most famous ones are
Wilhelm Schickard's "Calculating Clock", Blaise Pascal's "Pascaline", and the "Liebniz Stepped Drum", by Gottfried
Wilhelm Leibniz.
In 1533, Johannes Müller von Königsberg created an automaton eagle and fly made of iron;
both could fly.
John Dee is also famous for creating a wooden beetle, capable of flying.
Some of the most famous works of the period were created by Jacques de Vaucanson in 1737, including an
automaton flute player, tambourine player, and his most famous work, "The Digesting Duck". Vaucanson's duck was
powered by weights and was capable of imitating a real duck by flapping its wings (over 400 parts were in each of
the wings alone), eat grain, digest it, and defecate by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.
John Kay invented his "flying shuttle" in 1733, and the "Spinning Jenny" was invented in 1764 by James
Hargreaves, each radically increasing the speed of production in the weaving and spinning industries respectively.
The Spinning Jenny is hand-powered and requires a skilled operator; Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule first
developed in 1779 is a fully automated power driven spinning machine capable of spinning hundreds of threads at
History of robots
Richard Arkwright built a water powered weaving machine, and factory around it in 1781, starting the Industrial
The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka, known as "Japan's Edison", created an array of extremely complex
mechanical toys, some of which were capable of serving tea, firing arrows drawn from a quiver, or even painting a
Japanese kanji character. The landmark text Karakuri Zui (Illustrated Machinery) was published in 1796.
By 1800, cloth production was completely automated.
With the advent of the Industrial Revolution the idea of
automata began to be applied to industry, as cost and time saving devices.
1801 to 1900
Tea-serving karakuri, with mechanism, 19th
century. Tokyo National Science Museum.
Improvements in the weaving industry had led to large amounts of
automation, and the idea of programmable machines became popular
with Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine
Babbage conceived his
Analytical Engine as a replacement for his uncompleted Difference
Engine; this larger, more complex device would be able to perform
multiple operations, and would be operated by punch cards.
Construction of the Analytical Engine was never completed; work was
begun in 1833.
However, Ada Lovelace's work on the project has
resulted in her being credited as the first computer programmer.
In 1837, the story of the Golem of Prague, a humanoid artificial
intelligence activated by inscribing Hebrew letters on its forehead,
based on Jewish folklore, was created by Jewish German writer
Berthold Auerbach for his novel Spinoza.
George Boole invented a new type of symbolic logic in 1847 which
was instrumental to the creation of computers and robots.
In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled
(teleoperated) boat, similar to a modern ROV. Based on his patents
U.S. Patent 613,809
, U.S. Patent 723188
and U.S. Patent 725,605
for "teleautomation", Tesla hoped to
develop the wireless torpedo into a weapon system for the US Navy (Cheney 1989).
1901 to 1950
The word robot was popularized by Czech author Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).
According to Karel, his brother Josef was the actual inventor of the word "robot", creating the word from the Czech
word "robota", meaning servitude.
In 1927, Fritz Lang's Metropolis was released; the Maschinenmensch
("machine-human"), a gynoid humanoid robot, also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria
impersonator" (played by German actress Brigitte Helm), was the first robot ever to be depicted on film.
world's first actual robot, a humanoid named Televox operated through the telephone system, was constructed in the
United States in 1927. In 1928, Makoto Nishimura produced Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku.
In his 1936 paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem"
(submitted on 28
May 1936), Turing reformulated Kurt Gödel's 1931 results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Gödel's
universal arithmetic-based formal language with what are now called Turing machines, formal and simple devices.
He proved that some such machine would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it
were representable as an algorithm, thus creating the basis for what is now called computer science.
Many robots were constructed before the dawn of computer-controlled servomechanisms, for the public relations
purposes of major firms. Electro appeared in Westinghouse's pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Some
History of robots
were built in between such major public gatherings, such as Garco, made by Garrett AiResearch in the 1950s. These
were essentially machines that could perform a few stunts, like the automatons of the 18th century.
Vannevar Bush created the first differential analyzer at the Massachusetts Institute Of Technology (MIT). Known as
the Differential Analyzer, the computer could solve differential equations.
1940 brought about the creation of two
electrical computers, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry's Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
Ultimately, ideas from ABC were stolen for ENIAC.
