# Structural Analysis Guide

ANSYS Release 8.1

001972 April 2004

ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company

**Structural Analysis Guide
**

ANSYS Release 8.1

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com (T) 724-746-3304 (F) 724-514-9494

Revision History Number 001612 001695* 001788* 001901* 001972* Release ANSYS 6.1 ANSYS 7.0 ANSYS 7.1 ANSYS 8.0 ANSYS 8.1 Date April 2002 October 2002 May 2003 October 2003 April 2004

* ANSYS Documentation on CD.

Trademark Information

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Table of Contents

1. Overview of Structural Analyses ......................................................................................................... 1–1 1.1. Definition of Structural Analysis .................................................................................................... 1–1 1.2. Types of Structural Analysis ........................................................................................................... 1–1 1.3. Elements Used in Structural Analyses ............................................................................................ 1–2 1.4. Material Model Interface ............................................................................................................... 1–2 1.5. Types of Solution Methods ............................................................................................................ 1–2 2. Structural Static Analysis .................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.1. Definition of Static Analysis ........................................................................................................... 2–1 2.2. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses ............................................................................................... 2–1 2.3. Performing a Static Analysis .......................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.2. Set Solution Controls ............................................................................................................ 2–2 2.3.2.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box ...................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.2. Using the Basic Tab ..................................................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.3. The Transient Tab ........................................................................................................ 2–3 2.3.2.4. Using the Sol'n Options Tab ......................................................................................... 2–4 2.3.2.5. Using the Nonlinear Tab .............................................................................................. 2–4 2.3.2.6. Using the Advanced NL Tab ......................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3. Set Additional Solution Options ........................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3.1. Stress Stiffening Effects ................................................................................................ 2–5 2.3.3.2. Newton-Raphson Option ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.3. Prestress Effects Calculation ......................................................................................... 2–6 2.3.3.4. Mass Matrix Formulation ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.5. Reference Temperature ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.3.6. Mode Number ............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.7. Creep Criteria .............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.8. Printed Output ............................................................................................................ 2–7 2.3.3.9. Extrapolation of Results ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4. Apply the Loads ................................................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1. Load Types .................................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.4.1.1. Displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ) ................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.2. Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and Moments (MX, MY, MZ) .................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.3. Pressures (PRES) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.4. Temperatures (TEMP) .......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.1.5. Fluences (FLUE) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.6. Gravity, Spinning, Etc. ......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.2. Apply Loads to the Model ............................................................................................ 2–8 2.3.4.2.1. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters ........................................... 2–8 2.3.4.3. Calculating Inertia Relief .............................................................................................. 2–9 2.3.4.3.1. Inertia Relief Output ............................................................................................ 2–9 2.3.4.3.2. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations .......................................................................... 2–9 2.3.4.3.3. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations ........................................... 2–10 2.3.5. Solve the Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 2–11 2.3.6.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.3. Reviewing Results Data .............................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.4. Typical Postprocessing Operations ............................................................................. 2–11 2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) ........................................................................................ 2–13

Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.1 . 001972 . © SAS IP, Inc.

Structural Analysis Guide 2.4.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.2. Set the System of Units .............................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.3. Define Parameters ..................................................................................................... 2–14 2.4.3.4. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.5. Define Material Properties ......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.6. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section ..................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.7. Create Keypoints Along a Path ................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.8. Create Lines Along a Path .......................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.9. Create Line from Shank to Handle .............................................................................. 2–17 2.4.3.10. Cut Hex Section ....................................................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.11. Set Meshing Density ................................................................................................ 2–17 2.4.3.12. Set Element Type for Area Mesh ............................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.13. Generate Area Mesh ................................................................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.14. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements ............................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.15. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements ............................................. 2–18 2.4.3.16. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench ...................................... 2–19 2.4.3.17. Display Boundary Conditions ................................................................................... 2–19 2.4.3.18. Apply Pressure on Handle ........................................................................................ 2–19 2.4.3.19. Write the First Load Step .......................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.20. Define Downward Pressure ...................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.21. Write Second Load Step ........................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.22. Solve from Load Step Files ....................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.23. Read First Load Step and Review Results .................................................................. 2–22 2.4.3.24. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results ............................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.25. Zoom in on Cross-Section ........................................................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.26. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 2–23 2.5. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ................................................................ 2–24 2.6. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 2–26 3. Modal Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 3–1 3.1. Definition of Modal Analysis .......................................................................................................... 3–1 3.2. Uses for Modal Analysis ................................................................................................................. 3–1 3.3. Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis ........................................................................................... 3–1 3.4. Build the Model ............................................................................................................................ 3–1 3.5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ............................................................................................ 3–2 3.5.1. Enter the Solution Processor ................................................................................................. 3–2 3.5.2. Define Analysis Type and Options ......................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.1. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] .................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.2. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] ........................................................................ 3–3 3.5.2.3. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] ............................................................... 3–3 3.5.2.4. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] ........................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.5. Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] .......................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.6. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] .................................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.7. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] .............................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.8. Additional Modal Analysis Options .............................................................................. 3–4 3.5.3. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ....................................................................................... 3–4 3.5.4. Apply Loads ......................................................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ............................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI ..................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.3. Listing Loads ............................................................................................................... 3–6

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Structural Analysis Guide 3.5.5. Specify Load Step Options .................................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.6. Participation Factor Table Output ......................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.7. Solve ................................................................................................................................... 3–7 3.5.7.1. Output ........................................................................................................................ 3–7 3.5.7.1.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method ................................................ 3–7 3.5.8. Exit the Solution Processor ................................................................................................... 3–8 3.6. Expand the Modes ........................................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.1. Points to Remember ............................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.2. Expanding the Modes .......................................................................................................... 3–8 3.7. Review the Results ...................................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.1. Points to Remember ........................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.2. Reviewing Results Data ...................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.3. Option: Listing All Frequencies ........................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.4. Option: Display Deformed Shape ........................................................................................ 3–11 3.7.5. Option: List Master DOF ...................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.6. Option: Line Element Results .............................................................................................. 3–11 3.7.7. Option: Contour Displays ................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.8. Option: Tabular Listings ...................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.9. Other Capabilities .............................................................................................................. 3–12 3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) ....................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 3–12 3.9. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................................... 3–13 3.10. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................. 3–14 3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis ....................................................................................................... 3–14 3.12. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution ......................................................... 3–15 3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods ....................................................................................... 3–16 3.13.1. Block Lanczos Method ...................................................................................................... 3–17 3.13.2. Subspace Method ............................................................................................................ 3–17 3.13.3. PowerDynamics Method .................................................................................................. 3–17 3.13.4. Reduced Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.5. Unsymmetric Method ....................................................................................................... 3–18 3.13.6. Damped Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.6.1. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue ................................... 3–18 3.13.6.2. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector .................................. 3–18 3.13.7. QR Damped Method ........................................................................................................ 3–19 3.14. Matrix Reduction ...................................................................................................................... 3–19 3.14.1. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction ................................................................................ 3–19 3.14.1.1. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF ........................................................................ 3–19 3.14.1.2. A Note About Program-Selected Masters .................................................................. 3–21 4. Harmonic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................. 4–1 4.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................................... 4–1 4.2. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis ............................................................................................ 4–1 4.3. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................ 4–2 4.4. The Three Solution Methods ......................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.1. The Full Method ................................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.2. The Reduced Method ........................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.3. The Mode Superposition Method ......................................................................................... 4–3 4.4.4. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods .......................................................................... 4–3 4.5. How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................................ 4–3 4.5.1. Full Harmonic Response Analysis .......................................................................................... 4–3

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Structural Analysis Guide 4.5.2. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.2.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.1. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor ............................................................................. 4–4 4.5.3.2. Define the Analysis Type and Options .......................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.3. Apply Loads on the Model ........................................................................................... 4–5 4.5.3.3.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ....................................................................... 4–8 4.5.3.3.2. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI ................................................. 4–9 4.5.3.4. Specify Load Step Options ........................................................................................... 4–9 4.5.3.4.1. General Options .................................................................................................. 4–9 4.5.3.4.2. Dynamics Options ............................................................................................. 4–10 4.5.3.4.3. Output Controls ................................................................................................ 4–10 4.5.3.5. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File ................................................. 4–11 4.5.3.6. Start Solution Calculations ......................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.3.7. Repeat for Additional Load Steps ............................................................................... 4–11 4.5.3.8. Leave SOLUTION ....................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.3. Using POST26 ............................................................................................................ 4–12 4.5.4.4. Using POST1 .............................................................................................................. 4–12 4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) ..................................................................... 4–13 4.6.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.3. Problem Diagram ............................................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 4–14 4.6.3.2. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.3. Define the Real Constants .......................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.4. Create the Nodes ....................................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.5. Create the Spring Elements ........................................................................................ 4–15 4.6.3.6. Create the Mass Elements .......................................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.7. Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications .................................. 4–16 4.6.3.8. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions ...................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.9. Solve the Model ........................................................................................................ 4–17 4.6.3.10. Review the Results ................................................................................................... 4–17 4.6.3.11. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 4–18 4.7. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................. 4–18 4.8. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 4–19 4.9. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis ......................................................................................... 4–20 4.9.1. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution ................................................................... 4–20 4.9.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution ........................................................................ 4–21 4.9.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) ................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.2. Expanding the Modes ................................................................................................ 4–21 4.9.4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution ...................................................................... 4–23 4.9.5. Sample Input ..................................................................................................................... 4–24 4.10. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................... 4–25 4.10.1. Obtain the Modal Solution ................................................................................................ 4–25 4.10.2. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution .......................................................... 4–25 4.10.3. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution ......................................................................... 4–27 4.10.4. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 4–27 4.10.5. Sample Input ................................................................................................................... 4–27

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Structural Analysis Guide 4.11. Other Analysis Details ............................................................................................................... 4–28 4.11.1. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis .......................................................................... 4–28 4.11.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................... 4–28 4.11.1.2. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis ................................................... 4–29 4.11.1.3. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ................................. 4–29 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................................................ 5–1 5.1. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................... 5–1 5.2. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................... 5–1 5.3. Three Solution Methods ................................................................................................................ 5–2 5.3.1. Full Method ......................................................................................................................... 5–2 5.3.2. Mode Superposition Method ................................................................................................ 5–2 5.3.3. Reduced Method ................................................................................................................. 5–3 5.4. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................ 5–3 5.4.1. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.1.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.2. Establish Initial Conditions ................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.3. Set Solution Controls ............................................................................................................ 5–6 5.4.3.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box ...................................................................... 5–6 5.4.3.2. Using the Basic Tab ..................................................................................................... 5–7 5.4.3.3. Using the Transient Tab ............................................................................................... 5–7 5.4.3.4. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs ................................................................ 5–8 5.4.4. Set Additional Solution Options ........................................................................................... 5–8 5.4.4.1. Prestress Effects ........................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.4.2. Damping Option ......................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.4.3. Mass Matrix Formulation ............................................................................................. 5–9 5.4.5. Apply the Loads ................................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.6. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step ....................................................... 5–10 5.4.7. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step ................................................................................... 5–10 5.4.8. Save a Backup Copy of the Database .................................................................................. 5–10 5.4.9. Start the Transient Solution ................................................................................................ 5–10 5.4.10. Exit the Solution Processor ............................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11.1. Postprocessors ........................................................................................................ 5–11 5.4.11.2. Points to Remember ................................................................................................ 5–11 5.4.11.3. Using POST26 .......................................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11.4. Other Capabilities .................................................................................................... 5–12 5.4.11.5. Using POST1 ............................................................................................................ 5–12 5.4.12. Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ........................................................... 5–12 5.5. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis .................................................... 5–13 5.5.1. Build the Model .................................................................................................................. 5–13 5.5.2. Obtain the Modal Solution ................................................................................................. 5–13 5.5.3. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution ............................................................. 5–14 5.5.3.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 5–14 5.5.3.2. Obtaining the Solution .............................................................................................. 5–14 5.5.4. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution ........................................................................... 5–18 5.5.5. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 5–18 5.5.6. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................... 5–18 5.6. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis ...................................................................... 5–19 5.6.1. Obtain the Reduced Solution .............................................................................................. 5–19 5.6.1.1. Define the Analysis Type and Options ........................................................................ 5–20 5.6.1.2. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ............................................................................ 5–20 5.6.1.3. Define Gap Conditions ............................................................................................... 5–20

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................. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step ............. 5–21 5............................................................ 5–29 5................7..........1............ 5–31 5..........7................................ Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis . Automatic Time Stepping . Other Analysis Details ...............................................1............................ 6–1 6................................. Set Load Step Options .. 5–32 5...6................. Specify Loads and Load Step Options .................................... 5–30 5............................... Gap Conditions .....................6........ Specify the Title .........................7.................................................................3...............................1 . 5–33 5.......................6..........3.................2.........9................................................... 5–24 5.................. Expanding the Solution ..........................2...3...................................7..2.............1........................6.........5..........7..........7...... Spectrum Analysis ...........................3...................................... 5–25 5...........................................................3...................................9. 001972 .................................. Points to Remember ......................... Inc.............................. 6–1 6....... 5–30 5......................................... What is a Spectrum? ...4............................... 5–29 5....................9....1... 5–26 5............................ Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) ..............1....................12............................................ Solve the First Load Step .......3....................7......................6................................................................................................... Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis .................................. Define Elements .......3......10..............7................................ 5–33 5.7...............................6.... Review the Results in POST26 .......... Problem Specifications ..... 5–31 5..........................8................... 5–29 5.. Define Element Types .........................................3..4..................................... Run the Expansion Pass and Solve ..... 5–24 5... 5–23 5......6........ 6–1 6...4.................1..9....2..........................10.... Guidelines for Integration Time Step ............7...........................1............................................. Set the Next Time Step and Solve ......................6..............................4.......................................6..6.....................................1...........13.....................7......... Review the Results in POST1 ............................................................................1.... 5–27 5..............4.........1................................................7..................................... Define Material Properties ....7..........4................. 5–27 5...................................................... 5–28 5............................4..........3. 5–23 5................... 5–23 5... General Options ....................................................... Damping .........................11..8..........2.................2...7................. Where to Find Other Examples ....3....................... 5–23 5...........1................................ 6–1 6.....1....... Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File .......................1..................................... Response Spectrum .......................4.. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis ................... 5–30 5................................. 5–33 5.................... 5–36 5..............................10..........................................2.................. Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) ........................................................................7.....................................7............................. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ......................7...2..6.........................................2..............................7................................................................................. 5–29 5......... 5–28 5............ 5–31 5.... Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options ........... ANSYS Release 8...........................6.... Dynamics Options .......7................ 5–27 5......................................................3.... Output Control Options ...................3.5.......3.............................................................3.............................................7.........4.............................................................................................................................9........ Specify Output ...............................2...11................................... ............................................ Exit ANSYS ............... 5–26 5.............................. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution .. 5–29 5...........5......................................3....................3.......... Solve the Next Load Step ................. Problem Description ........................... 5–31 5............7...........4................. 5–20 5......................... Define Real Constants ......................... Obtaining the Solution ...................3..................... 6–1 6....... Definition of Spectrum Analysis ............ 5–22 5.................. Apply Loads for the First Load Step .........................................3..............1........ Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .....10....................1............. 5–26 5.............2.............. 5–40 6...............................................................7............ 5–33 5................6...........7.1....................Structural Analysis Guide 5...... 5–35 5........7........ 5–27 5....................................................6......2..... Apply Initial Conditions to the Model ...................3................................................. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) .. Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ......... Problem Sketch ........ Define Nodes ....................... Review the Results of the Reduced Solution ...................3.. 5–30 5.............6............................1...... 5–23 5....7....... © SAS IP..3. 5–30 5...................1.... 5–32 5......1....3...............3...............4.....1.................2....................... Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) ............... 6–1 x Structural Analysis Guide .............. 5–22 5..................4.......................... 5–24 5............. 5–28 5..........................10.........1.....4..........

........................................... 6–23 6.................3............................................... Set Up the Spectrum Analysis ....................................................... Calculating Covariance in POST26 ...........................7..........1 .................4........................................ Start Expansion Pass Calculation .... How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis .................4................ 6–11 6....... 6–2 6....... 6–14 6...........2. Define the Real Constants ........4.................................................2......... 6–3 6...........5.3............................ 6–16 6.................4.........................4..............4................................................................. 6–3 6............................................................................................... 6–15 6.............................4......................... 6–18 6.6...................................................... 6–14 6...................................................... Exit ANSYS .......... How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis ........................................4. 6–22 6...........2...........................4....................1..............................4......1................ 6–10 6...........4.......................6........7.......4..............4.......6.......................................4.............................3.................................................1............... 6–11 6... Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) ..7........................................................ Element.......... 6–2 6......................7.....7............... Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal........................................................................... Combine the Modes ..................1....... 6–13 6..........................7..3...4.......... 6–2 6.4.4.................4. Review the Results ........3..... Expand the Modes ....3.. ANSYS Release 8..................................................4........................... Define Material Properties ................7.... Power Spectral Density ....4........ 6–22 6........... Obtain the Spectrum Solution .........................................................4................9.................. xi ....... Points to Remember ........................................................ 6–6 6...... 6–12 6....................................7.. © SAS IP..................18............................................................................................. Solve the Modal Analysis ......... 6–13 6................ Sample Input . 6–24 6....... Where to Find Other Examples ..... 7–1 Structural Analysis Guide .....2.........................................3.....................2...... 6–13 6............................... Display the Results ..11....... Problem Specifications ..........................................4......................... 6–14 6................ Build the Model ...................................................4...... Set Boundary Conditions ...........................5............4..........1....... 6–12 6...................................... Set up the Expansion Pass .........4.....................7......4...........................15..4..2......... 001972 .......4.... 6–2 6..........4.......13....................................4... 6–11 6.......................................8....12.............................. 6–11 6..........2......................................................3... Define Keypoints and Line ... Procedure .......... 6–8 6................................................................................3.................................. Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) .................................................................................................................................. Inc............................ Problem Sketch ...................................2.. Set the Analysis Title ............................ Probabilistic Analyses .4................................ 6–12 6....................................................... 6–25 7..........4............4..............................2..................4.....16....1............1...... Buckling Analysis ..4................................ 6–14 6.....2.. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis .................................................... 6–3 6................4.......................1... Reviewing the Results in POST1 ............................4.... Obtain the Modal Solution .............. Deterministic vs............................3.............................................................. 6–10 6................................................ 6–11 6....................... Select Mode Combination Method ........................................................ 6–22 6.......... Expand the Modes ...........................4... Frequency Table .......................4.................................................4..1........................ 6–17 6................................. Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis ...1..........7.............................4.............. Define Spectrum Value vs.. 6–10 6..................................................................4.......................Structural Analysis Guide 6......... 6–18 6................................4.......14.......5.. 6–15 6.... Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 .............20.................................................................. Expand the Modes .....4....................... 6–25 6...5..........3..9..... Define the Element Type .4........ Specify Analysis Type and Options ...................4......................4............................8...................4.............................................. 6–16 6........3...... Review the Results .... 6–21 6............ Combine the Modes .......4. Solve Spectrum Analysis .........4..............................................19.7............. and Reaction Solutions .......3...................7........ Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ......... 6–13 6... Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database ...................3............................................4......4...... 6–15 6...... 6–23 6..................................................................................... Combine the Modes .................................. 6–3 6...........................4............. 6–15 6...4..... How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis ......................................................... 6–6 6.... 6–23 6................................17...........10..... Obtain the Spectrum Solution ............... Problem Description ........................................................................ Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line . 6–18 6................................................................................... 6–15 6....4..........

....3......................8...................................................................... Changing Status (Including Contact) .......1 ............................ Build the Model ........ 7–3 7..6......................................................6......... 8–2 8............. 8–5 8........................ Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis .............................................................................4. ...........Structural Analysis Guide 7............2.....4................................6....... 7–4 7.....................1....1....................... Expand the Solution .................... Exit ANSYS ..................1.........................7.......6........................................................1...... Large Deflections with Small Strain ................................................................... What is Structural Nonlinearity? ... Points to Remember ...................4.................................7....................................1.......2... ANSYS Release 8............................ 7–3 7..............2............ Obtain the Static Solution ......1................................ 7–1 7........................................................ 7–12 7.............4.......................... 7–1 7................................................................ 7–12 8...............................1. Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) .......... 7–12 7......................................... 7–4 7..................................... Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution ..3........2.....1...........3..2..... Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ......... Solve the Static Analysis ........................1..........................2..................................................................................................... Applying Load Increments ..............1.. 7–7 7........... Geometric Nonlinearities ................................2..1.................. Problem Description ..... Problem Sketch ...................... Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis ..................................................................................... Points to Remember .5........... Using Geometric Nonlinearities ..... 7–12 7.................................................... Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ............ 7–6 7........................... 8–8 8.. Spin Softening ........................................................................3...................................... Define Nodes and Elements ...........5..................................... 8–2 8....2..............1.................................................................................................................. 8–8 8.......... Define the Boundary Conditions ..................................... 7–11 7....... Review the Results .................................1............ 7–8 7....................................5...1............ 7–8 7.......................................................6.... 7–2 7....................5........1..............................2............. 7–1 7....................... 7–8 7..................................................................3............................................................................4...............2........... Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis ...............................1......6................. 7–3 7..1..6.................4..............4.........1...............4................................. Modeling Material Nonlinearities ....... Review the Results ...........2...................................................................................... 7–11 7.... Define the Element Type ........5.......................... 8–7 8........ 8–1 8.................. 7–6 7..............................................................................6.............. 8–2 8..... 8–5 8.........4............................. 7–6 7............................................................................................................................1.............................................. 7–9 7.....2.... 7–1 7......... 8–6 8...........................................................5... Inc.......................... Important ...................2............1.......................... 8–7 8........ Points to Remember ..........................4.. Types of Buckling Analyses .....................................................8.......................... Nonlinear Transient Analyses . Substeps ...1.......... 8–8 xii Structural Analysis Guide ....... Definition of Buckling Analysis .................... Stress Stiffening ....... 001972 ...............................................................................................................3.........6...2.............................2... 7–10 7......................... 7–5 7.....................................................................5....... 7–2 7............................................. 8–2 8....5.... Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior..................................................................................3.......................................................9.......... 8–6 8................3.............................6............3...1............ Solve the Buckling Analysis .....3................................1..........1.... 8–6 8............................1...............6..........5.......................2................. Problem Specifications .......3............ Nonlinear Structural Analysis ........................... Nonlinear Materials ....................................1........ Define the Real Constants and Material Properties ........................2...3................................1.................................. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis .............................................3.......................... 7–2 7............ © SAS IP.................................5............5... 8–7 8........................................................................... 8–1 8......................................2........................................1........................................................2................. Material Nonlinearities ................................................................... Automatic Time Stepping ............................................1.............. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ..... Path Dependency ..3...........................................................................6.3. 7–9 7... 8–1 8............... 7–11 7........................4..............6............2............ Stress-Strain .....3...................... Set the Analysis Title ................ 7–9 7....................................... 7–10 7........... Expanding the Solution ....... Causes of Nonlinear Behavior ......3................3.... 7–2 7..................................................6...2..................................................................................................... Where to Find Other Examples ........................3.........2.... 7–2 7......... Nonlinear Buckling Analysis .........

..4.........................................3...2............................................3...................2.......1............................................... 8–41 8.....13.........................3.................... 8–36 8......4....6...............6....... BISO and CHAB Example ...... Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB........21.................2........... HILL and RATE and BISO Example ..........1................... HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example .......2.. 8–35 8.....................................4.......3................ HILL and CREEP Example ..11................ 8–16 8.....2....... Swelling .......28......................3....... Viscoplasticity . 8–20 8...............4.............. 8–20 8.7... 8–41 8..............1...... 8–47 8..............1...............3.................. 8–18 8................................................3............... NLISO and CREEP Example ............................10....1.............. BISO and RATE Example ......... HILL and RATE and MISO Example .........................1... 8–19 8..........................1. 8–35 8.......3....................................................................1..................3........................ Ogden Hyperelastic Option .............3.2...8.....3...............3..........................2.........3..............3......2............................................................................................ HILL and CHAB Example .10. User Defined Material ........27.........20....... 8–44 8............................5.....2...................2.......................................2....22.HYPER) .......3............................3............... 8–37 8....3....................... Yeoh Hyperelastic Option ............................. Plastic Material Options ........................................................ xiii .......... HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example ...................................... 8–42 8..3............1..............................16..... HILL and CREEP and BISO Example .......... HILL and RATE and NLISO Example .......3.... 8–21 8.. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option ....2........... HILL and BKIN Example ........................2........ © SAS IP... Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.......2.3.........3.... MISO and CHAB Example ......2........18...............3.................. 8–47 8............. 8–44 8.........................................4......3.. 8–35 8..... Material Model Combinations .2............ 8–36 8.........................1...25.........3......................................................... 8–43 8...................................8...1..........4.............. 8–20 8...........................................................................................2............1...... Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option .............................................3..2...................1...................... 8–38 8............4............................ 8–45 8....................1......1......................1...........................3................................. ANSYS Release 8............9......................3... 8–41 8............. Explicit Creep Procedure ................1........................ User-Defined Hyperelastic Option ...............23.......2........ HILL and MISO and CHAB Example ........... 8–16 8........................................................... HILL and MISO Example ................ 8–40 8......2....... 8–46 8.....................................3....5......................3...........1...3.....2............................................. 8–37 8............. 8–39 8............3.......MOONEY) ........ 8–18 8.............2.............................................................. BKIN and CREEP Example ..........4.................4......17............................................... 8–35 8................................ HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example ...............................................................9......... 8–19 8.. Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option ........... 8–10 8.2............2.4.....1.........................................................3......... 8–19 8................... 8–39 8.................. Creep ....................... 8–31 8......3...............................3..........................1....3..... 001972 .................................. 8–38 8....3... NLISO and RATE Example ....3..11....5.... Multilinear Elasticity ............ 8–33 8..................................... Viscoelasticity ................4.............................9...1 . 8–29 8...........24......8.1................. Implicit Creep Procedure ..............3.26..............3.......................14.................... MISO and RATE Example ................2............................... BISO and CREEP Example ................................... Plasticity ..... NLISO and CHAB Example ..... HILL and KINH Example ........................................................5........................... HILL and CREEP and MISO Example ........3...3...... 8–30 8.....Structural Analysis Guide 8.....................7..19...... Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option ........ 8–47 Structural Analysis Guide ......................... 8–37 8................4...................1..................3..........................3.......................................3...3.........3................................................1..............1... 8–9 8............... 8–40 8................. HILL and BISO and CHAB Example ............................ HILL and BISO Example .....2..........................12.... 8–20 8....1.....1............2............3........ MISO and CREEP Example .... Hyperelasticity ................. Inc.......2...2....................3.........................................................6......................................3......3...................... Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option .............................................. 8–21 8......7..................5........4.............................................1.............3...........................3......................... 8–31 8.......................2......1.. 8–38 8............. 8–39 8.....2...3.15.............................................3.4.........................................................2.....2.............. HILL and NLISO Example ..1............... 8–32 8............................ 8–17 8............... Gent Hyperelastic Option .................. HILL and MKIN Example ............................................................... 8–34 8..................3........................................................................................... Shape Memory Alloy ....

..... 8–48 8....................................... Using Line Search ..........................................3.................3.......................... 8–48 8......2... Birth and Death ......2.............................................6.........8.....2..7..........4......... Set Additional Solution Options ...5.............2..............................2.........2................ Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ............................................................... Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis ......... 8–63 8.......5...................2.................................5... Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis .4...................... 8–49 8..........................................................3..........................................................10.....................................................4.............. 8–60 8................................3...... 8–60 8.......5....2....1............................. Line Search Option ............................. 8–64 8................1.............................3.......... ......................... Review the Results .. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis .2..................... Predictor-Corrector Option .........2............2.............10........10...............................5.......................................... 8–68 8.......................... Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response ..... 8–64 8............3.........6...............2.................. 001972 ............2....2.. 8–50 8.......... 8–63 8....6......................7.....10...................6..................... 8–61 8.2................ 8–57 8.........................5... 8–51 8.........2... Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS .................................................1....................................................2......1.........2............. 8–66 8. 8–57 8...............................................1......3.5.... Apply the Load Gradually ........................................................ Using the Arc-Length Method ....1.......................................... Build the Model ......... Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ........................ Set Solution Controls ....... Automatic Time Stepping ........... Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .......................... 8–53 8......................................5..............................................1........ 8–52 8......................... Stress Stiffness ............... 8–61 8............. 8–52 8... Time Step Open Control ...................3...........5........5...3....10..................................................... 8–55 8........6......................... Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .......... Terminating a Running Job..10................... 8–63 8................... ANSYS Release 8.................. Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave ................................ 8–63 8............. Inc................................5........ Cutback Criteria .......3...................1................. Restarts .................5..... Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ............9.........6.......... 8–49 8............................. © SAS IP.. Reviewing Results in POST1 ..... 8–67 8......................... 8–55 8................... Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis .10..........................5...................1.............. Tracking Convergence Graphically ..............3..................2....................10................6.....................5..........3............. Points to Remember ................ 8–54 8.................... 8–56 8....... Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .......... Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations .............................................................2.. Reviewing Results in POST26 ............. 8–53 8..................... 8–62 8.2.......................6........ 8–53 8.... Overcoming Convergence Problems .........1................. Newton-Raphson Option ....1...............................10.............................................................................5........................5...........1 ...1.10........3...................2...... Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements ...........5................................................................1.........3........................2.............................................5..3.............................................. 8–51 8................ 8–49 8.......... 8–64 8........... 8–56 8...................................................................... 8–57 8.................3... 8–57 8....................... Use an Adequate Mesh Density ...........5...5......................... 8–59 8.... Using Automatic Time Stepping ..............................................5..........1....................... Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics ................................3.................... 8–69 xiv Structural Analysis Guide .......................... 8–64 8.3. 8–50 8....................2................... 8–53 8...... Creep Criteria ...............5.5...................................... Apply the Loads ............................................. 8–53 8...........2.............5.........................5................9...................................................................1.......... Restarting ..... Keep It Simple .......1........3.......................... Solution Monitoring ...10....................................... Solve the Analysis ..................... 8–51 8............................................................................................3.2.................2..5...............................................5.. 8–59 8. 8–65 8........... Equation Solver ..... Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis .................2....2..3...............5...10.... 8–55 8................................................6................ 8–55 8...................................10......5.5... Element Birth and Death ..........................1. 8–59 8.....................3.........2................................6........................5. Convergence Criteria ....4.........5.....5....4...... 8–68 8.........................3............ 8–63 8...4......2.. Build the Model ...................... Output Control ..................................................5..................1.....................................................................Structural Analysis Guide 8..................................... Review the Results ....................1.............2...2................ 8–56 8....................

......................... 8–71 8.... 8–75 8.......................2..............3......................................................................................... 8–72 8....... Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) ................. Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ..11.............................. 9–3 9..........1............................................................................1............... 8–77 8.....3...................2................ Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior .. GUI .................14.....11..................3....... 8–79 8......... Batch .............. 8–70 8..............8....... Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting ...................2..7.........2..................................... 8–77 8..... Batch .................................. Initialize the Coefficients .............13...5........... Batch .............................2...... 9–5 9... 8–74 8..11..................................... 8–73 8....... 9–4 9.................................. 9–3 9.............11............................................................................................2.....................................2............................11.....1...............................2........................... Batch ................................ Select a Material Model Option .. 9–2 9.......11....... 8–70 8......6............... Where to Find Other Examples .6.. Applicable Material Behavior Types ........ Read Your Output .....2........... Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze ................. GUI ..................................6.........................1...............11...............3................................ 9–1 9........... Using Birth and Death Wisely ................. 8–72 8...........2...................... 8–75 8................................ Review/Verify ........... 8–78 8............3.........4....................16. Material Curve Fitting ... 9–4 9.................3......11..........11..................................................11...... 8–74 8..1.............12.....8..................................... 9–1 9............. 9–1 9.......................................................................................................................... 8–73 8......................2................................................ 9–7 Structural Analysis Guide ..........1..................... ANSYS Release 8..............1.......2.............1................................................. Batch .........11...................... ......2................................................................ Specify Control Parameters and Solve ..........2............ Problem Sketch ..........................................11......................1......1.11.................................. 9–5 9.. Plot Time-History Results ..........................................................10.............. Write Data to TB Command ...........................3............3........1....... Problem Description ................................ 9–6 9............................ 9–6 9............... © SAS IP.............. GUI .............2........................3...........................................................1.................... Assign Analysis and Load Step Options .....1..................... Set Element Size ......................................................................................................5......11............................. GUI ...........................................................15........1.............11..18................................................... Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables ....................... 8–75 8........................17...... 8–78 8...................................3...................1... Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing .....1....2.. Monitor the Displacement ..................................10................................1.................11...3..................... 9–5 9...............1............................2.........3..1....... 9–6 9............................7..... Set the Analysis Title and Jobname ...10......... xv .............10......7....... Problem Specifications ................ Define Material Properties ................... 9–4 9............... 9–4 9................................... GUI .............1...............7....2.3....... Create Rectangle .................................................................... 9–1 9.............. Graph the Load and Response History .... Solve the First Load Step ..3.............2....................................1..........4.2..................................................2.........3.. 9–6 9...............2.......... Review the Monitor File .....11..............6......................2.... 8–73 8.................4.................................................. 8–82 9.... 9–3 9..... 8–75 8................................................... 8–70 8............................ 8–74 8................................. Apply Constraints ....................................................................................2.........3.............11..........................3..........9.........................................11....................... 8–74 8..Structural Analysis Guide 8..12...2.......................................1........1................2..................9..........................2............. 8–71 8..........................2.....................................1.............................. 001972 .......................10...........................2..5.......................5..............1........ 9–6 9..........................1................... GUI ............................................ 8–77 8. 8–76 8................2... Inc.............2...................2....................13......... Input the Data into ANSYS ........ 9–3 9............ 9–6 9..................2....................... Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ................................7.10....................................................................1....................... Exit ANSYS ...............2........6..........................1............... 8–79 8.......3........1..........4...............................3..... Prepare Experimental Data .................11......................3...........................................................2.1 ... Mesh the Rectangle .........................................11... 9–5 9........... Define the Element Types ................3........................3.........3...........3...........1.11................ Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results.............................1..... Solve the Next Six Load Steps ....2.....11................... Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) ..2.................. 8–76 8.............................................................................. Batch ....

................................................4..........2.1... Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models ........... Element Topologies .................. 9–12 9........................................3.. Thickness Direction ...................................................... 9–18 9..................2.....1................................ 9–12 9.............. 9–9 9......... 9–11 9............2..3.. 10–2 10.5........................6.......1..2... GUI .................2.3........1....4............................................ Batch .............................4....... Input the Data into ANSYS .....4........... Batch ...............3...........3...........1....1.1..................................................4..................4..................................4........................................................................ 9–9 9...................... Gasket Joints Simulation .....2...............................................2......................... Batch ....2.................................................................................... Select a Material Model Option ........... 9–14 9....................................1. 9–9 9........................................ GUI ....................................6...............1........ GUI ............1.............................................................................................................. 9–11 9........................ 10–2 10................................1.......... 9–16 9....................3....................3.4........ Initialize the Coefficients .........................................................7.......1....................................................4... 9–16 9......................................1.....6...................... GUI ............. 9–18 9.............1. Inc....................2........... GUI ....1.......................4....... ANSYS Release 8............................................ 10–1 10.......................... 10–2 10...........3........3.........1..............7............................................................................ Input the Data into ANSYS ............................................... Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ...... Overview of Gasket Joints ..... Batch .......4.....1..... 9–20 9... Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting ...... 9–11 9........ 10–3 xvi Structural Analysis Guide .......7........................2.........1....................................2...1 ...................................................... 9–12 9........3............................. 9–10 9......... Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior ...........1............ GUI ..... Creep Material Curve Fitting ................................4.................1. 9–7 9...3..............................1.......................................................................1...................3.5........................3................. Batch ...............................4..... GUI .....................3........ 9–12 9...................................................1...1.................... 9–20 9..................3.................4........................................ Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ..1........3.......................................6............................ Finite Element Formulation ..................................................... Select a Material Model Option ................1.............. 10–1 10....... 10–1 10..6..............3............................4..1.....2...........................................1........................................................... Write Data to TB Command ................................. Batch ...........2...........................................2........................................................6..2....4....................... Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze ............... 9–7 9............ 9–17 9.....3.............................. 9–16 9.............................................2.. 9–20 9.......................................................................................... Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis ....4.4......................1... GUI .....................1............................1... Batch ................... Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze .....................6......3......................................................................................3.................3.............. 9–20 9....................... 9–9 9......... Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model .............4....2............................4....................1....................................... ....3..... GUI .................1.........................5........ GUI ...........2..............................7.3...1.......1............. Batch ............... GUI ...... 9–11 9........................................... © SAS IP........... 9–10 9............ 9–15 9.1....3...................2...1..2. Prepare Experimental Data ... 9–21 10.........................3......... ANSYS Family of Interface Elements ......................1............................... Batch .............................. Write Data to TB Command .................1.....................................4................................... 9–19 9............................................................................................................................................... 9–10 9........................................... 9–20 9...4.............3...4...................................................................... Specify Control Parameters and Solve ................................7...................................4... Batch .5........1.......................................... Batch ........................................................1................................................... 9–16 9........................... 9–12 9.....1....1......1................................. 9–14 9.1.............................1..............1..1...................1......Structural Analysis Guide 9.......1.... 001972 ......1....................3.2.... GUI ...........3............1..........................4......... Initialize the Coefficients ..........................3............ 9–18 9.......................3......................... 9–17 9...7..................1.... 9–7 9.................................5........................................1.. Specify Control Parameters and Solve ..................................1.......................3.............................................. 9–12 9................3...3........................ 9–17 9....3......1...................................... 9–12 9....4...............4..6.......... 9–9 9..........1........... 9–11 9..5...................................................... Batch .... 9–20 9.......................................... 9–20 9........... Prepare Experimental Data .4..................................................4...1.................

...5........3............ 10–19 10.................................6.............4..............................................................................................6........ Reviewing Results in POST26 ............................... Define Linear Unloading Data ..................................... Element Type .................3...............5.................... 11–14 11..........................4.5.............................5...4...........................................................6............. Background ..2...................5.. Steps in a Contact Analysis .............. 11–7 11.... ANSYS Contact Capabilities ................... 10–20 10..................2.1..4...........1................. Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis .................. Defining Target Element Geometry . 11–6 11................................ 11–1 11.....4.............8................8....3..................... 11–1 11............1...6................................... Contact ........ Real Constants and Material Properties ........................... 11–8 11..............................6..2......... Temperature Dependencies .......................................................................... Verifying Nodal Number Ordering (Contact Direction) of Target Surface .............4....... 11–8 11.................................................. Defining the Target Surface ......... 11–7 11.4............................................4............. 11–14 11........7... 11–7 11................................................................ 11–9 11...............4...........6............... 11–4 11.....3....................................................... 10–19 10................. 11–19 Structural Analysis Guide ......1..... 11–8 11. 11–15 11.................. Element Selection .............1............. Points to Remember .....................................2........................................................1 ............................... Primitives .......................................... Reviewing Results in POST1 ....................................................................1......................................................................................................................... 10–12 10.....................4....5............. Applications ......................................................................................................................1.......1..................................... 11–7 11.4...2....6.............. 10–4 10........... Explicit Dynamics Contact Capabilities .................... Plotting Gasket Data ..............8......... Inc......1............................7. © SAS IP......................................7.......... 11–10 11.......... Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing .............4.. Meshing Interface Elements ...............................4................... 11–17 11......3..3.8...... Element Types and Real Constants ...... Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements .. 11–4 11............ 11–1 11... Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ...........4..................... 11–5 11.......8........1.........1..........6..2..................2............................................................... 10–16 10... 11–1 11..........................................2............ Asymmetric Contact vs............................1.......................... 10–4 10................ 10–6 10..........................................8.5............................................ ANSYS Release 8........................................8.....1.................... Input Format ..................................7.... Using Direct Generation to Create Rigid Target Elements .2........... Some Modeling and Meshing Tips ..................1...................................2................ 10–7 10.....................................4.......... 10–3 10.2. Contact Overview .....5..................... Using Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements ............... Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ..4.........................4.............................. Creating the Model Geometry and Mesh ..............................................................4................................................................................. 11–8 11.....................2.......... 11–16 11..2.................................................2............................... Define Nonlinear Unloading Data .......... Reviewing the Results .... Real Constants ...... 10–6 10..............................5..................... 11–13 11................ 10–19 10..5...........................4........ 10–11 10...............3.................................................................. General Contact Classification ....4......................4...........3.. 10–8 10....................... Identifying Contact Pairs ...................5...........4........4....................4..........1............. 11–4 11........ Pilot Nodes ............ 11–17 11.. Using KEYOPT(8) .....1...5....4...........................................................................1.... Define General Parameters ........ Defining the Deformable Contact Surface ............4................................. 001972 ............................9....4............5..............4...... 10–20 11..... Symmetric Contact ............................................................... Node-to-Node Contact Elements ...................................... 11–3 11.... 11–5 11............ Set the Real Constants and Element KEYOPTS .... 11–12 11................................. 11–3 11.... 10–17 10......................5................ Generating Contact Elements ......................5......................................................................................3... Define Compression Load Closure Curve ...1........5............ 10–5 10...............1....7...............................3........6.. 11–5 11.... xvii ...... Designating Contact and Target Surfaces ...................................3..............................................3..................................4............................. Solution Procedure and Result Output .....6...................... Material Definition ................. Positive and Negative Real Constant Values ...............................................................................................1................ Using ANSYS Meshing Tools to Create Rigid Target Elements .....................7............................................Structural Analysis Guide 10...................................... 10–3 10.....................4.... Material Characteristics ..................................... 10–6 10...... 11–2 11.........................1............................................................2..4.......................................................

2......6.......................1..10............................... and COHE .........................4............................................................4.......................10............ 11–37 11.............. 11–39 11................ Temperature on Target Surface ...........................................................4.............................. Modeling Radiation ...... CNOF....6.................8.......12......... Using KEYOPT(11) .........4.4........8...10..................................4.3............................ Contact Status ........................ 11–21 11..........................................10............... Using KEYOPT(12) and FKOP ......................10....6.. 11–38 11.......... Background ...............8.... Selecting a Contact Algorithm (KEYOPT(2)) ........... 11–41 11........... 11–42 11..8........ 11–23 11....... 11–42 11..8................................. 11–30 11. 11–25 11..........3...................................................8..........10. 11–28 11..............................................5..........5..........................8..... Background ........... Element KEYOPTS . Using FKT and SLTO ... 11–45 11.... Avoiding Spurious Contact in Self Contact Problems ............4........2...........................................Structural Analysis Guide 11.........11.........7.....................................................................................2............ Using TAUMAX...................................4......... Using PMIN.......8................4....13.....9.............8..8..5.....1. 11–44 11........................ Adjusting Initial Contact Conditions ..................................6............ Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration ......................4...........4..........................................8...........................................4.......4...1 ..........8.. 11–30 11..........4......1........... Background .......... 11–25 11..8.................... Background ......14.... 11–47 11........................4................ Selecting Location of Contact Detection ....1..........................3....... Using PINB . 11–40 11.................. Using Time Step Control .... 11–40 11...........................4...............2.......... 11–28 11... 11–23 11....................... 11–40 11............. 11–44 11............1.............13..................... Inc............ 11–41 11.................................2................6..................................................... 11–46 11..............4....4....................... Free Thermal Surface ....8....4.............. Background ...... Using KEYOPT(4) and TOLS ....... Background ..8...........6. 11–39 11.......... 11–28 11........4...............4. Modeling Heat Generation Due to Friction ......................2.................................................................................... 11–20 11................... 11–22 11...............15...... 11–42 11......8.......2..... PMAX..............4............8...8.................4............4......... 11–21 11.......4...........................................8.............12......................4......................8..8.. Using TCC ..10................4...........................................................4.............4......................4.... Using FKN and FTOLN ..................4...........................................4..............10.......4....7.....9..................................1..........................................8.......7.........2.....4............................1............... 11–42 11.... Background .....................................2..............................1....4........................8....................... 11–30 11..........2............. 11–38 11............... 11–47 11................................8..... 11–22 11..........................8...................10......... Using the Quasi Solver Option .4... and KEYOPT(9) ..4....................... 11–47 11.......10....8.3............4......1................... KEYOPT(5)............ Background .4.... Background .........14.1... 11–24 11.............................10....................4...4.. 11–43 11....... Using SBCT and RDVF ......................4.......1.....13...........................5........7....9.. Using KEYOPT(10) ....... Static and Dynamic Friction Coefficients .........4.............10... Selecting Surface Interaction Models .................. ICONT..................................................................... 11–41 11............................. Controlling the Motion of the Rigid Target Surface (Rigid-to-Flexible Contact) ..5...........10..4....8....4..............4....8.................................. 11–46 11..... © SAS IP................. ANSYS Release 8.................. Modeling Convection ................7................ DC.............. Chattering Control Parameters ................................................. 11–42 11................................2........10.................2................4.................... Modeling Conduction ....14......................8...... 11–26 11........... Modeling Contact with Superelements . 11–45 11................................................. 11–42 11.................... 11–44 11..................8............... Background ....3....4.............1...............8. FACT.....................4........... Modeling Thermal Contact ....9....4.....8.............11......8..................... 11–26 11...2.. Background ......................8..... 11–42 11.1......8...8...........................................4...............................................4.......4.............11.........10..... 11–47 xviii Structural Analysis Guide .8......8...........4.... Background ..4.....4...... Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface ........... Choosing a Friction Model ...................... ... Thermal Contact Behavior vs. 11–46 11...4.........4.........2...............................................4......4. Using KEYOPT(7) ...........12.....4......5........ Using KEYOPT(3) ............................1......................... 11–46 11.. Determining Contact Status and the Pinball Region ....... 11–45 11..............4.... 11–25 11.............................. Accounting for Thickness Effect ....................................................7. 001972 ............... Using the Birth and Death Option .......... Using FHTG and FWGT ...................

