‫اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬

‫‪ -1‬أﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ O‬و ‪ A‬و ‪ B‬ﺛﻼث ﻧﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ K‬اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي ﻟـ ‪ A‬ﻋﻠﻰ ) ‪ (OB‬و ‪ H‬اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي ﻟـ ‪ B‬ﻋﻠﻰ ) ‪. (OA‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪  AOB ‬ﺑﺎﻟﺮادﻳﺎن‪.‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ أن آﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﻦ ) ‪ (OA‬و ) ‪ (OB‬ﻣﺰودا ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻢ أﺻﻠﻪ ‪ O‬ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺤﻮرﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪1‬‬
‫‪ O‬و ‪ A‬و ‪ B‬ﻧﻘﻂ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‪  AOB  1‬زاوﻳﺔ ﺣﺎدة‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪π‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫≺ ‪0≺θ‬‬

‫‪OK OH‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪OA OB‬‬
‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK‬‬
‫وﻣﻨﻪ ‪; OK = OA cos θ‬‬
‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OB × OA cos θ‬‬
‫‪OA × OH = OA × OH‬‬
‫‪ OA‬و ‪ OH‬ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻰ وﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫‪OB × OK = OB × OK‬‬
‫‪ OB‬و ‪ OK‬ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻰ وﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos θ‬‬
‫= ‪cos θ‬‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‪  AOB  2‬زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺟﺔ ‪≺ θ ≺ π‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪π‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪OK OH‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪OA OB‬‬
‫وﻣﻨﻪ ) ‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OB × OA cos(π − θ‬‬
‫= ) ‪cos(π − θ‬‬

‫‪OA × OH = −OA × OH‬‬
‫‪ OA‬و ‪ OH‬ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﺤﻴﺎن ﻣﺘﻌﺎآﺴﺎن وﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫‪OB × OK = −OB × OK‬‬
‫‪ OB‬و ‪ OK‬ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﺤﻴﺎن ﻣﺘﻌﺎآﺴﺎن وﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫و ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ) ‪OA × OH = OB × OK = −OA × OB cos(π − θ‬‬
‫إذن ‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos θ‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫‪π‬‬

‫= ‪ θ‬ﻓﺎن ‪; O = H‬‬

‫إذا آﺎن‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK = 0‬‬

‫‪=0‬‬

‫‪π‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪π‬‬

‫‪O =K‬‬

‫‪OA × OB cos‬‬

‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos‬‬

‫إذن‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ‪2‬‬
‫‪ O‬و ‪ A‬و ‪ B‬ﻧﻘﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫وﻣﻨﻪ ‪; B = H‬‬

‫‪A =K‬‬

‫* ‪  AOB ‬زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ أي ‪θ = 0‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ OA × OH = OA × OB‬و ‪OB × OK = OB × OA‬‬
‫اذن ‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos 0‬‬
‫* ‪  AOB ‬زاوﻳﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ أي ‪θ = π‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬

