CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION This report focuses on DC to AC power inverter, which aim is to efficiently transform a DC power source to a high

voltage AC source, similar to power that would be available at an electrical wall outlet. Inverters are used for many applications, as in situations where low voltage DC sources such as batteries, solar panels or fuel cells must be converted so that devices can run off of AC power. One example of such a situation would be converting electrical power from a car batter y to run a laptop, TV or cell phone. The method, in which the low voltage DC power is inverted, is completed in two steps. The first being the conversion of the low voltage DC power to a high voltage DC source, and the second step being the conversion of t he high DC source to an AC waveform using pulse width modulation. Another method of completing the desired outcome would be to first convert the low voltage DC power to AC, and then using a transformer to boost the voltage to 220 volts. This project focuse s on the first method described and specifically the transformation of a high voltage DC source into an AC output. Again, in each and every field you will find some electrical and electronic device, be it in general household use or in some specialized industrial use. These electrical or electronics devices require electrical power for their operation and most of these devices are very particular about the quality of the power given to them. If the power given to these electrical/electronic devices can get damaged. Also, these devices will not be of any use if you do not provide them with proper power supply. In Nigeria a standard electrical/electronics equipment works on 230v/50Hz A.C power supply. This power supply should not contain any problem such as spike, noise etc, otherwise it could damage the equipment. In a developed country are good qualities without any of the above problems, but in a developing country like Nigeria, the power provided by PHCN might contain some of the problems. Also power cut s and line problems are very frequent which gets worse in some seasons. In a situation like this, an efficient inverter such as the one described on this work could be adopted to bridge the gap between power failures. Inverter produces a good quality A.C power supply which could be used to power most electrical electronics devices. 1.1 OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this project is to produce a very efficient, reliable and cost effective device that can convert DC Voltage (battery) to AC power supply with th e following features: i. ii. iii. iv. v. 1.2 Automatic change over Automatic charging system Battery full cut off Automatic mosfet cut off Feedback mechanism


The scope of this work is to represent theory, design and analysis, and construction of an inverter that convert a 24 volts D C to 220 volts AC at a frequently of 50 hertz and produces a power of 5000 watts. However, a research of this nature was never without limitation. Some factor that poses difficulties to the construction on this project includes inconsistency in

insufficient research material poses a problem. and thus it was not capable of transmitting power over long distances4. there exist many devices such as power tools.1 BACKGROUND In the world today there are currently two forms of electrical transmission. enabling digital logic to process code executions. and its ever changing current and voltage makes it easy to step up or down the voltage. therefore high voltage transmission reduces Power loss. Electrical transmission has therefore been mainly based upon AC power.power supply. diodes to mention but a few and had interview with the people currently makin g use of the project to understand their difficulties. Like DC power. transformers. For high voltage and long distance transmission situations all that is needed to step up or down the voltage is a transformer. Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC). It should be noted that since 1954 there have been many high voltage DC transmission systems implemented around the globe with the advent of DC/DC booster. Furthermore. A battery is the most common source of DC transmission as current flows from one end of a circuit to the other. When the voltage is increased. DC power is simply the application of a steady constant voltage across a circuit resulting in a constant current. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Without this ability people will be restricted to what electronic devices they use depending on the electricity source available. For this reasoning electricity was generated at power stations and delivered to homes and businesses through AC power. Alternating current. this electricity was low voltage. V =IR P=IV=I 2R (1) As can be seen in the equations above. electricity was first commercially transmitted by Thomas Edison. supplying most American homes with a 120 volt AC source. each with its own advantages and disadvantages. due to the inability to step up DC voltage at the time. allowing the easy stepping up and down of DC voltages6. relays. Most digital circuitry today is run off of DC power as it carries the ability to prov ide either a constant high or constant low voltage. pulse width modulation techniques were employed in voltage source and current source inverter only.. radios and TV¶s that run off of AC power. power loss can be derived from the electrical current squared and the resistance of a transmission line. the current decreases and concurrently the power loss decreases exponentially. Historically. Mosfets and GTOs. 1. the world cannot be powered with one simple form. oscillators. such as power transistor. It is therefore crucial that both forms of electricity transmission exist. oscillates between two voltage values at a specified frequency. we studied some areas that are related to the project such operations of a transistors. In addition. unlike DC. and was a DC power line. Availability of self -commuted devices. Electrical AC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters allow people this freedom in transferring electrical power between the two. have made pulse width modulation AC . the finance at disposal was inadequate. In order to achieve the objective of the project. In the past. the transformer made long distance electrical transmission using AC power possible.3 EXPECTED RESULTS The project is expected to produce a 220V ac supply from a 24V Battery having the same frequency as that of the PHCN supply and with the aforementioned features. However. It then becomes a vital matter for there to exist easy ways to transform DC to AC power and vice versa in an efficient manner. Developed in 1886 by William Stanley Jr.

