Study of Smart Card Technology Abstract

Right now, in most of the countries, inside the people’s wallet, they probably have a couple of credit cards, an identification card, automatic machine teller cards (ATM card), and maybe a few other plastic cards. Without realizing it, these plastic cards have become a very important part of their life. Although smart card technology improves security and convenient but it is not used in a wide range in Middle East countries. User acceptance is vital for further development of any fresh technology and smart card technology as well. One of the factors that can effect on the acceptance of smart card technology is users’ awareness. The goal of this study is to present a general overview of smart card technology and identify the smart card’s benefits, features and characteristics and moreover, the level of users’ knowledge and awareness about smart card technology will be evaluated. In order to achieve this goal, a survey was conducted among the international students of University Technology Malaysia to measure their awareness of smart card technology.

Keywords: application







however the point is that. In this situation. calculating. The use of multiple technologies or multi applications on a single ID card can reduce card issuance. It is important to note that consumer acceptance and confidence are vital for the further development of smart card technology. Additionally. Assume a student at a university may use the university identification card (ID card) as a basic form of identification to gain access to the university’s facilities. or use university’s vending machines. awareness should be addressed. in order to increase the level of smart card usage and user adoption. and has proven to be more reliable than magnetic strip cards. purchase meals or decrease value from a meal plan. purchase materials and supplies from the university store. the emphasis on factors that can influence on user acceptance should be raised and based on the [16]. awareness can effect on . using university library. managing and performing cryptography algorithm on a significant amount of data which can be either value or information or both. and also data portability [1].I. processing. some cards may also be used to access the university’s computer systems. INTRODUCTION A smart card is a plastic card with an embedded microprocessor chip (usually small goldcolored metal module). One example of a multi application card is the student campus ID card. network and intranet or internet. administrative costs and provide users with the convenience of a single access ID credential. capable of storing. In other words. According to [16] one of the factors that have a direct effect on technology acceptance is awareness so it is understood that for successfully implementation of smart card technology. It makes possible sophisticated and portable data processing applications. Most smart cards resemble the size of a standard credit card [14]. Smart cards provide maximum security and convenience. the students should accept the new technology otherwise developing new technology will not be successful. likelihood the contactless reader cannot detect the smart card.

retail. credit account. In order to reduce the number of vehicles stuck in congestion. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY Take a look in Middle Eastern’s wallet and what will be found? Notes. by using the smart cards banks have been able to replace their current cards (ATM. many retailers have started using smart cards as loyalty cards [10]. This paper is going to study and investigate the students’ awareness of smart card technology and identify the features. On the other hand. first. Nowadays the main trend is the use of multiple application cards. A multiple application card is a smart card that can support different types of applications on the card itself thereby reducing the number of cards in the wallet. Smart cards protect against a full range of security threats. Heavy highway congestion has become one of most serious urban problems.user satisfaction and consequently on user acceptance of smart card technology. network security. a library card. the establishment of smart card systems has been a hot issue and dominant trend in many countries. as a result. and many other industries. education. There are a lot of advantages to use of smart cards in wide variety applications in daily life. Faced with annually increasing demand for travel and transport of goods. All these documents could be replaced by just two or three smart cards. for example government. coins. one card can be used for all. from careless storage of user passwords to sophisticated system hacks. driving license. II. Smart cards are being used in a number of ways around the world. Furthermore. The big scale use for this card is a national e-ID for . telecommunication. and advantages of smart card technology. transportation systems are reaching the limits of their existing capacity. especially for stop and go traffic at toll plazas. healthcare. to be able to increase the user awareness of smart card technology. replacing a wallet's content bit by bit [7]. and travel and entertainment cheque) with one card. As a result of adopting smart card technology. debit. paper identity card and other cards will be found and maybe some credit cards. transportation. Beside that smart cards are also being used in quite a few countries as electronic purses (such as Singapore). characteristics. financial services. the user awareness should be examined.