‫‪http://arabmaths.site.voila.fr‬‬

 AOB ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ‪OA ⋅ OB = OA × OB cos θ‬‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺑـ ‪OA ⋅ OB‬‬ ‫* اذا آﺎن ‪ OA = 0‬أ و ‪ OB = 0‬ﻓﺎن ‪OA ⋅ OB = 0‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫‪OA ⋅ OB‬‬ ‫= ‪cos AOB‬‬ ‫‪OA × OB‬‬ ‫‪ .‫‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos π‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪  AOB ‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪0 ≤ θ ≤ π‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ‪OA × OH = OB × OK = OA × OB cos θ‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪ .voila.(a‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫*ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ OA‬و ‪ OB‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ‪ OA‬و ‪ OB‬هﻮ اﻟﻌﺪد اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ OA × OB cos θ‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪.(b‬اﻟﻤﺮﺑﻊ اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ و اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫* ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪O ≠ A‬‬ ‫‪OA ⋅ OA = OA × OA cos AOA = OA 2‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ‪ OA ⋅ OA‬ﻳﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺮﺑﻊ اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟـ ‪OA‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺑـ ‪ OA‬ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ‪OA = OA 2‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎوي اﻷﺿﻼع ﺣﻴﺚ ‪AB = 3‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪AB ⋅ AC‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪ -1‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪ AB ⋅ AC‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫أ‪AB = 2 -‬‬ ‫‪AC = 6‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪ BAC‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ أن‬ ‫‪ (c‬اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪π‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫= ‪BAC‬‬ ‫‪AB = 2 2‬‬ ‫ب‪AB = 5 -‬‬ ‫‪AC = 6‬‬ ‫‪2π‬‬ ‫‪AC = 4‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪AB ⋅ AC = 12‬‬ ‫= ‪BAC‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅v = OA ⋅ OB = OA × OB cos θ = u × v cos θ‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ و ‪ u = OA‬و ‪ v = OB‬و ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪ AOB ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬هﻮ اﻟﻌﺪد اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ اﻟﺬي ﻧﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺑـ ‪ u ⋅v‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫‪u ⋅v = u × v cos θ‬‬ ‫إذا آﺎن ‪ u = 0‬أو ‪ v = 0‬ﻓﺎن ‪u ⋅v = 0‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫* ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ و ‪ u = OA‬و ‪v = OB‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅v‬‬ ‫و ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪  AOB ‬ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬ ‫= ‪cos θ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪u ×v‬‬ ‫*‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪u2 = u‬‬ ‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬ ‫‪http://arabmaths.fr‬‬ .site.

C‬‬ ‫' ‪ AB ⋅ CD = AB × C ' D‬ﺣﻴﺚ ' ‪D ' . ‪v = 2‬‬ ‫. u = 3 -‬‬ ‫ب‪u = 3 -‬‬ ‫. C‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫) ‪( AB‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮاﻟﻲ‪.voila. θ‬‬ ‫= ‪(b . ‪u ⋅v = 6 3‬‬ ‫أ‪v = 4 . C‬‬ ‫‪. u = 3‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﻻت اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪2π‬‬ ‫‪π‬‬ ‫= ‪θ = π (c . C‬اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻗﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻂ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬ ‫‪http://arabmaths.fr‬‬ . AM = 8 -‬‬ ‫ب‪AB ⋅ AM = −12 3 . (OA‬‬ ‫‪OA ⋅ OB = OA × OH‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ AB‬و ‪ CD‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ وﺣﻴﺪة ‪ E‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪AE = CD‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ' ‪ E ' .‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ A‬و ‪ B‬ﻧﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪AB = 4‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺸﺊ ‪ M‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫أ‪AB ⋅ AM = 16 . ‪u ⋅v = − 3‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪ ABCD‬ﻣﺘﻮازي اﻷﺿﻼع ﺣﻴﺚ ‪AC = 2 . AB = 4‬‬ ‫‪AD ⋅ CB‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪AB ⋅ DC‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪OA × OH = OA × OB cos θ‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ رأﻳﻨﺎ أن‬ ‫أ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ OA‬و ‪ OB‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ H‬اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي ﻟـ ‪ B‬ﻋﻠﻰ ) ‪. D ' .site. AM = 6 -‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ و ‪ u = OA‬و ‪ v = OB‬و ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪  AOB ‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪v = 5 . D‬‬ ‫‪ E‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫) ‪( AB‬‬ ‫' ‪AB ⋅ CD = AB ⋅ AE = AB × AE‬‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ‪ AE = CD‬وﻣﻨﻪ ' ‪ AE ' = C ' D‬ﻻن اﻹﺳﻘﺎط ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻈﻌﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻪ ' ‪AE ' = C ' D‬‬ ‫إذن ' ‪AB ⋅ CD = AB × C ' D‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ AB‬و ‪ CD‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻄﺎن اﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺎن ﻟـ ‪D . θ‬‬ ‫‪(a‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺣﺪد ‪ θ‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﻻت اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫.