In Nigeria the standard electrical/electronic equipment works on 220V/50HZ AC power supply. This power supply should not contain spikes. in each and every field you will find some electrical/electronic devices in general household use or in some specialized Industrial use. The above divisions will be design separately and assembly to achieve the desired aim. Battery charger. transformer. to either convey information over a communication channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. feedback system. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle. The steady state and dynamic performance of inverters and AC to DC converters and DC and AC drives are significantly dependent on the pulse width modulation techniques. Mosfet cut off. Battery full cut off. Currently whatever work you DC converter also popular in many applications. automatic change over and delay system. With this direct current (DC). CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY AND CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3. the devices will not be of any use if you do not drive them with proper power supply. and consultation.The divisions comprises of the Inverter DC -AC. The specific operation and construction of each block will be discuss in the subsequent sections. the commutation problems associated with generator are eliminated. The electrical/electronic device require electrical power for their operation. The above divisions were critically searched through several ways which includes internet.1 METHODOLOGY The construction of the PWM inverter can be complex when thought as a whole but when broken up into smaller projects and divisions it becomes much easier to manage. noise etc which could lead to damage of the equipment. Mosfet drivers Battery Oscillator Buffers Transformers Outlet socket Change over . resource text book. to alternating current (AC) power inverter people now have an alternative to power supply when there is an outage thereby reducing irregularities of power supply by the National power body (PHCN) and since this device can also be used in remote areas were there is no electricity/power.

Fig. The transformer has two coils the primary and the secondary. casing. The magnitude of this induced E.3 a. A transform er needs two coils. The process of inducing current in the in the secondary coil because of change of current in the primary is called induction. The materials and tools employed includes soldering iron. it is known as ³Mutual Induction´. The current in the secondary is generated by induced voltage across the secondary winding. saw. etc were t aken to a welders shop. is proportional to the rate of change of the flux i. which states that e. Another of our consideration should be ensuring that materials best meet the requirements.2 MATERIALS In this project design.e.f is induced whenever there is a change in the flux flowing in the electromagnetic circuit. Reliability of the units components parts. no matter how perfectly it was designed. equipments and instruments t hat will be used in executing the project in particular. tools and components are carefully and properly selected. If a product is designed at a very high cost. The transformer operation is based on the principal of electromagnet induction. to mention but a few. Our main objective here is not only to obtain an output but to achieve the desired output and qualities which would be affordable for everybody. we have to put these into consideration: Availability of materials or components in the area where units is to be constructed. Materials for design should be done in a proper and careful manner because of the major role it plays in performance of any designed product and its marketability. this leads to the choice of components to be selected for a particular project design or construction. These coils are call: . This generation of self induced EMF in the primary coil is known as ³self induction´ when current is induced in a coil due to change of current in another nearly coil. The coil which makes electromagnet is called the primary coil while the outer coil into which the cur rent is induced can be called secondary coil. The induced current in the secondary coil changes at the same rate which the current in the primary coil is changing.M.F. it might meet consu mers¶ resistance in terms of product purchasing. To achieve this. Hence. Most of the mechanical works such as drilling. a self induced EMF is generated in the primary coil as well. For a proper material selection. This EMF is induced by the primary coil to oppose the applied EMF. we have to put caution in our choice of components to make use of a few components and so make it cheaper. 3. cutting painting. With the induce emf of the secondary coil. the line of magnetic force field. a transformer is a device which works on the principles of mutual induction.c signal to any required magnitude. This section explains what materials. drilling machine. which wound on a laminated core. m. of th e magnetic field generated by the primary. 3. CIRCUIT COMPONENT DESCRIPTION TRANSFORMER Transformer is a device which steps up or down a.1 Simple inverter block diagram 3.