...................4..................................2.............. Multiphysics Contact ........ ANSYS Release 8.......... 11–71 11......... 11–67 11............8...............................................2..............3....6........... 11–68 11........6.......2..7................. 11–57 11................ Modeling Solid-solid and Shell-shell Assemblies ...........2.... 11–70 11. 11–48 11......................................................................................................4........... 11–50 11................8.......................3.. 11–60 11......... KEYOPT(3) ....1.....4............................. Restrictions and Recommendations for Internal MPC .............................2.............. 12–1 12...................................................6...............11........4.........................7....1.....................12................................................7.. Modeling a Shell-solid Assembly ...................................................6.......................... 11–51 11...............................6..4........................ Modeling the Crack Region .....................................................................1.......................................... 11–48 11.......... 12–3 Structural Analysis Guide .....8. Defining Surface-based Constraints .......... 11–48 11......................2....................................................................8.................. Solving the Problem . 11–71 11...2........................................................ 11–54 11..........2..........1......... 11–56 11..................... Surface-based Constraints .......................................................................................... Solving the Problem ............................................. 11–54 11.............. 11–53 11............... CONTA175 Real Constants ......7..... xix .....................................11........ Defining Solution and Load Step Options .... 11–76 12.............4............1................ 12–1 12.... Modeling Perfect Magnetic Contact ......2.....................16............... 11–59 11........................................................3.......................... The Contact Wizard ..... 11–61 11............................ 11–59 11............2.......5.............................................16..................... Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints ....................................................1.............11. 11–74 11......................4.......16................................11............................3..................... 11–73 11.........................8.......... Using the Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ...................................... Reviewing the Results ....1......... 11–51 11........ Defining the Contact Normal ......... Modeling Heat Generation Due to Electric Current ....... 11–55 11..8..... Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis .... 11–52 11.3.....................................................1................................... 11–60 11.......... 11–72 11...........................................7....................Structural Analysis Guide 11....... 2-D Fracture Models ....................1......1.. Background ..................................................................................................... Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Offset Nodes ............................................................ 11–50 11.........8...................................................8...... Points to Remember .... 001972 ...................................1.... 12–1 12....2.1.....................................2......................2.......................................................8....................................... GUI Aids for Contact Analyses .. KEYOPT(4) .....5...................................4........................ Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Coincident Nodes . Generating Contact Elements ......................... Fracture Mechanics ................ 11–57 11............. Using ECC ..................3.....3......................................................4.....1......... Creating Geometry and Meshing the Model ...................................................................1.... The Contact Manager .................. 11–49 11............... 11–72 11.......... Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems ................................................................................................4...............................2.................. 11–53 11.................................... 11–69 11.1....................1 ......12.1..... 11–74 11.. 11–76 11.....1........................................8. Modeling a Beam-solid Assembly .................. 11–62 11....... Reviewing Results in POST26 ........................................................1...........................4....5..............13......................5..6. Selecting the Contact Algorithm .....................1.....1......................................2............... Inc... Modeling External Heat Flux .............................. Defining the Solution Options ..........................7...................................................... Defining the Initial Interference or Gap ............................ Node Ordering .............. Definition of Fracture Mechanics .............................................................................8............ 11–72 11..... Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions to the Deformable Elements .............................7..................11.......................... 11–48 11..... Performing a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis ...............................................4. Managing Contact Pairs .......12......................... 11–74 11.. 11–60 11............................3........................4... Using MCC ..16........ CONTA175 KEYOPTS ......................................2.....1............5......... 11–53 11........4............................ Modeling Magnetic Contact . 11–49 11...2. 11–75 11.......................... 11–51 11..........1...............8..............................................8.................8.......1................................1................... Modeling Surface Interaction ........ Modeling Electric Contact ...........1...................................... 12–1 12......... © SAS IP............10........6.................... Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions ........6..4.......... Reviewing the Results ...........4......9.....4.......................8..........7...... 11–54 11..................................................14. 11–59 11..........4...... Reviewing Results in POST1 ...........................................15............... 11–66 11.......

.................... Establish the Size........2...........................2..............4...................1........2..........2...... Additional Modeling and Postprocessing Guidelines ......... 14–9 15.....2... 15–3 15........ 14–2 14.............. Defining the Constitutive Matrices ................2................................3........3.........................................2.................. 14–4 14...................................... Definition of p-Method Analysis ................. 3-D Fracture Models .........................3..4.... 12–8 13...3.................... Using Program Defaults ...... 15–4 15...........1....2...1.....2............ 15–2 15...............................................................4.............2....... Store Stresses and Assign Event Repetitions and Scale Factors .............. 12–5 12.............................2............1............................................... Inc............................... Mesh the Model into Solid or Shell Elements .........2.........................................2............ What the ANSYS Program Does ................3.............3. Select the p-Method Procedure ...............2..2............4........ 13–1 13....................................................................................2.............1...................1..........2...................................................................3...................... 14–6 14.............2..................5........ 15–4 15..............................6............ 13–2 13................................... 14–1 14............ 12–4 12............ 15–1 15..........................2........3.. 15–2 15.............2..................................................................... Storing Stresses .........2.....................................................................................................4. xx ......2...... Material Properties . Choosing the Proper Element Type ................... 15–5 Structural Analysis Guide ..................3... 14–4 14......... Fatigue Material Properties..........................................................1.........3................................ 15–4 15.................... 15–1 15..............3................3......................... Definition of Fatigue ...............7...................... 15–1 15........................................ 12–6 12......... Additional Information for Building Your Model ............................ 14–9 14..................................1......2.......................3........... Doing a Fatigue Evaluation .................3..................................3............1..........2........................ 14–2 14...............3.. Define the Model Geometry ..................................... Node Offset .......................................................... Other Approaches to Range Counting .2................1...... Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Usage Factors ..1..................Structural Analysis Guide 12............................................. 13–4 13......... 14–1 14........................4.......................................... 14–6 14.......3.......................................................................... 15–5 15..................... 13–3 13. 13–1 13.......... 13–1 13...................2..............2............ 15–4 15............ Defining the Layered Configuration .....4...............2............................................. Calculating Fracture Parameters ................................. Review the Results ......................................................... 13–1 13.. 13–5 13.....................2................... 14–9 14. Nodal Stresses from Jobname..................................................................... ANSYS Release 8..............2..................................2..2.......... Specify Material Properties and/or Real Constants ........................................... 13–5 13....... 15–3 15..... J-Integral ........................1....2.................. 14–9 14.2.............................3.................2.......2..............................3...................... 13–4 13....... 12–5 12..............2......................................................................2................ Fatigue ................... Build the Model .......... © SAS IP...2.............2... 14–4 14............................. Modeling Composites ................................3............................3....... 14–1 14.............................3.3.2.2................................ Specifying Individual Layer Properties ............ Guidelines for Creating a Good Mesh .1.............................2.............................1.....................2.3.3. 15–3 15.........2. Assigning Event Repetitions and Scale Factors ......................3.....2............................................... 15–1 15.... 14–1 14...... 13–6 14.................................... Specifying a p-Level Range ........................3............1 ............ Sample Input ......................................................................2.............2................................. p-Method Structural Static Analysis .2........................2....... Energy Release Rate ................2..................................................2...1.............. or Deleting Stored Stresses ................................................................................4.................................... and Locations ...............................2.... Activate the Fatigue Calculations ......... Define the Element Types .......... Stress Intensity Factors .......................................2....... Specifying Mesh Controls ......................... Manually Stored Stresses ...................................... Real Constants ...... 001972 ..... 15–1 15..................3....... Composites .................... Specifying Failure Criteria ...................................2......... Basic Terminology ........1..... Using the p-Method ................................................................................................. Sandwich and Multiple-Layered Structures ...... 15–2 15.............. Stresses at a Cross-Section .............3...2.............................................RST .................... Definition of Composites ....................... Plotting......1......................... 14–5 14.............2........2...................1............... Enter POST1 and Resume Your Database ..............2.................................1........................3...2.......... 14–2 14................................................. 14–5 14....... Benefits of Using the p-Method ..............................1................... 14–7 14.....1.......2.............................................................................1...........2.................................. Listing..................

..................................................3..... Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) ........3........... 15–15 15........................ 15–16 15...................4....... Define Convergence Criteria ................ 16–10 16.............. Helpful Hints for Common Problems .................................... 15–12 15........7...................................................................................4......1..........................2.................................. Querying Subgrid Results ..........3.......................................1.............. 15–17 15..................... 15–17 15....6......... Define Pressure Load along Right Edge........................................... 16–1 16.. 16–7 16........................................2................................ Specialized p-Method Displays and Listings .................................... Review the Results .......... 16–2 16...4...............6...3..................................................................................................... Using the Beam Tool to Create Common Cross Sections ..... Problem Diagram ... Beam Analysis and Cross Sections ...............3....................................... Coupling ................6.. 15–16 15.2.........4.........................8......... 15–17 15............. 16–1 16....... 15–15 15............................ Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results .....4....................... 16–9 16......4....................................3.........4.... 15–13 15......................3... 15–18 15......3..........1...............8..........3..............3..........4................ Define Element Type and Cross Section Information ..................... Eigenvalue Buckling and Nonlinear Collapse .......6................................................... Creating Custom Cross Sections with Mesh Refinement and Multiple Materials .................. 16–6 16...................... An Overview of Beams ..................... 16–4 16.. What Are Cross Sections? . Define the Real Constants ........ or BEAM189 Elements ...................8.............. ANSYS Release 8..................................................................... 16–1 16....... Problem Specifications ..........6................1........................................ xxi ...........................................................................10................. 15–5 15....3............. Defining Cross Section Geometry and Setting the Section Attribute Pointer ....................................................3.... Define the Material Properties and Orientation Node ...........................1...... 16–12 16....3......................................................................................................4............. 15–6 15................................. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ...... 001972 ........................ Review the Results and Exit ANSYS ........ Select p-Method ......1.. Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) ..........3. Define the Element Type and Options .............2.................................................3............ Managing Cross Section and User Mesh Libraries ...........................................6...................... © SAS IP................................................3.1.. 15–7 15.....................3................ 16–11 16.............3...............4..................................................................................6...........1...... 15–14 15..................4.......4............................2.......................................... The p-Element Subgrid .....6... Mesh the Areas .... 15–17 15.11....................................................3....7...................................................................... 16–12 16.... 15–13 15...........................4................................................................. BEAM188.3............ Define Material Properties .....................3........ Problem Description ........6.....4..........8.............. Mesh the Line and Verify Beam Orientation ................3..........................6......... 15–15 15...Structural Analysis Guide 15...1.. 16–8 16. Problem Specifications ........................................... 15–6 15......................4...........5..........................5... How to Create Cross Sections ..........3...... 15–15 15..................2. Sample p-Method Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ...................4...........12...3............. 15–15 15.....6.......1.......5.........................3.......................... 15–14 15............. 16–10 16..................................4....................... Set the Analysis Title and Define Model Geometry ..4...........................................................5............... Viewing your element model .................. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number ...9...2.3...... Creating Cross Sections ............................................................. Create Plate with Hole .......................... 16–3 16............2..................... Define Symmetry Boundary Conditions ........ 15–18 16................ .......4........2..........................3................. 16–3 16...................... Creating Custom Cross Sections with a User-defined Mesh ..4.............................7........ Midside Node Coupling .......................................3..1............................... Problem Description .. 16–9 16...........................5...... Solve the Problem ..4..............5..................................4.......3...............................2..... Set the Analysis Title ........................... Defining Composite Cross Sections ........ 15–12 15...........6..................................... 15–16 15...3................................................. 15–7 15..............................3....... Coupling of Corner Nodes ......................... 15–15 15............ 16–5 16............3..........................................2...............................................................3...............................4..... 16–8 16...4....................... Defining a Tapered Beam .................. 15–14 15............................................................3..............................3............................................. Meshing a Line Model with BEAM44........... 16–5 16..........4........................... 16–13 Structural Analysis Guide .. 15–16 15....6..... Determining the Number of Cells to Define ..3................................................................. Inc........1 ..... 16–12 16.........3............................. 16–11 16...... 16–4 16..... Problem Sketch ..4...................

................................ 7–4 7......6..9.............4............................................12............................................................ Shell Analysis and Cross Sections . Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve .........................................................................3.....................7. 17–3 17.................. Define the Boundary Conditions ........................................ 16–15 16.............................5................................................................... 17–3 17..................................................................... Examples of Gap Conditions .................... 5–34 5.... 8–6 8........... 8–9 xxii Structural Analysis Guide ........................... 16–17 17.....................................2...............................3.....3................................................................. Choose Master DOF .............. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number ....................... Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs...................................1........................................................ Sample Problem with Cantilever Beams...................................8................ Solve the Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ............................................................................. Substeps.............................6............................................8................................................................................................................ 16–14 16...... Two-Mass-Spring-System .... 4–14 5..........6.........................................................3..............................1.................. and Time .......................................................................... Arc-Length Method ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17–3 17..................................................................................... Index–1 List of Figures 2... 2–14 3.............................. 17–1 17.... Overriding Program Calculated Section Properties .................................... Plot and Review the Results ...3..... 5–27 5................ Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves ..1... Buckling Curves ...........................3............ 8–8 8..........6.... Defining Layer Data ......................... 7–9 8..1.. Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior ............. 16–16 16.................................................... 8–4 8...............................4...................... Rayleigh Damping .................. 6–2 6..6....................... What Are Cross Sections? .. Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass ........ 8–1 8..... ANSYS Release 8.3..............................1..............6..3.......................... 16–13 16. 17–1 17. 8–2 8................8........................................................... Transient Input vs........Structural Analysis Guide 16....... Setting the Section Attribute Pointer ........................4........ An Overview of Shells ..................................................................................................................................... Choosing Master DOFs .. 5–35 5............................1............................................................ Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model .....1 ..................... Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1............................. 6–11 7................. 8–5 8.......1........ Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra .......... 16–15 16..... Newton-Raphson Approach .... 17–2 17......................................................3......3.. 8–4 8..............2............................................................................. How to Create Cross Sections ... An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna ......7.......................................... 4–1 4.............2........................ Associating an Area with a Section . Using the Shell Tool to Create Sections .. 3–20 3............... 3–20 3..................2............................................................................... Diagram of Allen Wrench ..... Load Directions Before and After Deflection .. 17–5 Index ..................................................... 7–1 7. Bar with Hinged Ends ..................6.................................................................... Transient Response ............................ Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports ............................................................... Harmonic Response Systems .............9..................3...........................................................................11................................... A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity .................. ........................................................................... 5–21 5..............3.............. Where to Find Other Examples ..3.1.. 4–7 4.............................................................................................................................2......................................................... 17–3 17..............................0 ..................................... 3–21 4......... 17–1 17.......................5.......................2....... 17–3 17.................. 001972 .......................................... Load Steps. 8–3 8... 17–2 17.............. Stress-Stiffened Beams ...... 5–4 5.5............................................................... Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior .............. 5–38 6......................... Inc...........................................................1......................... Managing Cross Section Libraries ......................................................2. Solve the Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ................................................... Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing ........2... 4–6 4............................. 3–12 3..4........... Command Method ....................................................................................................................................10. © SAS IP..........3.......................................................... Specifying a Shell Thickness Variation (Tapered Shells) ................................ Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation ............... 17–1 17.......3.................................................................................. Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle ........4.............................................7..........

..................................... 8–25 8...............23......................... 8–27 8..................................................7. Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation ..... 11–6 11................ Cast Iron Plasticity ...............24..................................................................................... 8–58 8..16............................ Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element .......................................................................23.................................... Friction Decay .......9...... Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model) ......................................................................................... Components of True Penetration ....................................... 8–16 8................................................. 11–54 11............................................. 11–13 11......8.......................... 8–23 8.........19........................... Interface Layer Mesh .... Inc....................................................................................1 ................................................... Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point ...................................................................................................... 11–45 11........................................13............................ 10–14 10..........22................................. NLISO Stress-Strain Curve ..............................4.................... 8–33 8.................. 10–16 11...6.................7.....17....... Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays ............................... 11–38 11.. Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements ..... 11–35 11.................... 10–11 10.....15.........................16................................................................................................................................. Auto Spurious Prevention ....................................................................... 11–36 11..... Target Temperature .......................................3........................ 11–37 11.................................................................... ANSYS Release 8.......................... Typical Nonlinear Output Listing ........................... 10–15 10.................................... Example of a Contact Wizard Dialog ............... 11–11 11............................. 11–56 Structural Analysis Guide ...8........................12........................................................................ 11–15 11....................... Hyperelastic Structure ....................................................... Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves .24....... Ramping Initial Interference ................. 8–34 8.6.................... Contact Element Types ... KEYOPT(9) = 1 .................................................................................................2......................22........................21........................................... Smoothing Convex Corner ........................................................................... 11–13 11................................................ Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material .............................................................................................................................................................................................18......................... 11–12 11..... 11–39 11............................................ Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry ............................. Kinematic Hardening ..................... A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments .............. Pressure vs. Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves ............... Cyclic Point Load History ............................2.................................. xxiii .. 10–15 10....... Depth of the Underlying Element ..... 11–20 11.........20....................10.................. Stress Relaxation and Creep ........ Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point ..... 8–70 8............... 8–11 8............................................................................. Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal ......... 11–28 11.14............................. Contact Manager Toolbar ............5.......................... 11–10 11..................................11............................. 8–17 8.......... Effect of Moving Contact Nodes ....................... Localized Contact Zones ....................... 11–32 11........................................................................................................ Ignoring Initial Penetration.............17.................................1.....................10......................................................... Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element ................................ 10–7 10.......................... A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail .................................................21.... Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error ......................... 11–27 11...............................................................4................... 11–34 11................ Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves ...........3...................................... Bauschinger Effect ............... 8–14 8.........26..14................................................. Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces ........................................................12........... Sliding Contact Resistance ........................................ 10–8 10................................................. 001972 ...25... 8–30 8......... Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature .. Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve ........................................ 11–29 11.............. ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements ........................................................ PMAX) ....................... 11–33 11............................................................................15................. 10–2 10........................... 11–29 11...................19................................................................................. 11–26 11.... Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN................................... 8–32 8............ 8–73 10................................................. Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh ........................... 8–10 8................................... Correct Node Ordering ........................10...................5.....................................................25................. Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT ................ 8–67 8.................................... 10–14 10.........................11.................Structural Analysis Guide 8........................ Time Hardening Creep Analysis ........ 8–29 8..................9......................18........ Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures .......................................................................................... 10–5 10.................................................................................................1.. Shape Memory Alloy Phases ......................20.........13........................ Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2 . 11–17 11.... © SAS IP.

..........................................................5........29............. 14–6 15............................................................................ Surface Nodes are Identified by PPATH Prior to Executing FSSECT .37.......................................................................................................................3............ Cylinder Wall with Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs) .......... Beam-solid Assembly Defined by Force-distributed Surface ................................................................8....................... 11–69 11... 11–63 11........... Layered Model Showing Dropped Layer .....Structural Analysis Guide 11.. Inc......... Plot of a Shell Section ................. Example of an Element Display .. 12–4 12..........................4....................................................................................................................... p-Element Subgrids for Quadrilateral Elements ..................36..6............................................................... Force-distributed Surface ........................................... Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam ..................38................2......................................................30................................................................ 15–5 15....... 12–7 12.... 15–9 15.....................................39...................................5........ Node-to-Node Contact Elements ...........1............. 17–2 17....................................................... Layered Shell With Nodes at Bottom Surface .......... 11–66 11........... J-Integral Contour Path Surrounding a Crack-Tip ............. ANSYS Release 8.......................8.. Shell Tool With Layup Page Displayed ......... 14–5 14.................. Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/-45/ .................................................................................. Sandwich Construction ..... 17–5 xxiv Structural Analysis Guide ...........45/45] Sequence ................................. 14–4 14. 15–7 15............................................................... 11–62 11................1.......... Shell Tool With Section Controls Page Displayed ............ 17–4 17..............................................26.. 15–6 15........................................................................................................................ 16–10 16....................... Both Corner Nodes are Coupled ........ Two Concentric Pipes.......................................5...........................................................................1............ 12–3 12....................................................... 13–5 13................................................ Example of Overconstrained Contact Problem .................... BeamTool with Subtypes Drop Down List Displayed .............. 11–72 11................................................................................. Contact Between Two Concentric Pipes ... Example of Shell-solid Assembly ................................. 17–4 17.....................3....27..................... 11–65 11............. 12–4 12............................................................ Fan Model Showing p-Element vs.............................................................................................. A Fracture Specimen and 2-D FE Model ................................. 15–6 15...........4....7........................................... 11–64 11......................... Three Loadings in One Event ............................................................... Taking Advantage of Symmetry ............ Crack Coordinate Systems ........................4.................. Diagram of a Beam With Deformation Indicated ................... Constraints on Rotated Nodes .. Layered Shell With Nodes at Midplane .4......................................................................... 15–13 15..................................................... 11–73 11..........................28............................ 15–15 16....................... Shell-solid Assembly with Shell-solid Constraint Option .................................................................. 11–58 11.... 11–64 11.......... Shell Tool With Summary Page Displayed ....................... 16–6 16................................2....... © SAS IP............1......................... 13–3 13.....2.... Types of Solid Section Cell Mesh ......... Examples of Paths for J-integral Calculation ........................ Shell-solid Assembly with Shell-shell Constraint Option .............................................................................. Nodes Coupled Between Adjacent Elements .......... 16–2 16......................................................... All Coupled Nodes are Midside Nodes ........... Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ................ Coupled Nodes on One Element ...................4......................... Crack Tip and Crack Front ........... h-Element Meshes ................................................. Examples of Singular Elements ..........................6............. 16–4 16....... 15–7 15........31..............................1 .......5....................................................................33............... 13–7 13................ 13–5 13................................3.........2........................................... 11–70 11......3....................................................................32............................7................1....................3........ Shell-solid Assembly with Solid-solid Constraint Option .......... 16–11 17.........3.....34...........................2..... Normals Rotated Properly ..... Typical Path Definitions ..... Rigid Constraint Surface .................................. 13–8 14........................ 12–5 12................... ................................................................................................35..1......................................... 12–6 12................................................................................. Beam-solid Assembly Defined by Rigid Constraint Surface .................. Plot of a Z Cross Section .................................................................................. Shell-solid Assembly (Original Mesh) ........ 12–7 13...................................................................... 13–4 13............................................................6..................................................................... 12–2 12.......... 11–67 11..................... Steel Plate With a Hole ............. 11–69 11... 001972 ........................................................................ 11–75 12................................2...................................................

............5.............. Creep Models and Abbreviations ....................................................................................... Experimental Details for Case 3 Models ..............................................................................................................................5........ 3–6 3.................. Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients ...2.............................6. 3–17 4........................................ Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis ................................................................................................................ Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays .................3....... Creep Data Types and Abbreviations ...................... 2–4 2..................................................... 5–39 6................................... 9–3 9.. Load Step Options ...........2.........1............................. Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types .......................................................................................2... 2–3 2.. 3–5 3...... Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis .......... 2–8 3.......................2.............. 5–22 5............................ 4–9 4...............................6........1............ Expansion Pass Options ......... 4–8 4.......................................................... 9–15 11...... 16–2 17......... Load Step Options .4.............1............................................................................................... 3–5 3...3.............................................................. ANSYS Cross Section Commands .........2...........3..................................... Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko ...... © SAS IP............... Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis ............................... 3–2 3.........................................................................................................................Structural Analysis Guide List of Tables 1........1.................................................... Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis ............................................................4...........3...................................3........................................................................... 4–7 4........................................1...1 .......................................................................... ANSYS Cross Section Commands .........4......................................................................4.. Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants .....7.....2................. 3–8 3.................................................................................... Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices ........ 17–1 Structural Analysis Guide .................................................................. Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute ......................... 5–8 5.....................................5. Summary of KEYOPT Defaults in Different Environments ........... Structural Element Types ..5.....................................................................................................1..................... Damping for Different Analysis Types ............................................................. Transient Tab Options ........................................ 2–5 2.. 4–4 4.............................................................................................................. Expansion Pass Options ......................................... Analysis Types and Options ......................1.................................... 9–2 9...............................1.................................................................................................................................................. 5–36 5............ Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis .............2..................... 4–22 5............ 9–2 9............................. Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations ...5...................... xxv ........ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis .........3.............................4........................................................................................................6.................................................................... 11–21 16............................... ANSYS Release 8.. Load Step Options ................................................................... 9–8 9.......................... 9–10 9...................... 5–24 5....... 001972 ............................. Sol'n Options Tab Options .......................................... 6–4 6................................... Inc.................. 2–4 2.......................................... 6–21 6.................. 5–15 5................................ 8–23 8....................................... Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis ...........1........... 11–18 11..................... 9–8 9................... ANSYS Contact Capabilities .................................................................................................................. Analysis Types and Options ............................................................... Basic Tab Options .................4.............. Analysis Types and Options ...................................................................................... 6–22 8....................2............................1....................... Nonlinear Tab Options ........ Advanced NL Tab Options ......................................... 11–2 11............................................................................. 1–2 2...................... Load Commands for a Modal Analysis ................................... 6–4 6.........3.. Summary of Real Constant Defaults in Different Environments ..................................................1........ Expansion Pass Options ..... 8–24 9............... Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis .....................

xxvi .

Nonlinearities can include plasticity. several special-purpose features are available: • • • • • Fracture mechanics Composites Fatigue p-Method Beam Analyses Structural Analysis Guide . The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings. 1.1 . stresses. Explicit dynamic analysis is used to calculate fast solutions for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. stress stiffening. are then derived from the nodal displacements. All nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above are allowed. Spectrum Analysis--An extension of the modal analysis. ANSYS LS-DYNA provides an interface to the LS-DYNA explicit finite element program. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are possible. under static loading conditions. Definition of Structural Analysis Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. © SAS IP. Inc.2. and tools. but also naval. Each of these analysis types are discussed in detail in this manual. In addition to the above analysis types. such as strains. 001972 . hyperelasticity. ANSYS Release 8.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. contact surfaces. and ANSYS Professional programs only. Other quantities. aeronautical. Different mode extraction methods are available. large strain. and creep. . and mechanical structures such as ship hulls. and reaction forces. ANSYS Structural. Harmonic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time-varying loads. machine parts. Both linear and nonlinear static analyses. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are displacements. Static Analysis--Used to determine displacements. stresses. large deflection. and machine housings. You can perform the following types of structural analyses. Transient Dynamic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads. Structural analyses are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. aircraft bodies. Types of Structural Analysis The seven types of structural analyses available in the ANSYS family of products are explained below. Explicit Dynamic Analysis--This type of structural analysis is only available in the ANSYS LS-DYNA program. as well as mechanical components such as pistons. etc. Buckling Analysis--Used to calculate the buckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape. Explicit dynamic analysis is described in the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide.1. used to calculate stresses and strains due to a response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). ANSYS Mechanical. Modal Analysis--Used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure.

Inc. VISCO106. SOLID168 Element Name(s) 1. TARGE170. Types of Solution Methods Two solution methods are available for solving structural problems in the ANSYS family of products: the hmethod and the p-method. LINK11. SOLID164. Note — Explicit dynamics analysis can use only the explicit dynamic elements (LINK160. VISCO88. 1. COMBIN37. if you are using the GUI. SHELL61. Material Model Interface For analyses described in this guide.4. BEAM188. SURF154 LINK160. MASS166. VISCO107. SOLID64. SURF153.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. SOLID186. FLUID129. FLUID30. SHELL91. COMBI165. . BEAM23. MASS21. SHELL150. SOLID147. COMBIN14. FLUID130 COMBIN7. HYPER158.4: Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface. © SAS IP. SOLID95. CONTA171. PLANE82. Table 1. SHELL43. PLANE182. SOLID62. BEAM161. SOLID164. MATRIX27. and SOLID168).2. SHELL163. BEAM44. SOLID65. PIPE59. FLUID81.3. SOLID187. VISCO89. CONTA174. which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. CONTA173.1 . INTER193. INFIN111. SOLID92. SOLID191 SHELL28. The h-method can be used for any type of analysis. CONTA175 SOLID5. the h-method usually requires a finer mesh than the p-method. LINK8. the discussions in this manual focus on the procedures required for the h-method of solution. LINK10. PLANE13. PLANE42. FLUID29. LINK167.4. TARGE169. SHELL163. In general. COMBI165. SOLID98. LINK180 BEAM3. INTER194. Chapter 15. HYPER86. VISCO108. HYPER74.5. SOLID185. PIPE20. PIPE17. PLANE25. PIPE60 PLANE2. FLUID116. FLUID38. SHELL93. HYPER84. CONTAC52. MATRIX50. SHELL99. Elements Used in Structural Analyses Most ANSYS element types are structural elements. PLANE145. BEAM24. PLANE162. PIPE18. ANSYS Release 8. 1–2 Structural Analysis Guide . COMBIN39. BEAM189 PIPE16. FLUID80. COMBIN40. SHELL41. CONTA172. FLUID79. MASS166. PLANE83. SHELL181 INTER192. 001972 . The p-method provides an excellent way to solve a problem to a desired level of accuracy while using a coarse mesh. SOLID46. Most types of structural analyses can use any of these elements. SOLID148. HYPER58. See Section 1. LINK167. Depending on the problem to be solved. INTER195 CONTAC12. PLANE183 SOLID45. SHELL51. SHELL63. ranging from simple spars and beams to more complex layered shells and large strain solids. INFIN110. PLANE146. “p-Method Structural Static Analysis” discusses procedures specific to the p-method. PLANE162. BEAM161. HYPER56. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories. but the p-method can be used only for linear structural static analyses.1 Structural Element Types Category Spars Beams Pipes 2-D Solids 3-D Solids Shells Interface Contact Coupled-Field Specialty Explicit Dynamics LINK1. BEAM4. you must specify the material you will be simulating using an intuitive material model interface. BEAM54.

1.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2. The kinds of loading that can be applied in a static analysis include: • • • • • Externally applied forces and pressures Steady-state inertial forces (such as gravity or rotational velocity) Imposed (nonzero) displacements Temperatures (for thermal strain) Fluences (for nuclear swelling) More information about the loads that you can apply in a static analysis appears in Section 2.2. Steady loading and response conditions are assumed. . such as those caused by time-varying loads. include steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity). and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects. Section 2. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.6: Review the Results 2.large deformations.3. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when doing a static analysis: Structural Analysis Guide . For further details. This chapter focuses on linear static analyses. stresses. and time-varying loads that can be approximated as static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building codes). Details of how to handle nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8. 2. with brief references to nonlinearities.3. that is. 6.3.3. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. All types of nonlinearities are allowed .5: Solve the Analysis Section 2.3.4: Apply the Loads Section 2. 2.4: Apply the Loads.3.1. ANSYS Release 8. Nonlinear Static Analyses A static analysis can be either linear or nonlinear.3. plasticity. stress stiffening. Definition of Static Analysis A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure. 2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2. 4. creep. however.3.1: Build the Model Section 2. Performing a Static Analysis The procedure for a static analysis consists of these tasks: 1. 001972 . 5.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2. strains. Inc. and so on. Static analysis is used to determine the displacements.1 . the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time. contact (gap) elements.3. Build the Model See Section 1.1. 3. 2. © SAS IP. Linear vs. hyperelastic elements. A static analysis can. while ignoring inertia and damping effects.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.1.3.

The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. you must define the data required for mass calculations. and then click the Help button.2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • • You can use both linear and nonlinear structural elements.2. 2–2 Structural Analysis Guide . you must define the coefficient of thermal expansion (ALPX). see Section 3. which means that you may need to set only a few. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog box. The Solution Controls dialog box provides default settings that will work well for many structural static analyses. When you are doing a structural static analysis. and constant or temperature-dependent. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. it is the method that is presented in this chapter. For example.11: Using Special Solution Controls for Certain Types of Structural Analyses in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. Material properties can be linear or nonlinear. hyperelastic coefficients. For inertia loads (such as gravity). as well as specifying load step options for it. Because the streamlined solution interface is the recommended tool for setting solution controls in a structural static analysis. While considering the influence of nonlinearities. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls.1. For details about how to set these options. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. 2. 2. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls involves defining the analysis type and common analysis options for an analysis. of the options. plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients.3. Chapter 8. ANSYS Release 8. you can take advantage of a streamlined solution interface (called the Solution Controls dialog box) for setting these options.3. Note the following information about mesh density: • • Regions where stresses or strains vary rapidly (usually areas of interest) require a relatively finer mesh than regions where stresses or strains are nearly constant (within an element). isotropic or orthotropic. Young's modulus (EX). 001972 .3. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box. © SAS IP. 2. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. remember that the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. such as density (DENS).2.2. For thermal loads (temperatures). if any.1 . choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls. Inc. select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program). and so on). If you prefer not to use the Solution Controls dialog box (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls). . For a general overview of the Solution Controls dialog box. – – – You must define stiffness in some form (for example. you can set solution controls for your analysis using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths (Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> option).

Choose Large Displacement Static if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long.4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Control time settings.RST). If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification).1: “Basic Tab Options”.1 Basic Tab Options Option Specify analysis type [ANTYPE. Use the command /CONFIG. For subsequent load steps.3: Performing a Static Analysis You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2.7. 001972 . “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.6.3.1: Defining the Analysis Type and Analysis Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Chapter 8. and number of substeps to be taken in a load step [NSUBST or DELTIM] Specify solution data to write to database [OUTRES] • • • Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. select the Basic tab. 2–3 . including: time at end of load step [TIME]. Although time has no physical meaning in a static analysis (except in the case of creep. For these reasons.0 plus the time specified for the previous load step. and large strain.1 .3. Inc. © SAS IP. access the dialog box.2. When setting OUTRES. see: • • • Section 1. and you want to specify additional loads. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). Table 2.0 for the first load step. When setting TIME. Structural Analysis Guide .Section 2. large rotation. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem). ANSYS Release 8. automatic time stepping [AUTOTS]. or you have previously completed a static analysis.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19. NLGEOM] For more information on this option. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default.2. only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file (Jobname. it is available only if you choose a transient analysis and remains grayed out when you choose a static analysis. • • 2.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.4: The Role of Time in Tracking in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. viscoplasticity. remember that this load step option specifies time at the end of the load step. or other rate-dependent material behavior). the default is 1. it is not described here. The default value is 1.7. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 3. The Transient Tab The Transient tab contains transient analysis controls.1: General Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. it is used as a convenient way of referring to load steps and substeps (see Chapter 2. choose Small Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection. and click the Help button. the program will terminate with an error.

2.10. Using the Sol'n Options Tab You can use the Sol'n Options tab to set the options listed in Table 2.2 Sol'n Options Tab Options Option Specify equation solver [EQSLV] For more information about this option.10: Using the Automatic Iterative (Fast) Solver Option Section 3. Inc. select the Nonlinear tab.5.3: “Nonlinear Tab Options”. and click the Help button. bulky structures) Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solver (applicable in the same situations as the PCG solver.3. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide: • Section 3. See Chapter 13. static and full transient analyses) Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver (recommended for large models/high wavefronts.3. 2. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. access the dialog box.16. based on the physics of the problem) Sparse direct solver (default for linear and nonlinear. recommended) Frontal direct solver Note — The AMG and DDS solvers are part of Parallel Performance for ANSYS. select the Sol'n Options tab. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • Section 8. but provides parallel processing. Table 2.2.4: Using Line Search 2–4 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.2. © SAS IP.5: Line Search Option Section 8.1 . 001972 . and click the Help button.3 Nonlinear Tab Options Option Activate line search [LNSRCH] For more information about this option.5.2: Multiframe Restart Specify parameters for multiframe restart [RESCONTROL] • Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting EQSLV. for linear static/full transient structural or steady-state thermal analyses only. specify one of these solvers: – – – – – – – Program chosen solver (ANSYS selects a solver for you. Using the Nonlinear Tab You can use the Nonlinear tab to set the options listed in Table 2.4.2: Selecting a Solver through Section 3. access the dialog box.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.3. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.2: “Sol'n Options Tab Options”.2. for faster turnaround times when used in a multiprocessor environment) Distributed Domain Solver (DDS) provides parallel processing on multiple systems across a network Iterative solver (auto-select. which is a separately-licensed product. . “Improving ANSYS Performance and Parallel Performance for ANSYS” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information about these solvers. Table 2.

see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • Section 8. 2.2.4: “Advanced NL Tab Options”.2.3.10. ARCTRM] For more information about this option.2.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.3.3.6: Cutback Criteria • • • • 2. Specific situations in which you can turn OFF stress stiffening effects include: Structural Analysis Guide .3.3.2.6. © SAS IP.1 .3. Inc.5. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults. including those in the 18x family of elements. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution. Many of the options that appear in this section are nonlinear options.3: Performing a Static Analysis Option Activate a predictor on the DOF solution [PRED] Specify the maximum number of iterations allowed per substep [NEQIT] Specify whether you want to include creep calculation [RATE] Set convergence criteria [CNVTOL] Control bisections [CUTCONTROL] For more information about this option. and click the Help button.1. stress stiffening effects are ON when NLGEOM is ON.4 Advanced NL Tab Options Option Specify analysis termination criteria [NCNV] Control activation and termination of the arc-length method [ARCLEN.5: Using the Arc-Length Method Chapter 2.3. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used very infrequently. refer to the appropriate element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5. Stress Stiffening Effects Some elements.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.5.1: Creep Criteria Section 8.Section 2.5.5: Creep Section 8. 2–5 .5. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. By default.2: Convergence Criteria Section 8. 001972 . For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.2. access the dialog box.4: Predictor-Corrector Option Section 8. and their default settings rarely need to be changed.1.3.2. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • Section 8.3. Using the Advanced NL Tab You can use the Advanced NL tab to set the options listed in Table 2. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide • • 2. To determine whether an element includes stress stiffening.2. include stress stiffening effects regardless of the SSTIF command setting.5. ANSYS Release 8.3.3. Table 2.3. select the Advanced NL tab. and are described further in Chapter 8.2.

such as a prestressed modal analysis. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. You can specify one of these values: • • • • • Program-chosen (default) Full Modified Initial stiffness Full with unsymmetric matrix Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2.3. accelerates nonlinear convergence characteristics. You can specify one of these values: • • Default (depends on element type) Lumped mass approximation Note — For a static analysis. Keeping in mind the points listed above.4. Note — The stress stiffening effects and the prestress effect calculation both control the generation of the stress stiffness matrix. If you are performing a linear analysis [NLGEOM. if you want to do a prestressed dynamic analysis on the same model. Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2–6 Structural Analysis Guide . snap through).2. . Inc. Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option if you plan to apply inertial loads on the structure (such as gravity and spinning loads). ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. and therefore should not be used together in an analysis.3. © SAS IP. 001972 .OFF]. The default is OFF. the mass matrix formulation you use does not significantly affect the solution accuracy (assuming that the mesh is fine enough). Prestress Effects Calculation Use this analysis option to perform a prestressed analysis on the same model. you know that the structure is not likely to fail because of buckling (bifurcation. the last option specified will override the previous setting. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution. If both are specified. Prior to the analysis.3. the choice of mass matrix formulation may be important. you may choose to turn stress stiffening OFF for specific problems in which convergence difficulties are seen. However. for example.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • • Stress stiffening is relevant only in nonlinear analyses. you can turn stress stiffening OFF. local failures. see the appropriate dynamic analysis section for recommendations.3.3. in general.3. Newton-Raphson Option Use this analysis option only in a nonlinear analysis.1 .3. Including stress stiffness terms.

3.7. you are ready to apply loads to the model. Command(s): MODE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele 2. Creep Criteria This nonlinear load step option specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.1.2.3: Performing a Static Analysis 2.3.3. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Caution: Proper use of multiple OUTPR commands can sometimes be a little tricky. UY.3. See Section 2.1.3. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp 2. Mode Number This load step option is used for axisymmetric harmonic elements.3.3.6.3. Printed Output Use this load step option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname.7. Displacements (UX.REFT command. Inc. 2.1. ROTY. ROTZ) These are DOF constraints usually specified at model boundaries to define rigid support points.4. 2.1. Reference temperature can be made material-dependent with the MP. Load Types All of the following load types are applicable in a static analysis.3.4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on how to use this command. ROTX.3.4. Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 2.3. Apply the Loads After you set the desired solution options.8. UZ.1 .4. MZ) These are concentrated loads usually specified on the model exterior.3. 001972 . FY. FZ) and Moments (MX.3.OUT).5. Forces (FX. Extrapolation of Results Use this load step option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default when no material nonlinearities are present). 2–7 . 2. 2. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion 2. © SAS IP. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system. MY. Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.Section 2.3. Reference Temperature This load step option is used for thermal strain calculations. They can also indicate symmetry boundary conditions and points of known motion.9.4.

Y.4.1. MY. Z).6. or listed.. thermal stresses).6.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters) or as function boundary conditions (see Section 2.6. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).5 Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis Load Type Category For details on commands and menu paths for defining these loads. Moment (FX. TEMP.6. Apply Loads to the Model Except for inertia loads. MX.3. ROTX. ANSYS Release 8. see Section 2.. Table 2.14: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Section 2. Constraints ROTZ) Force. using the BF family of commands. Positive values of pressure act towards the element face (resulting in a compressive effect). You can read in temperatures from a thermal analysis [LDREAD].4.6. They are used only if you input a swelling or creep equation. . FY. 2. Spinning.1 .1. 001972 .5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a static analysis.4.8: Body Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. or you can specify temperatures directly. which are independent of the model.4. 2. and location (X. Temperatures (TEMP) These are applied to study the effects of thermal expansion or contraction (that is. Spinning.4. operated on.3. Fluences (FLUE) These are applied to study the effects of swelling (material enlargement due to neutron bombardment or other causes) or creep.3. Etc. see.6.9: Inertia Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Displacement (UX. FZ. Density (or mass in some form) must be defined if inertia effects are to be included.2. UY. UZ.6. These are inertia loads that affect the entire structure. Gravity. removed. also usually applied on the model exterior.7: Surface Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.3. In an analysis. The coefficient of thermal expansion must be defined if thermal strains are to be calculated. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters You can also apply loads using TABLE type array parameters. 2.3. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints. loads can be applied.5.15: Applying Loads Using Function Boundary Conditions).1. Inc.2. In a structural analysis. and so on Surface Loads Body Loads Inertia Loads 2. lines.3: DOF Constraints in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. For details on using tabular boundary conditions.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.3.4.4.3. 2–8 Structural Analysis Guide .1.4.6.1. © SAS IP.2.6: Forces (Concentrated Loads) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. MZ) Forces Pressure (PRES) Temperature (TEMP). 2. ROTY. You can also apply boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Section 2. valid primary variables are TIME. Pressures (PRES) These are surface loads. Table 2. Fluence (FLUE) Gravity.3.