the cards are used for authentication of identity. or where the reader must deal with more than one modulation scheme. And also he or she needs to access the servers inside the company for various purposes like sending mail and accessing databases of the company. Then each of the employees has access permission to different facilities and different physical places. different applications involve different user behavior so they should be aware of the usage and application of smart cards. and may combine the functions of social security cards. and in the second case. user awareness is a key to act against fraud and identity theft. A quickly growing application is in digital identification cards. National identity schemes are used in over 100 nations. Card holder education is needed to deal with the first problem. for example. but actually he or she could use only one smart card for all these. educating the user is a key element to integrate in any kind of smart card deployment. Technology should be clearly introduced to people and they have to be aware of its characteristics. so he or she needs to carry a lot of things and memorizes many passwords. The users need to know how they should protect the card and why they need to protect the card. features. contactless card adopters must be aware of the probability of slow transactions or business logic problems when more than one card enters the radio frequency field (i. On other hand. In all applications.. Assume person X who is working in a large company. As we know. and benefits. and other identification documents such as Malaysian identity card.e. The users need to understand functions of card because sometimes they do not know how they should use their cards and even what the advantages of using them are. If there is one lock for each door and just one password for each server and some money in his or her pocket to buy things from the local restaurant. Smart card technology is not well defined in Middle Eastern countries and therefore it is not used in a large scale. educating and awareness of the end users is also significant. An application features play an important role in determining whether individuals involved in an activity will use it or not [17]. if a card holder has two in a wallet). immigration documents. In this application. it is highly preferable to choose a single modulation scheme. and how they can benefit users.the citizens [1]. Users awareness about smart card can assist them to understand the technology. . Although the technology used to implement a smart card program is important. driver's licenses.

A great deal turns on the sophistication of this chip [9]. Smart card advantages Smart cards contain unique features that bring many benefits. convenience and economic benefits. Compared to conventional data transmission devices such as magnetic stripe cards. including security against identity theft and web fraud. biometric storage and others. are briefly listed as below: . The interest in smart card technologies worldwide is driven by several factors. Indeed. Physical access control relates to identification (ID) badges and building access control. smart cards have many advantages. network authentication. smart cards are highly configurable to suit individual needs. Smart cards are secure devices that enable positive user identification. They are multifunctional and cost effective devices that can be easily adapted for both physical and logical access.The purpose of this study is to present a general overview of smart card technology and identify the smart card’s benefits. AN OVERVIEW OF SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY Smart card technology makes possible sophisticated and portable data processing applications. virtual private network (VPN) access. Finally. The level of users’ knowledge and awareness about smart card technology is also described. Smart cards are called ‘smart’ because they contain a computer chip. In addition. Logical access control concerns familiar principles such as password checking or the more sophisticated cryptographic mechanisms for authentication such as windows logon. among others. III. efficiency of service delivery and user convenience. A. smart cards are often referred to as ‘chip cards’ or ‘integrated circuit cards’. smart cards offer enhanced security. features and characteristics. and has proven to be more reliable than magnetic strip cards.

they can contain more detailed data and enable many services to be integrated. It allows the client side of a transaction to actively verify the identity of the server before the server identifies the client. Smart cards can be configured to reveal their data only to especially qualified and authenticated terminal equipment [15]. • Biometric authentication methods which rely on personal physical attributes. they will not be able to clone the card or use it to spawn counterfeits. • Chip is tamper resistant memory. . including computers will be stored in smart cards rather than in the appliances themselves. an e-mail connection and other authorized services based on the data read from a smart card. • Each smart card has unique serial number. In other words. This property assists in countering man-in-the-middle attack. Web connection. • A smart card contains all the data needed to personalize networking. Personal settings for electronic appliances. If an attacker obtains a smart card and the related personal identification number (PIN). Web servers will verify the user's identity and present a customized Web page. • Smart cards reduce transaction costs by eliminating paper and paper handling costs and reduce document processing costs by allowing immediate access to information stored in smart cards [2]. it is impossible to copy or counterfeit a smart card. And help protect against website fraud and phishing [2]. smart cards are used in distributing government welfare payments in order to reduce frauds and abuse.• Smart cards are capable of performing encryption that can implement issuer's and user's requirements for the highest degree of security. payments and other applications. it makes smart cards capable of true mutual authentication in online transactions. for all practical purposes.