In 1941 and 1942, Isaac Asimov formulated the Three Laws of Robotics, and in the process of doing so, coined the
word "robotics".
In the UK, the Robinson machine was designed for the British war effort in cracking Enigma messages.
This was
done at the British code-breaking establishment at Bletchley Park; Ultra is the name for the intelligence so

Robinson was superseded by Colossus, which was built in 1943 to decode FISH messages by the
British group Ultra; it was designed by Tommy Flowers and was 100 to 1000 times faster than Robinson, and was
the first fully electronic computer.
The Bletchley machines were kept secret for decades, and so do not appear in
histories of computing written until recently. After the war, Tommy Flowers joined the team that built the early
Manchester computers.
In Germany, Konrad Zuse built the first fully programmable digital computer in the world (the Z3) in 1941; it would
later be destroyed in 1944.
Zuse was also known for building the first binary computer from 1936 to 1938, called
the Z1; he also built the Z4, his only machine to survive World War II.
The first American programmable computer was completed in 1944 by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper. The Mark
I (as it was called) ran computations for the US Navy until 1959.
ENIAC was built in 1946 and gained fame
because of its reliability, speed, and versatility. John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly spent 3 years building
ENIAC, which weighed over 60,000 lbs.
In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.
The first Turtles (Elmo and Elsie) were created by pioneer roboticist William Grey Walter in 1949.
The first working digital computer to be sold was Zuse's Z4 in Germany; the fully electronic US BINAC was sold
twelve months earlier in September 1949 but it never worked reliably at the customer's site due to mishandling in
transit. Second was the UK's Ferranti Mark 1 delivered in February 1951, the first software programmable digital
electronic computer to be sold that worked upon delivery. It was based on the world's first software programmable
digital electronic computer, Manchester's SSME of 1948.
In 1950, UNIVAC I (also by Eckert and Mauchley) handled the US Census results; it was the third commercially
marketed computer that worked on delivery (in December 1951).
The Turing test is proposed by Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence, which opens
with the words: "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'"
1951 to 2000
After 1950 computers and robotics began to rapidly increase in both complexity and numbers as the technology had
exponential growth in production, availability and capability.
1951 to 1960
In 1951 William Shockley invented the bipolar junction transistor, announced at a press conference on July 4, 1951.
Shockley obtained a patent for this invention on September 25, 1951. In 1951 a computer called LEO became
operational in the UK. It was built by Lyons for its own use: this was the world's first software programmable digital
electronic computer for commercial applications, exploiting the US development of mercury delay line memory, and
built with the support of the Cambridge EDSAC project. LEO was used for commercial work running business
History of robots
application programs, the first of which was rolled out 17 November 1951.
Eckert and Mauchly completed EDVAC in 1951. An improvement on ENIAC and UNIVAC, EDVAC used mercury
delay lines to store data, making it the USA's first software stored program computer.
In 1952, the television
network CBS correctly predicted the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower as president using UNIVAC. In 1952 IBM
announced its 701 model computer, marketed towards scientific use, it was designed by Nathaniel Rochester.
Stanislaw Ulam and physicist Paul Stein converted MANIAC I (used for solving calculations involved in creating
the hydrogen bomb) to play a modified game of chess in 1956; it was the first computer to beat a human in a game of
The term "Artificial Intelligence was created at a conference held at Dartmouth College in 1956.
Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon pioneered the newly created artificial intelligence field with the Logic
Theory Machine (1956), and the General Problem Solver in 1957.
In 1958, John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky
started the MIT Artificial Intelligence lab with $50,000.
John McCarthy also created LISP in the summer of 1958,
a programming language still important in artificial intelligence research.
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invented
the integrated circuit or "chip" in 1959; the inventors worked independent of each other. This development
eventually revolutionized computers by affecting both the size and speed.
1961 to 1970
Unimate, the first industrial robot ever created began work on the General Motors assembly line in 1961; the
machine was conceived in 1954 by George Devol. Unimate was manufactured by Unimation. Unimate is
remembered as the first industrial robot.
In 1962 John McCarthy founded the Stanford Artificial Intelligence
Laboratory at Stanford University.
The Rancho Arm was developed as a robotic arm to help handicapped patients
at the Rancho Los Amigos Hospital in Downey, California; this computer controlled arm was bought by Stanford
University in 1963.