There is no direct electrical connection between the primary and secondary coil in the transformer.- Pri The coil to which the AC supply is provided is called pri ary coil/winding while the coil in which EM is induced. is the relationship between voltage. Fig. they can be increased or reduced. E1 E2 N1 N2 I1 I2 R1 R2 Input voltage to primary coil Output voltage to secondary coil Number of turns in primary coil Number of turns in secondary coil Current in primary Current in secondary Resistance presented by primary winding to the source Actual load resistance.2 Transformer basic diagram The voltage generated in the secondary coil depends on the ratio between the number of turns in the primary and number of turns in the secondary. Below. 3. The kind of transformer employ in inverter design and construction is bifilar winding transf ormer.. 24V 240V 0V 220V 24V 0V ¢ ¢ from which the o/p is taking is called secondary coil £   ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ Secondary coil ¡  ry coil and ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ . and In the transformer electric energy is transferred from one circuit to another circuit During this transfer the current and t he voltage can be changed i e. current and number of turns in the coil: E1 E2 N1 N2 I2 I1 R1 R2 Where.

if the required ratio of water is not found. Overcharging also generates heat. it cannot be restored to its full capacity.Fig. Leaving the battery unused: During the discharge cycle lead sulphate is formed on the battery plates. The under listed point should be adopted to increase the life span of the battery: i. Overcharging: when a battery is overcharged. it would damage the battery plates. 24v ± 0v ± 24v. This damages the plate grids and the life of the battery is shortened. etc on the primary side. This battery then no longer responds to the rech arging process. The kind of battery employ in inverter design are those capable of relaying after exhausting the stored charge in them. Forget to add water: When the water content of the electrolyte reduces. BATTERY AND ITS MAINTENANCE A battery is something that supplies DC power through chemical reaction. If the sulphation extends for a long period. iv. these deposits harden. if undercharged regularly. its acid content increase. b. The life of battery gets reduced with time owing to some factors ranging from undercharging . the electrolyte could leak from the container making the battery unrepairable. Also. rapid high current discharge to mention but few. One should regularly check the water the water level in a battery. Undercharging: Protect the battery from undercharging. or if the battery sustains a fall. or if the nuts and bolts are too tight or too loose then the battery plates and separators can get damaged. the battery is . Which are several battery connected in series to increase the voltage and in parallel to increase the power. 24volts transformer is adopted hence two 12v battery are connected in series to obtain 24v to improve the duration of an inverter over a load. if the water is not restored regularly. If the battery is allowed to remains in a discharged condition for a long time. Damage to the battery container: If the battery is not handled properly. sulphate starts to accumulate on the positive plates of batter y. if the acid concentration increases beyond a limit. To save the battery from this type of condition. the damage s the battery plates and battery performance suffers.3 Inverter transformer (bifilar) As seen in the diagram above. ii. iii. 3. active material lead peroxide on the positive plate of the battery starts to fall. 0v centre tapping is connected to the positive terminal of the battery while each channel of the MOSFETs. it is designated 12v ± 0v ± 12v. overcharging. the batte ry can be used to build what we refer to as POWER BANK. Add water into the electrolyte. it makes the battery useless. timely check electrolyte level and the specific gravity of the electrolyte. This heat evaporates the water (if a wet cell is used) in the electrolyte taste. In this work. v. in the o/p section is connected to the 24v ± 0v ± 24v.

Use only distilled/pure water: If the water used to restore the loss of water from the electrolyte is not pure then this could increase the impurities in the electrolyte. Use only pure/distil led water to restore the electrolyte.The a. Hence. these impurities attack the battery plates and the battery life gets reduced. Fig. the transformer secondary output appears at the normally open of the relay. The charging section in this our inverter system comprises of a step down transformer (which is the same inverter transformer). The drain of the MOSFET is connected to the normally connected of the relay while the secondary side of the transformer is connected to the common of the relay.4 Automatic Mosfet cut off with charging system d.4).vi. Main impurities due to impure are iron and chlorine. the signal from the mosfet is ext ended to the transformer via the normally close of the relay but when ac mains is available the relay switches to the normally open while the step down ac output is extended to the bridge rectifier via the normally open. c. the relay will be energizing to cut off the MOSFET and switch to the normally open. . 3. BATTERY CHARGING: Charging is the process of restoring the exhausted charges from a rechargeable battery. rectifier & capacitor. The relay is connected to the secondary side of the transformer as shown in fig (3. The connection is such that when the AC power is available. When inverter is operating. AUTOMATIC MOSFET CUT OFF AND CHARGING SYSTEM The 24v and center tap sides of the transformer which suppose to join to the drain of the mosfet is connected t o the common of a relay while the drain of the mosfet is connected to the normally close of the same relay .c input of the bridge rectifiers is connected to the normally open of the relay. The chlorine in the tap water can damage the battery separator. If distilled water is not available use cooled boiled water . Relay.

