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Additional Mathematics

Project Work 2

Written by: ALVIN SOO CHUN KIT I/C Num : Angka Giliran: School : Date :

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Num. 1 Part I Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) ~ Question 2 (b) 2 ~ Question 2 (c) ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 (c) 3 4 Part III Further Exploration Question Page

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

PART I History of cake baking and decorating Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find, the precise classification has always been elusive. For example, banana bread may be properly considered either a quick bread or a cake.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener, frying fritters in olive oil, and cheesecakes using goat's milk. In ancient Rome, basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter, eggs, and honey, which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. Latin poet Ovid refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile, Tristia.Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round, flat shape of the cakes, and the cooking method, which turned cakes over once while cooking, while bread was left upright throughout the baking process. Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated during the Renaissance, possibly in Spain. Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons, places and things. In many areas of the world, decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday, graduation, bridal shower, wedding, or anniversary. Mathematics are often used to bake and decorate cakes, especially in the following actions:

y y y y y

Measurement of Ingredients Calculation of Price and Estimated Cost Estimation of Dimensions Calculation of Baking Times Modification of Recipe according to scale

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

PART II 1) 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V = r2h 19000 = 3.142 x r2 x 7 r2 = 19000 3.142 x 7 r2 = 863.872 r = 29.392 cm

.

d = 2r d = 58.783 cm 2) Maximum dimensions of cake: d = 60.0 cm h = 45.0 cm a) h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 d/cm 155.5262519 109.9736674 89.79312339 77.76312594 69.5534543 63.49332645 58.78339783 54.98683368 51.84208396 49.18171919 46.89292932 44.89656169 43.13522122 41.56613923 40.15670556 h/cm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.88156297 37.72065671 36.65788912 35.68016921 34.77672715 33.93861056 33.15830831 32.42946528 31.74666323 31.10525037 30.50120743 29.93104113 29.39169891 28.88049994 28.39507881 h/cm 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 d/cm 27.93333944 27.49341684 27.07364537 26.67253215 26.2887347 25.92104198 25.56835831 25.2296896 24.90413158 24.59085959 24.28911983 23.99822167 23.71753106 23.44646466 23.18448477

b) i) h < 7 cm , h > 45 cm This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions of the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately 29 cm in diameter. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more symmetrical and easier to decorate.

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

c) i)

**V = r2 h V = 19000 cm3 r = d/2 19000 = 3.142 x (d/2)2 x h d2 = 19000 4 3.142 x (d2/4)
**

.

d2 =

76000 3.142 x h

.

d = 155.53 x h-1/2 log10 d = -1/2 log10 h + log10 155.53

log10 h

1 2 3 4

log10 d

1.691814 1.191814 0.691814 0.191814

c) ii) a) When h = 10.5 cm, log10 h = 1.0212 According to the graph, log10 d = 1.7 when log10 h = 1.0212 Therefore, d = 50.12 cm b) When d = 42 cm, log10 d = 1.6232 According to the graph, log10 h = 1.2 when log10 d = 1.6232 Therefore, h = 15.85 cm

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

3) a)

h = 29 cm r = 14.44 cm

14.44 cm

29 cm

Diagram 1: Cake without Cream 1 cm 15.44 cm 1 cm 30 cm

Diagram 2: Cake with Cream

To calculate volume of cream used, the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder. Vcream = 3.142 x 15.442 x 30 ± 19000 = 22471 ± 19000 = 3471 cm3

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

3) b) i) Square shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = 30 x 27.6 x 27.6 - 19000 = 22852.8 ± 19000 = 3852.8 cm3 b) ii) Triangle shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x 39.7 x 39.7 x 30 ± 19000 = 23641.4 ± 19000 = 4641.4 cm3 b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake

Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x (28+42.5) x 22 x 30 - 19000 = 23265 ± 19000 = 4265 cm3 * All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer of cream is uniformly thick at 1 cm c) Based on the values I have obtained, the round shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream (3471 cm3)