site. β‬‬ ‫‪(u + v ) = u 2 + v 2 + 2u ⋅v = u + v + 2u ⋅v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪(u − v ) = u 2 + v 2 − 2u ⋅v = u + v − 2u ⋅v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪(u + v ) ⋅ (u − v ) = u 2 − v 2 = u − v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪αu ⋅ βv = αβ × (u ⋅v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ u ≠ 0‬و ‪ v ≠ 0‬و ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺪدة ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪v‬‬ ‫إذا آﺎن‬ ‫‪π‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫≺ ‪ 0 ≤ θ‬ﻓﺎن ‪0‬‬ ‫إذا آﺎن ‪≺ θ ≺ π‬‬ ‫‪π‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪u = 2 -1‬‬ ‫‪v =3‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅v‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن ‪u ⋅v ≺ 0‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬ ‫= ‪u ⋅v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬ ‫‪http://arabmaths. BC = 6‬‬ ‫‪v ⋅ u = v × u cos θ‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅v = v ⋅ u‬‬ ‫إذا آﺎن ‪ u = 0‬أو ‪ v = 0‬ﻓﺎن ‪u ⋅v = v ⋅ u = 0‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪u ⋅v = v ⋅ u‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪v‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬ﻧﺤﺴﺐ ) ‪u ⋅ (v + w‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮل إن اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ u = OA‬و ‪ v = OB‬و ‪w = BC‬‬ ‫' ‪ B‬و ' ‪ C‬اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻄﺎن اﻟﻌﻤﻮدﻳﺎن ﻟـ ‪ B‬و ‪ C‬ﻋﻠﻰ ) ‪(OA‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪u ⋅ (v + w ) = OA ⋅ OB + BC = OA ⋅ 0C‬‬ ‫' ‪= OA × 0C ' = OA × OB ' + OA × B 'C‬‬ ‫‪=OA ⋅ 0B + OA ⋅ BC‬‬ ‫‪= u ⋅v + u ⋅w‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬و ‪w‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅ (v + w ) = u ⋅v + u ⋅w‬‬ ‫‪+w ) ⋅u = v ⋅u +w ⋅u‬‬ ‫‪(v‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬و ﻟﻜﻞ ∈ ‪α‬‬ ‫) ‪αu ⋅v = u ⋅ αv = α × (u ⋅v‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬و ‪ w‬و ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫‪u ⋅ (v − w ) = u ⋅v − u ⋅w‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫∈ ) ‪(α .voila.‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﻣﺘﺴﺎوي اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮأس ‪ A‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪BC ⋅ BA‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺎت اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫أ‪ -‬ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺘﻴﻦ و ‪u = OA‬‬ ‫و ‪ v = OB‬و ‪ θ‬ﻗﻴﺎس ‪ AOB ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪u ⋅v = u × v cos θ‬‬ ‫‪.fr‬‬ .

‫أﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫) ‪( 2u + v ) ⋅ (u + 4v‬‬ ‫) ‪( 2u − v ) ⋅ ( 2u + v‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫) ‪( 3u + v‬‬ ‫‪u = 2 -2‬‬ ‫‪u + v = 10‬‬ ‫‪v = 3‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪u ⋅v‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺗﻌﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮل إن ‪ u‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻣﺪﺗﺎن إذا و ﻓﻘﻂ إذا آﺎن ‪u ⋅v‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ‪u ⊥ v‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬ ‫*‪ 0 -‬ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أي ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫*‪ u -‬و ‪ v‬ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺘﺎن ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﻦ ) ∆ ( و ) ‪( D‬‬ ‫) ‪(∆) ⊥ (D‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪u ⊥ v‬‬ ‫*‪ u 2 = 0 -‬ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ‪u = 0‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪u ⊥v‬‬ ‫‪v = 3 u = 2 -1‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪+ 4v‬‬ ‫‪) ⋅ (u‬‬ ‫‪+v‬‬ ‫‪( − 2u‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ AB = 1‬و ‪ CB = CA = 2‬و ‪ D‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ DB − 2DC = 0‬و ‪ I‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫] ‪[ AB‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬أ‪ -‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ‪ AD‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ AB‬و ‪AC‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬ﺑﻴﻦ أن ‪AB ⋅ AC = AB ⋅ AI‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ أن = ‪ AB ⋅ AC‬واﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ‪cos BAC‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪ AB ⋅ AD‬و اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ‪BAD‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ‪ M‬ﺣﻴﺚ ‪−3MA + 7MC = 0‬‬ ‫أ‪ -‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ‪ AM‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪AC‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪AC ⋅ AD‬‬ ‫ج‪ -‬ﺑﻴﻦ أن ) ‪( MD ) ⊥ ( AC‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ ‪ M‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫‪MA ⋅ BC + MB ⋅ CA + MC ⋅ AB = 0‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﺠﺪاء اﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫أ‪ -‬ﻣﺒﺮهﻨﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﺷﻲ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪BC 2 = AC − AB‬‬ ‫‪= AC 2 + AB 2 − 2 × AC ⋅ AB‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ‬ ‫‪= AC 2 + AB 2 − 2 × AB × AC × cos BAC‬‬ ‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬ ‫‪http://arabmaths.fr‬‬ .site.voila.