. . BEAM44. 001972 ..3: Performing a Static Analysis When defining the table. which contains the inertia relief output from the most recent solution [SOLVE or PSOLVE]. and SOLID191). You can think of inertia relief as an equivalent free-body analysis. The effects of offsets and tapering are ignored for beam elements (BEAM23.3. MP. ANSYS Release 8.3.RST).. Issue this command before SOLVE as part of the inertia load commands.Section 2. define density Structural Analysis Guide .. Three constraints (or fewer. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations You can also do a partial inertia relief calculation. and BEAM54) as well as for layered elements (SHELL91. Inertia relief output is stored in the database rather than in the results file (Jobname. see the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide. Inertia Relief Output Use the IRLIST command to print the output from inertia relief calculations. For more information on defining table array parameters.. TIME must be in ascending order in the table index (as in any table array). Command(s): IRLF. Models with a mixture of 2-D and 3-D element types are not recommended. .) Data required for mass calculations (such as density) must be specified. (Breaking up each tapered element into several elements will give a more accurate solution. Calculating Inertia Relief You can use a static analysis to perform inertia relief calculations..3.those required to prevent rigid-body motion. The loads for which inertia relief calculations are desired should be applied. as shown in the command input below: /PREP7 . BEAM24.1. 2. ! Generate model. This output consists of the translational and rotational accelerations required to balance the applied loads and can be used by other programs to perform kinematics studies. or nonlinearities. ANSYS pulls the information from the database. but check for zero reaction forces at all the constraints to make sure that the model is not overconstrained for inertia relief. not approximate. © SAS IP. Use the partial solution method [PSOLVE]..1 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Inertia Relief • • • 2.3. Command(s): IRLIST GUI: No GUI equivalent.1 .3. Inc. Specify only the minimum number of displacement constraints .4. The effects of unsymmetrical layups for layered elements are also ignored.2. Your model should meet the following requirements: • • The model should not contain axisymmetric elements.. The reaction forces at the constraints will be zero because the calculated inertia forces balance the applied forces. Additional constraints. You can define a table array parameter via command or interactively.4. 2. substructures. SHELL99.DENS. are permitted.4. When you issue IRLIST. such as those required to impose symmetry conditions.. SOLID46.. The summary listing of mass and moments of inertia (produced during solution) is accurate.3. depending on the element type) are necessary for 2-D models and six (or fewer) are necessary for 3-D models. which calculate the accelerations that will counterbalance the applied loads. 2–9 . ..

.. multiple load steps). and PSOLVE commands. no inertia relief Calculates element matrices Modifies element matrices and calculates inertia relief terms Lists the mass summary and total load summary tables See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the OUTPR. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. They consist of the following data: • Primary data: – • Nodal displacements (UX.5. Jobname.1 PSOLVE.RST. ANSYS Release 8. 2. Review the Results Results from a static analysis are written to the structural results file.ALL. © SAS IP. 2..3. you can write a macro containing the above commands. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS If you want the analysis to include additional loading conditions (that is. UY. 2. of constraints ! Other loads ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activates printout of all items Can also be set to -1 for precise mass and load summary only. specifying load step options. 2.4..1 .ELPREP IRLIST FINISH ! Specify only minimum no.ELFORM PSOLVE. (Other methods for handling multiple load steps are described in Chapter 2. Solve the Analysis You are now ready to solve the analysis.3. 1. 4. F. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Macros are described in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide.3.3. ROTX.6. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. IRLF. saving.. Inc. and solving for each load step. 001972 . Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. OUTPR.. IRLIST. you will need to repeat the process of applying loads.3.) Leave SOLUTION.. 3. ROTY. 2–10 . UZ. SF. ROTZ) Derived data: – – – Nodal and element stresses Nodal and element strains Element forces Structural Analysis Guide .. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations If you need to do inertia relief calculations frequently.ALL IRLF.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis FINISH /SOLU D. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations..

1. The KUND field on PLDISP gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. 3. Read in the database from the database file. Identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time. Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results.3. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.3: Performing a Static Analysis – – Nodal reaction forces and so on 2.3. To display reaction forces. The results file (Jobname. 001972 .3. the general postprocessor. © SAS IP.1 and then request a node or element display [NPLOT or EPLOT]. See Chapter 8.3. Inc. see Chapter 4.) Option: List Nodal Forces and Moments Structural Analysis Guide . POST26 is used in nonlinear static analyses to track specific result items over the applied load history. Option: List Reaction Forces and Moments The PRRSOL command lists reaction forces and moments at the constrained nodes (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu). 2.4. 2.3. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. 2.6.6.RST) must be available. Some typical POST1 operations are explained below. • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific substeps (time-points).1 .) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step Perform the necessary POST1 operations. Typical Postprocessing Operations Option: Display Deformed Shape Use the PLDISP command to display a deformed shape (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape). the ANSYS program will perform linear interpolation on all the data to calculate the results at that time. the time-history processor. Postprocessors You can review these results using POST1. 2–11 .6. Reviewing Results Data 1.. Typical static analysis POST1 operations are explained below.RFOR. and POST26. (If you specify a time value for which no results are available. issue /PBC. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1 or POST26. (Use RMOM instead of RFOR for reaction moments.2. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” for the use of POST26 in a nonlinear static analysis. ANSYS Release 8.Section 2.6. 2.

ANSYS Release 8. EPELZ. which represents the error relative to a particular mesh discretization..) See Section 5. use ETABLE to gain access to derived data (stresses. the total load (using all FORCE components) is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists. For a body in equilibrium. SY. UY. Option: Error Estimation For linear static analyses using solid or shell elements. . © SAS IP.6: Estimating Solution Error in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more details about error estimation.. such as stresses (SX.).Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Use the PRESOL.. Inc.see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information.) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu).1 .. strains. Option: Structural Energy Error Estimation Use PLESOL. 001972 .. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. SZ. spars. and pipes. the total load is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists: Command(s): NFORCE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Sum @ Each Node The FORCE command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) dictates which component of the forces is being reviewed: • • • • Total (default) Static component Damping component Inertia component For a body in equilibrium. You can list the sum of all nodal forces and moments for a selected set of nodes.. This command calculates and lists the percent error in structural energy norm (SEPC). 2–12 Structural Analysis Guide . EPELY.SERR to contour the element-by-element structural energy error (SERR) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu). and displacements (UX. Option: Line Element Results For line elements. Option: Contour Displays Use PLNSOL and PLESOL to contour almost any result item. strains (EPELX. (You can activate automatic mesh refinement by means of the ADAPT command .). use the PRERR command to list the estimated solution error due to mesh discretization (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Percent Error). Regions of high SERR on the contour display are good candidates for mesh refinement.F (or M) command to list nodal forces and moments (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution). UZ.3. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. and so on) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table). Select a set of nodes and use this feature to find out the total force acting on those nodes: Command(s): FSUM GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Total Force Sum You can also check the total force and total moment at each selected node. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. such as beams.

See Chapter 4. and principal stresses (S1. Inc. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. you will run a static analysis of an Allen wrench.1. same shell thickness.4. and so on GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes or Sort Elems). PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data).4. Other Postprocessing Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . ANSYS Release 8. Problem Description An Allen wrench (10 mm across the flats) is torqued by means of a 100 N force at its end. Later. Caution: Derived data. Alternatively. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. such as displacement (DISP). load case combinations. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials.1 . Option: Tabular Listings Use these commands to produce tabular listings: Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results).4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Use PLETAB and PLLS to contour element table data and line element data (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table and Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res). 001972 . S2. To avoid the smearing effect. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. 2. 2. © SAS IP. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis.4. different shell thicknesses. The objective is to determine the stress intensity in the wrench under these two loading conditions. use selecting (described in Chapter 7. such as stresses and strains.5 cm Structural Analysis Guide . Option: Vector Displays Use PLVECT to view vector displays (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined) and PRVECT to view vector listings (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data). or other discontinuities meet. 2–13 . rotation (ROT). “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. at the same time retaining the original 100 N torquing force. Problem Specifications The following dimensions are used for this problem: Width across flats = 10 mm Configuration = hexagonal Length of shank = 7. 2.are available in POST1.mapping results onto a path. Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) are an effective way of viewing vector quantities. use PowerGraphics with the AVRES command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) to not average results across different materials and/or different shell thicknesses.2. and so on . a 20 N downward force is applied at the same end. S3).Section 2.

Define Parameters 1.1 Diagram of Allen Wrench 2. In the drop down menu for Units for angular parametric functions.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Length of handle = 20 cm Bend radius = 1 cm Modulus of elasticity = 2.07E11 Description Young's modulus is 2. 5. Type the following parameters and their values in the Selection field. 2. 4. Inc. which can be accessed by clicking on the down arrow at the right of the input window. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.07E11 Pa 2–14 Structural Analysis Guide .4. ANSYS Release 8.4. Set the Analysis Title 1. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.07 x 1011 Pa Applied torquing force = 100 N Applied downward force = 20 N 2. The Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box appears. © SAS IP. Set the System of Units 1.1 . 001972 . 3. 2.07e11” in the Selection field and then click on Accept.3.3.3. ¨ ¥ ¦£ ©§ ¥¦£ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢¡ ¥ £ ¡ ¦¤¢ ¡ ¢¡ ¡ ¢ .3.1. Click on Accept after you define each parameter.3. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Continue entering the remaining parameters and values in the same way.SI and press ENTER.2. Type the command /UNITS. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Angular Units. first type “exx = 2. 2.4. For example." Click on OK.4. Problem Sketch Figure 2. Parameter EXX Value 2. Type the text "Static Analysis of an Allen Wrench" and click on OK. Notice that the command is stored in the history buffer. Click once in the Input Window to make it active for text entry. 2. select "Degrees DEG.

4. 3.01 . The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 3.1 .0058 m Length of shank (short end) . The Polygon by Side Length dialog box appears. Click on Add.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Parameter W_HEX W_FLAT L_SHANK L_HANDLE BENDRAD L_ELEM NO_D_HEX TOL . 2. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Polygon> By Side Length. Scroll up the list on the right to "Quad 4node 42. Elastic." Click once to select it.01 m Element length . Linear.4. ANSYS always displays the labels in uppercase. 2. Type the text EXX in the EX field (for Young's modulus). 8.6. 001972 . Click on OK.0075 2 25E-6 Value Description Width of hex across flats = . 2. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box." In the scroll box on the right.2 m Bend radius . 3. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 4. 7. 6.5. Structural Analysis Guide . The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Enter W_FLAT for length of each side.01 m Width of flat = .075 m Length of handle (long end) .4. 5. click once on "Brick 8node 45. Isotropic.075 .01 W_HEX* TAN(30) . A dialog box appears. Click on OK to define Quad 4node42 as element type 2. click once on "Structural Solid. Define Material Properties 1. In the Material Models Available window.3. In the scroll box on the left. Inc. 2–15 .4. Click on Close. This sets Young's modulus to the parameter specified above.3 for PRXY.4.Section 2. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. and . © SAS IP. 3.0075 m Number of divisions along hex flat = 2 Tolerance for selecting node = 25E-6 m Note — You can type the labels in upper. 2. double-click on the following options: Structural. Define the Element Types 1.3. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section 1. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.3.2 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. Enter 6 for number of sides. 2. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.or lowercase. 4." Click on Apply to define it as element type 1.

A hexagon appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 10. Click on OK. use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in. Z location fields. 2.-L_SHANK for the X. Y. 6.) 16. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate. Enter 90 for angle in degrees. 18. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.L_HANDLE. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu. 12. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. 4. ANSYS Release 8. 7. Enter 0.1 . 8. 6. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to turn keypoint numbering on. Z location. 13. 3.8. select "At top left. © SAS IP. select "Global Cartes X. The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears. 001972 . Create Keypoints Along a Path 1.7.0.-L_SHANK for the X. Click on "Iso" to generate an isometric view and click on Close.4. Click once on keypoints 8 and 9 to create a line between keypoints 8 and 9. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 9. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Click once on keypoints 7 and 8 to create a line between keypoints 7 and 8." Click on OK. Y.3. 2. 3. Create Lines Along a Path 1.4. Y. 2. Enter 8 for keypoint number. The Window Options dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options. 5. The Create Straight Line picking menu appears. Enter 0. Z location. Enter 9 for keypoint number. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. (If you have trouble reading the keypoint numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. 5. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.3. 15. 2. Click on Apply. 11. Click the Line numbers radio button to turn line numbering on. Enter 7 for keypoint number." Click on OK. Click on OK. Click on OK. and click on OK. 14. Inc. . Type a 0 in each of the X. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. 17. In the Location of triad drop down menu. 2–16 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 4. and click on Apply. Click once on keypoints 4 and 1 to create a line between keypoints 1 and 4. 7.

Cut Hex Section In this step. (If you have trouble reading the line numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Line Fillet. Enter 1. 3. all quadrilaterals for the area mesh. Click once on the shaded area.4. 2. 12.11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Divide> With Options> Area by Line. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering.4.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 2. 001972 . 10. In the Subtracted lines will be drop down menu. and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines.3. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.9. you cut the hex section into two quadrilaterals. Set Element Type for Area Mesh In this step.3. The Line Fillet dialog box appears. 6. The Divide Area by Line with Options dialog box appears.1 . 7. 9. select "Areas.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines. Click on OK in the picking menu. then press ENTER. ANSYS Release 8. 4. 4. set the element type to PLANE42.Section 2.6 in the picker. Click on OK.4. The Line Fillet picking menu appears. select Kept. 2. 11. 2–17 . © SAS IP.12. The Create Component dialog box appears. 1. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. Click on OK in the picking menu. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. 2. Structural Analysis Guide .4. Enter BENDRAD for Fillet radius and click on OK. Click once on line 7. Enter BOTAREA for component name. 5. 2. The Divide Area by Line picking menu appears. 5. 3. Set Meshing Density 1. 2. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Click on OK. This step is required to satisfy mapped meshing.) Click on OK. Click OK. Create Line from Shank to Handle 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. Enter NO_D_HEX for number of element divisions and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Areas. Inc." 13. 8.10. 3. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to Off. 4.2. In the Component is made of drop down menu. Click once on lines 8 and 9.3. use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in.

Click on Pick All. © SAS IP. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 6. The Mesh Areas picking box appears. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Click on OK to accept the default of Quad for 2-D shape key. In the Element type number drop down menu. 9. The 3-D model appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. A second picking box appears. The Element Attributes dialog box appears.4. 2. ANSYS Release 8. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. The Sweep Areas along Lines picking box appears. In the Mesher Type field. select “1 SOLID45” and click on OK. Click the Line numbers radio button to on if it is not already selected. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesher Opts. 2–18 Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. Generate Area Mesh In this step. Structural Analysis Guide . 4. click on the Mapped radio button and then click on OK. 6. 001972 . Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. 13. select “2 PLANE42” and click on OK. 2. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements 1.15.4. 12. 2. and 9 (in that order). 8. 5. Inc. The Mesher Options dialog box appears.4. 2.3. Enter L_ELEM for element edge length and click on OK.3. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. 11. 3. The Set Element Shape dialog box appears. 5. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. generate the area mesh you will later drag.14. 10. 2. Click on OK. 2.3. 10. Click on OK.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements 1. In the Element type number drop down menu. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 14.1 . 3.13. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> Along Lines. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 7. Click on Pick All. 1. . Click once on lines 8. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. 4.

Click on Pick All.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 3. The Select Entities dialog appears. 10. then click on Cancel.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears.3. Click on OK. select "Attached to. © SAS IP. Apply Pressure on Handle In this step. In the scroll list for DOFs to be constrained. Click on Pick All. select "Lines. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 7. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 5.Section 2. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Symbols dialog box appears. Click on the "Sele All" button. click on "ALL DOF. all" radio button to select it. 2–19 .4." Click on the "Lines. Display Boundary Conditions 1.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. select "Exterior. Click on OK. select "Areas. 13." 17." In the second drop down menu. select "Nodes. Inc. 12. 001972 . Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Apply U. 4. apply pressure on the handle to represent 100 N finger force. select "Pressures. In the top drop down menu. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. 2. 11. 3." Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. In the top drop down menu. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements." In the “Show pres and convect as” drop down menu. 5. 16.3.3. The Clear Areas picking menu appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. In the Surface Load Symbols drop down menu. 2. 1. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Clear> Areas.18. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. 8. The Apply U." Click on OK. 2. In the top drop down menu. 4.16. 3.1 .4." 14. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench 1. Click on the "All Applied BCs" radio button for Boundary condition symbol.4." In the second drop down menu. 2. 4. select "Arrows. 15. 5." Click on Apply. 9. In the top drop down menu. select "Lines.17.

Click on Close. ANSYS Release 8. 35. 19. Max. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 24. In the second drop down menu. Click on Reselect.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3. click once on "Min Y coordinate" to select it. Click on OK again to select the default settings. select "Nodes. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters." 11. Max." 10. and click on Apply. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. Enter PTORQ for Load PRES value and click on OK. Enter W_FLAT/2. Click on "X coordinates" to select it. © SAS IP. 26. 20." Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. In the scroll box on the left. click once on "Current node set" to select it. 4. 9. Click on the "Areas. 14. 31. 18. select "Attached to. In the scroll box on the left. Click on the "Reselect" radio button.L_HANDLE-(3. In the scroll box on the left. all" radio button to select it. 37. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. ." 15. 29. The Get Scalar Data dialog box appears. In the second drop down menu. Click on Apply. click once on "Max Y coordinate" to select it. 21. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. select "By Location. 13. In the top drop down menu. 25. 32. 2–20 Structural Analysis Guide . Enter BENDRAD. Inc. In the scroll box on the right. 7.W_FLAT for Min. Max. and click on Apply. 36. In the second drop down menu.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. 8. 38. Enter "maxyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. select "By Location. Click on Apply. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. 001972 . Click on OK. Click on Pick All. In the scroll box on the right. click once on "Current node set" to select it. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on OK. In the scroll box on the right. 27. Click on OK. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. 22. scroll to "For selected set" and select it. 6. 28. 30. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. 5. 17. Type the text PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. 23.1 . 33. Enter "minyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 16. 34. 12. scroll to "Model Data" and select it.L_HANDLE for Min.

Define Downward Pressure In this step. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File. 18." In the second drop down menu. In the second drop down menu.3. 20." Click on the "Z coordinates" radio button to select it. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 8. Enter -(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) for Min. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 11.1 ." 12. 16. you define the downward pressure on top of the handle." 13. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. 23. Click on Apply. 6. In the top drop down menu. select "Areas. select "By Location. Type the text PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept.5 lb) of force. 4. 19. 001972 .4. representing 20N (4. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. In the top drop down menu.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 39. 17. 3. Write the First Load Step 1.3. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes. The Write Load Step File dialog appears. select "By Location. Click on Pick All. and click on Apply. select "Attached to. 21. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. Click on the Areas. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes. 22. © SAS IP. 40. 10. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Enter 1 for load step file number n. 14. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. all radio button to select it. 2. Max.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min. Click on OK.19. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it.L_HANDLE-(3. In the second drop down menu. Inc." 15. 2. Click on OK.4. 5. 9.20. ANSYS Release 8. Structural Analysis Guide . Click on Close.Section 2. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 2. 1. Enter PDOWN for Load PRES value and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Select Entities dialog appears. select "Nodes. 2–21 . 3. Max. 2.

select "Global Cartes Y. and click on OK. Write Second Load Step 1. 3. Inc. 9. Enter 2 for Load step file number n. 12. Click on OK. Solve from Load Step Files 1. The Edge Options dialog box appears. 2. Type "pldisp. 11. Enter 1 for Starting LS file number." 17. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items.1 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File. In the scroll box on the left. The Write Load Step File dialog box appears. In the Relative/absolute drop down menu. Click on the "None" radio button for Boundary condition symbol. Enter 120 for Angle in degrees. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. and click on Close. 001972 . . and click on OK. The Symbols dialog box appears. 7. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. click on "Stress. Click on OK. 6." Click on OK. 2. select "Edge Only/All. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls. select "Relative angle.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. Review the information in the status window. ANSYS Release 8. The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears.4. 2. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button and click on OK.3. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu.3. The Solve Load Step Files dialog box appears. 14. In the Element outlines for non-contour/contour plots drop down menu.23. 4. 16. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files." 21. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Edge Options.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2. click on "Intensity SINT. 3. and click on OK. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 5. 2.21. 2. 13.gsa" in the Selection box. 10. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. 15. Read First Load Step and Review Results 1. and click on OK.3.22. 3." In the scroll box on the right. 19. Click on the Close button after the Solution is done! window appears. 4. 2–22 Structural Analysis Guide ." 18. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 20.4. 8. Enter 2 for Ending LS file number.

4. and click on OK. 7. 2. 23.gsa" in the Selection box. click on "Stress. 4. 9. 9. 12. click on the large round dot several times to zoom in on the cross section.1 . The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears. 2.3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden Line Options. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.4. select "Working plane. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Y. 001972 .26. 7. scroll to "Intensity SINT" and select it. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. 5. 10. 10.gsa" in the Selection box. and click on Close.24.gsa" in the Selection box.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 22. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. and click on OK. Click on OK. © SAS IP. Type "plnsol." Click on OK. 6.No Save! Structural Analysis Guide . The Pan-Zoom-Rotate tool box appears. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. and click on OK." In the scroll box on the right. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Next Set. On the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls. The Hidden-Line Options dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls.-0. In the drop down menu for Type of Plot. Choose Quit . Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls. The Offset WP tool box appears. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button if it is not already selected and click on OK.Section 2. 13. 3. Click on "WP. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-Rotate. Exit ANSYS 1. In the scroll box on the left. Type "plnsol. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by Increments." In the drop down menu for Cutting plane is. 6.067 for X.25." Drag the Rate slider bar to 10. 2.0. Enter 0. select "Capped hidden. Zoom in on Cross-Section 1. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items.4. 8. 4. Type "pldisp. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. Z Offsets and click on OK. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. Review the information in the status window.3. 8. 2–23 . Read the Next Load Step and Review Results 1. 2. Inc.3. 5.

LINE.9.BOTAREA ! Type pointer set to SOLID45 Element size Drag operation to create 3-D mesh Precise hidden line display Select BOTAREA component and 2–24 Structural Analysis Guide .2 ! Length of handle (long end) (.-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at end of handle L.1...1 ! ESIZE.PLANE42 ! Four-node quadrilateral (for area mesh) MP.01m=..pm02! Jobname to use for all subsequent files /TITLE... . A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example static analysis of an Allen wrench using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.001 in) /PREP7 ET..EX.2m=7.075 ! Length of shank (short end) (.W_FLAT ! Hexagonal area K..0...BOTAREA.6.30 in) NO_D_HEX=2 ! Number of divisions on hex flat TOL=25E-6 ! Tolerance for selecting nodes (25e-6 m = .7 ! Keypoint at (0.1.075m=3.8.9 ! /TYPE. 2..01 ! Bend radius of Allen wrench (.1 ! Isometric view in window 1 /ANGLE.1 ! Line numbers turned on LPLOT /PNUM.39 in) L_ELEM=.5.NO_D_HEX LESIZE.LINE.PRXY.1 ! Line through middle of hex shape L.1.2.8.0in) L_HANDLE=.0.0) K. © SAS IP.1.AREA ! Component name BOTAREA for the two areas ! Generate area mesh for later drag LESIZE.NO_D_HEX TYPE. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments..4.KEEP ! to satisfy mapped meshing requirements for bricks CM..L_ELEM ! VDRAG.7.DEG ! Units for angular parametric functions W_FLAT=W_HEX*TAN(30) ! Width of flat L_SHANK=.EXX ! Young's modulus for material 1 MP..XM ! Rotates model 90 degrees about X /PNUM.8.L_HANDLE..1.HIDP ! /TITLE. Inc.3 ! Poisson's ratio for material 1 RPOLY.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3.1 .90.0075 m = ..9 ! Line along handle LFILLT..8.1.grph ! Define parameters for future use EXX=2.2 ! PLANE42 elements to be meshed first MSHAPE.3.39in) *AFUN.-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at shank-handle intersection K..07E11 Pa = 30E6 psi) W_HEX=.0.Meshed hex wrench EPLOT CMSEL.2.9.9 in) BENDRAD=.2D ! Mapped quad mesh MSHKEY.BENDRAD ! Line along bend radius between shank and handle /VIEW.01m=. Click on OK.07E11 ! Young's modulus (2.1 SAVE ! Save database before meshing AMESH.7.6.SI ! Reminder that the SI system of units is used /SHOW ! Specify graphics driver for interactive run..4 ! Hex section is cut into two quadrilaterals ASBL.0075 ! Element length (.ALL /TITLE.SOLID45 ! Eight-node brick element ET.8 ! Line along middle of shank L.NO_D_HEX ! Number of divisions along line 1 LESIZE.Static analysis of an Allen wrench /UNITS.1.0 ! Line numbers off L. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 .10.2. /FILNAME..01 ! Width of hex across flats (.1.Meshed hex wrench end to be used in vdrag EPLOT ! Now drag the 2-D mesh to produce 3-D elements TYPE. for batch ! run plots are written to pm02.

© SAS IP. Allen wrench -.ALL.2 ! Initiates solution for load step files 1 and 2 FINISH !Review the results /POST1 SET.0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) *GET.ALL.EXT ! Exterior lines of those areas NSLL.W_FLAT/2.YM.1 ! Displacement symbols turned on /TITLE.Y ! Get minimum Y value of selected nodes *GET.Y..R.X.1 ! Edges only.Stress intensity contours caused by torque PLNSOL..Deformed allen wrench caused by torque PLDISP.Boundary conditions on end of wrench NPLOT !Now apply pressure on handle to represent 100-N (22.1 ! Nodes on those lines D.DEFA ! No BC symbols /PSF.Allen wrench -.5 -lb) force PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ASEL..2 ! Deformed shape overlaid with undeformed edge plot /GSAVE..gsav ! Saves graphics specifications on pldisp.LOC....Load step 1 ! First fix all nodes around bottom of shank CMSEL. NSLA..1.LEG1. representing 20-N (4..load step 2 ! Downward pressure on top of handle. NSLA.LOC...R..PTORQ ! PTORQ pressure on all selected nodes ALLSEL ! Restores full set of all entities /PSF..ALL ! Displacement constraints LSEL.PDOWN ! PDOWN pressure at all selected nodes ALLSEL /TITLE.L_HANDLE-(3. 2–25 ..1 ! .ON ! Turns on entire legend column /PLOPTS.1 .Y.ALL FINISH ! delete the 2-D elements ! Apply loads and obtain the solution /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.L_HANDLE+TOL.-(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) ! Area on top flat of handle.5: A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ACLEAR.INFO.PRES.ALL ASEL.ALL..NODE.Section 2.BENDRAD.LOC.MXLOC.S.5-lb) finger force ASEL.1 ! Reads load step 1 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /PBC.R..and all corresponding nodes NSEL.L_HANDLE+TOL.LOC..2 ! Pressure symbols turned on /TITLE. no interior element outlines /TITLE.W_FLAT ! Two areas on one side of handle.ALL /PBC.PRES.MAXYVAL.PRES.Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 1 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes first load step /TITLE. Inc.and all corresponding nodes NSEL.pldisp. ANSYS Release 8.gsav /PLOPTS.0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) SF.INT ! Stress intensity contours Structural Analysis Guide .. 001972 .U.DEFA ! No surface load symbols /EDGE.Z..STATIC ! Static analysis (default) /TITLE.Y ! Get maximum Y value of selected nodes PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ! Pressure equivalent to 100 N SF.NODE.Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 2 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes second load step SAVE ! Save database before solution LSSOLVE.120.Y.MINYVAL.1 ! Additional rotation about model Y (to see high stress areas) /TITLE..1 ! .L_HANDLE-(3..OFF ! Turns off legend header /ANGLE.MNLOC.L_HANDLE ! Areas on handle ASEL.BOTAREA ! Bottom areas of shank LSEL.

INT FINISH /EXIT.Bending of a Parabolic Beam VM183 .Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM82 .Stress intensity contours caused by torque and force PLNSOL.6.Beam Stresses and Deflections VM4 .WP ! View will be normal to the WP /DIST.gsav SET..gsav /TITLE. However.Small Deflection of a Rigid Beam VM44 .Combined Bending and Torsion VM13 .gsav ! Saves graphics specifications to plnsol.gsav /TITLE.Cable Supporting Hanging Loads VM36 . .Cross section of the allen wrench under torque and force loading PLNSOL.Cylindrical Membrane Under Pressure VM25 .Diametric Compression of a Disk VM148 .1 .Deflection of a Hinged Support VM11 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes the following structural static analysis test cases: VM1 .ALL 2.1.Deformed allen wrench caused by torque and force PLDISP.Lateral Vibration of an Axially Loaded Bar VM63 .1.Bending of a Solid Beam VM18 .067 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view /TYPE.Residual Stress Problem VM12 .gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from plnsol.S.gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from pldisp.plnsol.S. 001972 .1 ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP /VIEW.Out-of-plane Bending of a Curved Bar VM20 .Stresses in a Long Cylinder VM29 .2 ! Reads load step 2 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /GRESUME.pldisp.Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis VM2 .-0.5 ! Capped hidden display /CPLANE..Bending of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation VM141 .Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis /GSAVE.Bending of a Circular Plate with a Center Hole VM41 .Simply Supported Laminated Plate Under Pressure VM127 .Limit Moment Analysis VM39 .Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System 2–26 Structural Analysis Guide .Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends VM135 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications. describe additional structural static analyses. © SAS IP. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual and the ANSYS Tutorials. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.Cylindrical Shell Under Pressure VM16 . ANSYS Release 8.01 ! Zoom in on the cross section /TITLE.2 /GRESUME.Vibration of a String Under Tension VM59 .. Inc.Static Hertz Contact Problem VM78 .Friction on a Support Block VM31 .Bending of an Axisymmetric Thin Pipe Under Gravity Loading VM53 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products. 1 .INT WPOF.plnsol.

Inc.1 . © SAS IP.6: Where to Find Other Examples VM199 .Stranded Coil with Voltage Excitation VM211 .Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM201 . 001972 .Section 2.Lateral Buckling of a Right-Angle Frame Structural Analysis Guide .Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM216 . 2–27 . ANSYS Release 8.Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM206 .

2–28 .

remember these points: • Only linear behavior is valid in a modal analysis. are ignored even if they are defined. and so on). such as a transient dynamic analysis. Material properties can be linear. For example. Review the results.1. if you include contact elements.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Inc. a harmonic response analysis. such as a spinning turbine blade. or a spectrum analysis. Nonlinear properties are ignored. 2. You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure. damped. • . more detailed. 3. COMBIN37. and QR damped. Structural Analysis Guide . If you specify nonlinear elements. and constant or temperature-dependent. subspace. Build the model.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. Build the Model See Section 1. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis. you must define the required real constants for the specific element type (COMBIN7. ANSYS Release 8. You can choose from several mode-extraction methods: Block Lanczos (default). Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis The procedure for a modal analysis consists of four main steps: 1. 3. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. dynamic analysis. Definition of Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine component while it is being designed.3. Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of products is a linear analysis. such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements. © SAS IP. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and never change. Uses for Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. When building your model. unsymmetric. If applying element damping. which allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by modeling just a sector of it. Details about mode-extraction methods are covered later in this section. 3. Apply loads and obtain the solution. Any nonlinearities. isotropic or orthotropic. Expand the modes. 4. COMBIN14. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading conditions. For further details. 001972 .2. 3. reduced. You must define both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) for a modal analysis. they are treated as linear.4. PowerDynamics. It also can be a starting point for another. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry.1 . The damped and QR damped methods allow you to include damping in the structure.

2. you define the analysis type and analysis options. 3. © SAS IP. apply loads. Inc. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). For details. Note — Restarts are not valid in a modal analysis.1.2.DDAM). choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT).SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT.5.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. If you need to apply different sets of boundary conditions. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. ANSYS offers the options listed in Table 3.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).1 . Enter the ANSYS solution processor. Define Analysis Type and Options After you have entered the solution processor. specify load step options. select the Unabridged Menu option. and begin the finite element solution for the natural frequencies. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for modal analyses. a Solution menu that is appropriate for modal analyses appears.1: “Analysis Types and Options” for a modal analysis. Note — In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT.5. 3. Enter the Solution Processor 1.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Analysis Type: Modal (see Note below) mode-extraction Method Number of Modes to Extract Mass Matrix Formulation Prestress Effects Calculation Command ANTYPE ANTYPE MODOPT MODOPT LUMPM PSTRES GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options No. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis.1. Table 3.5. Each of the options is explained in detail below. do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure described in Chapter 3. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. see Section 3. . solution options that are valid for you to use.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step you define the analysis type and options. 3–2 Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 3. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command.11.5. 001972 . The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. of Modes to Expand (see Note below) MXPAND Note — When you specify a modal analysis. ANSYS Release 8.

You can then choose the most appropriate extraction method (subspace or Block Lanczos) for running the final solution.3. or PowerDynamics method. When you specify a mode-extraction method.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods. This method automatically uses the lumped mass approximation (LUMPM.2. you will use the Block Lanczos.PCG. Structural Analysis Guide .2.5. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations. Several solution controls are available to control the subspace iteration process.000+ DOFs).) • Block Lanczos method (default) The Block Lanczos method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems.5. • PowerDynamics method The PowerDynamics method is used for very large models (100.Section 3. followed by EQSLV. You can use this method for the same types of problems for which you use the subspace method. However. 001972 . and is especially useful to obtain a solution for the first several modes to learn how the model will behave.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods. • QR Damped method The QR damped method is faster and achieves better calculation efficiency than the damped method. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] Choose one of the extraction methods listed below.SUBSPACE. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] Use this option to specify a modal analysis. • Damped method The damped method is used for problems where damping cannot be ignored. but you achieve a faster convergence rate. reduced. damped. and QR damped methods are meant for special applications. ANSYS Release 8. such as bearing problems. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. (The PCGOUT solver can also be used. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. you first issue MODOPT. (See Section 3. © SAS IP. use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver.1 .2. such as fluid-structure interaction problems. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver. see Section 3. It uses the reduced modal damped matrix to calculate complex damped frequencies in modal coordinates.) • Reduced (Householder) method The reduced method is faster than the subspace method because it uses reduced (condensed) system matrices to calculate the solution. but it is very slow. For most applications.ON) To use the PowerDynamics method when running in batch or command mode.) • Unsymmetric method The unsymmetric method is used for problems with unsymmetric matrices. The unsymmetric. Inc. (For more detailed information. ANSYS automatically chooses the appropriate equation solver. subspace. • Subspace method The subspace method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. 3–3 . it is less accurate because the reduced mass matrix is approximate.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 3. 3.

ANSYS Release 8. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis.1 .7.DDAM). choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). see Section 3. You see some combination of the following fields: FREQB. no prestress effects are included. Define Master Degrees of Freedom In a modal analysis. Inc.5. that is. These are required only for the reduced mode-extraction method. the structure is assumed to be stress-free.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT.5. regardless of the mode-extraction method.4. . Additional Modal Analysis Options After you complete the fields on the Modal Analysis Options dialog box.2. 3.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Note — The damped. 3.5. For the unsymmetric and damped methods. requesting a larger number of modes than necessary reduces the possibility of missed modes. Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] This option is required for the reduced. but results in more solution time.2. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] Use this option to calculate the modes of a prestressed structure. 001972 . Note — You can use only axisymmetric loads for prestressing harmonic elements such as PLANE25 and SHELL61. Nrmkey. RIGID. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. click OK. you need to turn on the "Calculate elem results" option. We recommend that you define as many MDOF as you can based on your knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the 3–4 Structural Analysis Guide . By default. and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. To include prestress effects. 3. Master degrees of freedom (MDOF) are significant degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. 3.5. Also. 3. PRMODE. unsymmetric. the lumped mass setting [LUMPM] in this and subsequent solutions must be the same as it was in the prestress static analysis. However. FREQE.2.11: Prestressed Modal Analysis. if you want element results. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element-dependent) or lumped mass approximation. © SAS IP.5. element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis must be available.8. 3. Refer to the MODOPT and RIGID command descriptions for the meaning of these fields. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis.5.6. SUBOPT. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells. you also need to define master degrees of freedom.2.2. You should choose at least twice as many MDOF as the number of modes of interest. A dialog box specific to the selected extraction method appears.3. and damped methods only. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] This option is required for all mode-extraction methods except the reduced method.5. you will need to expand the modes as well. If prestress effects are turned on. If you want the mode shapes normalized to unity for the Block Lanczos or subspace methods. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. However. unsymmetric. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.

forces. line. you select the operation (apply.5. accelerations. node. DCUM 3. Note — Other loads .2 Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis Load Type Category Cmd Family GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Displacement (UX.1.5. operated on. However. delete. but are ignored (see Note below).2: “Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis” shows the commands to apply displacement constraints. (If you input a nonzero displacement constraint. force. Constraints D ROTY. see Section 3.4.MODE) so that it can be used in a subsequent modesuperposition harmonic or transient analysis.Section 3. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Inc. the program assigns a zero-value constraint to that DOF instead. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). and so on). temperatures. UZ. see Chapter 2.2. and so on). loads can be applied.4. UY. pressures. apply loads on the model. ROTZ) In an analysis. the program calculates rigid-body (zero-frequency) as well as higher (nonzero frequency) free body modes. Table 3. but they are ignored for the mode-extraction. Command(s): M GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define 3. Table 3.1 .5. You can list the defined MDOF [MLIST]. 3–5 .14: Matrix Reduction. ANSYS Release 8.3: “Load Commands for a Modal Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a modal analysis.3 Load Commands for a Modal Analysis Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Solid Model Solid Model Solid Model Finite Elem Entity Keypoints Lines Areas Nodes Apply DK DL DA D Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE Apply Settings DSYM. Structural Analysis Guide . Apply Loads After defining master degrees of freedom.MGEN]. 3. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 3. removed. For more details about master degrees of freedom.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution structure [M. and also let the program choose a few additional masters based on stiffness-to-mass ratios [TOTAL]. The only "loads" valid in a typical modal analysis are zero-value displacement constraints.4. For directions in which no constraints are specified. Notice that you can apply them either on the solid model (keypoints. Table 3. and delete extraneous MDOF [MDELE].can be specified in a modal analysis. and so on . lines. From the Solution menu. Applying Loads Using the GUI All loading operations (except List. the program will calculate a load vector and write it to the mode shape file (Jobname.3: Listing Loads) are accessed through a series of cascading menus. 001972 . then the load type (displacement.) Other loads can be specified. and then the object to which you are applying the load (keypoint. and so on).4. see Section 3. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads. © SAS IP.5. ROTX. or listed.

13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods for details. the eigenvalues are complex. Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis. However.5.5. The corresponding modal damping matrix is formulated during modal harmonic analysis.4.5. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis. the calculated eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. © SAS IP.DMPR Command Element Damping (applied via element real constant) R Damping is valid only for the damped and QR damped mode-extraction methods. ANSYS Release 8. Damping is ignored for the other mode-extraction methods. does not include the effect of the constant material damping coefficient. see the Note below.3: Damping in Chapter 5. 001972 . Spectrum analyses are discussed in Chapter 6. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for more information on damping. See Section 3. it is used to calculate an effective damping ratio for each mode.10. . Also see the section Section 5. however. If you include damping and specify the damped mode-extraction method.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis For example.1 . to apply a displacement load to a line. Although the damping does not affect the eigenvalue solution. follow this GUI path: GUI: Utility Menu> List>Loads> load type 3.4 Load Step Options Option Damping (Dynamics) Options Alpha (mass) Damping Beta (stiffness) Damping Material-Dependent Damping Ratio Constant Material Damping Coefficient ALPHAD BETAD MP. and mass distribution percentages for each mode extracted.5. Specify Load Step Options The only load step options available for a modal analysis are damping options. 3–6 Structural Analysis Guide . follow this GUI path: GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On lines 3. If you include damping and specify the QR damped mode-extraction method.DAMP MP. which is then used to calculate the response to the spectrum.6. mode coefficients.3. Note — Damping can be specified in a non-damped modal analysis if a single-point response spectrum analysis is to follow the modal analysis. “Spectrum Analysis”. 3. Participation Factor Table Output The participation factor table lists participation factors. Inc. The participation factors and mode coefficients are calculated based on an assumed unit displacement spectrum in each of the global Cartesian directions and rotation about each of these axes. The QR damped eigen analysis itself. Table 3. Listing Loads To list existing loads.

FREQB command. you might see the following warning in the solution printout: "STURM number = n should be m. (See the ANSYS. No mode shapes are written to the database or to the results file. 2.5.7. follow these steps: 1. follow these steps: 1.1 . There are two methods that you can use to investigate the missed mode: use more iteration vectors.7. 2. 3–7 . then issue another *GET command. subspace. The factor or coefficient is valid for the excitation (assumed unit displacement spectrum) directed along the last of the applicable coordinates (rotation about the Z axis for a 3-D analysis).1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method If you use the subspace mode-extraction method. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract.7. To retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient for another direction. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 3. so you cannot postprocess the results yet. Theory Reference for more information. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract. then click OK.MODE). 3. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. Change the value of the NPAD field and click OK. you can issue the SUBOPT.5. you need to expand the modes (explained next). Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. you should save (SAVE) a back-up copy of the database to a named file. The printed output may include reduced mode shapes and the participation factor table. Structural Analysis Guide . If you prefer to use the GUI to adjust the number of iteration vectors. perform a spectrum analysis with the excitation set (SED) to the desired direction. or that the mthand nth mode gave the same frequencies and only m modes were requested.. or QRDAMP) is used. you can issue the MODOPT. 3. Both methods are briefly described below.) To use more iteration vectors. Output The output from the solution consists mainly of the natural frequencies. Note — You can retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient by issuing a *GET command. Inc. To do this. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. Rotational participation factors will be calculated when a real eigensolver mode-extraction method (such as Block Lanczos. then click OK. Solve Before you solve. If you prefer to use the GUI to change the shift point.5.1.OUT) and also written to the mode shape file (Jobname. © SAS IP. which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears.Section 3. 001972 . The Modal Analysis dialog box appears." where n and m are integer numbers.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution The reduced mass distribution is also listed.. Now start the solution calculations. To change the shift point that was used in the eigenvalue extraction..NPAD command. depending on your analysis options and output controls. Inc. or change the shift point used in the eigenvalue extraction. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 8. 3. This indicates that a mode has been missed.1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.