IBM announced its IBM System/360 in 1964. The system was heralded as being more
powerful, faster, and more capable than its predecessors.
In 1965, Gordon Moore, a co-founder of Intel in 1968,
develops what will become known as Moore's Law; the idea that the number of components capable of being built
onto a chip will double every two years.
The same year, doctoral student Edward Feigenbaum, geneticist and
biochemist Joshua Lederberg, and Bruce Buchanan (who held a degree in philosophy) begin work on the
DENDRAL, an expert system designed to work in the field of organic chemistry.
Feigenbaum also founded the
Heuristic Programming Project in 1965, it later became the Stanford Knowledge Systems Artificial Intelligence
The program Mac Hack was also written in 1966; it beat artificial intelligence critic Hubert Dreyfus
in a game of chess. The program was created by Richard Greenblatt.
Seymour Papert created the Logo
programming language in 1967. It was designed as an educational programming language.
The film 2001: A
Space Odyssey was released in 1968; the movie prominently features HAL 9000, a malevolent artificial intelligence
unit which controls a spacecraft.
Marvin Minsky created the Tentacle Arm in 1968; the arm was computer
controlled and its 12 joints were powered by hydraulics.
Mechanical Engineering student Victor Scheinman
created the Stanford Arm in 1969; the Stanford Arm is recognized as the first electronic computer controlled robotic
arm (Unimate's instructions were stored on a magnetic drum).
The first floppy disc was released in 1970. It
measured eight inches in diameter and read-only.
The first mobile robot capable of reasoning about its
surroundings, Shakey was built in 1970 by the Stanford Research Institute. Shakey combined multiple sensor inputs,
including TV cameras, laser rangefinders, and "bump sensors" to navigate.
In the winter of 1970, the Soviet
Union explored the surface of the moon with the lunar vehicle Lunokhod 1, the first roving remote-controlled robot
to land on another world.
History of robots
1971 to 1980
The first microprocessor, called the 4004 was created by Ted Hoff at Intel in 1971. Measuring 1/8 of an inch by 1/16
of an inch, the chip itself was more powerful than ENIAC.
Artificial intelligence critic Hubert Dreyfuss published
his influential book "What Computers cannot Do" in 1972.
Douglas Trumbull's "Silent Running" was released in
1972; the movie was notable for the three robot co-stars, named Huey, Dewey, and Louie.
Released in 1973 was
the logic based programming language PROLOG; this logic based language becomes important in the field of
artificial intelligence.
Freddy and Freddy II, both built in the United Kingdom, were robots capable of assembling
wooden blocks in a period of several hours.
German based company KUKA built the world's first industrial robot
with six electromechanically driven axes, known as FAMULUS.
In 1974, David Silver designed The Silver Arm;
the Silver Arm was capable of fine movements replicating human hands. Feedback was provided by touch and
pressure sensors and analyzed by a computer.
MYCIN, an expert system developed to study decisions and
prescriptions relating to blood infections. MYCIN was written in Lisp.
Marvin Minsky published his landmark
paper "A Framework for Representing Knowledge" on artificial intelligence.
By 1975, four expert systems
relating to medicine had been created; PIP, MYCIN, CASNET, and Internist.
1975: more than 5,000 computers
were sold in the United States, and the first personal computer was introduced.
The Kurzweil Reading Machine
(invented by Raymond Kurzweil), intended to help the blind, was released in 1976. Capable of recognizing
characters, the machine formulated pronunciation based on programmed rules.
Based on studies of flexible
objects in nature (such as elephant trunks and the vertebrae of snakes), Shigeo Hirose designed the Soft Gripper in
1976 the gripper was capable of conforming to the object it was grasping.
The knowledge based system
Automated Mathematician was presented by Douglas Lenat in 1976 as part of his doctoral dissertation. Automated
Mathematician began with a knowledge of 110 concepts and rediscovered many mathematical principles; Automated
Mathematician was written in Lisp.
Joseph Weizenbaum (creator of ELIZA, a program capable of simulating a
Rogerian physcotherapist) published Computer Power and Human Reason, presenting an argument against the
creation of artificial intelligence.
Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak created the Apple Computer in 1977, and
released the Apple II.
George Lucas' movie Star Wars was also released in 1977. Star Wars featured two robots;
an android named C-3PO and R2-D2, both of which become extremely iconic as robots.