voila.fr‬‬ . [ BC‬ﺣﺪد ‪AI‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ‪ D‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪DB + 2DC = 0‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪ AB ⋅ AD‬اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺚ ‪ABD‬‬ ‫د‪ -‬اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ و ' ‪ A‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ] ‪ [ BC‬و ‪ H‬اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي ﻟـ ‪ A‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫) ‪( BC‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ أن‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪AC + AB − BC‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪BC 2‬‬ ‫‪AB ⋅ AC = AA '2 −‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫= ‪AB ⋅ AC‬‬ ‫‪Moustaouli Mohamed‬‬ ‫‪http://arabmaths.‫ﻣﺒﺮهﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ‪ABC‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪BC = AC + AB − 2 × AB × AC × cos BAC‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫*‪AC = BA + BC − 2 × AB × BC × cos ABC -‬‬ ‫‪AB 2 = CA 2 + CB 2 − 2 × AC × BC × cos BCA‬‬ ‫‪AC 2 + AB 2 − BC 2‬‬ ‫= ‪cos BAC‬‬ ‫*‬ ‫‪2 × AB × AC‬‬ ‫‪AC 2 + AB 2 − BC 2‬‬ ‫= ‪AB ⋅ AC‬‬ ‫*‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ AB = 3‬و ‪ CB = 37‬و ‪CA = 4‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ ‪ AB ⋅ AC‬و ‪cos BAC‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪ ABCD‬ﻣﺘﻮازي اﻷﺿﻼع‬ ‫أﺗﺒﺚ ‪AC 2 + BD 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 + CD 2 + DA 2‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬ﻣﺒﺮهﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ و ‪ I‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ] ‪[ BC‬‬ ‫‪BC 2‬‬ ‫أﺗﺒﺚ أن‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮهﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪AC 2 + AB 2 = 2AI 2 +‬‬ ‫‪BC 2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ‪ ABC‬اذا آﺎن ‪ I‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ] ‪ [ BC‬ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪AC 2 + AB 2 = 2AI 2 +‬‬ ‫و ‪CA = 4‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ AB = 3‬و ‪CB = 6‬‬ ‫أﺣﺴﺐ أﻃﻮال ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎت اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺚ ‪ABC‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABCD‬رﺑﺎﻋﻴﺎ و ‪ I‬و ‪ J‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻔﺎ ] ‪ [ AC‬و ] ‪[ BD‬‬ ‫أُﺛﺒﺖ أن ‪AB 2 + BC 2 + CD 2 + AD 2 = AC 2 + BD 2 + 4IJ 2‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ ABC‬ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ‪ AB = 1‬و ‪ AC = 2‬و ‪CB = 2‬‬ ‫‪-1‬أ‪ -‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪cos BAC‬‬ ‫ب‪ -‬أﺣﺴﺐ ‪AB ⋅ AC‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ‪ I‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ] ‪ .site.

voila.fr * AC 2 = CH × CB * AH 2 = −HB × HC Moustaouli Mohamed .AB ⋅ AC = AB 2 − BH × BC AB ⋅ AC = AC 2 − CH × CB AB ⋅ AC = AH 2 + HB × HC ( BC ) ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ‬A ‫ اﻟﻤﺴﻘﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي ﻟـ‬H ‫ [ و‬BC ] ‫ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬A ' ‫ ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ و‬ABC ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮهﻨﺔ‬ ‫ اذا و ﻓﻘﻂ اذا ﺗﺤﻘﻖ أﺣﺪ اﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬A ‫ ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎ ﻗﺎئ اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ABC ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ * AC 2 + AB 2 = BC 2 BC * AA ' = 2 2 * AB = BH × BC http://arabmaths.site.