2. "expanding the modes" applies not just to reduced mode shapes from the reduced mode-extraction method. © SAS IP. 3. if you want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor. However. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: Table 3.1. the term "expansion" means expanding the reduced solution to the full DOF set. however. 3. Inc. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. .ESAV. Expand the Modes In its strictest sense. but to full mode shapes from the other mode-extraction methods as well. and Jobname. we use the term "expansion" to mean writing mode shapes to the results file. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor. the eigenvalues are complex.TRI (if reduced method) must be available. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Main Menu> Finish 3.EMAT. write them to the results file).SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. Jobname.6. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. The "reduced solution" is usually in terms of master DOF. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT.6. 001972 . Activate the expansion pass and its options.5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off Command EXPASS GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes No. ANSYS Release 8.6. The imaginary part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency. Expanding the Modes 1. Expanded modes are also required for subsequent spectrum analyses. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was calculated.MODE). Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. of Modes to Expand MXPAND 3–8 Structural Analysis Guide .8. Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. and the real part is a measure of the stability of the system. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis. Change the value of the FREQB field and click OK. 2. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. you must expand them (that is. In a modal analysis.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. No expansion is necessary for subsequent mode superposition analyses. Thus.DDAM).1 . Exit the Solution Processor You must now exit the solution processor. If you use the damped mode-extraction method. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. That is. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). 3. the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. Jobname.5.

. The only options valid in a modal expansion pass are output controls: • Printed output Use this option to include any results data (expanded mode shapes. and 4 for additional modes to be expanded (in different frequency ranges. If you specify a frequency range. "Stresses" from a modal analysis do not represent actual stresses in the structure.OUT). The output consists of expanded mode shapes and.RST). NMODE] Specify the number. Repeat steps 2. Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND. Expansion Pass On/Off [EXPASS] Choose ON. the data are written for all modes or no modes. Frequency Range for Expansion [MXPAND.. Default is no stresses calculated. and forces) on the printed output file (Jobname. Stress Calculations On/Off [MXPAND. FREQE] This is another way to control the number of modes expanded. if requested. For example. only modes within that range are expanded.. Inc. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. Default is no modes expanded. 3–9 . stresses. relative stress distributions for each mode. FREQB. Elcalc] Choose ON only if you plan to do a subsequent spectrum analysis and are interested in stresses or forces to do the spectrum. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 5. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and results file output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname. for example). that is.6: Expand the Modes Option Command GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Freq. Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File 4. but give you an idea of the relative stress distributions for each mode. 001972 . you cannot write information for every other mode.Section 3.1 . © SAS IP. 3. ANSYS Release 8. On/Off MXPAND Each of these options is explained in detail below. The FREQ field on OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE. Specify load step options.. Structural Analysis Guide . Start expansion pass calculations. Remember that only expanded modes can be reviewed in the postprocessor. Range for Expansion MXPAND Stress Calc. 3.

Points to Remember • • If you want to review results in POST1. 3.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> substep Perform any desired POST1 operations.1. Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. for instance. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. You can review these results in POST1 [/POST1].DDAM). the modal expansion pass) are written to the structural results file. If you expand six modes. the program not only extracts the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Review the Results Results from a modal analysis (that is.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. but also expands the specified mode shapes. Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. The results file (Jobname. Leave SOLUTION.RST) must be available. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. your results file will have one load step consisting of six substeps. Command(s): SET. You can now review results in the postprocessor. A sample output from this command is shown below. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. if you include the MXPAND command in the modal solution step.7. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command.476 1 2 2 3–10 Structural Analysis Guide . Read in results data from the appropriate substep.2. Typical modal analysis POST1 operations are explained below: 2. the general postprocessor. . ***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE ***** SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE 1 22.RST. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). 3. see Chapter 4. 3. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Caution: Spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.7.7.7. ANSYS Release 8. 6. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis.3. Jobname. 001972 .973 1 1 1 2 40. 3. © SAS IP. Inc. Option: Listing All Frequencies You may want to list the frequencies of all modes expanded. Results consist of: • • • Natural frequencies Expanded mode shapes Relative stress and force distributions (if requested). However. Some typical postprocessing operations for a modal analysis are described below.1 . Reviewing Results Data 1.

3–11 .6. 001972 .).8. such as beams.Section 3. Inc.1 . and so on NSORT.7: Review the Results 3 4 78. 3. ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes Structural Analysis Guide . or other discontinuities meet. EPELY.4. You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB. 3. SY... 3.7. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the nondeformed shape on the display. PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Caution: Derived data.). UZ. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. Option: Line Element Results Command(s): ETABLE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table For line elements.. use the ETABLE command to access derived data (stresses. 3..5. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. SZ. and displacements (UX.7. and so on).LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results 3. such as stresses and strains.ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Note — To display the master DOFs graphically. Option: List Master DOF Command(s): MLIST.7. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. UY.082 188. Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to contour almost any result item. © SAS IP. EPELZ.. strains.34 1 1 3 4 3 4 Command(s): SET. Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data). different shell thicknesses. spars. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. To avoid the smearing effect. strains (EPELX. same shell thickness.7.7.). ANSYS Release 8. plot the nodes (Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes or command NLIST).. and pipes. Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Use the KUND field on PLDISP to overlay the nondeformed shape on the display. such as stresses (SX. use selecting (described in Chapter 7.7.

1 Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing 3–12 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.3. load case combinations.are available in POST1. The objective of the problem is to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. M. It is held fixed to the body on one end and hangs freely at the other.8. 3.mapping results onto a path.2. as shown. and its cross-sectional area is defined to be a straight line and a spline. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. SET. ANSYS Release 8. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) In this example.8. .3e-5 lb-sec2/in4 3. EXPASS. The wing is made of low density polyethylene with the following values: Young's modulus = 38x103 psi Poisson's ratio = .1. and so on . MXPAND. 3. TOTAL. MODOPT. Problem Description This is a modal analysis of a wing of a model plane. 001972 . Problem Specifications The dimensions of the wing are shown in the problem sketch.3 Density = 8. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . 3.8. Problem Sketch Figure 3. you perform a modal analysis on the wing of a model plane to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom. © SAS IP. and PLDISP commands. 3. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.7.8. The wing is of uniform configuration along its length.1 .9.

0 K..10 TYPE.2.5E-1 SET.3.NEXT PLDISP.10.0 D..2.4.1...1 /ANG.3 K. 001972 .5E-1 SET.LIST.DENS.PLANE42 ! Define PLANE42 as element type ET.10.45 ! Define keypoint 4 at 1. is included in the Modal Tutorial.2 SET.1 NSEL.Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing /PREP7 ET.10.0.2 ! Create a straight line between LSTR.1.1. The version of the problem that appears in the Modal Tutorial contains an explanation of the warnings..1.2 ! Define keypoint 2 at 2.ALL MXPAND.SUBSP.1.NEXT PLDISP.U. You may receive warning messages when you run this problem.1 /REP EPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.TYPE..NEXT PLDISP.0 K.2.25 AMESH.. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.0 ANMODE.9: A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) The detailed step-by-step procedure for this example.5 ESEL.-1..3E-5 MP...EX. Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing..5E-1 SET.10. 1 2 keypoints 1 and 2 keypoints 5 and 1 ! ! ! ! Choose modal analysis type Choose the subspace mode-extraction method.0 ANMODE. © SAS IP...10 /VIEW.3.0 ANMODE.9.4.2 ESIZE. 3. ANSYS Release 8.LOC.5.Section 3.25 ! Define keypoint 5 at 1.1.ALL..NUXY.MODAL MODOPT.2..2.1 ESIZE.0..-1.8... /FILNAM.2 VEXT.SOLID45 ! Define SOLID45 as element type MP.5..Z.1 ! Define keypoint 1 at 0.0 K.5 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.NEXT PLDISP.5E-1 SET.0 K.1...3.45.25 ! Create a B-spline AL.25..1 ! Create a straight line between BSPLIN.FIRST PLDISP.0 ANMODE.ALL NSEL.5E-1 Structural Analysis Guide . A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example modal analysis of a model airplane wing using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.10.. extracting 5 modes Unselect element type 1 3–13 .1.3.5.MODAL /TITLE.. Inc.-.1 .9.S.3.2 ! Define keypoint 3 at 2.38000 MP.1.0 LSTR.0 ANMODE.1.9.

Torsional Frequencies of a Drill Pipe VM59 .Natural Frequency of a Motor-generator VM50 .Longitudinal Vibration of a Free-free Rod VM62 .Chapter 3: Modal Analysis FINISH /EXIT 3.Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Circular Plate VM152 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.Lateral Vibration of an Axially-loaded Bar VM60 .Harmonic Response of a Spring-mass System VM202 .Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane VM57 .Vibration of a String Under Tension VM54 .Torsional Frequency of a Suspended Disk VM48 . Inc.Automobile Suspension System Vibrations VM53 .Transverse Vibrations of a Shear Beam VM203 .Fundamental Frequency of a Simply Supported Beam VM52 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. ANSYS Release 8.Natural Frequencies of a Two-mass-spring System VM151 .Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM76 .Natural Frequency of a Piezoelectric Transducer VM181 .Modal Analysis of a Rectangular Cavity 3.Vibration of a Fluid Coupling VM175 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes variety of modal analysis test cases: VM45 .Seismic Response VM70 .Transient Response of a Spring-mass System VM183 . .11.Vibration of a Rotating Cantilever Blade VM55 .Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Modal) VM154 . The procedure to do a prestressed modal analysis is essentially the same as a regular modal analysis.Vibration of a Flat Plate VM67 . However. Prestressed Modal Analysis Use a prestressed modal analysis to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a prestressed structure. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Harmonic Els) VM153 .Radial Vibrations of a Circular Ring from an Axisymmetric Model VM68 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.1 . © SAS IP.Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM89 . most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.Natural Frequency of a Cross-ply Laminated Spherical Shell VM61 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-mass System VM69 .Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-supported Thick Square Plate VM212 . except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 3–14 Structural Analysis Guide . describe additional modal analyses.Natural Frequency of a Flat Circular Plate with a Clamped Edge VM182 .Vibration of a Wedge VM66 .Natural Frequency of a Spring-mass System VM47 . 001972 . such as a spinning turbine blade.10.

. Chapter 2.ON). This procedure uses the element matrices and element load vectors (for example...YES command is also necessary to write the element matrices to File.1 .ON) static analysis in order to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a highly deformed structure. Step 1 above can also be a transient analysis. Expand the modes and review them in the postprocessor.ON) must be applied instead. Issuing either a PSTRES. you must issue the UPCOORD command to update the coordinates necessary for obtaining the correct stresses. 3–15 . If the model is spinning. Use the prestressed modal analysis procedure. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution You can also perform a prestressed modal analysis following a large deflection (NLGEOM.OFF command prevents all previously specified prestressing from being applied. These loads will be passed through to a subsequent mode superposition analysis if specified (LVSCALE command). 2.12: Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution 1.) The EMATWRITE.ON) during the static portion of the analysis. ! Initial. you can perform a prestressed modal analysis of a large-deflection solution instead. If the model is spinning. Along with the PSOLVE command. but use the PSOLVE command (rather than the SOLVE command) to obtain the modal solution.Section 3. large deflection static analysis ! /PREP7 . Prestress must be applied (PSTRES.OFF or SSTIF. 001972 . FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EMAT (if ANSYS creates it) and Jobname. The same lumped mass setting [LUMPM] used here must also be used in the later prestress modal analysis. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the modal solution. SOLVE FINISH ! ! Prestressed modal analysis ! Structural Analysis Guide .ESAV from the static analysis must be available. temperature or acceleration loads) from a previous static analysis. save the EMAT and ESAV files at the desired time point. 3. “Structural Static Analysis” describes the procedure to obtain a static solution. Files Jobname. If the deformed shape from the static solution differs significantly from its nondeformed shape.. in cases where stressstiffening helps convergence: • • Stress-stiffening (SSTIF. © SAS IP. include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) if necessary. However.ON ! Flag to calculate the prestress matrix . include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) in the modal solution if necessary.12. as shown in the sample input listing below. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. (This requirement applies to elements outside of the 18x family of elements only. from pressures. In such a case.EMAT.STATIC ! Static analysis NLGEOM. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on [PSTRES.ON ! Large deflection analysis PSTRES. 3.ON]. Inc. ANSYS Release 8.

© SAS IP. 3–16 Structural Analysis Guide . (Required if you ! want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor.EIGxxx command. Theory Reference for more information. PSOLVE. Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors..) QR damped method (The QR damped method solves a different equation.ON PSTRES. subspace. PSOLVE. see the ANSYS. Following the table is a brief description of each mode-extraction method. MXPAND.) Note — You may also use one of the other eigensolvers (PSOLVE..ON PSOLVE. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods The basic equation solved in a typical undamped modal analysis is the classical eigenvalue problem: [K ]{φ i} = ω2 [M]{φ i} i where: [K] = stiffness matrix {Φi} = mode shape vector (eigenvector) of mode i ω2 Ωi = natural circular frequency of mode i ( i is the eigenvalue) [M] = mass matrix Many numerical methods are available to solve the above equation.EIGDAMP or PSOLVE. Table 3. In such a case.MODAL UPCOORD. Inc.) Note — The damped. Theory Reference for more information. a PSOLVE. ANSYS Release 8. !Additional solution step for expansion.EIGUNSY. Inc. Prestress effects ON Select eigensolver Specify the number of modes to expand. see the ANSYS. and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program.. 001972 .1.13.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis /SOLU ANTYPE..EIGEXP FINISH ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Display mode shapes relative to deformed geometry in the postprocessor..0. ! Expand the eigenvector solution. if desired.EIGSYM.. Use EIGLANB or EIGFULL to match MODOPT command.ON MODOPT. and reduced) are the most commonly used.EIGxxxx FINISH /SOLU EXPASS. 3. Inc.6: “Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices” compares these four mode-extraction methods. PowerDynamics. The first four methods (Block Lanczos.EIGREDUC). .TRIANG command must precede the PSOLVE. ANSYS offers these methods: • • • • • • • Block Lanczos method (default) Subspace method PowerDynamics method Reduced (Householder) method Unsymmetric method Damped method (The damped method solves a different equation. PSOLVE.1 . unsymmetric.

but faster. The Block Lanczos method is especially powerful when searching for eigenfrequencies in a given part of the eigenvalue spectrum of a given system. the algorithm extracts the n modes beyond FREQB at about the same speed as it extracts the lowest n modes.1. Reduced To find all modes of small to medium models (less than 10K DOF). 3–17 . Subspace Method The subspace method uses the subspace iteration technique.1 .6 Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices Eigensolver Block Lanczos Application Default.000+ DOFs) to obtain a solution for the first few modes. Recommended when the model consists of poorly shaped solid and shell elements. Structural Analysis Guide . When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations. Using the JCG solver when your analysis has many constraint equations could result in an internal element stiffness assembly that requires large amounts of memory. PowerDynamics Method The PowerDynamics method internally uses the subspace iterations. use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver.13. This method may be significantly faster than either the subspace or the Block Lanczos methods. or if the matrix is ill-conditioned. This solver performs well when the model consists of shells or a combination of shells and solids. 3. The convergence rate of the eigenfrequencies will be about the same when extracting modes in the midrange and higher end of the spectrum as when extracting the lowest modes. which internally uses the generalized Jacobi iteration algorithm. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver. For the same reason. It is highly accurate because it uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. Memory Required Medium Disk Required Low Subspace Low High Power Dynamics To find few modes (up to about 20) of large models. This method is as accurate as the subspace method. To find few modes (up to about 40) of large models. but accuracy of frequencies depends on the master DOF selected. Do not use this method if you will be running a subsequent spectrum analysis. the frequencies are approximate. Can be used to find few modes (up to about 40) of large models with proper selection of master DOF. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. when you use a shift frequency (FREQB) to extract n modes beyond the starting value of FREQB. 001972 . Missed modes are possible when repeated frequencies are present. This method is typically used in cases where high accuracy is required or where selecting master DOF is not practical.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods Table 3. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. Therefore. To find many modes (about 40+) of large models. Inc. Recommended for fast computation of eigenvalues of over 100K DOF models. Recommended when the model consists of well-shaped solid and shell elements. ANSYS Release 8. but may not converge if the model contains poorly-shaped elements.3. On coarse mesh models.2. It uses the Lanczos algorithm where the Lanczos recursion is performed with a block of vectors. the subspace method is slower than the reduced method.13. however. High Low Low Low 3.13. This method is especially useful in very large models (100. © SAS IP.Section 3. Works faster but requires about 50% more memory than subspace. 3. Works well if memory availability is limited. but uses the PCG iterative solver. Block Lanczos Method The Block Lanczos eigenvalue solver is the default.

Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method. 3–18 Structural Analysis Guide . which also uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. Note — If you use PowerDynamics to solve a model that includes rigid body modes. represents the steady-state circular frequency of the system. or unstable.13.13. Therefore. 3. The real part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency and the imaginary part is a measure of the stability of the system . Inc.13.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis The PowerDynamics method does not perform a Sturm sequence check (that is. © SAS IP. [M]. 3.13. At any given node. and positive σ gives an exponentially increasing. in other words. . This gives the frequency in Hz (cycles/second). represents the stability of the system. This method always uses lumped mass approximation. 3. Unsymmetric Method The unsymmetric method. Therefore. or stable. Section 3. 3. the real component of the eigenvalue will be zero. 001972 . It is relatively fast because it works with a small subset of degrees of freedom called master DOF. a shaft mounted on bearings).6. which might affect problems with multiple repeated frequencies. It uses full matrices ([K]. (Or. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue The imaginary part of the eigenvalue. Reduced Method The reduced method uses the HBI algorithm (Householder-Bisection-Inverse iteration) to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. In other words: Imaginary part of eigenvalue. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method.6. as reported = σ/(2* π) 3. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. as reported = Ω/(2* π) Real part of eigenvalue. then the displacement amplitude will decay exponentially. Damped Method The damped method is meant for problems where damping cannot be ignored.1. The real part of the eigenvalue.6. σ. then the amplitude will increase exponentially. Ω.a negative value means the system is stable. the amplitude will be the vector sum of the real and imaginary components of the eigenvector. ANSYS Release 8. in accordance with EXP(σ).) If there is no damping. response. such as rotor dynamics applications.1 . negative σ gives an exponentially decreasing.4. therefore. it does not check for missing modes).2. If σ is less than zero. It uses the Lanczos algorithm which calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors if the system is non-conservative (for example.13. It uses the Lanczos algorithm and calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors (as described below). depends on how well [M] is approximated. be sure to issue the RIGID command or choose one of its GUI equivalents (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options or Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Options).5. whereas a positive value means the system is unstable. is meant for problems where the stiffness and mass matrices are unsymmetric (for example. which in turn depends on the number and location of masters. response. If σ is greater than zero. and the damping matrix [C]). Note — The eigenvalue results reported by ANSYS are actually divided by 2* π.14: Matrix Reduction presents guidelines to select master DOFs. The accuracy of the results. Using master DOF leads to an exact [K] matrix but an approximate [M] matrix (usually with some loss in mass). acoustic fluid-structure interaction problems). Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector In a damped system. the response at different nodes can be out of phase.

Section 3. Matrix Reduction Matrix reduction is a way to reduce the size of the matrices of a model and perform a quicker and cheaper analysis. For a given problem. especially for dynamic analyses of large problems.14. 3–19 . The following list summarizes the guidelines for selecting master DOF: • • The total number of master DOF should be at least twice the number of modes of interest. This method is not recommended for critically damped or overdamped systems.1. Inc.13.1 . You can then expand the solution to the full DOF set by performing an expansion pass. The accuracy of the reduced mass matrix (and hence the accuracy of the solution) depends on the number and location of masters. ANSYS Release 8. a smaller eigenvalue problem is then solved in the modal subspace. the total mass of the structure is apportioned among only the master DOF. 3. This way. For a flat plate. called master degrees of freedom. or you can have the program choose masters during solution using the TOTAL command. 001972 . Inc. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction The ANSYS program uses the Guyan Reduction procedure to calculate the reduced matrices.14. inertia forces on the slave DOF (those DOF being reduced out) are negligible compared to elastic forces transmitted by the master DOF. After the undamped mode shapes are evaluated by using the real eigensolution (Block Lanczos method). 3. and transient analyses. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF Choosing master DOF is an important step in a reduced analysis. Choose master DOF in directions in which you expect the structure or component to vibrate. for example. especially for highly damped systems to provide good results. you should choose at least a few masters in the out-of-plane direction (see Fig- Structural Analysis Guide .1. QR Damped Method The QR damped method combines the advantages of the Block Lanczos method with the complex Hessenberg method.7. Therefore. The main advantage of this procedure is the savings in CPU time to obtain the reduced solution. You choose the "dynamic" portion by identifying key degrees of freedom. whereas the reduced mass and damping matrices are approximate. you can choose many different sets of master DOF and will probably obtain acceptable results in all cases. It is mainly used in dynamic analyses such as modal. Matrix reduction is also used in substructure analyses to generate a superelement. and use only a "dynamic" portion of it for a dynamic analysis. This method outputs both the real and imaginary eigenvalues (frequencies). The net result is that the reduced stiffness matrix is exact. Matrix reduction allows you to build a detailed model. 3. refer to the ANSYS.14. This approach gives good results for lightly damped systems and can also be applicable to any arbitrary damping type (proportional or non-proportional symmetric damping or unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix). You can choose masters using M and MGEN commands. that characterize the dynamic behavior of the model.14: Matrix Reduction 3. but outputs only the real eigenvectors (mode shapes). as you would for a static stress analysis. the equations of motion are transformed to these modal coordinates. The key concept is to approximately represent the first few complex damped eigenvalues by a linear combination of a small number of eigenvectors of the undamped system. © SAS IP. and also have the ANSYS program choose masters. For details about how the reduced matrices are calculated. The key assumption in this procedure is that for the lower frequencies. the program can pick up any modes that you may have missed. harmonic. Using the QR algorithm.1. a sufficient number of fundamental modes are recommended. We recommend that you do both: choose a few masters yourself. Because the accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of modes used in the calculations. Theory Reference. The ANSYS program then calculates reduced matrices and the reduced DOF solution in terms of the master DOF.

2 Choose Master DOF (a) Possible out-of-plane masters for a flat plate(b) Motion in X induces motion in Y • Choose masters at locations having relatively large mass or rotary inertia and relatively low stiffness (see Figure 3. choose only the first (primary) DOF of the coupled set. In cases where motion in one direction induces a significant motion in another direction. Figure 3. Figure 3.2: “Choose Master DOF” (b)). ANSYS Release 8.2: “Choose Master DOF” (a)). do not choose masters at locations with relatively small mass. (b) large mass • • • • If your primary interest is in bending modes. Inc. Examples of such locations are overhangs and "loosely" connected structures.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis ure 3. © SAS IP. Choose master DOF at locations where forces or nonzero displacements are to be applied. If the degree of freedom to be chosen belongs to a coupled set. choose as masters the global UX degree of freedom at all nodes on those sections of the model that are parallel to or nearly parallel to the center line. Structural Analysis Guide . or at locations with high stiffness (such as DOF close to constraints). choose as masters both UX and UZ degrees of freedom.3: “Choosing Master DOFs”). you can neglect rotational and "stretching" DOF. This recommendation can be relaxed if the motion is primarily parallel to the centerline. choose master DOF in both directions (see Figure 3.4: “Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model”). For axisymmetric shell models (SHELL51 or SHELL61).3 Choosing Master DOFs Choose masters at locations with (a) large rotary inertia. so oscillatory motions between master DOF can be avoided (see Figure 3.1 . Conversely. For axisymmetric harmonic elements with MODE = 2 or greater. 001972 . 3–20 .

14: Matrix Reduction Figure 3. ANSYS Release 8. a flat plate). this difference usually yields insignificant differences in the results. 3–21 .1. For meshes with uniform element sizes and properties (for example. However. A Note About Program-Selected Masters If you let the ANSYS program select masters [TOTAL]. 001972 . not be uniform.4 Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model The best way to check the validity of the master DOF set is to rerun the analysis with twice (or half) the number of masters and to compare the results. 3. in general. the distribution of masters selected will depend on the order in which elements are processed during the solution. For example. different master DOF sets may be selected depending on whether the elements are processed from left to right or from right to left. © SAS IP.14. MGEN]. the distribution of masters will.1 .Section 3. The reduced mass should be.2. within 10-15 percent of the total mass of the structure. Structural Analysis Guide . The same recommendation applies to structures with an irregular mass distribution. at least in the dominant direction of motion. you should specify some master DOF of your own [M. In such cases. where the program-selected master DOF may be concentrated in the higher-mass regions. Another way is to review the reduced mass distribution printed during a modal solution. Inc.

3–22 .

The transient vibrations.1: Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis for more information on prestressed harmonic analyses.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Harmonic response analysis gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your structures. See Section 4. 001972 .11.1 . thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance. 6 2 ¡¨ ¦ U @ 0 ©!0 7©9¤¥£ ¡¥5¥1§¤!X#S4 !0 33§¤W9©§H2 D ©@¥¥9¨ V 2 B 2 ¨ ¦¨ " ¦ ¡ 7¨ 6 2 ¡¨ ¦¤ ¡ U ¤ ©!0 7©9¥£ ¥5¥§T#S4 !0 33§¤P! 3!§RQ 2 B 2 ¨ ¡ 2 ¦¤ 6£ 3T4 Y` abc ad` 6 IP¨ 4E¥HG' CFEC 20 D 2 B2 ¤ ¦ !0 339A!¥ £ ¡¥!!¦ &¥19!08$ 0 ¤ @ ¤ 6 4 20 $ % 7¨ 531)'(&$ #"¤! ¥©¥¦ ©¦§¥£ ¢ ¡ ¡¨ ¤ ¡ ω ' 8$ 6 (¦94 . forced vibrations of a structure. such as a violin string (assuming the harmonic stresses are much smaller than the pretension stress).1 Harmonic Response Systems ω φ Typical harmonic response system. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response) in a structural system. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. Harmonic analysis can also be performed on a prestressed structure. and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. even if they are defined. such as plasticity will be ignored.1: “Harmonic Response Systems”). have unsymmetric system matrices such as those encountered in a fluidstructure interaction problem (see Chapter 15. Inc. Transient and steady-state dynamic response of a structural system (b). Some nonlinearities. "Peak" responses are then identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies. which occur at the beginning of the excitation. Figure 4. 4. uo and Φ are unknown (a). You can. are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis (see Figure 4. however. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state. Structural Analysis Guide . The idea is to calculate the structure's response at several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. Fo and Ω are known.2. “Acoustics” in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide).1. fatigue. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time.1.

14: Matrix Reduction. when you use the JCG solver or the ICCG solver. (A fourth. The Three Solution Methods Three harmonic response analysis methods are available: full. Inc. © SAS IP. The Full Method The full method is the easiest of the three methods. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for details. relatively expensive method is to do a transient dynamic analysis with the harmonic loads specified as time-history loading functions. which are typical of such applications as acoustics and bearing problems. Section 4. 001972 . reduced. However. and element loads (pressures and temperatures). It calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass. let's explore the advantages and disadvantages of each method. (See Section 3. It uses the full system matrices to calculate the harmonic response (no matrix reduction). The disadvantages of the reduced method are: 4–2 Structural Analysis Guide . The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • • It is easy to use. 4. It uses full matrices. so no mass matrix approximation is involved.2. you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing.4. Prestressing effects can be included. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods.3. For detailed. It allows unsymmetric matrices. the solution can be expanded to the original full DOF set. and mode superposition. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a harmonic response analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. see Chapter 5.4. the full method can be very efficient. The matrices may be symmetric or unsymmetric. A disadvantage is that this method usually is more expensive than either of the other methods when you use the frontal solver. see the ANSYS Commands Reference. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces.1. The Reduced Method The reduced method enables you to condense the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. because you don't have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes.7: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show a sample harmonic response analysis done via the GUI and via commands. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 4. for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure.) The advantages of this method are: • • It is faster and less expensive compared to the full method when you are using the frontal solver. respectively.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4.1 . Likewise.) The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method.4. . 4. imposed (nonzero) displacements. alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands. ANSYS Release 8. 4.

How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis We will first describe how to do a harmonic response analysis using the full method.5. All loads must have the same frequency. (However. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. with harmonic loads expressed as time-history loading functions. Build the model.) Element loads (pressures. Structural Analysis Guide . temperatures.4. It allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies.Section 4. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” describes the procedure for a transient dynamic analysis.4. Transient effects are not calculated. Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure for a full harmonic response analysis consists of three main steps: 1. more accurate tracing of the response curve.1. You can overcome any of these restrictions by performing a transient dynamic analysis. No nonlinearities are permitted. stress. A second step. and then list the steps that are different for the reduced and mode superposition methods. known as the expansion pass. 4. Chapter 5. This results in a smoother. initial conditions cannot have previouslyapplied loads.3. © SAS IP. the expansion pass might be optional for some applications. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods All three methods are subject to certain common restrictions: • • • • All loads must be sinusoidally time-varying. 001972 . and force solution. Prestressing effects can be included. It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of frequency).) • • 4.) cannot be applied. ANSYS Release 8.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the harmonic response analysis via the LVSCALE command. etc. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. When you are using PowerDynamics for the modal analysis. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. Its advantages are: • • • • • It is faster and less expensive than either the reduced or the full method for many problems. 4–3 .4. Inc. 4.1 .5. is required for a complete displacement. 4. The Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response. Disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • Imposed (nonzero) displacements cannot be applied.

you should first determine the natural frequencies of your structure by obtaining a modal solution (as explained in Chapter 3. 3. for example. Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid in a harmonic response analysis.5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step. © SAS IP. Before obtaining the harmonic solution. you define the analysis type and options. if any.2. Material properties may be linear.3. will be treated as linear elements.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Command ANTYPE GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Harmonic Response ANTYPE Solution Method Solution Listing Format Mass Matrix Formulation Equation Solver HROPT HROUT LUMPM EQSLV 4–4 Structural Analysis Guide . If you include contact elements.5. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.2. apply loads. Note — Peak harmonic response occurs at forcing frequencies that match the natural frequencies of your structure. Apply loads and obtain the solution. ANSYS Release 8.5. • 4.1 . Nonlinear elements. 4.2. Build the Model See Section 1. 4. Nonlinear material properties.1. 4. 001972 . specify load step options. if any. and initiate the finite element solution. Define the Analysis Type and Options ANSYS offers these options for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.1.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. For further details. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. isotropic or orthotropic. are ignored.5.5. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 4. and constant or temperature-dependent.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 2. Details of how to do these tasks are explained below.3. Review the results. “Modal Analysis”). . Inc.3. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed.

2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”). We recommend the default formulation for most applications. the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. Structural Analysis Guide . by definition. click on OK to reach a second Harmonic Analysis dialog box. Apply Loads on the Model A harmonic analysis. Restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis.1 . or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. 4–5 .5. ANSYS Release 8. do a new analysis each time.3. if you need to apply additional harmonic loads. The frontal direct solver or sparse direct solver is recommended for most structural models. • Option: Analysis Type: Harmonic Response (ANTYPE) Choose Harmonic Response as the analysis type. and amplitudes and phase angles. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. When using a direct solver to solve a relatively large problem. After you complete the fields on the Harmonic Analysis Options dialog box. the sparse direct solver (SPARSE).5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Each of these options is explained in detail below. assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. • Option: New Analysis (ANTYPE) Choose New Analysis. and the forcing frequency range (see Figure 4. the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver. © SAS IP. three pieces of information are usually required: the amplitude. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells. Also.Section 4. the phase angle.OUT). • Option: Solution Method (HROPT) Choose one of the following solution methods: – Full method – Reduced method – Mode superposition method • Option: Solution Listing Format (HROUT) This option determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default). choose the sparse solver over the frontal solver. To completely specify a harmonic load. • Option: Mass Matrix Formulation (LUMPM) Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element dependent) or lumped mass approximation. Inc. • Option: Equation Solver (EQSLV) You can choose the frontal solver (default).3. where you choose an equation solver. 001972 . 4. However.

which you specify using the commands shown in Table 4. ANSYS Release 8. 4–6 Structural Analysis Guide .1 . On the complex plane (see Figure 4.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”). Figure 4. Inc. you specify the real and imaginary components of the out-of-phase loads using the VALUE and VALUE2 fields of the appropriate displacement and force commands. It is specified later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command. © SAS IP. it is the angle measured from the real axis.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4. Pressures and other surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of 0 (no imaginary component) with the following exceptions: nonzero imaginary components of pressures can be applied using the SURF153 and SURF154 elements in a full harmonic response analysis. instead.3: “An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna” will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points.2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis”. the unbalanced rotating antenna shown in Figure 4. or using a mode superposition harmonic response analysis if the mode-extraction method is Block Lanczos (see the SF and SFE commands).2 Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle The amplitude is the maximum value of the load. For example.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle” shows how to calculate the real and imaginary components. 001972 . The phase angle cannot be specified directly. The forcing frequency range is the frequency range of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). 3 S 7 $A43 2! 0@9( 6 P a ¨© ¦§ ©¨ ©¨ `Y £¢ X WbXc¦§ &UT¡ ¡ ¤ V © # 3 ¨ ¥ ¥ 7 2&$#"1hI$ge 7Hf 78$453 2! 1)( 6 0 2 7 " RQ P # IHdC¡ ©¨ ! ¤ P HIGDE CB¦§ ¨ F ¤ ¡ © ¨ © ¦§ P ¤ ' &$# " % ! . The phase angle is a measure of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. The phase angle is required only if you have multiple loads that are out of phase with each other.

Moment (FX. two machines with different rotating speeds running at the same time). lines. © SAS IP.3 An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna 7 86 5 4 3 An unbalanced rotating antenna will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points. Constraints UZ. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite element loads. ANSYS Release 8. ROTY.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Except for inertia loads. FY. & 2 % $ " ¤#1)¤ ¤©§¦¢ 0 ( ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ & ' % $ " ¤#! ©§¦¤¢ ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ @!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 #¡ $ 9 ¨ 6 C I I F C W V 8U 5 !4 @! IG¤9 5S!P¤¡R@P¤¡ $ C T ¨ C Q F £ Q 6 4 £ D @¤69 8!4 4 6 6 ( C!@¤@6 !@¢! A A B 5 A % 6!4 T X E 0 9 ¨ @6!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 C#¡ C I I F % 4–7 . ROTX.2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a to a harmonic response analysis. Table 4. However. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints. MX. MZ) Pressure (PRES) Surface Loads Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.Section 4. Table 4. Forces FZ.1 . and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). 001972 . ROTZ) Force. MY. UY.2 Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Category Cmd Family D F SF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure Displacement (UX. POST1 can superimpose multiple load cases to obtain the total response. Note — A harmonic analysis cannot calculate the response to multiple forcing functions acting simultaneously with different frequencies (for example. see Chapter 2.

Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Temperature (TEMP).Lines el Solid Mod. BFUNIF . Inc.Lines el Solid Mod.1 .Keypoints el Finite Elem Nodes Solid Mod. SFCUM BFCUM .Lines el Solid Mod. Fluence Solid Mod. SFFUN.Areas el Finite Elem Nodes Force Solid Mod. TBUNIF Solid Mod. 001972 .Keypoints el Solid Mod. . Fluence (FLUE) Category Body Loads Cmd Family BF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Temperature Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Other Gravity. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 4.3. SFBEAM. SFCUM SFGRAD.3 Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Solid Model or FE Displacement Entity DK DL DA D FK F SFL SFA SF SFE Apply Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE FKDELE FDELE SFLDELE SFADELE SFDELE SFEDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST FKLIST FLIST SFLLIST SFALIST SFLIST SFELIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE FTRAN FSCALE SFTRAN SFTRAN SFSCALE SFSCALE Apply Settings DSYM. Table 4.Areas el Finite Elem Nodes Finite Elem Elements Pressure Temperature. loads can be applied. Spinning. DCUM FCUM SFGRAD SFGRAD SFGRAD. ANSYS Release 8.Areas el Solid Mod. 4.1.Volumes el Finite Elem Nodes BFK BFL BFA BFV BF BFKDELE BFLDELE BFADELE BFVDELE BFDELE BFKLIST BFLLIST BFALIST BFVLIST BFLIST BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFSCALE 4–8 Structural Analysis Guide .3: “Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a harmonic response analysis.5. © SAS IP. Inertia Loads In an analysis. or listed. etc. removed.Keypoints el Solid Mod.3. operated on.

3: Listing Loads for more information. 4–9 .4.3. DMPRAT MP.1. OMEGA. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI These steps for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most other analyses. General Options General options include the following: • Number of Harmonic Solutions (NSUBST) Structural Analysis Guide . DCGOMG BFEDELE Delete BFELIST List BFSCALE Operate BFCUM Apply Settings - 4. See Section 3. 4.2: Applying Loads Using the GUI and Section 3. Inc.2. CGOMGA. BETAD.Section 4.4 Load Step Options Option General Options Number of Harmonic Solutions NSUBST Stepped or Ramped Loads KBC Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time .3. ANSYS Release 8.3. DOMEGA. MP.5.Time Step or Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Command GUI Path Dynamics Options Forcing Frequency Range Damping HARFRQ ALPHAD.1 .4. CGLOC.5.5. © SAS IP.3.4.4.DAMP.5.Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> PR Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/ Results File Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Database and Results File Output OUTRES Extrapolation of Results ERESX 4.DM.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Finite Elem Elements Load Type Solid Model or FE Inertia Entity BFE Apply ACEL.5. Specify Load Step Options The following options are available for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4. 001972 .

The remaining element types always ramp from zero or from the value specified via BFUNIF. and 40 Hz.5. the program uses zero damping by default. • Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) The loads may be stepped or ramped. you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range. they are ramped.10.DMPR) 4. • Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.DAMP and MP. 39.. otherwise. Note — If no damping is specified in a direct harmonic analysis (full or reduced). By stepping the loads (KBC. if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz. the load amplitude is gradually increased with each substep. except for those applied to PLANE2. the same load amplitude will be maintained for all substeps in the frequency range. Dynamics Options Dynamics options include the following: • Forcing Frequency Range (HARFRQ) The forcing frequency range must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies.5. the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies.1 .3. .2.DMPR. the program will calculate the response at 31. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ)..4. By default. • • • • • Alpha (Mass) Damping (ALPHAD) Beta (Stiffness) Damping (BETAD) Constant Damping Ratio (DMPRAT) Material Dependent Damping Multiplier (MP. ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio..Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis You can request any number of harmonic solutions to be calculated.1). For example. and SOLID95 element types. 33. • 4–10 Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Structural Analysis Guide . Damping can also be specified for individual materials using MP. 32. See Section 5. 001972 . SOLID92. . SOLID45.3. that is. Output Controls Output control options include the following: • Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname.3. Note — Surface and body loads do not ramp from their previous load step values. Within this range.4.DAMP) Constant Material Damping Coefficient (MP. © SAS IP.RST). ANSYS Release 8.3: Damping for further details.OUT). 4. Inc. • Damping Damping in some form should be specified.

Another method for multiple load steps. which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro.8. Points to Remember The points to remember for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. 001972 .2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2.6. Start Solution Calculations Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 4.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. ANSYS Release 8. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26 or POST1. “Structural Static Analysis”. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next.5.6.4. Some typical postprocessing operations for a harmonic response analysis are explained below.7. 4–11 . • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies.4.2.3.and to then use POST1 to postprocess the entire model at these critical forcing frequencies. for additional load steps). Structural Analysis Guide .5.3. 4.3. see Chapter 4.3.4. Inc.1.1 .Section 4.5.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. Repeat for Additional Load Steps Repeat the process for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26). 4. Complex results will also be produced if out-of-phase loads were applied.5. Leave SOLUTION Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.5. POST26 allows you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire frequency range.5. the response will be out-of-phase with the loads.5. 4. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. See Section 2. 4.frequencies at which the highest displacements (or stresses) occur at points of interest in the model . 4. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. Review the Results The results data for a harmonic analysis are the same as the data for a basic structural analysis with the following additions: If you defined damping in the structure. “Structural Static Analysis”.3. All results are then complex in nature and are stored in terms of real and imaginary parts.3. The normal procedure is to first use POST26 to identify critical forcing frequencies . See Section 2. © SAS IP.5. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 4.

and the RFORCE command for reaction force data. such as performing math operations among variables (in complex arithmetic). known as variables. • 4–12 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. . real part. use the FORCE command.. Many other functions. To specify the total force.5. use the EXTREM command. Define the variables using these options: Command(s): NSOL. such as stresses). PRRSOL. To obtain tabular listings of data. RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — The NSOL command is for primary data (nodal displacements).2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”) and can be done for specific points in the model in POST26. PRESOL. with variable number 1 reserved for frequency. damping component. To list just the extreme values. moving variables into array parameters. use PRNSOL. ANSYS Release 8.. not both at the same time. 4. strains. Graph the variables (versus frequency or any other variable). Then use PLCPLX to work with just the amplitude. 2. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. etc. etc. phase angle. you can identify the critical frequencies for further POST1 postprocessing. the ESOL command for derived data (element solution data. moving array parameters into variables.4. 1. Inc.1 . but it will read in either the real component or the imaginary component. PLCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph Get a listing of the variable. Using POST1 1. Then use the PRCPLX command to work with amplitude and phase angle or real and imaginary part. are available in POST26. © SAS IP. contours of stresses. Command(s): PRVAR. 001972 . Each variable is assigned a reference number. see Chapter 6. etc.3. or the inertia component.4. static component of the total force.5. The true magnitude of the results is given by an SRSS (square-root-of-sum-of-squares) combination of the real and imaginary components (see Figure 4. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency. Display the deformed shape of the structure. Command(s): PLVAR. You can use the SET command for this purpose. or imaginary part. Read in results for the desired harmonic solution. EXTREM. or vector plots of vector items (PLVECT). ESOL. PRCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> List 3.4. • Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu 2.

SY.5 Hz with a Structural Analysis Guide .1.2. HROUT. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. are available in POST1. SY. load case combinations.. 4.6.. KBC. and displacements (UX. UZ. A frequency range from zero to 7. transforming results to different coordinate systems. Problem Description Determine the response amplitude (Xi) and phase angle (Φi) for each mass (mi) of the system shown below when excited by a harmonic force (F1sin Ωt) acting on mass m1. RFORCE. EPELZ.).6. EPELY. such as stresses (SX. 4. PLVAR..5 lb-sec2/in k1 = k2 = kc = 200 lb/in Loading for this problem is: F1 = 200 lb The spring lengths are arbitrarily selected and are used only to define the spring direction. Problem Specifications Material properties for this problem are: m1 = m2 = 0. 4–13 . PLCPLX. etc. UY. HROPT.)..).. NSUBST. see Chapter 3. strains (EPELX.)...). PLDISP.6.. © SAS IP. ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them.1 . NSOL.. you will determine the harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. SZ. DMPRAT. EPELZ.. • Option: Vector Plots Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item. Many other functions. PRVAR. • Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) etc.. 4. SZ. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem. EPELY. strains (EPELX. and displacements (UX.Section 4. 001972 . HARFRQ.. Two master degrees of freedom are selected at the masses in the spring direction. PRRSOL. UZ. such as mapping results on to a path.. ANSYS Release 8. and PLNSOL commands. Inc. such as stresses (SX. UY. PRCPLX. NSORT. ESOL.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) Use these options to contour almost any result item. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.).

.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis solution at 7.5/30 = 0. ANSYS Release 8. Click on Apply. Scroll down the list on the left to "Combination" and select it.3.2. Set the Analysis Title 1.1.25 Hz intervals is chosen to give an adequate response curve. Click on Add. POST26 is used to get an amplitude versus frequency display.1 .4 Two-Mass-Spring-System 4. 2. 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 001972 .3.6. © SAS IP. 3. Structural Analysis Guide . Click once on "Spring-damper 14" in the list on the right. 4. Define the Element Types 1.3. Type the text "Harmonic Response of Two-Mass-Spring System" and click on OK. Problem Diagram Figure 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Inc. 5.6.6. 4. 4. 4–14 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.