Voyagers 1 and 2
were launched in 1977 to explore the solar system. The 30 year old robotic space probes continue to transmit data
back to earth and are approaching the heliopause and the interstellar medium.
The SCARA, Selective Compliance
Assembly Robot Arm, was created in 1978 as an efficient, 4-axis robotic arm. Best used for picking up parts and
placing them in another location, the SCARA was introduced to assembly lines in 1981.
XCON, an expert system
designed to customize orders for industrial use, was released in 1979.
The Stanford Cart successfully crossed a
room full of chairs in 1979. The Stanford Cart relied primarily on stereo vision to navigate and determine
The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University was founded in 1979 by Raj Reddy.
1981 to 1990
Takeo Kanade created the first "direct drive arm" in 1981. The first of its kind, the arm's motors were contained
within the robot itself, eliminating long transmissions.
IBM released its first personal computer (PC) in 1981; the
name of the computer was responsible for popularizing the term "personal computer".
Prospector a
"computer-based consultation program for mineral exploration",
created in 1976, discovered an unknown deposit
of molybdenum in Washington state. The expert system had been updated annually since its creation.
The Fifth
Generation Computer Systems Project (FGCS) was started in 1982. Its goals were knowledge based information
processing and massive parallelism in a supercomputer, artificial intelligence like system.
Cyc, a project to create
a database of common sense for artificial intelligence, was started in 1984 by Douglas Leant. The program attempts
to deal with ambiguity in language, and is still underway.
The first program to publish a book, the expert system
Racter, programmed by William Chamberlain and Thomas Etter, wrote the book "The Policeman's Beard is
Half-Constructed" in 1983. It is now thought that a system of complex templates were used.
In 1984 Wabot-2 was
revealed; capable of playing the organ, Wabot-2 had 10 fingers and two feet. Wabot-2 was able to read a score of
History of robots
music and accompany a person.
In 1985, Kawasaki Heavy Industries' license agreement with Unimation was
terminated; Kawasaki began to produce its own robots. Their first robot was released one year later.
By 1986,
artificial intelligence revenue was about $1 billion US dollars. Chess playing programs HiTech and Deep Thought
defeated chess masters in 1989. Both were developed by Carnegie Mellon University; Deep Thought development
paved the way for the Deep Blue.
In 1986, Honda began its humanoid research and development program to
create robots capable of interacting successfully with humans.
Artificial intelligence related technologies, not
including robots, now produce a revenue of $1.4 billion US dollars.
In 1988, Stäubli Group purchased
The Connection Machine was built in 1988 by Daniel Hillis; the supercomputer used 64,000
processors simultaneously.
A hexapodal robot named Genghis was revealed by MIT in 1989. Genghis was
famous for being made quickly and cheaply due to construction methods; Genghis used 4 microprocessors, 22
sensors, and 12 servo motors.
Rodney Brooks and Anita M. Flynn published "Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control: A
Robot Invasion of The Solar System". The paper advocated creating smaller cheaper robots in greater numbers to
increase production time and decrease the difficulty of launching robots into space.
1991 to 2000
While competing in a 1993 NASA sponsored competition, Carnegie Mellon University's eight legged robot Dante
failed to collect gases from Mt. Erebus because of a broken fiber optic cable. Dante was designed to scale slopes and
harvest gases near the surface of the magma; however, the failure in the cable did not permit the robot to enter the
active volcano.
In 1994, Dante II entered Mt. Spurr and successfully sampled the gases within the volcano.
The biomimetic robot RoboTuna was built by doctoral student David Barrett at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in 1996 to study how fish swim in water. RoboTuna is designed to swim and resemble a blue fin
Invented by Dr. John Adler, in 1994, the Cyberknife (a stereotactic radiosurgery performing robot)
represented a faster method of performing surgery with equivalent accuracy to one done by human doctors.
Honda's P2 humanoid robot was first shown in 1996. Standing for "Prototype Model 2", P2 was an integral part of
Honda's humanoid development project; over 6 feet tall, P2 was smaller than its predecessors and appeared to be
more human-like in its motions.