Hence. In this rectifier. 3. The output of the filter is what charges the battery.1. supply: The three most common types of rectifier circuits are y y y half wave rectifier full wave rectifier type full wave bridge rectifier type The one employed in the designed project is full wave rectifier.C.C.C. This give a D.The step down A.5 Full Bridge rectification Fig. BATTERY FULL CUT OFF +VE -VE . output with reduced ripple. Fig. power on the N/O of the relay is now extended to the rectifier. which converts the A. as shown in fig. supply into a D. 5.C. output from the rectifier is containing ac ripple which may damage/reduce the life span of the battery.3. A capacitor is connected between the output termina ls of rectifier to act as a filter. four diodes are connected across the secondary winding in a special arrangement of diode called ³bridge arrangement´. The so called D.C. it is passed through a capacitor.6 Action of a Filter e.

A fully charged battery voltage will show voltage of around 13.Fig. 3. it has four different Op-Amp units. the charger should be cut off. when the battery voltage goes up to a set limit. .7 Battery Full cut off circuit For its operations. When the battery becomes fully changed. 3. Fig. Thus. LM 324 was used to implement the design.5V (for 12V battery) or 26. the inverter gets voltage and current from battery. which can be used individually. my further voltage added to it damages the battery.5V (for 24V battery).8 LM324 internal circuitry LM 324N is an operational Amplifier (op -Amp) 1C.

is at the non. we can see that the OP-Amp output depends on the values of the signal not its input pins. then the op -Amp output will be low. So. 3. AMP If the input given to this pin is less than the input given to the inverting input pin. Vcc V+ + As can be seen from the + figure above. Mathematically R1 R2 R3 R4 but ¦ V.1) (4.inverting input. then the OP Amp output will be high._ (4.9 OP Non. one is called inverting ( ) input and other is called non. Inverting input (-): If the input given to this pin is less than the input given to the non -inverting input pin. The OP-AMP is used as a comparator in the inverter circuit. - Non-Inverting Input Inverting Input + Output - Fig.2) . a fi ed reference voltage. If not. Each OP Amp has 3 pins. This property of the OP -AMP makes it useful in comparator in Inverting circuit. Out of the two input pins. it is LOW. two for input and one for output. 6v. If not.OP Amp Operational Amplifier plays a big role in the PWM based inverter.Inverting (+) input. A variable voltage is Vb OUTPUT placed at the inverting input which is dependent on the battery voltage and variable (10k) resistor.Inverting Input (+) the output will be high.

becomes greater than V+. Pin 8 is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. and inverting ON/OFF switch. the battery is fully charged.e . Pin 6 and 7 of the IC are oscillation section pins. Immediately. the values of the resistors were choosen to fixed a 6v on the non ± inventing input of the op -Amp and to fixed a voltage greater than 6v wherever the battery is fully charged. a low biases the PNP transistor. battery supply is given to the pin 15 of SG3524 via the control relay. This result in the MOS drive signal getting separated into two different channels.C supply by the inverting DC supply from battery to AC. reach the frequenc y section of the SG. Provided the circuit is arranged as shown in the figure above when ever there is AC power supply and the battery is not fully charged. Thus. V. This section converts the in coming signal into signal with changing polarity. a HIGH is at the output which activates the LED.In the work. The HIGH cannot bias the PNP transistor hence no voltage is at the collector emitter junction. Frequency produced by the IC depends on the value of the capacitor and resistance at these pins. i. any difference could change the MOSFET. The MOS drive signals are given to the base of MOS drive T1 and T2. the 2 nd is negative. This process is repeated 50 times per second. T1 and T2 amplify the 50HZ mos drive signal at their base to a sufficient level output . This alternat ing signal is known as ³MOS drive signal ³. Transistor. To start this process. an alternating signal with 50 Hz freq is generated inside the flip flop. D5 to show that the battery is charging. 3. This IC is used to generate the 50HZ frequency required to generate A. RLA. A variable resister is employ to serve as a preset to adjust the frequency output to a constant 50 Hz. The signal voltage is between 3 -4v.10 Oscillator circuit with fan control The oscillation section of this inverter uses a very common PWM controller IC SG3524. V+ > V-. THE OSCILLATOR Fig. This 50Hz frequency alternating signal is output at pin 11 and 14 of the SG. The output is a two signal with changing polarity. The signal generated by oscillator section within the SG3524. when the first signal is positive. f. hence collector emitter voltage energized the relay to switch to N/O and cut off the charging supply. Thus.

