Life Processes

The word life processes means the processes take place in the human body which are needed for the existence of life on Earth. For example ± Digestion, respiration, excretion, reproduction, etc.

Nutrition
‡ Autotrophic nutrition ‡ Heterotrophic nutrition

CO2 reduced to carbohydrates .6CO2+6H2O (sunlight and chlorophyll) C6H12O6 + 6O2 ‡ Two phases of photosynthesis.light and dark reactions ‡ Light reaction.Autotrophic Nutrition ‡ Synthesis of food by photosynthesis ‡ Photosynthesis equation. ATP and NADPH2 synthesized ‡ Dark reaction.light energy absorbed. H2O split into H2 and O2.

mechanical and chemical reduction of ingested nutrients . and saprophytic (feeding on dead or decaying organic matter) ‡ Digestion. parasitic (having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech).Heterotrophic Nutrition ‡ Generally derive energy from plants and animal sources ‡ Mainly of three types² holozoic (Obtaining nourishment as animals do by ingesting complex organic matter).

. Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen 3. Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.Photosynthesis ‡ Meaning ± the process of the synthesis of carbohydrates or food in presence of carbon dioxide and light is called photosynthesis ‡ The ways: 1. 2.

Stomata ‡ Meaning . the stoma close. .A minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass ‡ The opening and closing of stomata is controlled by guard cells ‡ When the guard cells absorb water the stoma open and when guard cells don¶t have water.

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Nutrition in Amoeba ‡ Amoeba takes in food using temporary finger like extensions of cell surface which fuse over food particle forming food vacuole . . ‡ Inside the food vacuole. complex substances are broken down into simpler ones which then diffuse into the cytoplasm. ‡ The remaining undigested food is moves to the surface of the cell and thrown out.

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‡ The food then goes to the stomach where the digestion process starts. ‡ The food is then passed to the small and then large intestine where it is reabsorbed and then is thrown out through Anus. ‡ The food in taken in through mouth which is mixed with the saliva and passed to oesophagus. Saliva contains salivary amylase that breaks down starch which is a complex molecule to give sugar.Nutrition in Human Beings ‡ The nutrition in human beings takes place in the human alimentary canal. .

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.Respiration ‡ Respiration involves the exchange of gases and oxidation of food in the presence of air to release energy. ‡ Inhalation and exhalation of air occur due to change in air pressure in lungs ‡ Diffusion helps in exchange of gases in lungs and tissues.

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Transportation in humans ‡ Blood is a fluid connective tissue that circulates through heart and blood vessels. ‡ Blood consists of plasma with RBCs. . WBCs and platelets. Arteries transport blood from heart to the tissues. ‡ Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel. Lymphatic system circulates Lymph or tissue fluid.

. ‡ The fish and amphibians have 2 and 3 chambered heart respectively. ‡ In humans the blood flows through 2 loops -Pulmonary and systemic circulation. ‡ The heartbeat is initiated and regulated by cardiac muscles.Circulatory system in humans ‡ Human heart is a 4 chambered muscular pump located in our chest cavity.

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‡ Transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from the stomata in the leaves of living plants. ‡ The rise of water and dissolved minerals in the xylem vessels against the force of gravity is known as Ascent of sap.Transportation in plants ‡ The transport system in plants works with the help of conducting tubes known as xylem and phloem. .

a Urinary bladder and a urethra. and Tubular secretion are the steps of Urine formation inside a nephron. ‡ Human excretory system consists of pair of kidney and ureter. Ultra filtration. Tubular reabsorption. ‡ Nephrons are structural and functional units of kidney. .Excretion ‡ Biological process of eliminating metabolic waste substances is called excretion.

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‡ These Nephrons consist of Glomerulus. Renal artery. renal vein. then collected in the collecting tubule/duct. ‡ This collection is then passed to an organ called urinary bladder where it is stored until thrown out of the body. collecting duct. Bowman¶s capsule.Structure of NEPHRON ‡ Each kidney has numerous filtration units called Nephrons. ‡ The blood is filtered in these units. etc. .

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. giving out it as resins and gums. ‡ So how do they throw out the toxic waste? ‡ They throw this waste through many ways such as transpiration. throwing of wilted leaves.Excretion in Plants ‡ The plants also give out some toxic wastes. ‡ Plants don¶t have any excretory system as human beings have. etc. the toxic salts are first stored in the leaves then these leaves are thrown out.

****** ****** Made By : Tarun Gupta .

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