Expected to only operate for seven days, the Sojourner rover finally shuts down
after 83 days of operation in 1997. This small robot (only weighing 23 lbs) performed semi-autonomous operations
on the surface of Mars as part of the Mars Pathfinder mission; equipped with an obstacle avoidance program,
Sojourner was capable of planning and navigating routes to study the surface of the planet. Sojourner's ability to
navigate with little data about its environment and nearby surroundings allowed the robot to react to unplanned
events and objects.
Also in 1997, IBM's chess playing program Deep Blue beat the then current World Chess
Champion Garry Kasparov playing at the "Grandmaster" level. The super computer was a specialized version of a
framework produced by IBM, and was capable of processing twice as many moves per second as it had during the
first match (which Deep Blue had lost), reportedly 200,000,000 moves per second. The event was broadcast live over
the internet and received over 74 million hits.
The P3 humanoid robot was revealed by Honda in 1998 as a part of
the company's continuing humanoid project.
In 1999, Sony introduced the AIBO, a robotic dog capable of
interacting with humans, the first models released in Japan sold out in 20 minutes.
Honda revealed the most
advanced result of their humanoid project in 2000, named ASIMO. ASIMO is capable of running, walking,
communication with humans, facial and environmental recognition, voice and posture recognition, and interacting
with its environment.
Sony also revealed its Sony Dream Robots, small humanoid robots in development for
In October 2000, the United Nations estimated that there were 742,500 industrial robots in the
world, with more than half of the robots being used in Japan.
History of robots
2001 to the present
In April 2001, the Canadarm2 was launched into orbit and attached to the International Space Station. The
Canadarm2 is a larger, more capable version of the arm used by the Space Shuttle and is hailed as being
Also in April, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Global Hawk made the first autonomous non-stop flight
over the Pacific Ocean from Edwards Air Force Base in California to RAAF Base Edinburgh in Southern Australia.
The flight was made in 22 hours.
The popular Roomba, a robotic vacuum cleaner, was first released in 2002 by
the company iRobot.
In 2004, Cornell University revealed a robot capable of self-replication; a set of cubes
capable of attaching and detaching, the first robot capable of building copies of itself.
On January 3 and 24 the
Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on the surface of Mars. Launched in 2003, the two robots will drive many
times the distance originally expected, and are still operating.
All 15 teams competing in the 2004 DARPA
Grand Challenge failed to complete the course, with no robot successfully navigating more than five percent of the
150 mile off road course, leaving the $1 million dollar prize unclaimed.
In the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge,
five teams completed the off-road course; Stanford University's Stanley won first place and the $2 million dollar
Also in 2005, Honda revealed a new version of its ASIMO robot, updated with new behaviors and
In 2006, Cornell University revealed its "Starfish" robot, a 4-legged robot capable of self modeling
and learning to walk after having been damaged.
In September 2007, Google announced its Lunar X Prize. The
Lunar X Prize offers 30 million dollars to the first private company which lands a rover on the moon and sends
images back to earth.
In 2007, TOMY launched the entertainment robot, i-sobot, which is a humanoid bipedal
robot that can walk like a human beings and performs kicks and punches and also some entertaining tricks and
special actions under "Special Action Mode".
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[80] "2history" (http:/ / web.archive. org/web/ 20071012203052/ http:/ / uc3m.es/ uc3m/ dpto/ IN/ dpin04/ 2historygroupwabo2.html).
Archived from the original (http:// www.uc3m. es/ uc3m/ dpto/ IN/dpin04/ 2historygroupwabo2.html) on 2007-10-12. . Retrieved
[81] "Kawasaki Robotics - History" (http:// www.kawasakirobotics. com/ aboutUs/ ?page=history). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[82] "Chess: Checkmate" (http:/ / www.computerhistory.org/about/ press_relations/ media_kit/ chess/ 5_chess_exhibit_text_Endgame. pdf)
(PDF). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[83] "P3" (http:/ / world. honda. com/ ASIMO/P3/ ). Honda Worldwide. . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[84] "Long Now: Views: Essays" (http:/ / www.longnow. org/ views/ essays/ articles/ ArtFeynman. php). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[85] "Genghis, a six legged autonomous walking robot" (http:// hdl. handle.net/ 1721.1/ 14531). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[86] "Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control: A Robot Invasion of The Solar System" (http:/ / people. csail. mit.edu/ brooks/ papers/ fast-cheap.pdf)
(PDF). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[87] Young, Patrick (1993). "Kinked cable crimps Dante's Erebus debut - Brief Article Science News" (http:// calbears.findarticles.com/ p/
articles/mi_m1200/ is_n2_v143/ ai_13324354). Science News. . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[88] "Robotics Institute: Dante II" (http:/ / www. ri.cmu. edu/ projects/ project_163.html). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[89] "Something's Fishy about this Robot" (http:/ / www.smithsonianmagazine. com/ issues/ 2000/ august/ robofish.php). . Retrieved
[90] "Stanford CyberKnife - Stanford University Medical Center" (http:// www. stanfordhospital. com/ clinicsmedServices/ COE/ cyberknife/
default). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[91] "ASIMO" (http:/ / world. honda. com/ASIMO/ history/ p1_p2_p3. html). Honda Worldwide. . Retrieved 2010-07-20.