9. Create the Nodes 1.1 . 4. 2.5. Define the Real Constants 1. A picking menu appears. 3. MASS21. Click on Apply. 6. Y. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. Click once on "3D mass 21" in the list on the right.4. In the ANSYS Graphics window. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. Click on Add. Y. 0. Click on OK. 13. respectively. Enter 0. 11. Enter 1.5 for mass in X direction and click on OK. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 7. Click once on Type 1 to highlight it. 3. 4. Click on OK. 4. click once on nodes 1 and 4 (on the left and right sides of the screen). 8. Structural Analysis Guide . and Z coordinates. Click on OK. Create the Spring Elements 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. Repeat steps 2-4 for Type 2. Inc. 4–15 .6. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. Scroll up the list on the left to "Structural Mass" and select it. © SAS IP.3. Click on Apply.6. 2. Nodes 2 and 3 appear in the graphics window. 2. Click once on "Node numbers" to turn node numbers on. A line appears between the selected nodes. Enter 4 for node number. 8. respectively. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants. 6. and Z coordinates. A picking menu appears.3.1 for the damping coefficient (CV1).Section 4. 14. 9. Click on OK. 7.6. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. In the graphics window. Click on OK. A small box appears around each node. Enter 200 for the spring constant (K) and 0. 5. Enter 1 for node number. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. 4. 5. Click on OK to accept the default of 2 nodes to fill. 4. Enter . 8. Click on OK on the picking menu. 0 for the X. The Real Constants for COMBIN14 dialog box appears. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. 7.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 6. 0 for the X.3. click once on nodes 1 and 2. 3. 10. 12.3.

Inc. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps.1 . 4–16 . 6. 3. 001972 . A line appears between the selected nodes. 6. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout. Click on OK. 4. 2. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 7. Click OK in the Full Harmonic Analysis dialog box.3. Click on OK. 5. 8. 12. The Apply U. Click on Apply. A picking menu appears. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . Click once on "Full" to select the solution method. click once on node 2. Click once on "Amplitud + phase" to select the DOF printout format and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Enter 30 for the number of substeps. A picking menu appears. 4. Create the Mass Elements 1. 9. Click once on node 3 and click on OK. Enter 2 for real constant set number and click on OK. and Load Step Specifications 1. Click once on nodes 3 and 4.3.6. 4. Click once on nodes 2 and 3. 5.7. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions 1. Click on Pick All. 7. 13. MDOF. 5. Enter 0 and 7. 2. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. click once on "UY" to highlight it (make sure no other selections are highlighted).5 for the harmonic frequency range. 5.3. Click on "Last substep" to set the print frequency and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 4. 10.8. In the graphics window. Specify the Analysis Type. A line appears between the selected nodes. 3. 4. 6. 2. A picking menu appears.6. Click once on "Harmonic" and click on OK.6. Enter 2 for element type number. Click once on "Stepped" to specify stepped boundary conditions. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. 3. 11. 4. Click on Apply.6.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears.

10. 3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 16. 1. 4. Enter 2 for node number.Section 4. © SAS IP. Enter 2UX for the user-specified label. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. Solve the Model 1. In the scroll box on the right. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on Close. Click on OK. 4.10. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. 14. Click on OK. 10. 4–17 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/ Moment> On Nodes. 001972 . The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. you will review the time-history results of nodes 2 and 3. 11. Enter 200 for the real part of force/moment and click on OK. Enter 3 for reference number of variable.9. 6. Click on Add in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. 7. In the scroll box on the right.3. 8. 12. 5. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. Structural Analysis Guide . 13. 9. 12. click once on "FX. 8. In the graphics window. click once on "UX" to highlight it and click once on "UY" to deselect it. Click on Add. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. 2. 4. Click on OK. 9. 13. Click on OK. 4. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. Review the Results For this sample. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 8. click once on nodes 1 and 4. 7.6. 3. When the solution is finished. 15. Enter 2 for reference number of variable. In the graphics window. Click on Close." 14. Enter 3 for node number.3.1 . Enter 3UX for the user-specified label. A picking menu appears. The Apply U. In the scroll box for direction of force/moment. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 2.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 6. 11.6. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. Click on OK. click once on node 2. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears.

In the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. 20. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs. 22.. The Graph Controls dialog box appears.1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears. In the scroll box for type of grid. 19. 4. © SAS IP. Your graph should look like this: 21.6. Inc. 4.COMBIN14. Harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system ET.1 .2 4–18 Structural Analysis Guide .7.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 17. 001972 . 23.. . Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph. Exit ANSYS You are now finished with this sample problem. Enter 3 for 2nd variable to graph.11. ANSYS Release 8. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example harmonic response analysis of a two-mass-spring system by using the following ANSYS commands instead of the GUI. /PREP7 /TITLE. Click on OK. Click on OK. 18. scroll to "X and Y lines" to select it. A graph appears in the graphic window. 1. 2.3. click on Quit.

4 TYPE.. 4–19 .4.8: Where to Find Other Examples ET.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate Structural Analysis Guide ..X. describe additional harmonic analyses.2 E.Harmonic Response of a Dynamic System VM87 .3.8..Section 4.1 D.4 R.Response of an Eccentric Weight Exciter VM90 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.7.MASS21.1.2.HARMIC HROPT.1 FILL E.1.3.1 NSUBST.U.3 F..2.5 N.1 ..3UX /GRID.2 E.Equivalent Structural Damping VM88 .3 E.3 FINISH ! Spring constant = 200 ! Mass = 0.2 REAL.FULL HROUT. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. ANSYS Release 8.FX.Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System VM203 . 001972 .Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM76 .Frequency Response of Electrical Input Admittance for a Piezoelectric Transducer VM177 .2 E.1.U.200 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.200 R.Y.2. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.1 N.UX.OFF OUTPR.3..BASIC. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.3 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..2.UY.4.Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM86 .2.DISP PLVAR. © SAS IP.4 D.1.5 ! Spring element ! Spring element ! Mass element ! Mass element ! Harmonic response analysis ! Full harmonic response ! Print results as amplitudes and phase angles ! ! ! ! ! 30 Intervals within freq.30 HARFRQ.2UX NSOL..Natural Frequency of a Submerged Ring VM183 .2.1 /AXLAB. range Frequency range from 0 to 7. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of harmonic analysis test cases: VM19 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.Harmonic Response of a Two-Mass-Spring System VM176 .5 HZ Step boundary condition Constrain all 44 DOF Constrain nodes 1 and 4 in UX ! Store UX Displacements ! Turn grid on ! Y-axis label disp ! Display variables 2 and 3 4. However.2. Inc.5 KBC.X.

Specify load step options. Review the results of the reduced solution. 4. © SAS IP.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. Review the results of the expanded solution. The procedure for a reduced harmonic analysis consists of five main steps: 1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. The OUTPR command controls the printout of the nodal solution at the master DOF (OUTPR. 6. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. 3.1: Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis for details.14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF.9. Structural Analysis Guide . Details of the other steps are explained below.11. 3. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method. 2. we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution.9. See Section 4.ALL (or NONE)). 5. Master DOF are essential or dynamic degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. uses reduced matrices to calculate the harmonic solution. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and options. Of these. Apply the loads and obtain the reduced solution. except for the following restrictions: • • Only displacements and forces are valid. Save a copy of the database. Build the model.NSOL.DMPR) is not applicable for the reduced method. 2.1 . Expand the solution (expansion pass). the first step is the same as for the full method. as its name implies.1. 001972 . and the constant material damping coefficient (MP. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to apply forces or nonzero displacements. Define master degrees of freedom. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The reduced method. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis that also included prestress effects. 4. 4–20 . 4. Element loads such as pressures. Apply loads on the model. 7. These are the same as described for the full method except that the OUTRES and ERESX commands are not available. Inc. For a reduced harmonic response dynamic analysis. temperatures. See Section 3. Options for the reduced solution are the same as described for the full method except for the following differences: • • Choose the reduced solution method. 5. You can include prestress effects (PSTRES). and accelerations are not allowed. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are as follows: 1. ANSYS Release 8.

The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated. 9. or if you are interested in the stress solution. for additional load steps).3. Inc. © SAS IP. As with the full method.RFRQ.HARMONIC.EMAT.RFRQ. and force solution at all degrees of freedom. Therefore. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF.Section 4. ANSYS Release 8. 4–21 . which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro. before you begin the expansion pass.RFRQ. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of frequency using POST26.9. these displacements will be complex in nature if damping was defined or if out-of-phase loads were applied. These calculations are done only at frequencies and phase angles that you specify.ESAV files from the reduced solution must be available. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available. For instance. They consist of displacements at the master DOF. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement. if HARMONIC is the jobname. For example.) Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing. 4. • 4.2. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26). stress.9. .3.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method. (By default. which is not written by a reduced harmonic solution. then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. An expansion pass is not always required.1.TRI.9.9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 8. However. which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. Leave SOLUTION.1 . 4. Another method for multiple load steps. (POST1 cannot be used. Points to Remember • • The . 001972 . if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure. you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical frequencies and phase angles. 4. then you must perform an expansion pass.3.2.9. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Structural Analysis Guide . the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is. . POST26 looks for a results file. Expanding the Modes 1. and . use the FILE command to specify that data are to be read from Jobname.RFRQ. except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced harmonic solution are written to the reduced harmonic displacement file. the FILE command would be: FILE. Jobname.

4. • Option: Number of Solutions to Expand (NUMEXP. 1750. you can specify the phase angle at which peak displacements occurred using HREXP.1000. Range for Expansion Phase Angle for Expansion Stress Calculations On/Off Nodal Solution Listing Format Command EXPASS NUMEXP NUMEXP HREXP NUMEXP. and 2000). ANSYS Release 8. Activate the expansion pass and its options.5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off No. we suggest that you request both the real and imaginary parts to be expanded (HREXP.NUM) Specify the number. of Solutions to Expand Freq. 1500. 001972 .angle. you can use EXPSOL to identify a single solution for expansion (either by its load step and substep numbers or by its frequency value). This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over a frequency range (specified next). Default is to calculate stresses and forces. expanded solutions at 1250. . This way. Inc. BEGRNG. • Option: Stress Calculations On/Off (NUMEXP or EXPSOL) You can turn off stress and force calculations if you are not interested in them. and other results. © SAS IP. stresses.ALL). • Option: Phase Angle for Expansion (HREXP) If multiple solutions are to be expanded over a frequency range (NUMEXP). on the other hand. See the example above. If. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: Table 4. a single solution is to be expanded (EXPSOL).Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. ENDRNG) Specify the frequency range.2000 specifies four solutions in the frequency range 1000 to 2000 (that is. you can easily combine the two parts in POST26 to review the peak values of displacements. NUMEXP. • Option: Frequency Range for Expansion (NUMEXP. EXPSOL HROUT GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Each of these options is explained in detail below.1 . • 4–22 Option: Nodal Solution Listing Format (HROUT) Structural Analysis Guide . For example. If you do not need to expand multiple solutions. 2. • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON.

Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 4. 3. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method.RST).9. there is only one solution available for each frequency. Inc. and amplitudes and phase angles. The only options valid for a harmonic expansion pass are output controls: • Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname. Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE. 3. you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus frequency.1 .OUT).Section 4.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. 6. Caution: Subsequent spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File • Extrapolation of Results Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). You can now review results in the postprocessor. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2. (If you expanded solutions at several frequencies. except for one difference: if you requested expansion at a specific phase angle (HREXP. 4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution This step is the same as the corresponding step in a basic structural analysis with the following additions: You can review the results using POST1. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Leave SOLUTION.angle). ANSYS Release 8. 4–23 . and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. etc. Use the SET command to read in the results. Start expansion pass calculations. “Structural Static Analysis”. 001972 . Structural Analysis Guide .9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. strain versus frequency. See Section 2. Specify load step options.3. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default). 5.OUT). © SAS IP.4.

. PRCPLX.... ! Master DOF TOTAL.. ! Deformed shape PRRSOL.. ! Constraints F. ! Define how to list complex variables PRVAR. ! Forcing frequency range DMPRAT.. ! Loads (real and imaginary components) HARFRQ....... HREXP.ON EXPSOL... KBC. ! Number of harmonic solutions KBC.. M.. ! List reactions PLNSOL. TOTAL.. NSOL.. Sample Input A sample input listing for a reduced harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM. PRVAR.RFRQ NSOL.......1 .... ! Plot variables PRCPLX. 4–24 Structural Analysis Guide ... ! Harmonic analysis output options M.. D... ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX... ! Title /PREP7 ! Enter PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR....... Inc.... OUTRES.. . and PLNSOL commands. 001972 ...5. NSUBST.. EXPASS.HARMIC ! Harmonic analysis HROPT... HARFRQ. © SAS IP. DMPRAT...REDU ! Reduced method HROUT. HREXP. ! Damping ratio NSUBST. PLDISP. HROPT.. FILE. ! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU EXPASS.. ! Contour plot of nodal results -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE..... HROUT. ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP... SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Reenter SOLUTION Expansion pass Expand a single solution Phase angle for expanded solution ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET...Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. ! Jobname /TITLE.. EXPSOL... PRRSOL. PLVAR.RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname... PLCPLX.. ANSYS Release 8.9. ! Ramped or stepped loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! Review the Results of the Reduced Solution /POST26 FILE...

Obtain the mode superposition harmonic solution. you must expand the mode shapes. 5. 4.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT). ANSYS ignores the loads for the modal solution. The imaginary component of the load vector calculated from element loads will always be zero with only one exception: in a full harmonic response analysis or a mode superposition harmonic response analysis with the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. You can then use the load vector for the harmonic solution. therefore.) Do not change the model data (for example. If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution.10. • • • • • 4. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or in the modal analysis.MODE). temperatures. you must specify any damping (ALPHAD. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3.1. define constant material damping coefficients (MP. Expand the mode superposition solution. For the reduced mode-extraction method. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution.10. (If you want to review mode shapes. or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution. unsymmetric and damped. 4–25 . or QR damped. Of these. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. specify them in the modal analysis. accelerations. 4. Obtain the modal solution.2. nodal rotations) between the modal and harmonic analyses. the first step is the same as described for the full method. and so on). and the database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. do not apply to mode superposition. MP. BETAD. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero. Following are some additional hints: • • • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default). 2. ANSYS Release 8. PowerDynamics. Review the results. however. The mode shape file (Jobname. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the harmonic response. Build the model.1 .10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis 4.MODE) must be available. © SAS IP. subspace. If the modal solution was performed using the subspace or Block Lanczos Structural Analysis Guide . only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition). reduced.DMPR).DAMP. The remaining steps are described below. but calculates a load vector and writes it to the mode shape file (Jobname.10. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution In this step. the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic response. you can apply imaginary pressures via SURF153 or SURF154. 001972 . include those master degrees of freedom at which harmonic loads will be applied.) Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the harmonic response. no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is.Section 4. Inc. (The other methods. 3. If you need to apply harmonically varying element loads (pressures. It is the only method allowed in the ANSYS Professional program.

© SAS IP.ALL. at each frequency. except for the following restrictions: • Only forces. and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. The NSUBST command specifies the number of solutions on each side of a natural frequency if the clustering option (HROUT) is chosen. the number of modes specified should cover about 50 percent more than the frequency range of the harmonic loads.NSOL must be specified to print mode contributions at each frequency. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method. Save a copy of the database.1 . The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used. you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES. if the QR damped method is specified. The default is to calculate four solutions. To use this option. Apply loads on the model. If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or the subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. • 4.LANB or SUBSP). Structural Analysis Guide . 2. except for the following differences: • • Choose the mode superposition method of solution (HROPT). To avoid load duplication. Inc. Optionally.RFRQ. Enter SOLUTION. (Any value over this range defaults to 10 and any value below this range defaults to 4.NSOL.RFRQ file. forces may be applied only at master DOF. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. The following tasks are involved: 1.NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname.NONE.DMPR) can be defined. ANSYS Release 8. • • 3.component.NSOL. first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES. Generally. This determines the accuracy of the harmonic solution. 7. Specify the modes you want to use for the solution (HROPT). These are the same as described for the reduced method except that you can also specify modal damping (MDAMP). Specify load step options. accelerations. delete any loads that were applied in the modal analysis. but you can specify any number of solutions from 2 through 20. constant material damping coefficients (MP. 4–26 .) 5. including forces and accelerations.RFRQ file. Note that ALL loads from the modal analysis are scaled. 6. In addition. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the .FULL) must also be available.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis method using the default mass formulation (not the lumped mass approximation). 001972 . OUTPR. Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution. print a summary table that lists the contributions of each mode to the response (HROUT). Optionally. the full file (Jobname. These are the same as described for the full method. cluster the solutions about the structure's natural frequencies (HROUT) for a smoother and more accurate tracing of the response curve. then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES. Note.

.. D..5.10.Section 4..HARMIC HROPT... © SAS IP. as explained for the reduced method. for additional load steps).. 9. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1. ! Element loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate modal solution FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.9. LVSCALE.. F.REDU ! Reduced method M. Review the Results Results consist of harmonically varying displacements. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. Jobname. Inc. Repeat steps 3 to 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is.3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass). /TITLE.. and reaction forces at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. ! ! ! ! ! ! Harmonic analysis Mode superposition method. HARFRQ. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file. Leave SOLUTION. Block Lanczos.. HROUT. The mode superposition harmonic solution is written to the reduced displacement file. 4–27 .10.10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 8.MSUP. reduced. PowerDynamics. containing expanded results.. stresses. 4..10..4... 4... ANSYS Release 8.1 .. /PREP7 ------FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26).RST. cluster option Scale factor for loads from modal analysis Nodal loads Forcing frequency range Structural Analysis Guide . See Section 4. ! Masters TOTAL...3. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu...TRI from the modal analysis is needed only if the reduced eigenvalue extraction method was used... Sample Input A sample input listing for a mode superposition harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.. Jobname.. regardless of whether the subspace. Jobname. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results.. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. number of modes to use Harmonic analysis output options.MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT.. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method. 001972 .. ! Constraints SF...RFRQ.. 4.

MODOPT.. SET...ESAV from the static analysis must be available. such as a violin string.11.EMAT and Jobname. MDAMP..ON).. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis A prestressed harmonic response analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure. HREXP. Inc.1. NSUBST. PLVAR... also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. KBC. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed full harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other full harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. ! Plot variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution (for Stress Results) /SOLU! Re-enter SOLUTION EXPASS. and PLNSOL commands. HROUT. ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP... PLCPLX.. EXPSOL.RFRQ NSOL. You should be aware of this limitation and exercise some judgement about whether or not to include temperature loads in their static prestress analysis.. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Damping ratio Modal damping ratios Number of harmonic solutions Ramped or stepped loads ! Initiate solution ! Review the Results of the Mode Superposition Solution /POST26 FILE. NSOL. 2.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX. © SAS IP.... M. “Structural Static Analysis”.. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the full harmonic solution. HARFRQ.. 4. LVSCALE. MDAMP.ON ! Expansion pass EXPSOL. ANSYS Release 8. It is assumed that the harmonically varying stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. TOTAL. 001972 .Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis DMPRAT.... ! Phase angle for expanded solution SOLVE FINISH ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET.. EXPASS. 4. ... ! Deformed shape PLNSOL..11.. these thermal body forces must not be deleted during the full harmonic analysis or else the thermal prestress will vanish.. HROPT. ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR...1 ... any temperature loads used to define the thermal prestress must also be used in the full harmonic response analysis as sinusoidally time-varying temperature loads..1. ! Expand a single solution HREXP.. Hence.1. If thermal body forces were present during the static prestress analysis. The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2..11. DMPRAT.. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES.. Other Analysis Details 4.ON).. 4–28 Structural Analysis Guide . F.. NSUBST. KBC. ! Contour plot of nodal results --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. FILE. Files Jobname.RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname.

“Modal Analysis” for details.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. See Chapter 3. Inc. proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. you must first perform a prestressed modal analysis. 4–29 .1. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis To include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis.1.ON).3. “Structural Static Analysis”.2. Structural Analysis Guide .11. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other reduced harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1.Section 4. Files Jobname. 001972 .EMAT and Jobname. © SAS IP. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the reduced harmonic solution.11: Other Analysis Details 4. 2.11.ON). ANSYS Release 8.1 . 4. The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available.

4–30 .

You can use this type of analysis to determine the time-varying displacements. you can learn how the structure responds when those modes are excited. Structural Analysis Guide . and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static. Analyze a simpler model first. 4. For a nonlinear problem. A model of beams. In some cases.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. If you are including nonlinearities. masses. strains. If the inertia and damping effects are not important. try to understand how they affect the structure's response by doing a static analysis first. “Structural Static Analysis”).1. ANSYS Release 8. Inc. 2. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important. you might be able to use a static analysis instead (see Chapter 2.2. Substructuring is described in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. The time increment between successive time points is called the integration time step. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis A transient dynamic analysis is more involved than a static analysis because it generally requires more computer resources and more of your resources. For example. You can save a significant amount of these resources by doing some preliminary work to understand the physics of the problem. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis Transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called time-history analysis) is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time-dependent loads. This simpler model may be all you need to determine the dynamic response of the structure. The natural frequencies are also useful for calculating the correct integration time step. stresses. 001972 . nonlinearities need not be included in the dynamic analysis. By doing a modal analysis. 5. in terms of the “engineering” time involved. and springs can provide good insight into the problem at minimal cost. consider substructuring the linear portions of the model to reduce analysis costs. Understand the dynamics of the problem. 3. . you can: 1. which calculates the natural frequencies and mode shapes. © SAS IP.1 . these equations can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that also take into account inertia forces ((M){ u }) and damping forces ((C){ u }). transient. The basic equation of motion solved by a transient dynamic analysis is (M){ u } + (C){ u } + (K){u} = {F(t)} where: (M) = mass matrix (C) = damping matrix (K) = stiffness matrix { u } = nodal acceleration vector { u } = nodal velocity vector {u} = nodal displacement vector {F(t)} = load vector At any given time. and harmonic loads. t. The ANSYS program uses the Newmark time integration method or an improved method called HHT to solve these equations at discrete time points.

2. large strain.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. The disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • • The time step must remain constant throughout the transient.1. For procedural information about using the full method.1 . so automatic time stepping is not allowed. imposed (nonzero) displacements (although not recommended). 5. and reduced.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis. because you do not have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. • The main disadvantage of the full method is that it is more expensive than either of the other methods. . Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the transient dynamic analysis via the LVSCALE command. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods. Its advantages are: • • • It is faster and less expensive than the reduced or the full method for many problems. Three Solution Methods Three methods are available to do a transient dynamic analysis: full. large deflections. All displacements and stresses are calculated in a single pass.3. The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method. and so on). Inc. you should consider using one of the other methods because the full method is also the most expensive method of the three. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces. It allows all types of nonlinearities.3. It uses full matrices. so no mass matrix approximation is involved. we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of each. Note — If you do not want to include any nonlinearities. ANSYS Release 8. The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • It is easy to use. see Section 5. mode superposition. It does not accept imposed (nonzero) displacements. © SAS IP. and element loads (pressures and temperatures) and allows tabular boundary condition specification via TABLE type array parameters. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). It is the most general of the three methods because it allows all types of nonlinearities to be included (plasticity. This is the only method available in the ANSYS Professional program. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response. Full Method The full method uses the full system matrices to calculate the transient response (no matrix reduction). 001972 . 5. It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of mode number). 5–2 Structural Analysis Guide .3.

001972 . see Section 5. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF.Before reading this section. and ANSYS Structural products) consists of these steps: 1.4.) The advantage of the reduced method is: • It is faster and less expensive than the full method. 6.8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5.4: Set Additional Solution Options Section 5. Accelerations. are allowed. and force solution. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated.2: Establish Initial Conditions Section 5.10: Exit the Solution Processor 11.1 . the expansion pass might not be needed for some applications.4.4. 9. 5.4.11: Review the Results Structural Analysis Guide . you are encouraged to become familiar with the concepts presented in Chapter 2.Section 5.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis. 5.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step Section 5.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis. temperatures. ANSYS expands the solution to the original full DOF set. “Structural Static Analysis”. Section 5. known as the expansion pass. ANSYS Release 8. • • • • For procedural information about using the reduced method.3.6: Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step Section 5. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. Inc. 5–3 .4. A second step. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis Note . stress. We will then list the steps that are different for the mode superposition and reduced methods.4.4.3. is required for a complete displacement. see Section 5. Reduced Method The reduced method condenses the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. ANSYS Mechanical. The procedure for a full transient dynamic analysis (available in the ANSYS Multiphysics.4. © SAS IP. 2. 5. (See Section 3. 4.4. 3. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). (However. however. and so on) cannot be applied.) The time step must remain constant throughout the transient.4. We will first describe how to do a transient dynamic analysis using the full method.3: Set Solution Controls Section 5.9: Start the Transient Solution 10.14: Matrix Reduction for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure. 8.4. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom.1: Build the Model Section 5. Section 5. Section 5. 7.4.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis For procedural information about using the mode superposition method. so automatic time stepping is not allowed.) Element loads (pressures.5: Apply the Loads Section 5.

by definition. 5. the mesh should be fine enough to resolve the wave. If you are interested in wave propagation effects (for example. 001972 .1: “Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves”. A general guideline is to have at least 20 elements per wavelength along the direction of the wave. For further details.2. If you want to include nonlinearities. the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. a bar dropped exactly on its end).4. as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. To specify such loads.1 Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves 5–4 Structural Analysis Guide . plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. • 5. involves loads that are functions of time. A transient analysis. Material properties may be linear or nonlinear. and constant or temperature-dependent.4. isotropic or orthotropic.4. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when building a model for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • You can use both linear and nonlinear elements. you need to understand how to establish initial conditions and use load steps.1. Build the Model See Section 1. Inc.1.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.1 . Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. . For example. Some comments on mesh density: • • • The mesh should be fine enough to resolve the highest mode shape of interest. Each "corner" on the load-time curve may be one load step. you need to divide the load-versus-time curve into suitable load steps. Regions where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively finer mesh than regions where only displacements are of interest. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. Establish Initial Conditions Before you can perform a full transient dynamic analysis on a model.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.1.

1 .4 = 2.. as shown below. 5–5 . For instance.ON . it is usually much easier to define initial conditions explicitly.The nonzero velocity is established by applying small displacements over a small time interval on the part of the structure where velocity is to be specified.001/0..This is similar to the above case.UY. along with other load step options such as whether to step or ramp the loads.S01) Remove imposed displacements uo = 2. the condition at Time = 0). (assuming Y-direction velocity) Initial velocity = 0. You then specify the loads and load step options for the second and subsequent transient load steps. 001972 . if uo = o = 0.1. ANSYS Release 8. as documented below (rather than by using the IC command). both uo and o are assumed to be zero.. potentially leading to conflicting initial conditions. the initial velocity at every other DOF will be 0.. but you can specify nonzero initial accelerations by applying appropriate acceleration loads over a small time interval.UY TIMINT.0. © SAS IP.0 Initial velocity = 1. you need to specify both load values and time values. Nonzero initial displacement and/or nonzero initial velocity .25 Write load data to load step file (Jobname.5 Write load data to load step file (Jobname. you would apply Structural Analysis Guide . except that the imposed displacements are actual values instead of "small" values.001 TIME. Zero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity .ALL.0 and a displacement of 1. Establishing initial conditions is described below. The following paragraphs describe how to apply different combinations of initial conditions.. the remaining tasks are described later in this chapter. The first step in applying transient loads is to establish initial conditions (that is.. Zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity . In most cases.0 over a time interval of 0.004 = 0.ALL.0/0. if uo = 1. For example if u u uo = 0. ! ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Small UY displ.S01) Remove imposed displacements Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity .Section 5. You may apply the loads corresponding to the first corner of the load-versus-time curve in the first load step. you do not need to specify anything. If these conditions are not the same at every DOF. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the TIMINT and IC commands.ALL. Command(s): IC GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define Caution: Be careful not to define inconsistent initial conditions.. you can apply a displacement of 0. Initial accelerations ( o ) are always assumed to be zero. A transient dynamic analysis requires two sets of initial conditions (because the equations being solved are of u u second order): initial displacement (uo) and initial velocity ( o ).OFF D.OFF D.001 over a time interval of 0. . You then write each load step to a file and solve all load steps together.4: . TIMINT.ALL.UY ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Initial displacement = 1.You can set these initial conditions with the IC command. TIMINT.4 LSWRITE DDELE. For example. that is. you will want to define initial conditions at every unconstrained DOF in your model. and so on.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis The first load step you apply is usually to establish initial conditions. Inc. use automatic time stepping.004 LSWRITE DDEL.These are the default conditions. if you define an initial velocity at a single DOF.25.. For each load step..0 TIME.004.UY.5. If no special action is taken.

.S01) ! Transient solution TIME. the commands to apply an initial acceleration of 9..1.4..ON ...ALL. ! Use appropriate time step KBC. Set Solution Controls This step for a transient dynamic analysis is the same as for a basic structural analysis (see Section 2..S01) ! Transient solution TIMINT. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box.0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures . The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog 5–6 Structural Analysis Guide .4.0 and o = 0.. and KBC commands..UY. ! Constrain structure as desired ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname..UY ! Remove displacement constraints KBC. NSUBST. or ! else the initial acceleration specification will have no effect.. TIMINT. leading to a nonzero initial velocity.. . choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control. .1. the imposed displacements would vary directly with time. The example below shows how u to apply uo = 1.0: . Without the step change (or with just one substep). ! Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and zero initial velocity . KBC. 001972 .001 ! Small time interval NSUBST.1 ! Stepped loads LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname.. ! Remove displacement constraints (if appropriate) LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname. ANSYS Release 8. LSWRITE..Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis TIMINT.2 ! Two substeps KBC.0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) D.0 ! Initial displacement = 1..This can be approximated by specifying the required acceleration (ACEL) over a small interval of time. 5. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ACEL.001 ! Small time interval NSUBST. ACEL.. you must do so for the first load step of the analysis. Nonzero initial acceleration . You can then cycle through the Solution Controls dialog box additional times to set individual load step options for the second and subsequent load steps (as described in Section 5.ON ! Time-integration effects on for transient solution TIME.81 ! Initial Y-direction acceleration TIME. “Structural Static Analysis”) with the following additions: If you need to establish initial conditions for the full transient dynamic analysis (as described in Section 5. . For example...4.. ..4.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step).3.9..1).. ! Realistic time interval NSUBST.2: Establish Initial Conditions). DDELE.3..3. © SAS IP.0 TIME.1 . DDELE.ALL. TIME.This requires the use of two substeps (NSUBST.2: Set Solution Controls in Chapter 2.OFF ! Time integration effects off for static solution D.S02) .2 ! Two substeps KBC.81 would look like this: ..2) with a step change in imposed displacements (KBC. Inc. 5. .. ! Realistic time interval DDELE.1 ! Stepped loads ! The structure must be unconstrained in the initial load step.

specified using DELTIM or NSUBST. You can specify the time increment directly or indirectly (that is. Use the command /CONFIG. only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. the program will terminate with an error. The time step size determines the accuracy of the solution: the smaller its value. The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration of the equations of motion. and then click the Help button.1 .3. 5. If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification). see Section 5.2: Automatic Time Stepping for more information. Chapter 8. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.4. access the dialog box. select the Basic tab. For details about how to set these options. Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. and click the Help button. These limits. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. large rotation. When setting AUTOTS. Using the Transient Tab You can use the Transient tab to set the options listed in Table 5. 5–7 . by default. To write all substeps. You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2. choose Small Displacement Transient if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default.1: Guidelines for Integration Time Step for details. Choose Large Displacement Transient if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long. and large strain. help to limit the range of variation of the time step.1: “Basic Tab Options”. Inc.3.4. in terms of the number of substeps). and click the Help button. Also. see Section 5. For most problems. 001972 . you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls.10. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. and you want to extend the time-history. or you have previously completed a static prestress or a full transient dynamic analysis.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19.Section 5. select the Transient tab. the higher the accuracy. select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program).1: “Transient Tab Options”. Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.10. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem).RST) in a full transient dynamic analysis. Structural Analysis Guide .3. When setting OUTRES. we recommend that you turn on automatic time stepping. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. set the Frequency so that it writes all of the substeps. ANSYS Release 8. only the last substep (time-point) is written to the results file (Jobname. You should consider several factors in order to calculate a "good" integration time step. with upper and lower limits for the integration time step. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. remember that this load step option (which is also known as time-step optimization in a transient analysis) increases or decreases the integration time step based on the response of the structure. access the dialog box. © SAS IP.2.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis box. • • • 5. “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). The default is ON. NSUBST and DELTIM are load step options that specify the integration time step for a transient analysis.

7. TINTP is a dynamic load step option that specifies transient integration parameters.2: Transient Analysis in the ANSYS. See Section 5.2.4. 5. Exception: You cannot use arc-length options in a full transient analysis. See the following sections of Chapter 2.4.6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 2.4. Inc. • • • 5.3: Damping in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 17.2.3. or stiffness. ANSYS Release 8.4. Inc. © SAS IP.1 . “Structural Static Analysis”: 5–8 Structural Analysis Guide .1 Transient Tab Options Option Specify whether time integration effects are on or off (TIMINT) Specify whether to ramp the load change over the load step or to step-apply the load change (KBC) For more information about this option. The default is Newmark method. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis.5: Stepped Versus Ramped Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. For a general description of what additional solution options are.4. This option is useful when beginning a transient analysis from an initial static solution.1.10. “Structural Static Analysis” for a list of these options: • • • Section 2. Time integration effects must be turned on for inertia and damping effects to be included in the analysis (otherwise a static solution is performed).5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2. BETAD) Choose the time integration method. or mass. Newmark or HHT (TRNOPT) Define integration parameters (TINTP) • • • Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • TIMINT is a dynamic load step option that specifies whether time integration effects are on or off. the first load steps are solved with the time integration effects off.2. TRNOPT (TINTOPT) specifies the time integration method to be used. damping) are dynamic load step options for specifying damping options. Theory Reference • • Specify mass and stiffness damping (ALPHAD. so the default is to include time integration effects. . Inc.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Table 5.3. Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark and HHT time integration techniques.3. ALPHAD (alpha. 001972 .4. see: • Section 8.2: Damping Option for other damping options.5: Stepping or Ramping Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 5. Set Additional Solution Options The additional solution options that you can set for a full transient analysis are mostly the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs The options on the remaining tabs in the Solution Controls dialog box for a full transient analysis are the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. along with descriptions of those options that are the same.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab. Theory Reference ANSYS. damping) and BETAD (beta.3. see the following sections of Chapter 2. that is.

Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option to specify a lumped mass matrix formulation. However.8: Printed Output Section 2. see Section 5.4.10.DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7.3.5. We recommend the default formulation for most applications.3. such as slender beams or very thin shells.3. lines.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis • • • • • • Section 2. 5.Section 5.7: Creep Criteria Section 2. To use this option: Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5.3: Damping for further details. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis.1.3. Section 2. 5–9 . Damping Option Use this load step option to include damping.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a transient dynamic analysis. Also. and so on) To use the MP form of damping: Command(s): MP. Apply the Loads You are now ready to apply loads for the analysis.4. Prestress Effects You may include prestress effects in your analysis. See Section 5.2. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).4. 5.9: Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis for details. 001972 .4. Table 2.1: Stress Stiffening Effects Section 2.9: Extrapolation of Results Additional solution options for a full transient analysis that differ from those for a static analysis.3.4. ANSYS Release 8.3.2: Newton-Raphson Option Section 2.4: Structural Analysis Guide .4. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.4.3.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. the lumped mass approximation might provide better results.DAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP.3: Using the Transient Tab). This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis. Except for inertia loads. or have different descriptions are presented in the following sections. you can specify the following additional forms of damping for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • Material-dependent beta damping (MP.4. Inc.3.3. for some problems involving "skinny" structures.3.3. © SAS IP.3.3.1 . In addition to setting ALPHAD and BETAD on the Solution Controls dialog box (as described in Section 5. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5.3.

1 . NEQIT. . © SAS IP. NCNV..14: Solving Multiple Load Steps in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. operated on.2. In an analysis. see Section 3..4. Save a Backup Copy of the Database Save a copy of the database to a named file. 001972 . CNVTOL.4. NSUBST. . for each load step.4. and RESCONTROL. You may also want to have an additional load step that extends past the last time point on the curve to capture the response of the structure after the transient loading. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads. LSWRITE Etc.. ! Time at the end of 1st transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 2nd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 3rd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file 5.4.. 5–10 Structural Analysis Guide ..1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters. KBC.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Apply the Loads describes the types of loads that are applicable. AUTOTS. loads can be applied.. ANSYS Release 8. . OUTPR. and write the load configuration to a file. you can reset any of these load step options: TIMINT. or deleted. . Loads .. KBC. . .. PRED. CRPLIM. OUTRES. 5.. ERESX.3. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.8. see Chapter 2. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. apply loads.. LSWRITE TIME. removed. KBC.2: Establish Initial Conditions. LSWRITE TIME. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step As described in Section 5.. That is.. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 5. you need to apply loads and save the load configuration to a load step file for each corner of the load-versus-time curve. MP.. TINTP. DELTIM. Loads .4.. .9. BETAD. You can also apply time-dependent boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter). Loads . TIME.4. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5. you need to repeat steps 3-6.7. ALPHAD.. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step For each load step that you want to define for a full transient dynamic analysis.. reset any desired solution controls and options. For each load step. LNSRCH. An example load step file is shown below: TIME. KBC. Start the Transient Solution Use one of these methods to start the transient solution: Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files For additional ways to create and solve multiple load steps (the array parameter method and the multiple SOLVE method). Inc.. CUTCONTROL.6. See Section 2.DAMP..

or POST1. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus time.11. • • POST26 is used to review results at specific points in the model as functions of time. “Structural Static Analysis”. known as variables.11. that is. 5. POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific time points. see Section 4. “Structural Static Analysis”. damping. or static.6.4.10. nodal displacements) ESOL (derived data.Section 5. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions.3. 5–11 . Inc. See Section 2. 1.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. number of equilibrium iterations.2. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR. that is.4.11. Review the Results You review results for a full transient analysis in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses. or inertia component of total force) SOLU (time step size. and so on) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods. which is the time-history postprocessor.1 . 2. ANSYS Release 8.2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2.3.4. © SAS IP. 001972 .3. EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Structural Analysis Guide . Some typical postprocessing operations for a transient dynamic analysis are explained below. 5. Points to Remember The points to remember for a full transient analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. See Section 2.11. Command(s): NSOL (primary data. Define the variables.1: What Is Postprocessing? in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Each variable is assigned a reference number. such as stresses) RFORCE (reaction force data) FORCE (total force. which is the general postprocessor. Exit the Solution Processor Use one of these methods to exit the solution processor: Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. you can identify the critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.4. element solution data. only static force is available with the FORCE command.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.1. 5. response frequency. with variable number 1 reserved for time. 5. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26.4. Graph or list the variables.

. ! Results file data options LSWRITE ! Write first load step -----! Loads...4.. See Section 2..11. Read in model data from the database file... . ! Ramped or stepped loads TIME.. ! Loads SF. time... Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a full transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Time/Freq Perform the necessary POST1 operations. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. ! Time at end of load step AUTOTS.6. See Chapter 6.. ALPHAD. Using POST1 1... the results that are stored will be a linear interpolation between the two nearest time points.... ! Stiffness damping KBC.. are available in POST26.4. Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results. /TITLE.12.. ! Constraints F.2 ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST26 SOLU.1.. 5.. and moving array parameters into variables. © SAS IP..... ! Mass damping BETAD.....TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT. Use the SET command to identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time. 2... 001972 .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.5..3. The typical POST1 operations that you perform for a transient dynamic analysis are the same as those that you perform for a static analysis. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions. 5.ON ! Auto time stepping DELTIM.1 .11. ! Store solution summary data 5–12 Structural Analysis Guide . ! Time step size OUTRES.FULL ! Full method D. 3. ANSYS Release 8. moving variables into array parameters... “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details..4. Note — If you specify a time for which no results are available. for 2nd load step --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step SAVE LSSOLVE. such as performing math operations among variables. Inc.4.4: Typical Postprocessing Operations for a list of these operations. etc...

• • • • 5–13 .. ESOL. ESOL. Obtain the modal solution. ! PRRSOL. include those master degrees of freedom at those nodes at which forces and gap conditions are to be defined.2. PLDISP. For the reduced mode-extraction method. LSSOLVE. 3.DAMP.. (The other methods..5. SOLU. therefore.. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or Structural Analysis Guide . no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the dynamic response. ANSYS Structural.) PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. RFORCE.5. BETAD. © SAS IP. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. ANSYS Release 8. PLVAR. Build the model...Section 5... only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition).. PRVAR. unsymmetric and damped.5. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero.. and PRERR commands. PRRSOL. “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution. PowerDynamics. Obtain the mode superposition transient solution.. NSOL. 001972 . ! PLDISP. MP. This method is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. 5.... 5. ! PLNSOL. LSWRITE. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3. BETAD.. TRNOPT. 5... ALPHAD. PRVAR.. Review the results. See Section 5. DELTIM. 5. do not apply to mode superposition. subspace. Build the Model Building the model for a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis is the same as that described for the full method. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector..4. you must specify any damping (ALPHAD. If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution. TIME. 4. KBC.1: Build the Model for more information.1. and ANSYS Professional products..5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis NSOL. PLNSOL.. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. PLVAR. or QR damped. Inc..1 . AUTOTS.. RFORCE. OUTRES. ANSYS Mechanical. Expand the mode superposition solution. reduced. ! PRERR ! -----! Other postprocessing as --FINISH Read desired set of results into database Deformed shape Reaction loads Contour plot of nodal results Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) desired See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE.. Following are some additional hints: • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default).. Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the dynamic response. 2... FINISH ! ! ! ! ! Store nodal result as a variable Store element result as a variable Store reaction as a variable Plot variables List variables /POST1 SET.

001972 . if any.MODE) must be available. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. (If you want to review mode shapes from a reduced modal solution. Enter SOLUTION.4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths.3. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. • • • 5–14 .4: Set Additional Solution Options). For details.1. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for mode superposition transient analyses. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5. solution options that are valid for you to use. temperatures. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. © SAS IP. 5.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.4.2. 2.3. you must expand the mode shapes. These constraints will be ignored if they are specified in the mode superposition transient solution instead of in the modal solution. accelerations. The loads are ignored for the modal solution.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis in the modal analysis.11.5. Choose the mode superposition method of solution (TRNOPT). Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. • • 5.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. Obtaining the Solution The procedure to obtain the mode superposition transient solution is described below: 1.3. These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5. • • Specify displacement constraints. except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a mode superposition transient analysis. nodal rotations) should not be changed between the modal and transient analyses. 5. You can then use this load vector for the transient solution.4. When you specify a mode superposition transient analysis. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. but a load vector will be calculated and written to the mode shape file (Jobname. Structural Analysis Guide . you must specify them in the modal analysis. see Section 3.) The model data (for example.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and so on) in the transient dynamic analysis. Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE). Instead.4.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session.4.MODE). but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis).5.1 . Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution In this step. If you need to apply element loads (pressures. the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the transient response. Inc. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis.5. however. ANSYS Release 8.

a master DOF implies an unconstrained. and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading. 001972 . The first load step is used to establish initial conditions. Imposed nonzero displacements are ignored. a first solution is done at TIME = 0. The following load step options are available for the first load step: Table 5. active DOF. for example. ANSYS Release 8. SSTIF. gap conditions are not supported.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify the number of modes you want to use for the solution (TRNOPT). The following loading restrictions apply in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: • Only forces. This determines the accuracy of the transient solution. MDAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Command GUI Path General Options Structural Analysis Guide . When a non-reduced mode-extraction method is used. If you used the QR damped mode-extraction method. 5. In modal superposition transient analyses. the only load applicable for the first load step is initializing nodal forces. and a load vector created in the modal analysis are valid.TINTP ers Load Vector Damping LVSCALE ALPHAD. MP. forces may be applied only at master DOF. use MINMODE on the TRNOPT command to skip over them. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used. This establishes the initial condition and time step size for the entire transient analysis. The default is to use all modes calculated in the modal solution.6. the mode superposition method may yield poor results at TIME = 0 if nonzero loads are applied. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define Apply loads to the model. Establish initial conditions. if any. • Multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. At a minimum. If you expect higher frequencies to be excited. NROPT) are not available.Section 5. as explained next. More details about gap conditions are presented in Section 5.2 Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Paramet. Use the LVSCALE command (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super) to apply the load vector from the modal solution. If you do not want to use rigid body (0 frequency) modes. 5–15 . Nonlinear options (NLGEOM. Generally.1. 4. accelerations.3. you should use all modes that you think will contribute to the dynamic response. • • 3. For this pseudo-static analysis. BETAD. Define gap conditions. Inc. They can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground.1: Gap Conditions.1 . DMPRAT. © SAS IP. the number of modes specified should include the higher modes.