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

**PART III Method 1: By comparing values of height against volume of cream used
**

volume of cream used/cm3 19983.61 10546.04 7474.42 5987.37 5130.07 4585.13 4217.00 3958.20 3771.41 3634.38 3533.03 3458.02 3402.96 3363.28 3335.70 3317.73 3307.53 volume of cream used/cm3 3303.66 3304.98 3310.62 3319.86 3332.12 3346.94 3363.92 3382.74 3403.14 3424.89 3447.80 3471.71 3496.47 3521.98 3548.12 3574.81 3601.97 volume of cream used/cm3 3629.54 3657.46 3685.67 3714.13 3742.81 3771.67 3800.67 3829.79 3859.01 3888.30 3917.65 3947.04 3976.46 4005.88 4035.31 4064.72

h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

h/cm 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

h/cm 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

According to the table above, the minimum volume of cream used is 3303.66 cm3 when h = 18cm. When h = 18cm, r = 18.3 cm

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

Method 2: Using differentiation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake.* Formula for surface area = r2 + 2 rh h = 19000 / 3.142r 2 Surface area in contact with cream = r2 + 2 r(19000 / 3.142r 2) = r2 + (38000/r) The values, when plotted into a graph will from a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation. dy = 0 dx dy = 2 r ± (38000/r 2) dx 0 = 2 r ± (38000/r 2) 0 = 6.284r3 ± 38000 38000 = 6.284r3 6047.104 = r3 18.22 = r When r = 18.22 cm, h = 18.22 cm The dimensions of the cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is approximately 18.2 cm in height and 18.2 cm in radius. I would bake a cake of such dimensions because the cake would not be too large for the cutting or eating of said cake, and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven. * The above conjecture is proven by the following When r = 10, ~ the total surface area of the cake is 4114.2 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381.2 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.94 When r = 20, ~ the total surface area of the cake is 3156.8 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308.5 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.94 Therefore, the above conjecture is proven to be true.

Alvin Soo Chun Kit FURTHER EXPLORATION

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

a) Volume of cake 1 = r2 h = 3.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 = 18116.772 cm3

Volume of cake 2 = r2 h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (27.9)2 x 6 = 14676.585 cm3 Volume of cake 4 = r2 h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (22.599) 2 x 6 = 9627.995 cm3

Volume of cake 3 = r2 h = 3.142 x (0.9 x 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (25.11)2 x 6 = 11886.414 cm3

The values 118116.772, 14676.585, 11886.414, 9627.995 form a number pattern. The pattern formed is a geometrical progression. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers, r = 0.81. 14676.585 = 0.81 18116.772

.

11886.414 = 0.81 14676.585

9627.995 = 0.81 11886.414

b) Sn = a(1-rn) = 18116.772 ( 1-0.8n) 1-r 1-0.8 15 kg = 57000 cm3 57000 > 18116.772(1-0.8n) 0.2 11400 > 18116.772(1-0.8n) 0.629 > 1-0.8n -0.371 > - 0.8n 0.371 < 0.8n log 0.371 < n log 0.8 log 0.371 < n log 0.8 4.444 n=4 <n

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

Verification of answer If n = 4 Total volume of 4 cakes = 18116.772 cm3 + 14676.585 cm3 + 11886.414 cm 3 + 9627.995 cm3 = 54307.766 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 14.29 kg If n = 5 Total volume of 5 cakes = 18116.772 cm3 + 14676.585 cm3 + 11886.414 cm 3 + 9627.995 cm3 + 7798.676 cm3 = 62106.442 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 16.34 kg Total mass of cakes must not exceed 15 kg. Therefore, maximum number of cakes needed to be made = 4

Alvin Soo Chun Kit

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

Reflection In the process of conducting this project, I have learnt that perseverance pays off, especially when you obtain a just reward for all your hard work. For me, succeeding in completing this project work has been reward enough. I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life, from the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake, to designing and building monuments. Besides that, I have learned many moral values that I practice. This project work had taught me to be more confident when doing something especially the homework given by the teacher. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is punctual and independent.

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