[92] "The Robot Hall of Fame : Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover" (http:// www.robothalloffame.org/mars.html). . Retrieved 2007-09-01.
[93] "Deep Blue" (http:// www. research.ibm. com/ deepblue/ meet/ html/ d. 3. shtml). IBM Research. . Retrieved 2010-09-10.
[94] "The Honda Humanoid Robots" (http:/ / www.honda-robots.com/ english/ html/ p3/ frameset2.html). . Retrieved 2007-09-10.
[95] "AIBOaddict! About" (http:// www.aiboaddict. com/ AboutAIBO.html). . Retrieved 2007-09-10.
[96] "ASIMO" (http:// world. honda. com/ASIMO/ technology/ intelligence. html). Honda Worldwide - Technology. . Retrieved 2007-09-10.
[97] Williams, Martyn (2000-11-21). "Technology - Sony unveils prototype humanoid robot - November 22, 2000" (http:// archives.cnn. com/
2000/ TECH/computing/ 11/ 22/ sdr3. idg/ ). CNN. . Retrieved 2007-09-12.
[98] "NASA - Canadarm2 and the Mobile Servicing System" (http:/ / www. nasa. gov/ mission_pages/ station/ structure/ elements/ mss. html). .
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[99] "Global Hawk Flies Unmanned Across Pacific" (http:/ / www.spacedaily. com/news/ uav-01d.html). . Retrieved 2007-09-12.
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[101] "Cornell CCSL: Self replication" (http:/ / ccsl. mae. cornell. edu/ research/selfrep/). . Retrieved 2007-09-12.
[102] "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Overview" (http:/ / marsrovers.jpl. nasa. gov/ overview/). . Retrieved 2007-09-12.
[103] "Robots fail to complete Grand Challenge - Mar 14, 2004" (http:/ / edition.cnn. com/ 2004/ TECH/ ptech/ 03/ 14/ darpa.race/). CNN.
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[105] "Honda Worldwide" (http:// world.honda. com/ news/ 2005/ c051213. html). 13. . Retrieved 2007-09-15.
History of robots
[106] "Cornell CCSL: Robotics Self Modeling" (http:/ / ccsl. mae.cornell.edu/ emergent_self_models). . Retrieved 2007-09-15.
[107] "Google Sponsors Lunar X PRIZE to Create a Space Race for a New Generation" (http:/ / www.googlelunarxprize.org/ lunar/
press-release/google-sponsors-lunar-x-prize-to-create-a-space-race-for-a-new-generation). X PRIZE Foundation. . Retrieved 2007-09-15.
• Haug, Walter. "The Roman van Walewein as a postclassical literary experiment." In Originality and Tradition in
the Middle Dutch Roman van Walewein, ed. B. Besamusca and E. Kooper. Cambridge, 1999. 17-28.
Further reading
• Baumgartner, Emmanuèlle. "Le temps des automates." In Le Nombre du temps, en hommage à Paul Zumthor.
Paris: Champion, 1988. pp. 15–21.
• Brett, G. "The Automata in the Byzantine 'Throne of Solomon'." Speculum 29 (1954): 477-87.
• Sullivan, P. "Medieval Automata: The 'Chambre de beautés' in Benoît's Roman de Troie." Romance Studies 6
(1985). pp. 1–20.