Constant material damping coefficient (MP. • The output control option for the first load step is printed output (OUTPR). The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme. You can use such a load vector to apply element loads (pressures.3: Damping for further details. the integration time step is assumed to be 1/(20f). see your ANSYS.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. Use this option to control printout of the displacement solution at the master DOF. You can specify five forms of damping in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: ¡ Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) ¡ Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) ¡ Constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) ¡ Material-dependent beta damping (MP.DAMP) ¡ Modal damping (MDAMP) Remember that. © SAS IP.S01) by issuing the LSWRITE command. The DELTIM command is valid only in the first load step and is ignored in subsequent load steps. as described earlier in Section 5. See Section 5. – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads. 001972 . – Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. Inc. 5–16 . temperatures.1 . Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname. ANSYS Release 8.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Option Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command DELTIM GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step • Dynamics options include the following: – Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique. it will be ignored. where f is the highest frequency chosen for the solution. Inc. Command(s): LSWRITE Structural Analysis Guide .5. By default. any damping that you specify in the mode superposition transient analysis is ignored if you used the QR damped mode-extraction method. and so on) on the model. Theory Reference for further details. • The only valid general option for the first load step is integration time step (DELTIM). which is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. Note — If you do issue the TIME command in the first load step.10.2: Obtain the Modal Solution. 6.

5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 7. Only one output frequency is allowed . The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE). To use this option.ANSYS uses the last frequency specified by OUTRES. 5–17 . 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. – Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) This option indicates whether to ramp the load change over the load step (KBC) or to step-apply the load change (KBC.LANB or MODOPT.NONE. Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion. • Output control options include the following: – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to control printed output.1 . in which case the default is to write every solution).Section 5. – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads. first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . Leave SOLUTION.SUBSP). 10. then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES. © SAS IP. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file.FREQ. • General options include the following: – Time Option (TIME) This option specifies time at the end of the load step. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. The default is ramped.COMP.NSOL.1). The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined.RDSP. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the reduced displacement file. Start the transient solution. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 9.RDSP file.RDSP file.NSOL.NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname. you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES. 8. The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution). Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files 11. If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT.

. ! Results-file data controls --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step (first transient load step) SAVE 5–18 Structural Analysis Guide . Block Lanczos.4.. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution..5.. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. etc. D..6. ! Master DOF TOTAL..5. regardless of whether the subspace...11: Review the Results). You can review these results using POST26 or POST1. and reaction forces at each time-point for which the solution was expanded. ! Time at end of second load step KBC.. Review the Results Results consist of displacements..REDU ! Reduced method M. ! Constraints SF... Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods... Jobname... for 2nd load step TIME.4..1 .) -----! Loads. ! Modal damping ratios DELTIM. reduced.TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT. .TRI is needed only if the reduced method was used for the modal solution.. Jobname. Inc. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a mode superposition transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.. ! Element loads ACEL.3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass))....6.. ANSYS Release 8. /TITLE. containing expanded results..RDSP... © SAS IP...... The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file...... 5.. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method (see Section 5.. Jobname.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition transient solution is written to the reduced displacement file. stresses.. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results... ! Scale factor for element loads F.5.RST... 001972 . ! Nodal Loads MDAMP. as explained for the full method (see Section 5. 5.MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT.. 5. PowerDynamics.. ! Ramped or stepped loads OUTRES. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE. only static force is available with the FORCE command. ! Integration time step sizes LSWRITE ! Write first load step (Remember: the first load step --! is solved statically at time=0. ! Mode superposition method LVSCALE.5.MSUP.

KBC... LVSCALE... PLVAR. ! Contour plot of nodal results PRERR ! Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE.RDSP ! Results file is Jobname. The procedure for a reduced transient dynamic analysis consists of these main steps: 1..6. and PRERR commands. Command(s): /SOLU Structural Analysis Guide . LSSOLVE. NSOL.Section 5.... M. 5–19 ... © SAS IP. Details of the other steps are explained below. MDAMP. Review the results of the expanded solution..... ! Deformed shape PRRSOL.. Of these. 001972 ... PLNSOL. ! No.. ACEL.1 . It is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. Build the model. MODOPT.. OUTRES. ! Store solution summary data NSOL. TIME. 5. ! Plot variables PRVAR.. 3. OUTRES. we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF... time range OUTRES. PRRSOL. NUMEXP. PRVAR. ! Read desired set of results into database PLDISP.RDSP SOLU. TRNOPT. the first step is the same as for the full method. TOTAL. DELTIM.. you need to first enter the SOLUTION processor.. 4. You should consider using this method if you do not want to include nonlinearities (other than simple node-to-node contact) in the analysis. Expand the solution (expansion pass). Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The reduced method. Obtain the reduced solution. as its name implies..6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis LSSOLVE FINISH ! Initiate multiple load step solution ! Review results of the mode superposition solution /POST26 ! Enter POST26 FILE. PLDISP. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are explained in the following sections. ! Reaction loads PLNSOL. Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution. Inc. FILE... 2.. except that no nonlinearities are allowed (other than simple node-to-node contact. For the following tasks.. which is specified in the form of a gap condition instead of an element type). 5. ANSYS Release 8.1. ! Results-file data controls SOLVE FINISH ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET.. and ANSYS Structural products. of solutions to expand.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLVAR. EXPASS. ! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION EXPASS. uses reduced matrices to calculate the dynamic response.ON ! Expansion pass NUMEXP. SOLU. ANSYS Mechanical.6. Review the results of the reduced solution. 5.

4. Define the Analysis Type and Options These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5. For details. See Section 3. When you specify a reduced transient analysis. Instead. .3.6.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5. MGEN. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session.14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE). or nonzero displacements.3. Define Gap Conditions Define any gap conditions. forces. For a reduced transient dynamic analysis. NROPT) are not available.4: Set Additional Solution Options) except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a reduced transient dynamic analysis. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). SSTIF. Define Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOF are essential degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure.11.6. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM.4.1.2. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. You can list the defined master DOF or delete master DOF as well. MLIST. GPDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> List All Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Delete 5. Command(s): M.4. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. Command(s): GPLIST. 5–20 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.1. © SAS IP.1.4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for reduced transient analyses. see Section 3.6.1 .3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.1. Choose the reduced method of solution (TRNOPT). TOTAL.4. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define You can also list the defined gaps and delete gaps. solution options that are valid for you to use. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to define gap conditions.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution 5. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5. MDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Copy Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> Program Selected Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Delete 5.1. Gap Conditions Gap conditions can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground. 001972 . as shown in the following figure. ANSYS Release 8. • • • • 5.6.1.

and L is the depth of the first layer of elements at the interface. forces. Only TRNOPT = MSUP allows the nonlinear gap damping action. The nonlinear gap damping provided through the DAMP field of the GP command runs faster than a full transient analysis using a gap element COMBIN40. using the loads given. ANSYS Release 8. E is the elastic modulus of the softer material at the interface. as explained next.1 . o = 0). Acceleration loading is not allowed if the model contains any master DOF at any nodes with rotated nodal coordinate systems. Structural Analysis Guide . Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. If the stiffness is too low. u u 5–21 .6. and translational accelerations (such as gravity) are valid. If the stiffness is too high.4. The ANSYS program accounts for the gap force. As mentioned for the full method. to determine uo.Section 5. Some guidelines to define gap conditions are presented below: • • Use enough gap conditions to obtain a smooth contact stress distribution between the contacting surfaces. a static solution is always performed as the first solution. that is. 001972 . Define a reasonable gap stiffness. by using an equivalent nodal load vector. Inc. The only initial condition that may be explicitly established is the initial displacement (uo). where A is the contributing area around the gap condition. • Establish initial conditions. In a reduced transient analysis.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Figure 5. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions. multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. which develops when the gap closes. Displacements cannot be deleted in subsequent load steps. a very small time step will be required during impact. © SAS IP. and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading. A general recommendation is to specify a gap stiffness that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than the adjacent element stiffness. the contacting surfaces may overlap too much. therefore they cannot be used to specify an initial velocity. initial velocity and acceleration must be zero ( o = 0.1. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model The following loading restrictions apply in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: • • Only displacements.2 Examples of Gap Conditions Gap conditions are similar to gap elements and are specified between surfaces that are expected to contact (impact) each other during the transient. Damping conditions are ignored for the reduced transient analysis method. You can estimate the adjacent element stiffness using AE/L. • 5.

3 Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Parameters Damping TINTP ALPHAD.6.1. BETAD. The integration time step is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. Inc. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0.3: Damping for further details. • Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. © SAS IP. General Options The only valid general option is Integration Time Step (DELTIM).2. see the ANSYS.1 . You can specify four forms of damping in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: – – – – Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) Material-dependent beta damping (MP. Dynamics Options Dynamic options include the following: • Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique.4.6. ANSYS Release 8. Note — If you do issue the TIME command for the first load step. MP. Valid options appear in Table 5.3: “Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis”. Theory Reference for further details. and so on) See Section 5.1. .1.10.Time Step Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command GUI Path General Options Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR DELTIM 5. 001972 . Inc.DAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time. 5–22 Structural Analysis Guide . The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme.4. Table 5. it will be ignored.DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7. 5.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify load step options for the first load step.

6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. Obtaining the Solution Solving a reduced transient dynamic analysis involves the same steps as those involved in solving a full transient analysis. 5.7.S01).1.RDSP.RDSP. For example. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available. Jobname.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method. © SAS IP.4. use the FILE command (Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File) to specify that data are to be read from Jobname. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced transient dynamic solution are written to the reduced displacement file.9: Start the Transient Solution Section 5. See the following sections for a description of those steps: • • • Section 5.6. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname.1) or ramped loads (KBC) Output Controls – Printed output (OUTPR) – Reduced displacement file (OUTRES) The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution). Output Control Options Use the Printed Output (OUTPR) option to output the displacement solution at the master DOF.5.1. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of time using POST26.6.2.1. The following load step options are valid for the transient load steps: • General Options – – • Time (specifies the time at the end of the load step) (TIME) Stepped (KBC. (POST1 cannot be used. Inc.Section 5. 5–23 .1. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5. writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE). except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables. 001972 .1 . They consist of time-varying displacements at the master DOF.4.4. 5. if the jobname is TRANS.10: Exit the Solution Processor 5. Specify Loads and Load Step Options Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion.4.6.6.6. The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined.8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5.6. the Structural Analysis Guide .3. in which case the default is to write every solution).

DB. and . 5. 2. © SAS IP.RDSP.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis FILE command would be: FILE. The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated. of Solutions to be Expan. then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements.ESAV. • Option: Number of Solutions to be Expanded (NUMEXP) 5–24 Structural Analysis Guide . Before you begin the expansion pass. you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical time points. stress.4 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off Command EXPASS GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq No. Reenter SOLUTION. if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF. 5. then you must perform an expansion pass. ANSYS Release 8.3. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass.3. However. (By default. For instance.EMAT. if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure.6.RDSP.TRI files from the reduced solution must be available. therefore.2. . which is not written by a reduced transient solution.6.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement.) • Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing. Points to Remember • • The . The procedure for the expansion pass is explained below.1 . Inc. . Activate the expansion pass and its options. Note — An expansion pass is not always required. 001972 .TRANS. Expanding the Solution 1. and force solution at all degrees of freedom. . These calculations are done only at time points that you specify.1. . Table 5. or if you are interested in the stress or force solution.6. 5. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables. POST26 looks for a results file.NUMEXP ded Single Solution to Expand EXPSOL • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON.

Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. strain versus time. 3. (If you expanded solutions at several time points.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method. ERESX allows you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default).6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus time. Leave SOLUTION.OUT). and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. and so on.6.1 . – Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution window. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). 5–25 . 5. © SAS IP. 001972 .Section 5. This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over the specified time range. The solutions nearest these times will be expanded. “Structural Static Analysis”. 4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution You review results for an expansion pass in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses. Specify load step options. 3.RST). The only options valid for a transient dynamic expansion pass are output controls: • Output Controls – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. 5. Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. • Option: Single Solution to Expand (EXPSOL) Use this option to identify a single solution for expansion if you do not need to expand multiple solutions in a range. You can review these results using POST1. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2. Start expansion pass calculations.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Specify the number.3. See Section 2. Inc. 6. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.4. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). You can specify it either by load step and substep number or by time.

The beam is not used in this solution and its area is arbitrarily input as unity.7. The time of maximum response (0. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 103 ksi m = 0.092 sec) is selected for the expansion pass calculation. The beam is subjected to a dynamic load F(t) with a rise time tr and a maximum value F1. determine the time of maximum displacement response tmax and the response ymax. A static solution is done at the first load step.1 . Problem Description A steel beam of length and geometric properties shown in Problem Specifications is supporting a concentrated mass.1 sec allows the mass to reach its largest deflection. m.7. Inc. Symmetry could have been used in this model. In this problem. 5. The final time of 0. One master degree of freedom is selected at the mass in the lateral direction.2. © SAS IP.0259067 kips-sec2/in The following geometric properties are used for this problem: l = 800.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. If the weight of the beam is considered to be negligible. 5. 001972 . Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) In this example. Also determine the maximum bending stress σbend in the beam.1. a steel beam supporting a concentrated mass is subjected to a dynamic load.6 in4 h = 18 in = 20 ft = 240 in. ANSYS Release 8. you will perform a transient dynamic analysis using the reduced method to determine the transient response to a constant force with a finite rise in time.075 sec 5–26 Structural Analysis Guide . .7. Loading for this problem is: F1 = 20 kips tr = 0.

1. 3. Click on Add. Define Real Constants 1. Inc. Structural Analysis Guide ." and click on OK. The Real Constants dialog box appears. 6. click on "Structural Beam. click on "2D elastic 3. Enter the text "Transient response to a constant force with a finite rise time. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. Specify the Title 1. click once on "Type 2. 2. 5. 4." and click on Apply.1 . 3. Click on Add.7. 2. 2.7. click on "3D mass 21. In the left scroll box. In the scroll box for Rotary inertia options. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete." Click on OK.3.7. The Element Types dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.Section 5. 9. 5.3." and click on Options.3 Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass 5.3.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 5.2. ANSYS Release 8. scroll to "2D w/o rot iner" and select it. 001972 . 8. 5–27 ." In the right scroll box. Define Element Types 1. © SAS IP. 7. Click on Type1 BEAM3 then Click on OK.3. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. In the Element Types dialog box. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Click on OK and click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 5." In the right scroll box.3. 3. click on "Structural Mass. In the left scroll box.7. Problem Sketch Figure 5.

Enter 240. 4.7. double-click on the following options: Structural. Click on OK. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box. Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus). Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. 5. 5. select 2 and click OK. Isotropic. 5–28 Structural Analysis Guide .3.3 for PRXY. 7. Define Nodes 1. Inc. Enter 1 for Area. 6. 8. 3. Enter 3 for node number. In the Element type number drop down menu. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. Define Elements 1. enter 0. Click on Type 2 MASS21 and click on OK. Define Material Properties 1. Elastic.6. 5. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 2. 5. 800.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 4. A dialog box appears. select “2 MASS21. 8. . In the Material Models Available window.0 for X. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS.0259067 in the 2-D mass field and click on OK.0. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. Y. 6. and click on OK in the picking menu. 3. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 6.7. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. Enter 1 for node number and click on Apply to define node 1 at 0.6 for IZZ. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 4. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. for MASS21 dialog box appears. Click once on nodes 1 and 2. In the Real Constants dialog box. 7.3. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. and click on OK. 9. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. and 18 for Height. Linear. The Real Constant Set Number 2. 3.4.0. 2.” In the Real constant set number drop down menu. Click once on nodes 1 and 3 in the ANSYS Graphics window. 5.0. © SAS IP.3. Click once on node 2 and click OK. Z coordinates and click on OK.5. 2. and click on Apply.7. 4.1 . click on Add. Enter . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Click once on nodes 2 and 3. Click on OK to accept the default settings. ANSYS Release 8. and click on OK. 7. 5.

"UY" should remain selected. 2. Click on node 2 and click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. 4. In the drop down menu for Damping effects. 6. The Apply U.1 . 5. Enter .8. The Apply U.9. and click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.7. 4. Inc. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. 7. 9. Click on node 3.7. © SAS IP. Define Master Degrees of Freedom 1. The Transient Analysis dialog box appears. Click on OK. Click on "UY" to select it and click on Apply. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options 1.3. 5.7.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 5.Section 5. 5.004 for Time step size and click on OK. select "FY. The Reduced Transient Analysis dialog box appears. Choose the menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. Click on OK. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Set Load Step Options 1. 5. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. 001972 . In the drop down menu for Direction of force/mom. 2. and click on OK. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears. Click on "UX" to select it.3.7. and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Apply Loads for the First Load Step 1.3. 3. Click on "Transient" to select it.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears.11. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Specify Output 1. Click on "Reduced" and click on OK. 4. ANSYS Release 8.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes." Click on OK.7. 3. 6. select "Ignore. select "UY. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define. 8. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 3. Structural Analysis Guide . 5–29 ." Leave the value as blank (zero) for the initial static solution.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 9.7. 2. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. In the drop down menu for 1st degree of freedom. The Apply U. Click on node 2 and click on OK.10. The Define Master DOFs picking menu appears.3. Click on node 1 and click on Apply. The Apply U." Click on OK.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.3. 4. Inc. 2. Enter . Set the Expansion pass radio button to On and click on OK. and click on Close.4. Run the Expansion Pass and Solve 1. 2. 5.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. 001972 . 6. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. and click on Close. Click on the "Every substep" radio button and click on OK. 4. ANSYS Release 8. Structural Analysis Guide .1 . . Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears.075 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Click on node 2 and click on OK.13. Enter .1 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.7. Enter 0.4. © SAS IP.3. 3. 3. The Expand Single Solution by Time/Frequency dialog box appears. 4. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Choose menu path Main Menu >Solution> Solve> Current LS. 3. 3.4. Solve the Next Load Step 1.1. 2. 5.7. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.12.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 2.092 for Time-point/Frequency and click on OK. 2. Enter 20 for Force/moment value and click on OK.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step. Set the Next Time Step and Solve 1. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears 5. 3. 5. 5. and click on Close. 2. Solve the First Load Step 1. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step 1. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. Review the information in the status window. 7.2. Review the information in the status window. 4.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 5. Review the information in the status window. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 5. 5–30 Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass.

Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar. The File Settings dialog box appears. 5.5.8. click on "Translation UY" to select it. then click on Close in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. 5. 7. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 9. 14. 15. Click on the save option you want.4. The graph appears in the ANSYS Graphics window.7. Click browse and select "file. 13.8: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 5. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. 5. 2. 5. 2. /PREP7 /TITLE.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File. Inc.rdsp" and click on open then OK. In the right scroll box. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. © SAS IP. 5. Review the information in the status window. 8. Click on OK. 10.1. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph and click on OK. 001972 . and click on OK. Review the Results in POST26 1. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Click on "Def + undeformed" and click on OK. 6. 3. Enter 2 for 1st variable to list and click on OK.7.4. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.4. 7. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables. ANSYS Release 8. 12. Review the Results in POST1 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. 11. Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time ET. and click on Close. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Pick node 2 and click OK. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. 2.BEAM3 ! 2-D beam Structural Analysis Guide . Enter NSOL for user-specified label. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. Accept the default of 2 for the reference number of the variable. 5–31 . 6.Section 5. 3.7.1 . The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. Make sure that 2 is entered for node number. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example transient dynamic analysis of a bracket using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Click on Add. Exit ANSYS 1.3.

6. h = 18 ! Mass ! Type 2 element with real constant 2 ! Master DOF in Y direction at middle of beam ! Transient dynamic analysis ! Reduced transient analysis. Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis You can include prestressing effects in a full transient dynamic analysis by applying the prestressing loads in a preliminary static load step.800.TRANS).TRANS TRNOPT. 5..004 D.2 REAL..2! Beam elements EGEN.. © SAS IP....NSOL PLVAR.2.1 .rdsp NSOL.) The procedure consists of two steps: 1.REDUC.FY.075 F. ignore damping ! Integration time step size ! Force = 0 at Time = 0 ! Time at end of load step ! Force is ramped to 20 ! Constant force until time = 0.2.2.1.0 FILE.UX.EX..MASS21.1 FINISH ! Define the variables ! Graph the variables ! List the variables ! Read in results ! Display deformed and undeformed shape 5. enter SOLUTION..1 TYPE.2 PRVAR.9. (Do not remove these loads in subsequent load steps.1.20 SOLVE TIME.1 OUTRES.1 /SOLU ! The following is the expansion pass using BEAM3 and MASS21 elements EXPASS.30e3 N.FIRST PLDISP. I = 800.092 ! Time of maximum response SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NUMVAR.1.2.U.2. depending on the type of transient dynamic analysis being performed.1 SOLVE FINISH ! 2-D mass ! Beam area = 1. such as a heat-treated part with residual thermal stresses..ALL.18 R..1 F.0 SOLVE TIME.2.0.2..1.UY FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 M.1 N.4 R. and define a transient analysis type (ANTYPE.ON ! Expansion pass on EXPSOL.240 FILL E..2 FINISH /POST1 SET.BASIC. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 .file.9.UY D.1.6.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis ET.Y. .0259067 MP.FY.. Prestressed-analysis procedures vary.3. Build your model.NODAMP DELTIM.2 E.1.2. Inc.UY OUTPR. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis A prestressed transient dynamic analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure.1.3. 5–32 Structural Analysis Guide .

To calculate an optimum time step. Once all load steps are written to files (LSWRITE). See Chapter 3.10: Other Analysis Details • • • • • Apply all prestressing loads.2. Inc. the higher the accuracy. the accuracy of the transient dynamic solution depends on the integration time step: the smaller the time step. you should consider the following guidelines: Structural Analysis Guide . Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced transient dynamic analysis requires that you first prestress the structure in a separate static analysis.3. The procedure to obtain a static solution is explained in Chapter 2.Section 5. 2. Set time equal to some small dummy value (TIME).1.DB. Files Jobname. 5. you can initiate the multiple load step solution (LSSOLVE). turn time integration effects on (TIMINT. Reenter SOLUTION (/SOLU) and obtain the reduced transient solution. If prestressing effects develop because of nonlinear behavior (as in the case of residual thermal stresses in a casting).10. 5. and damping. (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define) The IC command is valid only in the first load step. you should use the full transient dynamic analysis. also with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. you must first do a prestressed modal analysis.ON. © SAS IP. automatic time stepping.ON). ANSYS Release 8. Jobname. 1. 2.EMAT.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. you can capture the prestressing effect by issuing NLGEOM. Other Analysis Details The following sections provide additional details about defining integration time step. proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis.9. It is assumed that the transient (time-varying) stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. several load steps might be required to complete the static prestressing phase of your analysis.OFF). as explained below. A time step that is too small will waste computer resources. Turn time integration effects off (TIMINT.S01 (LSWRITE).10. and proceed using the full transient dynamic analysis procedures described previously. 5.1 . Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis In order to include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis. 5–33 .ON). If they are not.9. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. Note — The static prestress solution must be done as a separate solution if initial conditions are to be defined with the IC command. 5. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available. For all subsequent load steps. Write your first load step to Jobname. “Structural Static Analysis”. A time step that is too large will introduce error that affects the response of the higher modes (and hence the overall response).ON). Turn stress stiffening effects on (SSTIF. In the case of geometric nonlinearities (large deformation effects). “Modal Analysis” for details. Guidelines for Integration Time Step As mentioned earlier. 001972 .ON). and Jobname.

2. Resolve the response frequency. Since the dynamic response of a structure can be thought of as a combination of modes. The time step should be small enough to “follow” the loading function. The response tends to lag the applied loads. © SAS IP.1 . Transient Response”. the HHT method will be more accurate compared to the Newmark method. Resolve the applied load-versus-time curve(s). The time step should be small enough to resolve the motion (response) of the structure. The following figure shows the effect of ITS on the period elongation of a single-DOF spring-mass system. if f is the frequency (in cycles/time). especially for stepped loads. Stepped loads require a small ITS at the time of the step change so that the step change can be closely followed. ANSYS Release 8. Inc. Note that if the same time step and time integration parameters are used. 001972 . as shown in Figure 5. Notice that 20 or more points per cycle result in a period elongation of less than 1 percent. 5–34 Structural Analysis Guide . For the Newmark time integration scheme.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 1.4 Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation For the HHT time integration method. it has been found that using approximately twenty points per cycle of the highest frequency of interest results in a reasonably accurate solution. the same guidelines for time step should be applied.5: “Transient Input vs. . the integration time step (ITS) is given by ITS = 1/20f Smaller ITS values may be required if acceleration results are needed. ITS values as small as 1/180f may be needed to follow stepped loads. Figure 5. the time step should be able to resolve the highest mode that contributes to the response. That is.

5. Resolve the contact frequency. To minimize the energy loss. The integration time step can be determined from the contact frequency (fc) as: ITS =1/Nfc fc =(1/ 2π) k /m where k is the gap stiffness. Automatic time stepping is discussed next. the time step should be small enough to capture the momentum transfer between the two contacting surfaces. 4. m is the effective mass acting at the gap. you can let the ANSYS program decide when to increase or decrease the time step during the solution. Also. a time step that satisfies the preceding guidelines is sufficient to resolve the nonlinearities. 5–35 . Larger values of N may be required if acceleration results are needed. Resolve the nonlinearities. 001972 . Based on a problem time scale of unity. Inc. time steps smaller than 10-10 could cause numerical difficulties. for example. the higher frequency modes that are excited will have to be resolved. large deflection problems that change from bending to membrane load-carrying behavior).1: Build the Model for a discussion of element size.2. If you are interested in wave propagation effects. For the reduced and mode superposition methods.10. an apparent energy loss will occur and the impact will not be perfectly elastic. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. because the effect of any energy loss on the total response would be small. Transient Response 3. There are a few exceptions.Section 5. the Structural Analysis Guide . and N is the number of points per cycle. also known as time step optimization.1 . For most nonlinear problems. In problems involving contact (impact). Exceedingly small numbers can cause numerical difficulties.10: Other Analysis Details Figure 5. N must be at least 7 to ensure stability. resulting in computer resource savings. See Section 5. By using automatic time stepping. attempts to adjust the integration time step during solution based on the response frequency and on the effects of nonlinearities. Automatic Time Stepping Automatic time stepping. 5.5 Transient Input vs. the time step should be small enough to capture the wave as it travels through the elements. You can use fewer than thirty points per cycle during impact if the contact period and contact mass are much less than the overall transient time and system mass.4. Caution: Avoid using exceedingly small time steps. however: if the structure tends to stiffen under the loading (for example. Otherwise. use the minimum value for your analysis. The main benefit of this feature is that the total number of substeps can be reduced. After calculating the time step using the appropriate guidelines. especially when establishing initial conditions. Resolve the wave propagation. at least thirty points per cycle of (N = 30) are needed.

where the time step tends to change continually as different frequencies are excited Kinematics (rigid-body motion) problems. Table 5.5 Damping for Different Analysis Types Alpha. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. BETAD Static Modal Undamped Damped Harmonic Full Reduced Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No(5) Yes No(5) Yes No(5) No No No No Yes No No(7) N/A Material. 001972 .DAMP DMPRAT N/A N/A Modal Damping MDAMP N/A Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7. and so on) is greatly reduced.1 . You can activate automatic time stepping with the AUTOTS command.Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP. nonlinearities. If nonlinearities are present. turbine blade and hub assemblies). ANSYS Release 8. where the low-frequency energy content of part of the system may dominate the high-frequency areas Problems that are constantly excited (for example. The constant material damping coefficient is only applicable in full and modal harmonic analyses.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis number of times that you might have to rerun the analysis (adjusting the time step size. where the rigid-body contribution to the response frequency term may dominate 5. (For more information on automatic time stepping in the context of nonlinearities. © SAS IP. Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD. seismic loading). there are some cases where it may not be beneficial (and may even be harmful): • • • Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example.) Although it seems like a good idea to activate automatic time stepping for all analyses. The program will formulate the damping matrix (C) as the sum of all the specified forms of damping.DMPR N/A N/A 5–36 Structural Analysis Guide . . The following forms of damping are available in the ANSYS program: • • • • • • Alpha and Beta Damping (Rayleigh Damping) Material-Dependent Damping Constant Material Damping Coefficient Constant Damping Ratio Modal Damping Element Damping Only the constant damping ratio and modal damping are available in the ANSYS Professional program. automatic time stepping gives the added advantage of incrementing the loads appropriately and retreating to the previous converged solution (bisection) if convergence is not obtained. and Coefficient so on MP. Inc.10. see Chapter 8. You can specify more than one form of damping in a model. Table 5. Damping Damping is present in most systems and should be specified in a dynamic analysis.3.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” shows the types of damping available for different structural analyses.

ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition analysis Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis 7. α and β satisfy the relation ξi = α/2ωi + βωi/2 In many practical structural problems. an effective damping ratio is calculated for subsequent spectrum analyses If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method (MODOPT. 3. 2.Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP. i. 5. no α damping Damping is used only for mode combination and not for computation of mode coefficients Includes superelement damping matrix If converted to modal damping by expansion of modes If specified.6) Yes Yes Yes(4. In such cases. ANSYS Release 8. If ωi is the natural circular frequency of mode i. so choose the most dominant frequency active in that load step to calculate β. β damping only. 4. Alpha damping and Beta damping are used to define Rayleigh damping constants α and β.DAMP DMPRAT Yes(4. and Coefficient so on MP. as β = 2 ξi/ωi Only one value of β can be input in a load step. and you specify any kind of damping during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. you can evaluate β from known values of ξi and ωi. 5–37 . 001972 . 6.1 . ξi. Inc. The damping matrix (C) is calculated by using these constants to multiply the mass matrix (M) and stiffness matrix (K): (C) = α(M) + β(K) The ALPHAD and BETAD commands are used to specify α and β. ξi is the ratio of actual damping to critical damping for a particular mode of vibration.DMPR Yes(6) Yes Yes Yes(6) No No No N/A Yes Yes(7) No No No No No No N/A No Alpha. but are calculated from modal damping ratios. © SAS IP. MPRS(2) DDAM(2) PSD(2) Buckling Substructure Yes(1) Yes(1) Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes(6) Modal Damping MDAMP Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No N/A Not applicable 1.QRDAMP).6) Yes Yes No N/A Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7. respectively. as decimal numbers.10: Other Analysis Details Material. Structural Analysis Guide .Section 5. BETAD Mode Sup Transient Full Reduced Mode Sup Spectrum SPRS. Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD. alpha damping (or mass damping) may be ignored (α = 0). The values of α and β are not generally known directly.

The constant material damping coefficient is available only for full and modal harmonic analyses. as well as in the system response.6: “Rayleigh Damping”). an ANSYS model that has beta damping will experience a decrease in damping as plastic softening response develops. Figure 5. SOLID65.) The alpha damping coefficient. One common example is when an artificially large mass is added to the base of a structure to facilitate acceleration spectrum input. and is always evaluated at T = 0. COMBIN40. Modal damping gives you the ability to specify different damping ratios for different modes of vibration. MP. which is multiplied by the mass matrix. 001972 .DAMP). Element damping involves using element types having viscous damping characteristics. ANSYS Release 8. such as COMBIN7. Inc. Structural Analysis Guide . not β. however. β can only be specified for the element as a whole. The constant damping ratio is the simplest way of specifying damping in the structure. it is commonly assumed that the sum of the α and β terms is nearly constant over a range of frequencies (see Figure 5. that MP. These damping coefficients are multiplied by the stiffness matrix. rather than the material pointed to by any real constant MAT for the element. harmonic response. two simultaneous equations can be solved for α and β. COMBIN37. β is determined from the material pointer for the element (set with the MAT command). not for each material in the element. The resulting change in damping can sometimes be opposite to the actual change in damping that can occur in physical structures. © SAS IP. Note.6 Rayleigh Damping Alpha damping can lead to undesirable results if an artificially large mass has been introduced into the model.0. COMBIN14. Beta damping and material damping can lead to undesirable results in a nonlinear analysis. and SHELL99. Material-dependent damping allows you to specify beta damping (β) as a material property (MP. and so on. (You can use the large mass to convert an acceleration spectrum to a force spectrum. Also note that for multi-material elements such as SOLID46. For example.DAMP is not assumed to be temperature-dependent. and is specified as a decimal number with the DMPRAT command. Therefore.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis To specify both α and β for a given damping ratio ξ. given ξ and a frequency range ωi to ωj. In these cases. It is specified with the MDAMP command and is available only for the spectrum and mode superposition method of solution (transient dynamic and harmonic response analyses). SHELL91.SPECTR) specifies a material-dependent damping ratio ξ. 5–38 . and mode superposition transient dynamic analyses. DMPRAT is available only for spectrum.DAMP in a spectrum analysis (ANTYPE. It represents the ratio of actual damping to critical damping. whereas physical systems that experience softening due to plastic response will usually experience a corresponding increase in damping. will produce artificially large damping forces in such a system.1 . which is constantly changing in a nonlinear analysis. leading to inaccuracies in the spectrum input.

see the ANSYS.10: Other Analysis Details If you are running a mode superposition analysis and used the QR damping solution method for the modal solution. and element damping must be defined in the QR damping modal solution for the damping to be available in a subsequent mode superposition analysis.lysis(1) (modal lysis lysis(1) lysis(1) damping ratio) Modal Analysis QRDA(1) ALPHAD α BETAD β α[M] β[K] No α[M] No ΦTα[M]Φ = α ΦTα[M]Φ = α No Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i βωi 2 No β[K] MP.DAMP βm j Nm j =1 m ∑ β j [K j ] No No No Nm j =1 Nm m s ∑ βj Ej s ∑ Ej j =1 See Equation 17–104 in the ANSYS.6: “Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients”. Theory Reference Nm m ∑ β j [K j ] Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 No j =1 DMPRAT ξ Harmonic No 2ξωi 2ξωi ξ No 2ξ [K ] Ω MDAMP ξm i No No 2ξmωi i No 2ξmωi i No ξm i No No Element Damping Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne MP. For more information about damping. alpha (ALPHAD). material-dependent.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” is handled in a dynamic analysis. beta (BETAD).1 .tion Transient Ana. The explicit mathematical expressions that form the damping matrix in different analysis options are shown in Table 5. Inc. 001972 . Inc. These expressions define how each of the damping options in Table 5. © SAS IP.Spectrum AnaTransient AnaLANB(1) tion Harmonic Ana. Inc.6 Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients Analysis Type Full Harmonic & Modal Analysis Mode Superposi. 5–39 .DMPR βξ j Harmonic Nm j =1 No No No ∑ 2βξ [K j ] j Ω 2βξ [K j ] j Φ ∑ Φ Ω j =1 N T m Structural Analysis Guide . Table 5.Mode Superposi. Theory Reference.Section 5. ANSYS Release 8.

Transient Response to a Step Excitation VM77 .Displacement Propagation along a Bar with Free Ends VM85 . Inc. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Motion of a Bobbing Buoy VM179 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications. . ANSYS Release 8. For modal. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. mode superposition.Transient Displacements in a Suddenly Stopped Moving Bar VM91 . 5. 001972 .Dynamic Double Rotation of a Jointed Beam VM182 .Transient Response of a Bilinear Spring Assembly VM80 . © SAS IP.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Note — 1.Transient Response of a Ball Impacting a Flexible Surface VM71 .Logarithmic Decrement VM73 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. Damping System VM72 . Mass.Large Rotation of a Swinging Pendulum VM156 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.1 .Transient Response of a Drop Container VM84 .Transient Response to an Impulsive Excitation VM75 .11.Transient Response of a Spring-Mass System 5–40 Structural Analysis Guide . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program.Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM81 .Large Deflection and Rotation of a Beam Pinned at One End VM65 . describe additional transient dynamic analyses. However. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of transient dynamic analysis test cases: VM9 .Transient Response of a Spring.Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping VM74 .Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time VM79 .Large Lateral Deflection of Unequal Stiffness Springs VM40 . and spectrum analyses the boxes are split where applicable with the top indicating the Lanczos method and the bottom indicating the QR damped method.Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Spring-Mass System VM158 .

Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) In a multi-point response spectrum (MPRS) analysis. Inc.1. velocity. Definition of Spectrum Analysis A spectrum analysis is one in which the results of a modal analysis are used with a known spectrum to calculate displacements and stresses in the model. jet engine thrust. and so on. It is mainly used in place of a time-history analysis to determine the response of structures to random or time-dependent loading conditions such as earthquakes. Structural Analysis Guide . 6.2. as shown in Figure 6. © SAS IP.2. 6.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. such as at all supports. ocean wave loads. Three types of spectra are available for a spectrum analysis: • Response Spectrum – – • • Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Multi-point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) Power Spectral Density (PSD) The only method available in the ANSYS Professional program is the single-point response spectrum. Response Spectrum A response spectrum represents the response of single-DOF systems to a time-history loading function.2. It is a graph of response versus frequency. wind loads.1. as shown in Figure 6. . What is a Spectrum? The spectrum is a graph of spectral value versus frequency that captures the intensity and frequency content of time-history loads.2. you specify different spectrum curves at different sets of points.2. Two types of response spectrum analysis are possible: single-point response spectrum and multi-point response spectrum. rocket motor vibrations. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) In a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis. 001972 . acceleration. you specify one response spectrum curve (or a family of curves) at a set of points in the model.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (a). or force. ANSYS Release 8.1.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (b). where the response might be displacement. 6. 6.1.1.1 .

© SAS IP. 6. Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL-1396. In a singlepoint random vibration analysis.S. It is a graph of the PSD value versus frequency. acceleration PSD. where the PSD may be a displacement PSD. 6–2 Structural Analysis Guide .3. is probabilistic in nature. Mathematically.3. The technique is essentially a response spectrum analysis in which the spectrum is obtained from a series of empirical equations and shock design tables provided in the U. Build the model.2. A PSD is a statistical measure of the response of a structure to random dynamic loading conditions.2.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis Figure 6. the area under a PSD-versus-frequency curve is equal to the variance (square of the standard deviation of the response). 6. velocity PSD. Power Spectral Density Power spectral density (PSD) is a statistical measure defined as the limiting mean-square value of a random variable. a random vibration analysis may be single-point or multi-point.1 Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra 6. 001972 . 6. Probabilistic Analyses Response spectrum and DDAM analyses are deterministic analyses because both the input to the analyses and output from the analyses are actual maximum values. you specify one PSD spectrum at a set of points in the model. Inc. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis The procedure for a single-point response spectrum analysis consists of six main steps: 1. because both input and output quantities represent only the probability that they take on certain values. on the other hand. Deterministic vs.1 .4. Random vibration analysis. you specify different PSD spectra at different points in the model. In a multi-point random vibration analysis. Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) The Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) is a technique used to evaluate the shock resistance of shipboard equipment. It is used in random vibration analyses in which the instantaneous magnitudes of the response can be specified only by probability distribution functions that show the probability of the magnitude taking a particular value.2. or force PSD. ANSYS Release 8.2. Similar to response spectrum analysis. .

QR damped. • • • • • 6. Obtain the Spectrum Solution The procedure to obtain the spectrum solution is explained below. Inc.1 . Build the Model See Section 1. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. by performing the spectrum solution ahead of mode expansion. © SAS IP. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. you can expand only the significant modes that contribute to the final solution. Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid in a spectrum analysis.natural frequencies and mode shapes . Also. Obtain the modal solution. The other methods . 001972 .) Otherwise. if any. subspace.is needed to calculate the spectrum solution. it must be specified in the modal analysis. for example.3. The mode file and the full file (jobname. The number of modes extracted should be enough to characterize the structure's response in the frequency range of interest.2. Material properties can be linear. isotropic or orthotropic. and the database must contain the model data. leave the SOLUTION processor.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis 2.unsymmetric. so that modes are not expanded at this time. 6. • 6. ANSYS Release 8. Expand the modes. Review the results.Section 6. 6–3 . but can be expanded selectively in a separate solution pass.MODE.3. 6. If material-dependent damping is to be included in the spectrum analysis. 4. At the end of the solution. If you include contact elements.3. 5. and constant or temperature-dependent. Be sure to constrain those DOF where you want to apply a base excitation spectrum.1. 6. choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT]. damped. The modal solution is required because the structure's mode shapes and frequencies must be available to calculate the spectrum solution. but you should keep in mind the following additional points: • Use the Block Lanczos (default). Nonlinear elements.FULL) from the modal analysis must be available. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. are treated as linear. If you are using GUI method. jobname. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. 3. Structural Analysis Guide .1.3. are ignored.3. if any. choose YES to expand all the modes at this phase.1. For further details.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and PowerDynamics . Obtain the spectrum solution. Nonlinear properties. Combine the modes.are not valid for subsequent spectrum analysis. Obtain the Modal Solution The modal solution . “Modal Analysis”. or reduced method to extract the modes. The procedure to obtain the modal solution is described in Chapter 3.

SV frequency Curve Damping (Dynamics Options) Beta (Stiffness) Damping BETAD 6–4 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS offers the following analysis options for a spectrum analysis.1 . © SAS IP.vs. 3. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum. the higher the accuracy. • Option: Number of Modes to Use for Solution [SPOPT] Choose enough modes to cover the frequency range spanned by the spectrum and to characterize the structure's response. 2. Specify load step options.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Command ANTYPE GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Spec. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. of Modes to Use SPOPT for Solution • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. Enter SOLUTION. Inc.FREQ. Make sure to choose YES on the SPOPT command if you want to calculate element stresses. ANSYS Release 8. Table 6.2 Load Step Options Option Spectrum Options Type of Response Spectrum SVTYP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table or Spectr Values Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Command GUI Path Excitation Direction SED Spectral-value. . Not all modal analysis options and not all eigenvalue extraction techniques work with all spectrum analysis options.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 1. The following options are available for single-point response spectrum analysis: Table 6. • Option: Spectrum Type: Single-point Response Spectrum [SPOPT] Choose Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS). The accuracy of the solution depends on the number of modes used: the larger the number.ANTYPE trum Spectrum Type: SPRS SPOPT No. 001972 .

ANSYS Release 8. Another command. velocity.DAMP] is also available but only if specified in the modal analysis. each curve for a different damping ratio. – – Excitation Direction [SED] Spectral-Value-Versus-Frequency Curve [FREQ. Command(s): SOLVE Structural Analysis Guide . The following forms of damping are available: – Beta (stiffness) Damping [BETAD] This option results in a frequency-dependent damping ratio. acceleration.1 . You can define a family of spectral curves.10. 4.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis. “Transient Dynamic Analysis”.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis Option Command GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping DMPRAT Ratio Modal Damping MDAMP • Spectrum Options These data include the following: – Type of Response Spectrum [SVTYP] The spectrum type can be displacement. narrowband spectra. FZ. • Damping (Dynamics Options) If you specify more than one form of damping. as used in other analyses). Inc. 001972 . The PSD spectrum [SVTYP. and the direction is implied by labels FX. Start solution calculations. – Constant Damping Ratio [DMPRAT] This option specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. © SAS IP. a more robust random vibration analysis procedure is described in Section 6.3: Damping in Chapter 5. see Section 5. the spectral curve with the lowest damping is used. FY. the ANSYS program calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency. – Modal Damping [MDAMP] Note — Material-dependent damping ratio [MP. SV] SV and FREQ commands are used to define the spectral curve. they are assumed to be specified at the base. MP. or PSD. 6–5 .Section 6. Use the STAT command to list current spectrum curve values. that is. force. ROCK.4] is internally converted to a displacement response spectrum and is limited to flat.DAMP also specifies a material-dependent constant damping ratio (and not material-dependent beta damping. If no damping is specified. For further details about the different forms of damping. The force spectrum is specified at non-base nodes with the F or FK command. All except the force spectrum represent seismic spectra. allows you to specify a rocking spectrum. The spectral value at this effective damping ratio is then calculated by loglog interpolation of the spectral curves.