• In support of authentication process it needs two or sometimes three factors of something users know (PIN)”.• A single smartcard can perform multiple independent tasks [5][12]. The advantages of this type of card lies in simple technology. “something users have (card)” or “something users are (biometrics)”. • Durability and long expected life span (guaranteed by vendor for up to 10.000 read or writes before failure). There are two different types of chip: • Memory chips which are similar to magnetic stripe cards. for example the college identification card. B. in systems where low cost is the main consideration [13]. • Smart cards can communicate with computing devices through a smart card reader. and . they are not programmable after manufacture and only capable to store data. • Smart cards can proceed independently from a back end system or offline. Types of smart card Smart cards have different types according to their chip and interface to communicate with the reader. They are suitable for the system that performs a fixed operation and use as pre-paid cards or identification card. • Information and applications on a card can be updated without having to issue new cards.

Microprocessor cards contain and execute logic and calculations. Smart cards interfaces are described by which electrical power is supplied to the integrated circuit card and data is transferred from the card to an interface device (i. local public transportation. • Possible application areas for microprocessor cards include identification. with operating system. and also it is easy to support. Microprocessor cards are useful for multiple applications because of their storage capacity.therefore incur low cost. while the disadvantage is that thecard cannot be reused once it is empty.e. ski passes. Therefore they are particularly suitable for applications in which persons or objects should be quickly identified [8] such as access control. general flexibility. they are classified to the following: • Contact smart cards require physically communicate with the reader so the reader can establish a direct electrical contact with the chip. secure data storage. Microprocessor cards are able to store private keys and execute modern cryptographic algorithms. and store data in accordance with their operating [4].. • Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact with the reader but enable communication with the reader through radio frequency and has an embedded transmitted [1]. and the ability to execute cryptographic algorithm. • Microprocessor chips contain a computer on a chip. access control systems for restricted areas and computers. including financial transactions and logical access control. . Due to the communication with the reader and functionality of smart cards. and read or write memory that can be updated many times. level of security. Contact cards are generally used for a wide variety of applications. electronic signatures and electronic purses [14]. smart card reader). airline tickets. and baggage identification.

in dirt or chemical environments. contactless are more appropriate except environments where there is electrical noise makes the contactless card inappropriate. one of them support contact interface and another one support contactless interface. • Dual-interface smart cards that contain a single chip that supports both contact and contactless interfaces. Smart cards may also be used as electronic wallets. Smart card applications The applications of smart cards include their uses as credit or ATM cards. and public transport and public phone payment cards [11]. A list of applications for smart card technologies includes: • Health cards . The contact card will always be more reliable except for unusual wear of the connector plate because for an equivalent card there are fewer components and fewer connections. Contactless card is faster than a contact card and more expensive to manufacture [6]. The smart card chip can be loaded with funds which can be spent in parking meters and vending machines or at various merchants. For example. authorization cards for pay television. high-security identification and access-control cards. C.• Hybrid smart cards which contain two chips that are not connected to each other. in a fuel card. SIMs for mobile phones. Cryptographic protocols protect the exchange of money between the smart card and the accepting machine [10]. The main advantage of the contactless card is that the communication channel will operate in some hostile environments where contacts would be inappropriate.

calling) • Identification (including government identity (ID) cards. gas stations. official documents. employee ID badges and membership cards) • Telecommunication (including mobile phone subscriber identification and administration) • Transportation (including ticketing and tolling) • Electronic passports • Physical access control • Campus cards • • Financial applications (such as electronic purse. vending machines. and secure payment through internet) Government system (such as electronic benefits transfer.• Banking (such as ATM cards) • Network authentication • Telephony (including card’s for parking lots. business licenses. and voting system) .