• Read more about the History of Robotics (http:/ / www.razorrobotics.com/ history. html)
Honda's ASIMO is an example of a humanoid
A humanoid (pronounced /ˈhjuːmənɔɪd/; from English human and -oid
"resembling") is something that has an appearance resembling a human
being. The term first appeared in 1912 to refer to fossils which were
morphologically similar to, but not identical with, those of the human
Although this usage was common in the sciences for much
of the 20th century, it is now considered rare.
More generally, the
term can refer to anything with uniquely human characteristics and/or
adaptations, such as possessing apposable appendage (thumbs) or the
ability to walk in an upright position.
In robotics
A humanoid robot is a robot that is based on the general structure of a
human, such as a robot that walks on two legs and has an upper torso,
or a robot that has two arms, two legs and a head. A humanoid robot
does not necessarily look convincingly like a real person, for example
the ASIMO humanoid robot has a helmet instead of a face.
An android (male) or gynoid (female) is a humanoid robot designed to
look as much like a real person as possible, although these words are frequently perceived to be synonymous with
While there are many humanoid robots in fictional stories, some real humanoid robots have been developed since the
1990s, and some real human-looking android robots have been developed since 2002.
Similarly to robots, virtual avatars may also be called humanoid when resembling humans.
In science fiction
With regard to extraterrestrials in fiction, the term humanoid is most commonly used to refer to alien beings with a
body plan that is generally like that of a human, including upright stance and bipedalism.
Many aliens in television and science fiction films are presented as humanoid. This is usually attributed to budget
Fiction Extraterrestrials
In much of science fiction, the reason for the abundance of humanoid aliens is not explained and requires suspension
of disbelief. In some cases, however, explanations have been offered for this. In Star Trek, the abundance of
humanoid aliens within the Star Trek universe is explained by advancing the story of a primordial humanoid
civilization, the Ancient humanoids, who seeded the galaxy with genetically-engineered cells to guide the evolution
of life on a multitude of worlds toward a humanoid form.
In the television series Stargate SG-1, the Jaffa are
explained as being an offshoot of humanity bred by the Goa'uld to suit their purposes, hence their almost-human
appearance and physiology. Similarly, in its spin-off show Stargate Atlantis, the explanation offered for the
humanoid appearance of the Wraith is that the Wraith evolved from a parasite which incorporated human DNA into
its own genome after feeding on humans, giving the Wraith their present form.
In ufology
In the field of ufology, humanoid refers to any of the claimed extraterrestrials which abduct human victims, such as
the Greys,
the Reptilians,
Nordics, and Martians.
In fantasy
In fantasy settings the term humanoid is used to refer to a human-like fantastical creature, such as a dwarf or an ogre.
In some cases, such as older versions of the game Dungeons and Dragons, a distinction is made between
demi-humans, which are relatively similar to humans, and humanoids, which exhibit larger differences from humans.
[1] The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed.. OED Online: Oxford University.
[2] "The Chase". Star Trek: The Next Generation. April 26, 1993. No. 20, season 6.
[3] "The Gift" (Stargate Atlantis)
[4] Bryan, C.D.B (1995). Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
[5] Lewis, Tyson; Richard Kahn (Winter 2005). "The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke's Alien
Conspiracy Theory". Utopian Studies 16 (1): 45–75.
External links
• Robotics education website (http:/ / www. razorrobotics.com/ )
• Robot Info (Directory of Robotics news, books, videos, magazines, forums and products) (http:// www.
robotinfo. net).
• Humanoid Robot (http:/ / www. maniacworld.com/ Humanoid-Robot. html) Video
• Humanoid Robots in America (http:/ / www. roboporium.com/ )
• Albert S. Rosales (http:/ / iraap.org/rosales/ )
• Albert Einstein Hubo: by Hanson Robotics and KAIST (http:// www.hansonrobotics. com/ )
• Virtual Humans Forum (http:// www. vrconsulting. it/vhf/ )
• TV Trope's discussion of the prevalence of humanoid aliens in science fiction. (http:// tvtropes. org/pmwiki/
pmwiki. php/ Main/ RubberForeheadAliens)
• Humanoids in the Star Wars universe (http:// starwars. wikia. com/ wiki/ Humanoid)
• Australian UFO Research Network (http:// www.auforn.com)
• Malevolent Alien Abduction Research Homepage (http:/ / www.maar.us)
The Humanoid Project
The Humanoid Project, a project based in Sweden, has accomplished its initial objective of producing a full-size
humanoid robot. Although the project generated a variety of software created for a variety of purposes, the most
notable contributions have been in the area of robot learning, particularly in the application of evolutionary
algorithms based on linear genetic programming.