3. 6–6 . Note that solutions are not written to the file. 6. and the mass distribution for each mode. or reduced extraction method. mode coefficients (based on lowest damping ratio). If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. Enter SOLUTION. To obtain the maximum response of each mode (modal response). If you want to expand all the modes.1 . Details of how to expand the modes are explained in Chapter 3. If you are using the GUI method and want to expand all the modes. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for additional response spectra. You do this by retrieving the mode coefficient with the *GET command and using it as a scale factor in the SET command.) If you are using the GUI method and want to selectively expand modes. Command(s): MXPAND GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Expansion Pass> Expand Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the Block Lanczos. you must perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution. Expand the Modes 1. Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination operation in the subsequent mode combination pass. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. Leave the SOLUTION processor. Inc. choose YES for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal solution step. 5. 2.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The output from the solution includes the participation factor table.rst at this time.RST) only if the mode expansion is performed. But if you want to expand only the significant modes. which means no stresses are available for the spectrum analysis. By default. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Command(s): /SOLU Structural Analysis Guide . but you should keep in mind the following points: • Only significant modes can be selectively expanded. if any. choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal analysis phase. The procedure is as follows: 1. ANSYS Release 8.3. Click on the expansion pass option button on the Expansion Pass dialog box to signify YES for an expansion pass. be sure to request stress calculations here.5. 6. multiply the mode shape by the mode coefficient. You then perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution. 6. you can include the mode expansion steps in the modal solution pass by issuing the MXPAND command. which is part of the printed output. Combine the Modes Combine the modes in a separate solution phase. subspace. • • • Note that modal analysis solutions are written to the results file (Jobname. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass. lists the participation factors. The participation factor table. © SAS IP.4. 001972 . “Modal Analysis” under "Expand the Modes" as a separate solution pass.

Inc. (Elcalc = YES on the MXPAND command." etc. DSUM. stresses. you must request that element results be calculated in the modal expansion. "stress accelerations. 3. 001972 . Command(s): ANTYPE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis.. • Velocity (label = VELO) Velocity response refers to velocities." etc. ANSYS offers five different mode combination methods for the single-point response spectrum analysis: • • • • • Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) Double Sum (DSUM) Grouping (GRP) Naval Research Laboratory Sum (NRLSUM) The NRLSUM method is typically used in the context of the Dynamic Design and Analysis Method (DDAM) spectrum analysis. The following commands are used to invoke different methods of mode combinations: Command(s): SRSS. Choose one of the mode combination methods. etc.1 . "stress velocities. © SAS IP. • Acceleration (label = ACEL) Acceleration response refers to accelerations. GRP.. ANSYS Release 8..) Structural Analysis Guide . NRLSUM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Opts> Single-pt resp Main Menu> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Spectrum-Single Point-Mode Combine These commands allow computation of three different types of responses: • Displacement (label = DISP) Displacement response refers to displacements. Define analysis type. The DSUM method also allows the input of time duration for earthquake or shock spectrum.]." "force velocities. if you use material-dependent damping [MP. In addition. CQC. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum.DAMP. forces. 6–7 ." "force accelerations. Note — You must specify damping if you use the Complete Quadratic Combination method of mode combination (CQC).Section 6.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution 2.

Inc.MCOM. The overall response consists of the overall displacements (or velocities or accelerations) and. If you selected acceleration as the response type (label = ACEL). Review the Results Results from a single-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file. The mode combination method determines how the structure's modal responses are to be combined: • • • If you selected displacement as the response type (label = DISP). to review the results.6.MCOM contains POST1 commands that combine the maximum modal responses by using the specified mode combination method to calculate the overall response of the structure.MCOM file is overwritten by the additional mode combination step(s). Start solution. velocities and stress velocities are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. Read in this file in POST1 to do the mode combinations. ANSYS Release 8. Leave the SOLUTION processor. With the PRIN option.RST) from the modal expansion pass. . © SAS IP. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The mode combination phase writes a file of POST1 commands (Jobname.MCOM). NRLSUM).MCOM file. if placed on the results file during the expansion pass. If you selected velocity as the response type (label = VELO). Command(s): /INPUT 6–8 Structural Analysis Guide . You can use POST1. S2. S3. Remember that the existing Jobname.1 . SEQV. CQC. in the form of POST1 commands. The file Jobname.5. the general postprocessor. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. displacements and stresses are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. see the ANSYS Commands Reference for a description of the SUMTYPE command.MCOM. Refer to Section 5. SI) from the results file. using the results file (Jobname. 5. accelerations and stress accelerations are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. 1. GRP. strains (or strain velocities or strain accelerations). These commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by one of the mode combination methods).3. Jobname.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. Note — If you want to compute velocity or acceleration in addition to displacement. and reaction forces (or reaction force velocities or reaction force accelerations). 001972 .COMP) is to directly operate only on the unaveraged element component stresses and compute the derived quantities from these. Note that the command default (SUMTYPE. the overall stresses (or stress velocities or stress accelerations). Read the commands on Jobname. issue the SUMTYPE. Note — If you want a direct combination of the derived stresses (S1. Also. DSUM. 6.3: Creating and Combining Load Cases in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. repeat the mode combination step after postprocessing the displacement solution by using the VELO or ACEL label on the mode combination commands (SRSS.PRIN command before reading in the Jobname. component stresses are not available.

.. and displacements (UX. 6–9 ..).3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Read Input From For example. and load case combinations. Display results. use selecting (described in Chapter 7. strains (EPELX. such as stresses and strains. ANSYS Release 8. the results of the PLNSOL or PLESOL command are affected by the particular SUMTYPE command option (SUMTYPE. same shell thickness. UY. EPELY. such as stresses (SX. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.. etc. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials.). SY. These KEYOPTS write the mid-surface node results directly to the results file. © SAS IP. note the following: Structural Analysis Guide .Section 6. are available in POST1.COMP or SUMTYPE.. or other discontinuities meet. such as mapping results onto a path. Inc.). The default method of averaging the TOP and BOTsquared values to obtain a MID value can possibly yield incorrect MID values. • • • If you are using batch mode. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material.MCOM!Assumes the default jobname FILE 2.FILE. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. before issuing PLNSOL. Caution: Derived data.. If you previously issued the SUMTYPE command. Use the PLETAB command to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. You can view correct membrane results for shells (SHELL. 001972 . To avoid the smearing effect. EPELZ .1 . MID) by using KEYOPT(8) = 2 (for SHELL181 or SHELL93) or KEYOPT(11) = 2 (SHELL63). • Option: Vector Displays Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions. different shell thicknesses.PRIN) that you selected. • Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item. transforming results to different coordinate systems. issue /INPUT with the following arguments: /INPUT. UZ . SZ . and allow the membrane results to be directly operated on during squaring operations.

Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi m = 0. is subjected to a vertical motion of both supports. and the element solutions.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • The modal solution and spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. ANSYS Release 8.ON] solution pass with a mode combination command. Problem Description A simply supported beam of length . Determine the nodal displacements.1 . with spectrum loads [SV. © SAS IP. mass per unit length m. SED. 6.MODAL and EXPASS. 001972 . 6. FREQ].4.1. reactions forces. you determine the seismic response of a beam structure.MODAL] solution pass. SVTYP.2. and section properties shown in Problem Specifications.4. The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. 6. The motion is defined in terms of a seismic displacement response spectrum.4. Inc.2 lb-sec2/in2 The following geometric properties are used for this problem: I = (1000/3) in4 A = 273. . Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem.9726 in2 = 240 in h = 14 in 6–10 Structural Analysis Guide .

ANSYS Release 8.4.4.4. Inc. 2. 2. 2. The Element Types dialog box appears. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. Structural Analysis Guide .4. The Real Constants dialog box appears. Define the Real Constants 1. Problem Sketch Figure 6. Define the Element Type 1. 6. Scroll down the list on the left to "Structural Beam" and select it. Click on OK.4. 3.Section 6. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. 6.4.4. Type the text "Seismic Response of a Beam Structure" and click on OK. Click on OK.3.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes.3.4. 6–11 . The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 001972 . Click on Add. 6. Click on "2D elastic 3" in the list on the right. Set the Analysis Title 1.2.1. Click on Add. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Procedure 6. 5.1 . 3.4. © SAS IP.2 Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.

9726 for cross-sectional area. Enter 240.0 for X. Linear. The Global Element Sizes dialog box closes. 7.1 . The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.0. Enter 73E-5 for DENS (density). respectively. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size. double-click on the following options: Structural. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. 6.0. A straight line appears between the two keypoints. and Z coordinates. 12. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 2. 6. 3. Enter 8 for the number of element divisions and click on OK.4. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. Enter (1000/3) for area moment of inertia. and then on keypoint 2. 2. Define Material Properties 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Lines. © SAS IP. A picking menu appears. 4. Define Keypoints and Line 1. Enter 1 for keypoint number. 3.4.4.4. A dialog box appears. 5. Elastic. Inc. 5. 6. 8. Enter 14 for total beam height and click on OK.5.0. Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus). 6–12 Structural Analysis Guide . Click on OK. Enter 2 for keypoint number. Enter 273. Click on "keypoint numbers" to turn keypoint numbering on. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. Double-click on Density. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line.4. A dialog box appears. Y. 11.4. In the Material Models Available window. 6. Click on OK. Click on OK. 001972 .4. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Click on Apply to accept the default X. and click on OK. 7. 10. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 4. Isotropic. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 6. The picking menu closes. Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line 1. Click on keypoint 1. ANSYS Release 8. 2. 3. Y.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. A picking menu appears. . 9. The picking menu closes. Click on Pick All. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 5.6. Z coordinates of 0. and click on OK. 6.

and then click on Close. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. Carefully review the information in the status window.7. 4. 6. 7. of modes to print and click on OK. 8. click once on "UY" to highlight it.ROT on Nodes dialog box closes. Structural Analysis Guide . 2. 9. Click on OK. The Define Master DOFs dialog box closes.8. The New Analysis dialog box closes. Choose Pick All. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define. 6–13 . The picking menu appears. Inc. Set Up the Spectrum Analysis 1. In the graphics window. 6. © SAS IP. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Repeat steps 1-3 and select the node at the right end of the beam. and click on OK. 2. 3. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears.9. results dialog button [MXPAND] to specify YES. 4. Set Boundary Conditions 1. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 3. The Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box closes.4.1 . Click on OK. 10. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Specify Analysis Type and Options 1. 001972 .Section 6. The Apply U. Solve the Modal Analysis 1. and the Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 2.4.4. Click on OK. 3. 6. When the solution is finished. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained. Click on OK. Click on "Modal" to select it and click on OK. A picking menu appears.4. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. Click on the Calculate elem. 6. Enter 1 for the number of modes to expand.10. 6. Select UY for the 1st degree of freedom and click on OK. Click on "Reduced" as the mode extraction method [MODOPT]. This will reset load step count to 1. 11. The New Analysis dialog box closes. 7.4." Both "UX" and "UY" should be highlighted.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. The New Analysis dialog box appears.4. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. 4. Click on "Spectrum" to select it. Enter 3 for the No.4." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. 2.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears. click once on the node at the left end of the beam. The New Analysis dialog box appears.4. click once on "UX. along with a status window. The Apply U. Click on Close. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. The Modal Analysis dialog box closes. ANSYS Release 8.

Click on OK. Set up the Expansion Pass 1.4. Expand the Modes 1. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 5. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears.4. The New Analysis dialog box appears. The Settings for Single-point Response Spectrum dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of no damping. 6. Click on the expansion pass dialog button to turn it ON and click on OK. Enter 10 for the number of modes to expand and enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Spectr Values.4. 2. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step.Damping Ratio dialog box appears. Solve Spectrum Analysis 1. 3. and then click on Close. 4. Define Spectrum Value vs. The Expand Modes dialog box closes. respectively.4. 5. Click on OK. Click on "Modal" to select it. enter 10 for FREQ2. 6–14 Structural Analysis Guide . The Frequency Table dialog box appears.1 .0 for excitation direction into the excitation direction input windows and click on OK. ANSYS Release 8.4. When the solution is finished.4. 3. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table. The Spectrum Values dialog box appears.11. along with a status window. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. and click on OK. 4.14." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box.005 for the significant threshold. This will reset load step count to 1.4. 4. . Enter 0. The New Analysis dialog box closes.1.44 and 0. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Enter 0. The Spectrum Values dialog box closes. 4. © SAS IP.4. The Spectrum Values . Click on the calculate element results dialog button to specify YES for element results calculation. 6. The Expand Modes dialog box appears.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 3. 3.1 for FREQ1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass. Enter 0. 6. 4. The Expansion Pass dialog box closes.44 for FREQ1 and FREQ2. Carefully review the information in the status window. 6. and click on OK. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 2. Inc. The Expansion Pass dialog box appears. 6. Click on Close.13. 2.12. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings. Select "Seismic displac" in the scroll box as the type of response spectrum. Frequency Table 1.

Carefully review the information in the status window. Review the information in the listing window. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The New Analysis dialog box closes.16. Click on "Spectrum" to select it.4. Click OK. Click on Close. and click on Close. 4. 6–15 . Enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Mode Combine. 2. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis 1.4. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box closes. 6. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. 3. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION.4. and then click on Close. When the solution is finished.1 . Combine the Modes 1. 3. select the directory containing your results from the scroll box. The New Analysis dialog box appears. Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal. The SET Command listing window closes. Carefully review the information in the status window. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Results Summary.mcom file from the scroll box. Start Expansion Pass Calculation 1. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box closes. The SET Command listing window appears. and then click on Close. From the left side of the Read File dialog box. 3.4.4.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step.4. 2. Click on OK. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Inc. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Read Input From.4. 4.15 for the significant threshold. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box appears. This will reset load step count to 1. 2. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears.4. Select SRSS as the mode combination method. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box appears. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. 4. along with a status window. 6.Section 6. Structural Analysis Guide . select the jobname. 001972 . Click on Close. 3. 2. Select Mode Combination Method 1. and Reaction Solutions 1. © SAS IP. 3.15. along with a status window. 6. 4. The Read File dialog box appears.17. Accept the default spectrum type single-point response. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears.4. 4. 5.4. Select displacement for the type of output. From the right side of the Read File dialog box.18. and click on OK. Element.19. When the solution is finished.

240 D. 15. The List Nodal Solution dialog box closes.30E6 MP.. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. The PRESOL Command listing window appears.20. Inc.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. You are now finished with this sample problem. 10. Click on OK. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. 7.14 ! A = 273.1 .1. The PRRSOL Command listing window appears. 8. 11. Review the results in the listing window and click on Close to close the PRRSOL Command listing window.2.2 ESIZE. The List Nodal Solution dialog box appears.. 2. 14.EX. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu.X. 6.9726. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRESOL Command listing window.8 LMESH. The PRNSOL Command listing window appears.ALL. I = (1000/3).1.LOC.1.1. Scroll down the list to "All struc forc F" to select it and click on OK.UX.(1000/3).S. The List Reaction Solution dialog box closes. The List Element Solution dialog box closes. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution. H = 14 MP..1 K. 13.1.5. click on Quit. Exit ANSYS 1.X.4. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments. /PREP7 /TITLE Seismic Response of a Beam Structure ET. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRNSOL Command listing window.DENS. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution. .273.MODAL ! Mode-frequency analysis 6–16 Structural Analysis Guide .UY NSEL. Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example spectrum analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.1 NSEL.LOC. Click on OK to accept the default settings of "DOF solution" in the scroll box on the left and "All DOFs DOF" in the scroll box on the right. 9. Click on OK.9726..BEAM3 R. The Read File dialog box closes.240 L. 12. © SAS IP. The List Element Solution dialog box appears.4. 001972 .S.ALL..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.UY NSEL. 6. ANSYS Release 8.0 D.73E-5 K. In the ANSYS Toolbar. Scroll down the list on the left to select "Line Elem results" and select "Structural ELEM" on the scroll box on the right.

ALL.. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications. and DMPRAT commands....15 and displacement solution requested ! Print nodal solution ! Print element solution in element format ! Print reaction solution 6..PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-Mass System VM69 .SPECTR SRSS.UY OUTPR.1.ON MXPAND. CQC.Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM68 .BASIC.YES.6: Where to Find Other Examples MODOPT. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. NRLSUM.6..0.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.44. SRSS. D. Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 .ELEM PRRSOL.1.10.. calculate element stresses ! set signif=0. GRP. © SAS IP. MODOPT.. MXPAND....YES M.3 MXPAND. SVTYP. FREQ.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. However. EXPASS. SV.Section 6.Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM203 .1 . Inc.1 SVTYPE.Seismic Response VM70 .005 ! Square Root of Sum of Squares Mode combination ! with signif=0.15. freq.44 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LIST /INP.DISP SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SPRS SED. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. ANSYS Release 8.3 FREQ.mcom PRNSOL. SPOPT. table Spectrum values associated with frequency points ! Mode-frequency analysis ! Expand 10 mode shapes.REDUC. DSUM.005 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. print first 3 reduced mode shapes ! Expand first mode shape.F FINISH ! Householder.10 SV. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of spectrum analysis test cases: VM19 .. describe additional spectrum analyses. 6–17 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.DOF PRESOL.. SED. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.SPECTR SPOPT.MODAL EXPASS. calculate element stresses ! ! ! ! ! ! Spectrum analysis Single point spectrum Global Y-axis as spectrum direction Seismic displacement spectrum Frequency points for SV vs.

6.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. 1. 4. The mode expansion can be performed as a separate step. If you leave ANSYS after running the modal analysis. .1: Expand the Modes. . the first two steps are the same as described for a single-point response spectrum analysis. By default.7. be sure to request stress calculations here.EMAT. Expand the modes.ESAV. Combine the modes. Build the model. the following files from the modal solution must be available: Jobname.MODE. Obtain the Spectrum Solution To obtain the PSD spectrum solution. Choose YES for mode expansion. At the end of the expansion pass.7. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass. you must save the database at this point.7. © SAS IP. or can be included in the modal analysis phase. Obtain the spectrum solution. 3. 2. the database must contain the model data as well as the modal solution data. The procedures for obtaining the modal solution and expanding the nodes are combined into a single step. 5.1 .7. the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] contains an option for mode expansion [MXPAND]. Enter SOLUTION. 001972 . Expand the Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the subspace.FULL (only for subspace and Block Lanczos methods). In the GUI method. which means no stresses are available at the end of the spectrum solution. Inc.1. 6–18 Structural Analysis Guide . If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. Details about expanding the modes are explained in Section 3. In addition. or reduced extraction method. You then follow the instructions in Section 6.6: Expand the Modes. 6. you can combine the modal solution and mode expansion steps by including the MXPAND command in the modal analysis step (GUI and batch modes). . but keep in mind the following additional points: • • Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination step. you must save the database. Obtain the modal solution. leave SOLUTION with the FINISH command. ANSYS Release 8. 6. “Modal Analysis”. • • As explained in Chapter 3. If you want to exit ANSYS after running the modal analysis.RST. The procedure for the remaining four steps is explained below. How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis The procedure for a PSD analysis consists of six main steps: 1. Review the results. . Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options: 2. Of these.2. Random vibration analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program. . Block Lanczos.

If you specify more than one form of damping. • Damping (Dynamics Options) The following forms of damping are available: ALPHAD. velocity. ANSYS calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency. 001972 . force. a default DMPRAT of 1 percent is used.Section 6. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. pressure. Whether it is a base excitation or a nodal excitation is specified in Steps 4 and 5. If a pressure PSD is to be applied. You can issue STAT to list PSD tables and issue PSDGRAPH to graph them. © SAS IP. Specify load step options.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis • • For spectrum type [SPOPT]. – Alpha (Mass) Damping Command(s): ALPHAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Beta (Stiffness) Damping Command(s): BETAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping Ratio Command(s): DMPRAT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Frequency-Dependent Damping Ratio Command(s): MDAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Structural Analysis Guide . Since a curve-fitting polynomial is used for the closed-form integration of the curve. choose Power Spectral Density (PSD). you should add one or more intermediate points to the table until you obtain a good fit. PSDVAL. Command(s): PSDFRQ. Step 6 describes how to apply additional PSD excitations (if any). If the fit is not good. you should graph the input. 3. ANSYS Release 8. which is overlaid with the fitted curve. Note — If no damping is specified in a PSD analysis. BETAD. and MDAMP result in a frequencydependent damping ratio. The following options are available for a random vibration analysis: • Spectrum Data – Type of PSD Command(s): PSDUNIT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Settings The PSD type can be displacement. Inc. the pressures should be applied in the modal analysis itself. to ensure a good fit. PSDGRAPH GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> PSD vs Freq Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph PSD Tables PSDFRQ and PSDVAL are used to define the PSD-versus-frequency table. – PSD-versus-frequency table Define a piecewise-linear (in log-log scale) PSD versus frequency table. – – – 6–19 . Specify stress calculations ON [SPOPT] if you are interested in stress results.1 . or acceleration. Stresses caused by the spectrum are calculated only if they were also requested during the modal expansion pass.

A value of 0. or DA) for base excitation F (or FK) for nodal excitation LVSCALE for pressure PSD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Spectrum> Base PSD Excit> On Nodes 5. 6–20 Structural Analysis Guide . Begin participation factor calculations for the above PSD excitation.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis The remaining steps are specific to a random vibration analysis: 4. and Excit to specify whether the calculations are for a base or nodal excitation. Command(s): PFACT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calculate PF 6. FY cannot be applied to one node and FZ be applied to another). and 5 for each additional PSD table.NSOL. or acceleration solution.0 (or blank) can be used to remove a specification. PSDSPL and PSDWAV relationships might be quite CPU intensive for multi-point base excitations. Nodal excitation and base excitation input must be consistent when using PSDWAV and PSDSPL (for example.0 to indicate points where the PSD excitation applies. For pressure PSD.0 can be used to scale the participation factors. which specifies the amount and form of output written to the results file. Command(s): PSDRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calc Controls Table 6.1 . To limit the amount of data written to the results file. ANSYS Release 8. as necessary. use OUTRES at the mode expansion step. bring in the load vector from the modal analysis (LVSCALE). The only valid output control command for this analysis is PSDRES. .3: “Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis” shows a summary of the possible solution sets. FZ on the F command (for nodal excitation). Each of these can be relative to the base or absolute. For nodal excitation. Apply the PSD excitation at the desired nodes. repeat steps 3. and by FX. UY. Using OUTPR. values other than 1. Note — You can apply base excitations only at nodes that were constrained in the modal analysis. Use a value of 1. Use the TBLNO field to indicate which PSD table to use. Up to three sets of solution quantities can be calculated: displacement solution. The PSDSPL and PSDWAV commands are not available for a pressure PSD analysis. respectively. Specify the output controls. 7. for Parcor on the PFACT command. the degree of correlation between the excitations. The excitation direction is implied by the UX. Command(s): D (or DK. UZ labels on the D command (for base excitation). 001972 .ALL provides a summary table of the significant modal covariance terms. DL. If you need to apply multiple PSD excitations on the same model. Inc. © SAS IP. you must use SPATIAL or WAVE. You can use the scale factor. 4. Then define. FY. velocity solution. using any of the following commands: Command(s): COVAL for cospectral values QDVAL for quadspectral values PSDSPL for a spatial relationship PSDWAV for a wave propagation relationship PSDGRAPH to graph the data overlaid with the fitted curve GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Correlation Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph Tables When you use the PSDSPL or PSDWAV command.

3.. 2. stresses. etc. etc.7. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor. 6.7. stress velocities. • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. The procedure is as follows: 1. If you do not issue the PSDCOM command.2: Obtain the Spectrum Solution to first investigate the relative contributions of the modes toward the final solution.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis Table 6. 6–21 . If you want to exercise these options. strains. stresses.3 Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis Solution Items Form Relative. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum. Enter Solution.Section 6. Command(s): PSDCOM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Mode Combin The SIGNIF and COMODE fields on the PSD mode combination method [PSDCOM] offer options to reduce the number of modes to be combined (see the description of PSDCOM command). Only the PSD mode combination method is valid in a random vibration analysis. Start solution calculations. Structural Analysis Guide . it is prudent to print the modal covariance matrices in Section 6. ANSYS Release 8. stress accl's. Combine the Modes The modes can be combined in a separate solution phase. or neither velocities. on PSDRES) 8. force Relative. Start the solution. Relative. or neither Acceleration Solution (label ACEL Accelerations. 5. 4. absolute. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. 001972 . © SAS IP. the program does not calculate the one-sigma response of the structure. or neither Displacement Solution (label DISP Displacements. forces on PSDRES) Velocity Solution (label VELO on PSDRES) Velocities. absolute. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define analysis type. force accl's. This method triggers calculation of the one-sigma displacements. etc. absolute. 9. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor.1 . Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Inc. in the structure.3.

Table 6. © SAS IP.BASE] The following output. Table 6. Reviewing the Results in POST1 To review results in POST1. Also.1 Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set 6–22 Structural Analysis Guide . and force accelerations) You can review these results in POST1. stresses. 3. if mode combinations are requested [PSDCOM] and based on the PSDRES setting: • • • 1 σ displacement solution (displacements. 4. stress velocities.7. if you suppress the displacement. the time-history postprocessor.. Expanded mode shapes from the modal analysis Static solution for base excitation [PFACT. Note — Load step 2 is left blank if you specify only nodal PSD excitation. strains. and then calculate response PSDs in POST26. 3 4 5 1 1 1 Contents Expanded modal solution for 1st mode Expanded modal solution for 2nd mode Expanded modal solution for 3rd mode Etc. and forces) 1 σ velocity solution (velocities. velocity. strain accelerations. the corresponding load step is left blank.7. 1 sigma displacement solution 1 sigma velocity solution (if requested) 1 sigma acceleration solution (if requested) 6. .RST. or 5 in a PSD analysis.4 Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis Load Step 1 Substep 1 2 3 Etc.1.1. Inc.1. the general postprocessor. the superelement displacement file (.7.4. only) 1 2 Etc.4. and force velocities) 1 σ acceleration solution (accelerations. ANSYS Release 8.1 . Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database For example. 2. strain velocities. 001972 . 6.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6.4.4: “Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis” shows the organization. Jobname.3. Also. you first need to understand how the results data are organized on the results file. issue the command: SET. to read in the 1 σ displacement solution. 2 (Base excit. or acceleration solution using the PSDRES command. They consist of the following quantities: 1. Review the Results Results from a random vibration analysis are written to the structural results file. stress accelerations. Unit static solution for PSD table 1 Unit static solution for PSD table 2 Etc.DSUB) is not written for load steps 3.

7. Enter POST26.3. Command(s): NSOL.7. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the response PSD.PSD files are available.2.) are to be stored. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Store the frequency vector. stresses.RST and Jobname.1. ESOL. 4.7. Inc.4. The procedure to calculate the covariance between two quantities is as follows: 1.NPTS GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Store Data Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements. Command(s): STORE. 6–23 . reaction forces. reaction forces. Command(s): RPSD GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Resp PSD 2. Calculating Covariance in POST26 You can compute the covariance between two quantities available on the results file (displacements.2. Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 You can calculate and display response PSDs for any results quantity available on the results file (displacements. the time-history postprocessor. the time-history postprocessor. 6. etc. The frequency vector is stored as variable 1.RST and Jobname. ESOL. 6. velocities. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the modal contributions (relative response) followed by the contributions of pseudo-static and mixed part responses to the total covariance. and/or accelerations) if the Jobname.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis 6. Command(s): CVAR GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Covariance 2. NPTS is the number of frequency points to be added on either side of natural frequencies in order to "smooth" the frequency vector (defaults to 5).) are to be stored.PSD files are available. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements. The procedure to calculate the response PSD is as follows: 1.4.4. Display the Results Use the same options available for the SPRS analysis. © SAS IP. and/or accelerations). 3.Section 6. Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 . stresses. Note — Nodal stress averaging performed by the PLNSOL command may not be appropriate in a random vibration analysis because the "stresses" are not actual stresses but stress statistics.1 .PSD. and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the response PSD and store it in the desired variable. 3. if the Jobname. and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the contributions of each response component (relative or absolute response) and store them in the desired variable. velocities. etc. Command(s): NSOL. Enter POST26.

Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. Obtain the covariance. Command(s): *GET,NameVARI,n,EXTREM,CVAR GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data

6.7.5. Sample Input

A sample input listing for a random vibration (PSD) analysis is shown below:

! Build the Model /FILNAM, /TITLE, /PREP7 ... ... ... FINISH ! ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ANTYPE,MODAL MODOPT,REDU M, ... TOTAL, ... D, ... SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Expand the Modes /SOLU EXPASS,ON MXPAND, ... SOLVE FINISH ! ! Obtain the Spectrum Solution /SOLU! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE,SPECTR SPOPT,PSD, ... PSDUNIT, ... PSDFRQ, ... ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model

! ! ! !

Enter SOLUTION Modal analysis Reduced method Master DOF

! Constraints ! Initiates solution

! Reenter SOLUTION ! Expansion pass ! Number of modes to expand

PSDVAL, ... DMPRAT, ... D,0 PFACT, ... PSDRES, ... SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! Combine modes using PSD method /SOLU ! Re-enter SOLUTION ANTYPE,SPECTR ! Spectrum analysis PSDCOM,SIGNIF,COMODE ! PSD mode combinations with significance factor and ! option for selecting a subset of modes for ! combination SOLVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST1 ! Enter POST1 SET, ... ! Read results from appropriate load step, substep ...! Postprocess as desired ...! (PLDISP; PLNSOL; NSORT; PRNSOL; etc.) ... FINISH ! ! Calculate Response PSD /POST26 ! Enter POST26

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Spectrum analysis Power Spectral Density; No. of modes; Stress calcs. on/off Type of spectrum Frequency pts. (for spectrum values vs. frequency tables) Spectrum values Damping ratio Base excitation Calculate participation factors Output controls

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**Section 6.9: How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis
**

STORE,PSD NSOL,2,... RPSD,3,2,,... PLVAR,3 ... ! Calculate Covariance RESET NSOL,2 NSOL,3 CVAR,4,2,3,1,1 ! ! ! ! Store frequency vector (variable 1) Define variable 2 (nodal data) Calculate response PSD (variable 3) Plot the response PSD

! ! ! ! ! *GET,CVAR23U,VARI,4,EXREME,CVAR ! FINISH

Reset all POST26 specifications to initial defaults. Define variable 2 (nodal data). Define variable 3 (nodal data). Calculate covariance between displacement at nodes 2 and 3. Obtain covariance.

See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M, TOTAL, D, EXPASS, MXPAND, SPOPT, PSDUNIT, PSDFRQ, PSDVAL, DMPRAT, PFACT, PSDCOM, SUMTYPE, and PSDRES commands.

**6.8. How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis
**

The procedure for a DDAM spectrum analysis is the same as that for a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis (including file requirements), with the following exceptions: • • • Use the British system of units [inches (not feet), pounds, etc.] for all input data - model geometry, material properties, element real constants, etc. Choose DDAM instead of SPRS as the spectrum type [SPOPT command]. Use the ADDAM and VDDAM commands instead of SVTYP, SV, and FREQ to specify the spectrum values and types. Specify the global direction of excitation using the SED command. Based on the coefficients specified in the ADDAM and VDDAM commands, the program computes the mode coefficients according to the empirical equations given in the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. The most applicable mode combination method is the NRL sum method [NRLSUM]. Mode combinations are done in the same manner as for a single-point response spectrum. Mode combinations require damping. No damping needs to be specified for solution because it is implied by the ADDAM and VDDAM commands. If damping is specified, it is used for mode combinations but ignored for solution. Note — As in the Single-point Response Spectrum analysis, DDAM spectrum analysis requires six steps to systematically perform the analysis. If you are using batch mode, note the following: • • The modal solution and DDAM spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE,MODAL] solution pass with DDAM spectrum loads [ADDAM, VDDAM, SED]. The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE,MODAL and EXPASS,ON] solution pass with a mode combination command.

•

•

DDAM spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program.

**6.9. How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis
**

The procedure for a multi-point response spectrum analysis is the same as that for random vibration (PSD) analysis (including file requirements), with the following exceptions: • • Choose MPRS instead of PSD as the type of spectrum [SPOPT command]. The "PSD-versus-frequency" tables now represent spectral values versus frequency.

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Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • • • You cannot specify any degree of correlation between the spectra (i.e., they are assumed to be uncorrelated). Only relative results (relative to the base excitation) not absolute values, are calculated. All mode combination methods are available except PSDCOM. Results from a multi-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file, Jobname.MCOM, in the form of POST1 commands. The commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by the mode combination command in SOLUTION). The overall response consists of the overall displacements and, if placed on the results file during the modal expansion pass, the overall stresses, strains, and reaction forces. If Label = VELO or ACEL on the mode combination command (SRSS, CQC, GRP, DSUM, or NRLSUM) during SOLUTION, the corresponding velocity or acceleration responses are written to the mode combination file.

Multi-point response spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program.

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**Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis
**

7.1. Definition of Buckling Analysis

Buckling analysis is a technique used to determine buckling loads - critical loads at which a structure becomes unstable - and buckled mode shapes - the characteristic shape associated with a structure's buckled response.

**7.2. Types of Buckling Analyses
**

Two techniques are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional programs for predicting the buckling load and buckling mode shape of a structure: nonlinear buckling analysis, and eigenvalue (or linear) buckling analysis. Since these two methods frequently yield quite different results, let's examine the differences between them before discussing the details of their implementation.

**7.2.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis
**

Nonlinear buckling analysis is usually the more accurate approach and is therefore recommended for design or evaluation of actual structures. This technique employs a nonlinear static analysis with gradually increasing loads to seek the load level at which your structure becomes unstable, as depicted in Figure 7.1: “Buckling Curves” (a). Using the nonlinear technique, your model can include features such as initial imperfections, plastic behavior, gaps, and large-deflection response. In addition, using deflection-controlled loading, you can even track the post-buckled performance of your structure (which can be useful in cases where the structure buckles into a stable configuration, such as "snap-through" buckling of a shallow dome).

**7.2.2. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
**

Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength (the bifurcation point) of an ideal linear elastic structure. (See Figure 7.1: “Buckling Curves” (b).) This method corresponds to the textbook approach to elastic buckling analysis: for instance, an eigenvalue buckling analysis of a column will match the classical Euler solution. However, imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from achieving their theoretical elastic buckling strength. Thus, eigenvalue buckling analysis often yields unconservative results, and should generally not be used in actual day-to-day engineering analyses.

Figure 7.1 Buckling Curves

**(a) Nonlinear load-deflection curve, (b) Linear (Eigenvalue) buckling curve
**

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis

**7.3. Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis
**

You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a buckling analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. Likewise, you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. Section 7.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 7.7: Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show you how to perform an example eigenvalue buckling analysis via the GUI or via commands, respectively. For detailed, alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands, see the ANSYS Commands Reference.

**7.4. Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis
**

A nonlinear buckling analysis is a static analysis with large deflections turned on [NLGEOM,ON], extended to a point where the structure reaches its limit load or maximum load. Other nonlinearities such as plasticity may be included in the analysis. The procedure for a static analysis is described in Chapter 2, “Structural Static Analysis”, and nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8, “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.

**7.4.1. Applying Load Increments
**

The basic approach in a nonlinear buckling analysis is to constantly increment the applied loads until the solution begins to diverge. Be sure to use a sufficiently fine load increment as your loads approach the expected critical buckling load. If the load increment is too coarse, the buckling load predicted may not be accurate. Turn on bisection and automatic time stepping [AUTOTS,ON] to help avoid this problem.

**7.4.2. Automatic Time Stepping
**

With automatic time stepping on, the program automatically seeks out the buckling load. If automatic time stepping is ON in a static analysis having ramped loading and the solution does not converge at a given load, the program bisects the load step increment and attempts a new solution at a smaller load. In a buckling analysis, each such convergence failure is typically accompanied by a "negative pivot" message indicating that the attempted load equals or exceeds the buckling load. You can usually ignore these messages if the program successfully obtains a converged solution at the next, reduced load. If stress stiffness is active [SSTIF,ON], you should run without adaptive descent active [NROPT,FULL,,OFF] to ensure that a lower bound to the buckling load is attained. The program normally converges to the limiting load as the process of bisection and resolution continues to the point at which the minimum time step increment (specified by DELTIM or NSUBST) is achieved. The minimum time step will directly affect the precision of your results.

7.4.3. Important

Remember that an unconverged solution does not necessarily mean that the structure has reached its maximum load. It could also be caused by numerical instability, which might be corrected by refining your modeling technique. Track the load-deflection history of your structure's response to decide whether an unconverged load step represents actual structural buckling, or whether it reflects some other problem. Perform a preliminary analysis using the arc-length method [ARCLEN] to predict an approximate value of buckling load. Compare this approximate value to the more precise value calculated using bisection to help determine if the structure has indeed reached its maximum load. You can also use the arc-length method itself to obtain a precise buckling load, but this method requires you to adjust the arc-length radius by trial-and-error in a series of manually directed reanalyses.

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Section 7.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

7.4.4. Points to Remember

• If the loading on the structure is perfectly in-plane (that is, membrane or axial stresses only), the out-ofplane deflections necessary to initiate buckling will not develop, and the analysis will fail to predict buckling behavior. To overcome this problem, apply a small out-of-plane perturbation, such as a modest temporary force or specified displacement, to begin the buckling response. (A preliminary eigenvalue buckling analysis of your structure may be useful as a predictor of the buckling mode shape, allowing you to choose appropriate locations for applying perturbations to stimulate the desired buckling response.) The imperfection (perturbation) induced should match the location and size of that in the real structure. The failure load is very sensitive to these parameters. In a large-deflection analysis, forces (and displacements) will maintain their original orientation, but surface loads will "follow" the changing geometry of the structure as it deflects. Therefore, be sure to apply the proper type of loads. You should carry your stability analysis through to the point of identifying the critical load in order to calculate the structure's factor of safety with respect to nonlinear buckling. (Merely establishing the fact that a structure is stable at a given load level is generally insufficient for most design practice; you will usually be required to provide a specified safety factor, which can only be determined by establishing the actual limit load.) You can extend your analysis into the post-buckled range by activating the arc-length method [ARCLEN]. Use this feature to trace the load-deflection curve through regions of "snap-through" and "snap-back" response. For those elements that support the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (BEAM4, SHELL63, and SHELL143), activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1 and NLGEOM,ON) to enhance the convergence behavior of your nonlinear buckling analyses and improve the accuracy of your results. This element KEYOPT must be defined before the first load step of the solution and cannot be changed once the solution has started. Many other elements (such as BEAM188, BEAM189, and SHELL181) will provide consistent tangent stiffness matrix with NLGEOM,ON.

•

•

•

•

•

**7.5. Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
**

Again, remember that eigenvalue buckling analysis generally yields unconservative results, and should usually not be used for design of actual structures. If you decide that eigenvalue buckling analysis is appropriate for your application, follow this procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Build the model. Obtain the static solution. Obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. Expand the solution. Review the results.

**7.5.1. Build the Model
**

See Section 1.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. For further details, see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis

7.5.1.1. Points to Remember

• Only linear behavior is valid. Nonlinear elements, if any, are treated as linear. If you include contact elements, for example, their stiffnesses are calculated based on their status after the static prestress run and are never changed. Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) must be defined. Material properties may be linear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperature-dependent. Nonlinear properties, if any, are ignored.

•

**7.5.2. Obtain the Static Solution
**

The procedure to obtain a static solution is the same as described in Chapter 2, “Structural Static Analysis”, with the following exceptions: • • Prestress effects [PSTRES] must be activated. Eigenvalue buckling analysis requires the stress stiffness matrix to be calculated. Unit loads are usually sufficient (that is, actual load values need not be specified). The eigenvalues calculated by the buckling analysis represent buckling load factors. Therefore, if a unit load is specified, the load factors represent the buckling loads. All loads are scaled. (Also, the maximum permissible eigenvalue is 1,000,000 - you must use larger applied loads if your eigenvalue exceeds this limit.) Note that eigenvalues represent scaling factors for all loads. If certain loads are constant (for example, self-weight gravity loads) while other loads are variable (for example, externally applied loads), you need to ensure that the stress stiffness matrix from the constant loads is not factored by the eigenvalue solution. One strategy that you can use to achieve this end is to iterate on the eigensolution, adjusting the variable loads until the eigenvalue becomes 1.0 (or nearly 1.0, within some convergence tolerance). Design optimization could be useful in driving this iterative procedure to a final answer. Consider, for example, a pole having a self-weight W0, which supports an externally-applied load, A. To determine the limiting value of A in an eigenvalue buckling solution, you could solve repetitively, using different values of A, until by iteration you find an eigenvalue acceptably close to 1.0.

•

Figure 7.2 Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1.0

•

You can apply a nonzero constraint in the prestressing pass as the static load. The eigenvalues found in the buckling solution will be the load factors applied to these nonzero constraint values. However, the mode shapes will have a zero value at these degrees of freedom (and not the nonzero value specified). At the end of the solution, leave SOLUTION [FINISH].

•

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Section 7.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

**7.5.3. Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution
**

This step requires files Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV from the static analysis. Also, the database must contain the model data (issue RESUME if necessary). Follow the steps below to obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. 1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Specify the analysis type. Command(s): ANTYPE,BUCKLE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Note — Restarts are not valid in an eigenvalue buckling analysis. Note — When you specify an eigenvalue buckling analysis, a Solution menu that is appropriate for buckling analyses appears. The Solution menu will be either "abridged" or "unabridged", depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for buckling analyses. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is, solution options that are valid for you to use, but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis), select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. For details, see Section 3.11.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 3. Specify analysis options. Command(s): BUCOPT, Method, NMODE, SHIFT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method, you can specify values for these options: • For Method, specify the eigenvalue extraction method. You can choose subspace iteration or Block Lanczos. The Block Lanczos and subspace iteration methods use the full system matrices. See Section 3.5.2.3: Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] in this manual for more information about these solution methods. For NMODE, specify the number of eigenvalues to be extracted. This argument defaults to one, which is usually sufficient for eigenvalue buckling. For SHIFT, specify the point (load factor) about which eigenvalues are calculated. The shift point is helpful when numerical problems are encountered (due to negative eigenvalues, for example). Defaults to 0.0.

2.

• •

4.

Specify load step options. The only load step options valid for eigenvalue buckling are output controls and expansion pass options. Command(s): OUTPR,NSOL,ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout You can make the expansion pass a part of the eigenvalue buckling solution or perform it as a separate step. In this document, we treat the expansion pass as a separate step. See Section 7.5.4: Expand the Solution for details.

5.

**Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. Command(s): SAVE
**

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As 6. Start solution calculations. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The output from the solution mainly consists of the eigenvalues, which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname.OUT). The eigenvalues represent the buckling load factors; if unit loads were applied in the static analysis, they are the buckling loads. No buckling mode shapes are written to the database or the results file, so you cannot postprocess the results yet. To do this, you need to expand the solution (explained next). Sometimes you may see both positive and negative eigenvalues calculated. Negative eigenvalues indicate that buckling occurs when the loads are applied in an opposite sense. 7. Exit the SOLUTION processor. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

**7.5.4. Expand the Solution
**

If you want to review the buckled mode shape(s), you must expand the solution regardless of which eigenvalue extraction method is used. In the case of the subspace iteration method, which uses full system matrices, you may think of "expansion" to simply mean writing buckled mode shapes to the results file.