Students were from Saudi Arabia. and digitally sign electronic messages) • Retail and loyalty (such as customer reward) • Satellite TV IV. gender. their experience and their frequently use of smart card. Iraq. The first section of the instrument assessed demographic characteristics such as age. Turkey. . Sudan. the respondents were asked about their general knowledge and awareness about smart card. and smart card experience. RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY In this study. In the second section. Yemen. to evaluate the user awareness of smart card technology a survey was conducted. so it is recognized that smart card is not used in a large scale. The questionnaire consists of 36 measurement items in six sections. V. RESULTS Table 1 summarizes the demographic profile and descriptive statistics of the respondents. Table 1 shows that 87% of respondents only have less than three smart cards.• Information security (such as access card with secure passwords. It was distributed among the forty-six international students of Centre for Advanced Software Engineering (CASE) at University Technology Malaysia (UTM) in the field of computer science. Malaysia and Iran.

Table 1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents .

therefore students should use smart card .In order to access the facilities of CASE buildings all students have been equipped with a physical access card (which is a contactless smart card).

the respondents were asked about how they rank their knowledge about the technology of smart card. 20% of respondents answered they do not have any knowledge and information about smart card technology. Fig. The answers are shown in Fig. 26% . and although students come to university at least once a week. internet authentication and credit card with only 4% are at the lowest ranking. Figure 1.regularly but as it is shown in Table 1. Meanwhile. 1 below illustrates the smart card applications. 2. Furthermore. only 56% of respondents mentioned it. 22% of them said “I use smart card monthly”. In terms of applications. it can be seen that banking sector with 60% has the highest position. Smart Card Applications Then.

for this segment (government application). Moreover. Respondents’ knowledge ranking Also from this separation of respondents (26%). Figure 2.. which of the smart card applications do you use?) 58% of them did not mention the telecommunication application of smart card. there is . 66% are Malaysian who has their own national identity card but out of this. It explains that they are not aware and they do not know that SIMs is a kind of smart card.ranked their level of knowledge more than enough but in previous question (i.e. 62% did not state about government application in the smart card applications which they use.

Smart cards contain unique features that bring many benefits. Prior to using the access card. Being aware of the technology will improve users’ judgment and their ability in using the system in a secured manner [3]. In other words. VI. so person X shares his or her smart card. However smart card makes possible sophisticated and portable data processing applications. awareness also refers to the effort in providing knowledge and improving understanding of the smart card. This behavior is an invasion to intellectual property rule and regulation where the only responsible person is person X to hold security of entire building so if anything wrong happen in the building person X would be in charge. Awareness about smart card can assist people to understand the technology and it can have a positive influence on successful applying smart card technology in society. They offer enhanced security. a friend of person X who is person Y (consider as an unauthorized person). Therefore. DISCUSION AND CONCLUSION According to [16] awareness is defined as “the degree to which an individual are aware about the technology”. and is a reliable card but in Middle East countries it is not well introduced and developed. suppose person X has received physical access card in order to use for interior building facilities. further . Findings of this study show that users are not well aware about the smart card technology. convenience and economic benefits. Awareness about technology cause users to look forward to try technology and at the same time enjoys the various benefits that the system provides [1]. needs to use the access card too. although we know that all the smart cards do not include the photo 23% answered “yes”! These results show that users are not sufficiently aware of smart card technology and it can affect their acceptance of this technology [16]. Respondents were asked “Does your smart card have your photo” and 70% of the respondents answered “no” but we know Malaysian identity card includes an owner’s photo on it.another question in the survey that we can refer to. Additionally. As a real time scenario.

investigation need to be carried out in the future to identify factors that will enhance their smart card awareness. REFERENCES .

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