The project has produced robots which are able to learn mobility, progressing from basic crawling to stair
Although hundreds of robots have been constructed, the most notable include Elvis, Elvina, and full-size
humanoid Priscilla. Elvis was the first humanoid robot used in Sweden in advanced AI / robotics research in The
Humanoid Project on self-developing robotic control. The robot hardware was conceptualized and designed by
Marcus Tallhamn and Manne Kihlman.
Priscilla was the first full-size humanoid robot created in Sweden.
Project Coordinators are Peter Nordin and Krister Wolff.
[1] RoboBusiness: Robots that Dream of Being Better (http:/ / mensnewsdaily. com/2007/ 05/ 16/ robobusiness-robots-with-imagination/ )
[2] "Wordreference.com: WordNet 2.0" (http:// humanoid. fy.chalmers.se/ text/ cuba.pdf). .
[3] Elvis, Elvina, and Priscilla as well as ideas and science of the project (along with other robots and other research) are discussed in the
Swedish popular science book; Humanoider: Självlärande robotar och artificiell intelligens (Humanoids: Autodidactic robots and artificial
intelligence). Peter Nordin and Johanna Wilde, Liber 2003.
External links
• The Humanoid Project (http:// humanoid. fy.chalmers. se/ )
• An Evolutionary Architecture for a Humanoid Robot (http:// humanoid. fy.chalmers. se/ text/ cuba. pdf)
(Technical article)
• An Evolutionary Architecture for a Humanoid robot (http:// humanoid. fy.chalmers. se/ ppt/ index. htm) (PPT
Incremental heuristic search
Incremental heuristic search
Incremental heuristic search algorithms combine both incremental and heuristic search to speed up searches of
sequences of similar search problems, which is important in domains that are only incompletely known or change
Incremental search has been studied at least since the late 1960s. Incremental search algorithms reuse
information from previous searches to speed up the current search and solve search problems potentially much faster
than solving them repeatedly from scratch.
Similarly, heuristic search has been studied at least since the late 1960s.
Heuristic search algorithms, often based on A*, use heuristic knowledge in the form of approximations of the goal
distances to focus the search and solve search problems potentially much faster than uninformed search
The resulting search problems, sometimes called dynamic path planning problems, are graph search
problems where paths have to be found repeatedly because the topology of the graph, its edge costs, the start vertex
or the goal vertices change over time.
So far, three main classes of incremental heuristic search algorithms have been developed:
• The first class restarts A* at the point where its current search deviates from the previous one (example: Fringe
Saving A*
• The second class updates the h-values from the previous search during the current search to make them more
informed (example: Generalized Adaptive A*
• The third class updates the g-values from the previous search during the current search to correct them when
necessary, which can be interpreted as transforming the A* search tree from the previous search into the A*
search tree for the current search (examples: Lifelong Planning A*
, D*
, D* Lite
All three classes of incremental heuristic search algorithms are different from other replanning algorithms, such as
planning by analogy, in that their plan quality does not deteriorate with the number of replanning episodes.
Incremental heuristic search has been extensively used in robotics, where a larger number of path planning systems
are based on either D* (typically earlier systems) or D* Lite (current systems), two different incremental heuristic
search algorithms.
[1] S. Koenig, M. Likhachev, Y. Liu and D. Furcy. Incremental Heuristic Search in Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Magazine,
25(2), 99-112, 2004.
[2] N. Deo and C. Pang. Shortest-path algorithms: Taxonomy and Annotation. Networks 14, 275–323, 1984.
[3] P. Hart, N. Nilsson and B. Raphael, A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths, IEEE Trans. Syst. Science and
Cybernetics, SSC-4(2), 100-107, 1968.
[4] N. Deo and C. Pang. Shortest-path algorithms: Taxonomy and Annotation. Networks 14, 275–323, 1984.
[5] X. Sun and S. Koenig. The Fringe-Saving A* Search Algorithm - A Feasibility Study. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), 2391-2397, 2007.
[6] X. Sun, S. Koenig and W. Yeoh. Generalized Adaptive A*. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and
Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), 469-476, 2008.
[7] S. Koen