the 50hz signal from the emitter of T1 is given to the gate of each MOSFET in the first MOSTET channel and the same 50hz signal from T2 is applied to the gate of the second mosfet channel.then form emitter. The source terminals of the two MOSFET channels are connected together to the negative terminal of the battery. The Drain of the MOSFET of the second channel are also connected together and the other end of the inverter transformer¶s bifilar winding is connected to this connection. cut off but with automatic changeover g.11 Complete Inverter circuit without mosfet driver. This AC current in the bifilar winding will induce an AC current of 50Hz. of all the MOSFET of one end are connected together. When first channel is ON. Fig.D. This switching ON/OFF of the MOSFET channels will start an alternating current in the bifilar winding of the inverter transformer. When the first MOSFET channel is ON. the current flows through first half of the inverter transformer bifilar winding. The 24 volts wire of the bifilar winding is connected to the drain. . 3. DRAIN. OUTPUT SECTION The 50Hz alternating MOS drive signal reach each MOSFET channel separately the result in the MOSFET channels being alternatively ON/OFF. The AC voltage input from 270v tapping of secondary winding is regulated to 220v by feeding it to an upto coupler IC. Positive terminal of the battery is connected to the centre tapping of the wi nding. and when the 2nd is ON the 1 st will be OFF. When second MOSFET channel turns ON. 4N35. the current flows through second half of the inverter transformer winding. the 2 nd will be OFF. in the 270v tapping of the transformer. This ON/OFF switching process is repeated50 times per second.

the PWM. If the SG3524 does not receive feedback. This will in turn result in change in 50Hz freq output at pin 11 and 1. Collector of photo-transistor is connected to pin 5 of 4N35 & the emitter is connected to pin 4.4 FEEDBACK To provide feedback to the PWM controller. the voltage at pin 4 of 4N35 will also change. 3. through a potential divide circuit m ade of 100k and PWM adjustment present. PIN 1. As explained earlier. which controls the width of the oscillatory frequency. This will result in variations in the feedback voltage reaching pin 1 of SG will result in change in output from pin 9. where pin 1 & 2 receive supply. then as the value of the load connected to the inverter output socket changes. Preset VR connected to the pin 4 of 4N35 is used to set the inverter output by changing the width of the 50Hz frequency signal. the AC voltage generated at the 270v winding of the inverter transformer is given to pin 3 of the connector CN14. 4N35. this will conduct the photo . 2 and 9 of the SG are pins 7 or OP Amp. the light from the LED falls in the base of the photo ± transistor inside the 4N35. SG3524 should receive a feedback of AC supply generated by the inverter circuit. This results in fl uctuation of the inverter output supply at its output socket. R and then connected into DC voltage by bridge rectifier D1 ± D4. A Change in the signal at pin 9 w ill result in change in the width of the output frequency. this AC voltage at pin 3 of CN4 is given to dropping resistance. the PW output from PIN 11 and 14 will also change. VR. pin 2 is given 5v regulated supply a s reference voltage.transistor. pin 1 of SG is given feedback signal from the supply. When the value of the load connected at the inverter output changes. the supply at the collector of the photo -transistor is output as feedback at its emitter that is pin 4. .To make the PWM work. feedback signal at pin 4 is given to Pin 1 of SG. a LED inside the IC starts to glow. Pin 9 of IC2 is internally connected to the section. Pin 5 of 4N35 receives 1 2v supply from the battery when the photo transistor conducts. pin 1 and 2 are input pins & pin 9 is output. DC voltage from the bridge rectifier is sent to pin 1 & 2 of the opto coupler. This change in the width of 50Hz frequency will bring back the inverter output to its original 220V.

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