7.5.4.1. Points to Remember

• • The mode shape file (Jobname.MODE) from the eigenvalue buckling solution must be available. The database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated.

**7.5.4.2. Expanding the Solution
**

The procedure to expand the mode shapes is explained below. 1. Reenter SOLUTION. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. 2. Specify that this is an expansion pass. Command(s): EXPASS,ON GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Specify expansion pass options. Command(s): MXPAND, NMODE, , , Elcalc GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method, the following options are required for the expansion pass: • For NMODE, specify the number of modes to expand. This argument defaults to the total number of modes that were extracted.

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you cannot write information for every other mode.OUT).RST) from the expansion pass must be available. They consist of buckling load factors. 1. Note — To review results in POST1. Leave the SOLUTION processor.1 . You can make it part of the eigenvalue buckling solution by including the MXPAND command (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes) as one of the analysis options.Section 7. for instance. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname. the results file (Jobname. Start expansion pass calculations. Also. and relative stress distributions. the general postprocessor. buckling mode shapes. if requested. Jobname. The only options valid in a buckling expansion pass are the following output controls: • Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. 5. relative stress distributions for each mode. 7. Inc. the database must contain the same model for which the buckling solution was calculated (issue RESUME if necessary). but give you an idea of the relative stress or force distribution for each mode.5. no stresses are calculated.RST. 4.RST). indicate whether you want ANSYS to calculate stresses. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 6. You can now review results in the postprocessor. Specify load step options. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> DB/Results File Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. By default. © SAS IP. 7–7 .5. the data can be requested for all modes or no modes . 001972 . List all buckling load factors. Command(s): SET. You can review them in POST1. that is.LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Results Summary Structural Analysis Guide . "Stresses" in an eigenvalue analysis do not represent actual stresses.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis • For Elcalc. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and. Review the Results Results from a buckling expansion pass are written to the structural results file.

Only the upper half of the bar is modeled because of symmetry. and PLNSOL commands. BUCOPT. Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Contour the relative stress distributions. you will analyze the buckling of a bar with hinged ends. The boundary conditions become free-fixed for the half-symmetry model. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi The following geometric properties are used for this problem: = 200 in A = 0. Problem Description Determine the critical buckling load of an axially loaded long slender bar of length with hinged ends. D. 7. 7. The moment of inertia of the bar is calculated as I = Ah2/12 = 0.2.5 in Loading for this problem is: F = 1 lb.6. SET. (Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. .) Command(s): SET.1 . F.0052083 in4.25 in2 h = 0.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the mode shape. 4. PLDISP. ANSYS Release 8. OUTRES. PSTRES. 7–8 Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution 3. MXPAND.6. SF.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 2. EXPASS. © SAS IP. and area A.6. Read in data for the desired mode to display buckling mode shapes. The bar has a cross-sectional height h. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem. 001972 . Inc. 7.1.

and then click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 3.3.1 . 7–9 . 1. The Element Types dialog box appears. 2. 2. © SAS IP. Enter the text "Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends" and click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. click on "2D elastic 3" to select it. Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 . Click on Add. In the scroll box on the right. Inc.2. Problem Sketch Figure 7.6. follow these steps to set the title.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. Define the Element Type In this step. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 8.6. 7. Set the Analysis Title After you enter the ANSYS program.3 Bar with Hinged Ends 7. 1.3. you define BEAM3 as the element type. 5. 4. click on "Structural Beam" to select it.Section 7. In the scroll box on the left.1.3.6.

3. Node location defaults to 0. Define the Real Constants and Material Properties 1. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. and click on OK. The Copy Elements (Automatically-Numbered) dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes.0.6. Enter 10 for total number of copies and enter 1 for node number increment. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. The Copy Elems Auto-Num picking menu appears.6. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. Click on OK. 3. 10. 14. © SAS IP. The remaining elements appear in the ANSYS Graphics window.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. Click on OK. A dialog box appears. The two nodes appear in the ANSYS Graphics window. 10. 7. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 5. 6. 52083e-7 for IZZ. .25 for area. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. and click on OK. 7. and . Click on Apply. Enter 11 for node number. double-click on the following options: Structural. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. 8. The Real Constants dialog box appears. Click on Add.3. Y. Enter 0. Define Nodes and Elements 1. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Inc.5 for height. Click on OK. Then click OK to close the dialog box.1 . Z coordinates. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's modulus). 2. 2. Elastic. choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options and select the "Not Shown" option for Location of triad. To turn the triad off. Enter 1 for node number. 001972 . then 11. 6. then click on OK. Click on OK to accept the settings (fill between nodes 1 and 11. 13. 4. 7–10 Structural Analysis Guide . Click on nodes 1 and 2. 7. Linear. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. In the Material Models Available window. 11. Isotropic. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. ANSYS Release 8.0 for the X. Enter .4. 9. Note — The triad. 5. and number of nodes to fill 9).100. 9. by default. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears.0. 3. 4. 15. Click on Pick All. 8.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Copy> Elements> Auto Numbered. hides the node number for node 1. 12. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete. Click on node 1.

and click on OK. In the scroll box for stress stiffness or prestress.6. Solve the Buckling Analysis 1. then click OK. 10. click the "Eigen Buckling" option on. 7. Click on OK. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.7. 6.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished.3. 5. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. and enter 1 for number of modes to extract. Click on "All DOF" to select it. The force symbol appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. and click on OK. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.3. 2. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 7. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears.Section 7. The Static or SteadyState Analysis dialog box appears.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. scroll to "FY" to select it. and click on OK. Solve the Static Analysis 1. The Apply U. Enter -1 for the force/moment value. Define the Boundary Conditions 1. Click on the "Block Lanczos" option. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Click on node 11. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 9. In the scroll box for Direction of force/mom. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. 8. Structural Analysis Guide .3. 12. Enter 1 for number of modes to expand." Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. then click on OK in the picking menu.1 .6.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 7. This will reset the load step count to 1. 5. 3. The Eigenvalue Buckling Options dialog box appears. Note — Click on Close in the Warning window if the following warning appears: Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step.6. 2. 4. scroll to "Prestress ON" to select it. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. then click on OK.6. and click on Close. © SAS IP. 7. 3. In the New Analysis dialog box. Carefully review the information in the status window. The New Analysis dialog box appears. The Apply U. 6. 4. 8. 11. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.5. Click OK to accept the default of "Static. Click on node 1 in the ANSYS Graphics window. 4. 7–11 . The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears.

STATIC PSTRES.1. height MP. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.11. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments. 7.FY.6. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.-1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.10.1. The deformed and undeformed shapes appear in the ANSYS graphics window.8. Exit ANSYS 1. Click on OK.ALL F.1 MXPAND.3.. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.1. 2. © SAS IP.100 FILL E.6. Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example buckling analysis of a bar with hinged ends using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.1 FINISH ! ! ! ! Static analysis Calculate prestress effects Fix symmetry ends Unit load at free end ! Buckling analysis ! Use Block Lanczos solution method. extract 1 mode ! Expand 1 mode shape 7.11.9. . Review the Results 1.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 9. Carefully review the information in the status window.. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. 7.1.8.2 EGEN.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 ! Area.25. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears.ON D.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.7. Inc. 001972 .. and click on Close.52083E-7. 10.LANB.EX.30E6 ! Define material properties N.1. 2. In the ANSYS Toolbar. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. 11. the ANSYS Verification 7–12 Structural Analysis Guide .BUCKLE BUCOPT. /PREP7 /TITLE. BUCKLING OF A BAR WITH HINGED SOLVES ET. Click the "Def + undeformed" option on.IZZ. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. describe additional buckling analyses.1 N.FIRST PLDISP. click on Quit.3. 7.1 . ANSYS Release 8.BEAM3 ! Beam element R.

The ANSYS Verification Manual contains a variety of buckling analysis test cases: VM17 . ANSYS Release 8.Snap-Through Buckling of a Hinged Shell VM127 . 7–13 .Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Area Elements) Structural Analysis Guide . most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.Section 7. Inc.1 .8: Where to Find Other Examples Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However. © SAS IP.Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Line Elements) VM128 . 001972 .

7–14 .

you would discover that they all exhibit the fundamental characteristic of nonlinear structural behavior . Causes of Nonlinear Behavior Nonlinear structural behavior arises from a number of causes. the metal staples are permanently bent into a different shape. (See Figure (c).) As weight is added to a car or truck. whenever you staple two pieces of paper together. 001972 . which can be grouped into these principal categories: • • • Changing status Geometric nonlinearities Material nonlinearities Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.) If you were to plot the load-deflection curve for each of these examples.1 . it will sag more and more as time passes.1 Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior 8.a changing structural stiffness. ANSYS Release 8. For instance. What is Structural Nonlinearity? You encounter structural nonlinearities on a routine basis. .) If you heavily load a wooden shelf.1. the contact surfaces between its pneumatic tires and the underlying pavement change in response to the added load. (See Figure 8. Figure 8.1. Inc.1: “Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior” (a).1. (See Figure (b). © SAS IP.

Material Nonlinearities Nonlinear stress-strain relationships are a common cause of nonlinear structural behavior. a roller support is either in contact or not in contact. “Contact” for detailed information on performing contact analyses using ANSYS. Geometric nonlinearity is characterized by "large" displacements and/or rotations. See Chapter 11.2. For example. 001972 . and the amount of time that a load is applied (as in creep response).3: “Newton-Raphson Approach” illustrates the use of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations in a single DOF nonlinear analysis.1. Many factors can influence a material's stress-strain properties. Status changes might be directly related to load (as in the case of the cable). its changing geometric configuration can cause the structure to respond nonlinearly. a tensiononly cable is either slack or taut. Figure 8. Contact forms a distinctive and important subset to the category of changing-status nonlinearities.1.1 . © SAS IP. Geometric Nonlinearities If a structure experiences large deformations. or they might be determined by some external cause.1. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ANSYS employs the "Newton-Raphson" approach to solve nonlinear problems. Changing Status (Including Contact) Many common structural features exhibit nonlinear behavior that is status-dependent.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.3.1. Figure 8. .2: “A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity”. In this approach. 8–2 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.1. The load increments can be applied over several load steps. environmental conditions (such as temperature). including load history (as in elastoplastic response). the load is subdivided into a series of load increments.1. 8. Situations in which contact occurs are common to many different nonlinear applications.1. ANSYS Release 8.2.2 A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity 8. 8. An example would be the fishing rod shown in Figure 8.1.

For such situations. 001972 . the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or non-unique). the Newton-Raphson method evaluates the out-of-balance load vector.4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. even when the slope of the load vs. if you use the Newton-Raphson method alone.1 . thereby often preventing divergence. can be activated to help the problem to converge. and a new solution is obtained. A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? Figure 8. using the out-of-balance loads. Inc. This iteration method is represented schematically in Figure 8.Section 8. the out-of-balance load vector is reevaluated. ArcLength Method”. to help avoid bifurcation points and track unloading. then the program attempts to solve with a smaller load increment. ANSYS Release 8. This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges. If convergence criteria are not satisfied. the stiffness matrix is updated. automatic load stepping. causing severe convergence difficulties. The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations to converge along an arc. which is the difference between the restoring forces (the loads corresponding to the element stresses) and the applied loads. Structural Analysis Guide .3 Newton-Raphson Approach Before each solution. such as line search. Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to another stable configuration. and bisection. deflection curve becomes zero or negative. and checks for convergence. the arc-length method. The program then performs a linear solution. In some nonlinear static analyses. 8–3 . you can activate an alternative iteration scheme. If convergence cannot be achieved. © SAS IP.

. Arc-Length Method To summarize.4 Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs.5: “Load Steps. Substeps. Substeps. and equilibrium iterations in Chapter 2. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). • • Figure 8. a nonlinear analysis is organized into three levels of operation: • The "top" level consists of the load steps that you define explicitly over a "time" span (see the discussion of "time" in Chapter 2. the program will perform a number of equilibrium iterations to obtain a converged solution. ANSYS Release 8. Loads are assumed to vary linearly within load steps (for static analyses). Inc.5 Load Steps. substeps. Also see the discussion of load steps. Within each load step. and Time 8–4 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.1 . and Time” illustrates a typical load history for a nonlinear analysis. © SAS IP. 001972 . Figure 8. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. you can direct the program to perform several solutions (substeps or time steps) to apply the load gradually. At each substep.

the system is said to be conservative. You should almost always employ a force-based (and. but at a cost of increased run times.1.1 . you also have a choice of convergence norms. each item can have a different convergence tolerance value. Substeps When using multiple substeps. An example of a nonconservative system is shown in Figure 8. This feature will cut a time step size in half whenever equilibrium iterations fail to converge and automatically restart from the last converged Structural Analysis Guide . Additionally. 8–5 . or on any combination of these items. moments. displacements. Path dependent problems usually require that loads be applied slowly (that is. Automatic time stepping adjusts the time step size as needed. or rotations.1. Automatic time stepping activates the ANSYS program's bisection feature. an analysis of a nonconservative system is path dependent: the actual load-response history of the system must be followed closely to obtain accurate results. ANSYS provides automatic time stepping that is designed for this purpose. 8. moment-based) convergence tolerance.1. ANSYS Release 8. Displacement-based (and. you need to achieve a balance between accuracy and economy: more substeps (that is. Path Dependency If all energy put into a system by external loads is recovered when the loads are removed.2. when applicable.2. small time step sizes) usually result in better accuracy.2. © SAS IP. For multiple-degree-of-freedom problems. gaining a better balance between accuracy and economy. rotation-based) convergence checking can be added. Figure 8. An analysis can also be path dependent if more than one solution could be valid for a given load level (as in a snap-through analysis). Inc. the system is said to be nonconservative. An analysis of a conservative system is path independent: loads can usually be applied in any order and in any number of increments without affecting the end results.Section 8.6: “Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior”.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? The ANSYS program gives you a number of choices when you designate convergence criteria: you can base convergence checking on forces. Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior.6 Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior 8. using many substeps) to the final load value. If energy is dissipated by the system (such as by plastic deformation or sliding friction). but should usually not be used alone. if desired. Bisection provides a means of automatically recovering from a convergence failure. Conversely. 001972 . when applicable.

regardless of the element orientation. In other cases. Nonlinear Transient Analyses The procedure for analyzing nonlinear transient behavior is similar to that used for nonlinear static behavior: you apply the load in incremental steps. 8. the loads applied to your system maintain constant direction no matter how the structure deflects. Using Geometric Nonlinearities Small deflection and small strain analyses assume that displacements are small enough that the resulting stiffness changes are insignificant.2. ANSYS Release 8.1. If the halved time step again fails to converge. The automatic time stepping and bisection feature is also applicable for transient analyses. bisection will again cut the time step size and restart. .7 Load Directions Before and After Deflection 8. Thus. continuing the process until convergence is achieved or until the minimum time step size (specified by you) is reached. Note — Nodal coordinate system orientations are not updated in a large deflection analysis.1. Calculated displacements are therefore output in the original directions. Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis Consider what happens to loads when your structure experiences large deflections. Figure 8. forces will change direction. 001972 . Pressure loads always act normal to the deflected element surface. depending on the type of load applied. 8–6 Structural Analysis Guide .1 .3. Figure 8.7: “Load Directions Before and After Deflection” illustrates constant-direction and following forces.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis substep. The ANSYS program can model both situations. "time" always represents actual chronology in a transient analysis. Inc.2. "following" the elements as they undergo large rotations. and can be used to model "following" forces. © SAS IP.4. The main difference between the static and transient procedures is that time-integration effects can be activated in the transient analysis. In many instances. 8. Accelerations and concentrated forces maintain their original orientation. and the program performs equilibrium iterations at each step.2.

all stress-strain input and results will be in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain.1. highly stressed structures.ON (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) to activate large deflection effects for those elements that are designed for small strain analysis types that support this feature. is most pronounced in thin.2. By issuing NLGEOM. such as cables or membranes. ANSYS Release 8. 8–7 .see below. large strain analyses account for the stiffness changes that result from changes in an element's shape and orientation.1. in some structural systems (such as in Figure 8. Stress-Strain In large strain solutions. or linear.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (b)). the stiffening stress is obtainable using small deflection. you activate large strain effects in those element types that support this feature.2. the total load should be broken into smaller steps. © SAS IP. use εln = ln (1 + εeng). (This stress conversion is valid only for incompressible plasticity stress-strain data. In other systems (such as in Figure 8. Thus.) To convert strain from small (engineering) strain to logarithmic strain. true strain would be expressed as ε = ln ( / 0). known as stress stiffening. (Certain ANSYS element types will be subject to practical limitations on total strain .ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). 001972 . use σtrue = σeng (1 + εeng). For small-strain regions of response. Even though stress stiffening theory assumes that an element's rotations and strains are small. theory. as well as in a number of the nonlinear elements. Large Deflections with Small Strain This feature is available in all beam and most shell elements. Inc. This coupling between in-plane stress and transverse stiffness.2. A drumhead.1 . as well as in most of the shell and beam elements.2. Large strain effects are not available in the ANSYS Professional program.) 8. which gains lateral stiffness as it is tightened. The large strain feature is available in most of the solid elements (including all of the large strain and hyperelastic elements).Section 8.1. true strain and engineering strain are essentially identical. Stress Stiffening The out-of-plane stiffness of a structure can be significantly affected by the state of in-plane stress in that structure.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (a)). The large strain procedure places no theoretical limit on the total rotation or strain experienced by an element. Issue NLGEOM. To convert from engineering stress to true stress. the procedure requires that strain increments must be restricted to maintain accuracy. the stiffening stress is only obtainable by performing a large deflection analysis.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities In contrast. 8. 8. (In one dimension. Structural Analysis Guide . would be a common example of a stress-stiffened structure.) However.

© SAS IP. The adjustment approximates the effects of geometry changes due to large deflection circumferential motion in a small deflection analysis. Swelling will induce strains that can be a function of temperature. TBDELE] (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Nonlinear) to define the nonlinear material property relationships in terms of a data table. at different temperatures). rate-.1. TBPT. Large strain and large deflection procedures include initial stress effects as a subset of their theory.1 . or large strain. TBDATA. Spin softening is activated by the KSPIN field on the OMEGA and CMOMEGA commands (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Inertiav Angular Velocity). neutron flux level (or some analogous quantity).3. TBPLOT.8 Stress-Stiffened Beams To use stress stiffening in the second category of systems. 8. Inc. and stress. you must issue PSTRES. and hyperelastic materials will cause a structure's stiffness to change at different load levels (and. It should not be used with the other deformation nonlinearities. It is usually used in conjunction with prestressing [PSTRES] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). multilinear elastic.3. typically. The exact form of these commands varies depending on the type of non8–8 Structural Analysis Guide . and stress-related. Modeling Material Nonlinearities A number of material-related factors can cause your structure's stiffness to change during the course of an analysis. then you must use the TB family of commands [TB. Spin Softening Spin softening adjusts (softens) the stiffness matrix of a rotating body for dynamic mass effects. TBTEMP. 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. Nonlinear stress-strain relationships of plastic. time. 8.ON] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). temperature-. ANSYS Release 8.3. TBLIST.ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) in your first load step. which is caused by centrifugal force in the rotating body. and viscoelasticity will give rise to nonlinearities that can be time-. viscoplasticity. Creep. TBCOPY. initial stiffness effects are automatically included when large deformation effects are activated [NLGEOM.2. Nonlinear Materials If a material displays nonlinear or rate-dependent stress-strain behavior. Any of these kinds of material properties can be incorporated into an ANSYS analysis if you use appropriate element types. 001972 . For most elements. large deflection. .

characterized by nonrecoverable strain.Section 8. you must activate these effects in your analysis with the NLGEOM command (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). In particular. If you anticipate plastic response in your analysis. The maximum plastic strain is printed with the substep summary information in your output (Jobname.1.1.1 . path-dependent phenomenon. the program will bisect and resolve using a smaller step size. the ANSYS program assumes that these two points are coincident in plasticity analyses (see Figure 8. the sequence in which loads are applied and in which plastic responses occur affects the final solution results. Plasticity is a nonconservative.Implicit Analysis in the ANSYS Elements Reference for specific details for each material behavior type. If too large a step was taken. 8. begins when stresses exceed the material's yield point. so that your model will follow the load-response path as closely as possible. Structural Analysis Guide . Plasticity Most common engineering materials exhibit a linear stress-strain relationship up to a stress level known as the proportional limit.9: “Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve”). Plastic behavior. Other kinds of nonlinear behavior might also occur along with plasticity. material stress-strain properties must be input in terms of true stress and logarithmic strain. but will not necessarily become inelastic. large deflection and large strain geometric nonlinearities will often be associated with plastic material response.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities linear material behavior being defined. Beyond this limit. © SAS IP. In other words.3. the stress-strain relationship will become nonlinear. Figure 8. 001972 . The different material behavior options are described briefly below. you should apply loads as a series of small incremental load steps or time steps. For large strain analyses.OUT). by reducing the load step size after a load step in which a large number of equilibrium iterations was performed or in which a plastic strain increment greater than 15% was encountered.9 Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve The automatic time stepping feature [AUTOTS] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time and Substps) will respond to plasticity after the fact. See Data Tables . ANSYS Release 8. 8–9 . Because there is usually little difference between the yield point and the proportional limit. If you expect large deformations in your structure. Inc.

01 Display the data table See the MPTEMP.3.2E6 TBTEMP.11: “Bauschinger Effect”). Figure 8. 001972 . Tangent modulus = 1.1.500 MP. MP.1 .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. You can combine the BKIN option with creep and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.330.1 /XRANGE. TBDATA. so that the Bauschinger effect is included (see Figure 8.1.12E6.1. It is not recommended for large-strain applications.2 TBTEMP. /XRANGE. Plastic Material Options Several options are available for describing plasticity behavior.1. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.0. Tangent modulus = 0.8E6 List the data table X-axis of TBPLOT to extend from varepsilon=0 to 0.-8E3 TB.EX.0 Yield = 44.0.44E3.1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define temperatures for Young's modulus C0 and C1 terms for Young's modulus Activate a data table Temperature = 0. TB. TBLIST.3. (b) Multilinear kinematic hardening 8–10 Structural Analysis Guide .8E6 TBLIST. Inc. ANSYS Release 8.1.0 TBDATA. Stress-strain-temperature data are demonstrated in the following example.33E3.1. TBTEMP. see Section 8.0. This option is recommended for general small-strain use for materials that obey von Mises yield criteria (which includes most metals).10: “Kinematic Hardening”(a) illustrates a typical display [TBPLOT] of bilinear kinematic hardening properties. © SAS IP.01 TBPLOT. Figure 8.0. .000.1. You may incorporate other options into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).0.BKIN. Also. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. MPTEMP.1.BKIN.29.500 TBDATA.10 Kinematic Hardening (a) Bilinear kinematic hardening.1. The Bilinear Kinematic Hardening (BKIN) option assumes the total stress range is equal to twice the yield stress.2E6 Temperature = 500 Yield = 29.BKIN.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.

008. 5).9 Strain = 0.. Also.0 TBPT.0. Stress = 1. and BEAM189. ! Plastic Strain = 0.1000..9 TBPT. Also.1. The assumption is that the corresponding points on the different stress-strain curves represent the temperature dependent yield behavior of a particular sublayer.2.12926. KINH is preferred for use over MKIN because it uses Rice's model where the total plastic strains remain constant by scaling the sublayers...0.1012. plastic strain curve..Section 8.12926.1.9 Stress = 1.3 TBTEMP.plastic strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example.008.0.. ! Plastic Strain = 0.10: “Kinematic Hardening”(b) illustrates typical stress-strain curves for the MKIN option.05 In this example. You can combine either of these options with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors.40.1. then each curve should contain the same number of points.0 TBPT. © SAS IP. TB.0.3. Stress = 1. TB.0.1.0 TBPT.KINH. see Section 8.0 TBPT.3 TBTEMP.0 TBPT. SOLID185.0.0 Strain = 0.40. SOLID187. 5).2 Strain = 0.2013. the stress .0.20. SHELL181. BEAM188.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0.05 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 20.0..0 Strain = 0.09088.2. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example. SOLID186.001.KINH. 8–11 .2 TBPT.001.3 TBTEMP. KINH allows you to define more stress-strain curves (40 vs.0.11 Bauschinger Effect The Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (KINH and MKIN) options use the Besseling model.05 In this example. PLANE183.2013.0 Stress = 1. if you define more than one stressstrain curve for temperature dependent properties. except now the strain value is the plastic strain.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.12926.strain behavior is the same as the previous sample.1 . ! Temperature = 40. Stress = 1.3 Temperature = 40.1290.1.008.1. ! Plastic Strain = 0.1.0900.0 TBPT.PLASTIC TBTEMP. Stress = 1. Stress = 0.9 TBPT.0 Stress = 1.1. ANSYS Release 8.0.2013.0 Strain = 0. PLANE182. These options are not recommended for large-strain analyses.0 TBPT. also called the sublayer or overlay model.20.. The plastic strain can be converted from total strain as follows: Structural Analysis Guide . Stress = 1.1. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. A typical stress.0.1.. and more points per curve (20 vs.0000. the third point in the two stress-strain curves defines the temperature-dependent yield behavior of the third sublayer.0 Strain = 0. Inc.2000.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0. so that the Bauschinger effect is included.3 Stress = 0. you can use TBOPT = 4 (or PLASTIC) to define the stress vs.0.0.0 TBPT.2 TBPT. ! Plastic Strain = 0. Figure 8.1.1012.2 Stress = 1.05 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate a data table Temperature = 20.1. 001972 .3.000.0.. Stress = 1.0000.09088. when KINH is used with LINK180.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8..1012.09088. For either option..

however.C22.47E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 500 /XRANGE.0 TBDATA.1. © SAS IP.stress)/Young's Modulus.0.29. Theory Reference for details. You can combine BISO with Chaboche. which is a multi-component nonlinear kinematic hardening model that allows you to superpose several kinematic models. C24.1.200 TBDATA.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.1.12E6. except that a multilinear curve is used instead of a bilinear curve. C13.STRAIN ! Next TBDATA values are strains TBDATA.500 ! Temperature = 500 TBDATA.0 ! Temperature = 0. and is defined by NPTS in the TB command.37E3.1 .C21.1 TBDATA. 001972 . TBDATA.7E3. The Bilinear Isotropic Hardening (BISO) option uses the von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic work hardening assumption. you can use the CHABOCHE option to simulate monotonic hardening and the Bauschinger effect. Inc.C24. The Multilinear Isotropic Hardening (MISO) option is like the bilinear isotropic hardening option.3. Theory Reference for details. It is. creep. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. and NLISO. Inc. The model has 1 + 2 x n constants.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX.60E3.40.1 Please see the MPTEMP. Also. The Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening (CHABOCHE) option uses the Chaboche model.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. and C15 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21. C2. This model is suitable for large strain analysis. See the ANSYS. This option is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories in small-strain analyses.44E3. recommended for large strain analyses.. See the ANSYS.2 ! Activate a data table TBTEMP. You can also combine this option with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors.1.C23. Like the BKIN and MKIN options.0.0.7E-3.2 TBTEMP.43.1.1. and C3 The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants with two kinematic models at two temperature points: TB.C14.50E3. The following example is a typical data table with no temperature dependency and one kinematic model: TB.3E3.MKIN. Inc.C11. This option also allows you to simulate the ratcheting and shakedown effect of materials.EX. TBPT.55E3. TB.65E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 0.1.C13.33E3.MKIN. with up to 100 different stress-strain points allowed 8–12 Structural Analysis Guide . See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.CHABOCHE. MP.67E-3.2. /XRANGE.02 TBPLOT. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.C12. TBTEMP.1.0 TBTEMP.C15 TBTEMP. C23. C22. .1.3. TBTEMP.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Plastic Stain = (total strain . MISO. C14. MPTEMP. and C25 at second temperature Please see the TB. viscoplastic. MP. C12.3.15E-3 ! Strains for all temps TBTEMP.100 TBDATA. see Section 8. see Section 8. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. you have the further capability of simulating cyclic hardening or softening. ANSYS Release 8. This option is often preferred for large strain analyses.C1.5E-3.0.C3 ! Activate CHABOCHE data table ! Values for constants C1.1. The MISO option can contain up to 20 different temperature curves. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using MKIN is demonstrated by this example.C2. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.10E-3. You define the material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands.-8E3 ! as in BKIN example TB. By combining the CHABOCHE option with isotropic hardening model options BISO.C25 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate CHABOCHE data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11. Also.CHABOCHE. where n is the number of kinematic models.

Also. /XRANGE.65E3 TBTEMP.14. MPDATA.2. stress at temperature = 0 ! Temperature = 500 ! Strain.29.12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”).3.0. The stress-straintemperature curves from the MKIN example would be input for a multilinear isotropic hardening material as follows: /prep7 MPTEMP.PRXY. TB.02 TBPLOT. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.MISO.40. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.0. © SAS IP. The NLISO option is a variation of BISO where an exponential saturation hardening term is appended to the linear term (see Figure 8.0.DEFI.0 TBPT.423e6 MPDATA. The Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening (NLISO) option is based on the Voce hardening law (see the ANSYS. You can also combine the MISO option with creep.2E-3.500 TBPT.1.DEFI.0. MP.10E-3.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX.5E-3. viscoplastic.15E-3. TBTEMP.50E3 TBPT..DEFI.1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities per curve.27. Strain points can differ from curve to curve.15E-3. TBPT. Inc. stress at temperature = 500 See the MPTEMP.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.1 .5E-3.10E-3. Inc.12.2.47E3 /XRANGE. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.0 ! Strain.DEFI.55E3 TBPT.1 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 0.2E-3.DEFI. Theory Reference for details). Structural Analysis Guide .665E6..3 TB.MISO.7E-3.0.DEFI.37E3 TBPT. You can combine this option with nonlinear kinematic hardening (CHABOCHE) for simulating cyclic hardening or softening.1.1.DEFI. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.DEFI.3E3 TBPT.43.DEFI. 8–13 .7E3 TBPT.DEFI.33E3 TBPT. see Section 8.33E3 TBPT.5 TBTEMP.60E3 TBPT.EX.7E-3.Section 8.

1 TBTEMP.C23.1. Theory Reference for details). The Anisotropic (ANISO) option allows for different bilinear stress-strain behavior in the material x.12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”. 001972 .100 TBDATA. Also. compression. However. You can obtain the material constants by fitting material tension stress-strain curves. and shear. You can combine NLISO with Chaboche. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.C12.12 NLISO Stress-Strain Curve The advantage of this model is that the material behavior is defined as a specified function which has four material constants that you define through the TBDATA command.C11. there is no need to be concerned about how to appropriately define the pairs of the material stress-strain points. y.C21.C24 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate NLISO data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. Unlike MISO. This option is applicable to metals that have undergone some previous deformation (such as rolling). Inc.C22. this model is only applicable to the tensile curve like the one shown in Figure 8. 8–14 Structural Analysis Guide . C23.C13. C13. C14 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information.200 TBDATA. and z directions as well as different behavior in tension. see Section 8. Inc. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. The yield stresses and slopes are not totally independent (see the ANSYS. TBTEMP.C14 TBTEMP. C24 at second temperature Please see the TB. ANSYS Release 8.3. The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants at two temperature points: TB.NLISO. creep. C12.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.1. This option is suitable for large strain analyses. © SAS IP. C22. viscoplastic. It is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories since work hardening is assumed.1 . .

. BEAM188. and concrete. issue the TB command [TB.ISOTROPIC TBDATA.1. viscoplasticity.288E+05 TBPT. LINK180. EY.350E-02.550E-03. ANSYS Release 8. ! Dilatancy angle = 0 degrees See the MP. and uses the outer cone approximation to the Mohr-Coulomb law.500E+05 TBPT.0.10 TBPT.0.250E-02. Elastic behavior is isotropic.10 TBPT.1. rock.CAST. use MP commands (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props) to define the elastic moduli (EX.0.1 TBDATA.300E+05 TBPT. and BEAM189.0.13: “Cast Iron Plasticity” illustrates the idealized response of gray cast iron in tension and compression. SOLID185. ! Angle of internal friction = 32 degrees.5000 MP.5.04 TB.0.322E+05 TB. SOLID95. TB.581E+05 TBPT. and NUXZ). and creep ..0. SOLID186.. The Drucker-Prager (DP) option is applicable to granular (frictional) material such as soils.800E-02. (See Nonlinear StressStrain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. It has different yield strengths.241E+05 TBPT. UNIAXIAL) option assumes a modified von Mises yield surface.0.0.. Note — Cast Iron is intended for monotonic loading only and cannot be used with any other material model.0. Then. SOLID92.0. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information.1.0.0.ANISO] followed by TBDATA commands to define the yield points and tangent moduli.0. NUYZ.UNIAXIAL.0. Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.813E+04 TBPT.1.NUXY. which consists of the von Mises cylinder in compression and a Rankine cube in tension. Use the TB.0..) The Hill Anisotropy (HILL) option..DP.131E+05 TBPT. NUXY.500E-02.1. The TB.0.2.1.0.CAST command is used to input the plastic Poisson's ration in tension.450E-02. PLANE182.0.1.32.5. SOLID45.. see Section 8.Section 8.0.0.. SOLID187.27 TB.TENSION TBTEMP.1 . PLANE183. flows.. and hardenings in tension and compression. when combined with other material options simulates plasticity. Also.203E-02.100E-02. TB.700E+05 Figure 8. The Cast Iron (CAST. EZ.UNIAXIAL...3.1. The Hill potential may only be used with the following elements: PLANE42.656E+05 TBPT. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.EX. which can be temperature dependent. 8–15 .2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. and is the same in tension and compression. MP. SHELL181..1.0.all using the Hill potential.UNIAXIAL command to enter the yield and hardening in tension and compression.0 ! Cohesion = 2.COMPRESSION TBTEMP. 001972 .9.0.110E-01.9 (use consistent units). PLANE82. Inc.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities To define anisotropic material plasticity.140E-01.

PIPE20. PLANE183. BEAM23.100.19e5. except that the TB command now uses the label MELAS. . relatively large load steps might be appropriate for models that incorporate this type of material nonlinearity. SOLID185.0 TBDATA. 8. which are ANSYS user-programmable features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).3. PLANE42. PLANE2. Multilinear Elasticity The Multilinear Elastic (MELAS) material behavior option describes a conservative (path-independent) response in which unloading follows the same stress-strain path as loading.1.1. SOLID187. Inc. Second temperature. the number of temperatures.0 8–16 Structural Analysis Guide . The choice of which subroutine to use is based on which element you are using. The USER option works with the USERMAT subroutine in defining any material model (except incompressible materials). 4 material constants for first temperature.2. BEAM188. TBTEMP. when you use any of the following elements: LINK180. SHELL51. Input format is similar to that required for the multilinear isotropic hardening option. PLANE182. BEAM24. SOLID62. SHELL181. The following example illustrates defining a material with two temperatures and four data points: TB. User Defined Material The User Defined (USER) material option describes input parameters for defining a material model based on either of two subroutines.3.1 . The USER option works with the USERPL subroutine in defining plasticity or viscoplasticity material models.4 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as user material with 2 temperatures and 4 data points at each temperature point. SHELL93. TBTEMP. SOLID186. SOLID95. To access the user material option. © SAS IP.3.1. and the number of data points. PLANE82.1e3.2.1.2. SOLID65. SOLID92.0. issue the TB.USER.1. PIPE60.13 Cast Iron Plasticity Compression σc σt Tension ε See the TB and TBPT command descriptions for more information. First temperature. Thus. LINK8. and BEAM189.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. Then define the temperatures and material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands.3. SHELL43. when you use any of the following elements: LINK1. 001972 .USER command to define the material number. 8. ANSYS Release 8. SHELL91. SOLID45.

Unless indicated otherwise.C2. See the TB.3. and SOLID187). A representative hyperelastic structure (a balloon seal) is shown in Figure 8. ! Initialize the 4 state variables. 001972 . and on mixed formulation of the 18x solid elements.1. PLANE183. Because of this assumption. you must first define the number of state variables using the TB. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. 8–17 .Section 8..21e5. Hyperelasticity can be used to analyze rubber-like materials (elastomers) that undergo large strains and displacements with small volume changes (nearly incompressible materials).1 . Large strain theory is required [NLGEOM.STATE.4. as shown in the following example: TB. ! Define material 1.ON].4. Material thermal expansion is also assumed to be isotropic.100.2e3. SOLID186. see Mixed u-P Formulation Elements in the ANSYS Elements Reference. which is a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors. the strain energy potentials are expressed in terms of strain invariants. the hyperelastic materials are also assumed to be nearly or purely incompressible.3. You cannot use TB.1. ANSYS Release 8. ! 4 material constants for ! second temperature. HYPER58.STATE in the USERPL subroutine.C4. and all of the 18x family of elements except the link and beam elements (SHELL181. The material response in ANSYS hyperelastic models is always assumed to be isotropic and isothermal. SOLID185.14: “Hyperelastic Structure”. © SAS IP. Figure 8. Structural Analysis Guide . whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the corresponding stress component.STATE command. HYPER74. For further details on the use of hyperelastic elements. 8. TBDATA.1. Hyperelasticity A material is said to be hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential function (or strain energy density function).1.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TBDATA. HYPER158).C1.14 Hyperelastic Structure There are two types of elements suitable for simulating hyperelastic materials: the hyperelastic elements (HYPER56. which ! has 4 state variables. PLANE182.C3. You then use the TBDATA command to initialize the value of the state variables. Inc. If you use state variables in the USERMAT subroutine.

higher orders of the Mooney-Rivlin option may provide better approximation to a solution at higher strain.11: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. SOLID164. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information. 5.5. For these reasons. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. and explicit dynamics elements PLANE162.3. HYPER58. to define a 5 parameter model you would issue TB.014719 TBDATA. A higher parameter value can provide a better fit to the exact solution. ANSYS Release 8. PLANE183. One of the options. HYPER74. see Section 8. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden option with 2 parameters: 8–18 Structural Analysis Guide .0. SOLID164. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56. SOLID186.1.2. HYPER158.2. SOLID186. © SAS IP.3.HYPER.3.HYPER. 3. and SOLID187. SOLID185.1.3.1. SOLID185. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin option with 3 parameters: TB.. or 9 parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command.1. SHELL163. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the hyperelastic options defined by TB. Compared to the other options. HYPER158.1.. to define a 3 parameter model. . HYPER74.163498 TBDATA. For example.HYPER.6.HYPER) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option..OGDEN.1.0.125076 TBDATA. and it requires enough data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. All options are applicable to elements SHELL181.1. PLANE162.. The applicable strain level can be up to 700%. use TB.MOONEY).. Access these options through the TBOPT argument of TB.MOONEY).4.3. the Ogden option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels. is also applicable to elements HYPER56. or SOLID168. which is the default. Compared to the other options..HYPER.OGDEN) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command.. Inc. a high parameter value is not recommended..0. HYPER58. Each of the hyperelastic options is presented in the following sections.MOONEY. 8.3. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material (TB.HYPER. 8.1. and SOLID187. It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants. The 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option has an applicable strain of about 100% in tension and 30% in compression. To access the MooneyRivlin option for these elements.MOONEY.HYPER.HYPER) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181. use TB. allows you to define 2.4. the Mooney-Rivlin option. PLANE183. PLANE182. Ogden Hyperelastic Option The Ogden option (TB. For example.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ANSYS supports several options of strain energy potentials for the simulation of incompressible or nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials.MOONEY TBDATA.HYPER. 001972 .. SHELL163.93063E-5 !Activate 3 parameter Mooney-Rivlin data table !Define c10 !Define c01 !Define c11 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command.1 . The Mooney-Rivlin option (TB. PLANE182.4. and SOLID168.4.

-0.2.HYPER.200. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Arruda-Boyce option is presented below. it is equivalent to the 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option (see Section 8. it is equivalent to the 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option.Section 8.HYPER.0.5.3..3.1 .BOYCE) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%.3.1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.5.4. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option The Neo-Hookean option (TB.1.326996 TBDATA.. Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option The polynomial form option (TB.1.OGDEN TBDATA.0 TBDATA. For example.4.4.1.POLY) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command.0e-5 !Activate Neo-Hookean data table !Define mu shear modulus !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.. the polynomial form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8.5.. 8. Also.0.. K is the bulk modulus) !(Second incompressibility parameter d2 is zero) Refer to Ogden Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.HYPER. 001972 . the polynomial form option may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain. Inc. 8–19 . ANSYS Release 8.1.3. Similar to the higher order Mooney-Rivlin options.-2 TBDATA. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.577148 TBDATA.4.2.3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing).1. Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option The Arruda-Boyce option (TB.4. © SAS IP..3.. TB.. and has an applicable strain range of 20-30%.1.001 !Activate Arruda-Boyce data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting network stretch !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.2.3.2. to define a 3 parameter model you would issue TB.3.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Neo-Hookean option is presented below.1.HYPER) for a sample input listing).0 TBDATA.3..HYPER.BOYCE TBDATA.1.3.. For NPTS = 1 and constant c01 = 0. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Material in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. 8.HYPER.. Refer to Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.HYPER.6.1. Structural Analysis Guide .250152 TBDATA.. it is equivalent to the 5 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. TB. For NPTS = 2..7.NEO TBDATA. for NPTS = 1.1.0. and for NPTS = 3.HYPER.4.93063E-5 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden data table !Define µ1 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.NEO) represents the simplest form of strain energy potential.2 TBDATA..POLY.4.1. 8..

HYPER..0 !Activate Blatz-Ko data table !Define initial shear modulus Refer to Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option..4.HYPER.9. the better the fit to the experimental data. and it requires sufficient data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested..3 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K..4.YEOH TBDATA. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Gent option is presented below.2.125076 TBDATA. TB.HYPER.1.. Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option The Blatz-Ko option (TB.3. An example of a 2 term Yeoh model is TB.GENT) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%. 8. the higher order terms may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain. 8–20 Structural Analysis Guide .HYPER.HYPER.BLATZ) is the simplest option for simulating the compressible foam type of elastomer. 001972 .1.3.3.4.YEOH) is a reduced polynomial form of the hyperelasticity option TB..0.0.3.1.GENT TBDATA. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Gent Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. Compared to the Blatz-Ko option.163498 TBDATA.5.1.. 8.1.1..001 !Activate Gent data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting I1 .2. For NPTS = 1. The higher the number of parameters.7. It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants.0.0 TBDATA.8.... the Yeoh form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8.93063E-5 !Activate 2 term Yeoh data table !Define C1 !Define C2 !Define first incompressibility parameter Refer to Yeoh Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.2.FOAM) simulates highly compressible foam material.POLY.4. 8. .. the Ogden foam option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels.6.3. This option is analogous to the Neo-Hookean option of incompressible hyperelastic materials. An example of a 3 parameter model is TB.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. TB.1.HYPER. Inc.1 .3..42.HYPER. a high parameter value is not recommended.HYPER..3..1. For these reasons.3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing). Similar to the polynomial form option. ANSYS Release 8. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Yeoh option with 2 terms and 1 incompressibility term: TB. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Blatz-Ko option is presented below.1..3..1.6.FOAM. © SAS IP.1. Yeoh Hyperelastic Option The Yeoh option (TB.3. Gent Hyperelastic Option The Gent option (TB.4.1...BLATZ TBDATA.HYPER.1.YEOH...0 TBDATA. Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option The Ogden compressible foam option (TB.2.HYPER..

5 TB.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.2.3. Inc. See the ANSYS. but less than 0.MOONEY. and 9 default to 0. Hyperelastic stress-strain relationships usually differ significantly for tension.HYPER. compression.0. Therefore.0.2. ANSYS Release 8.6.5 TBDATA.1. SHELL163.) For these element types. HYPER158.3. PLANE182.92 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden foam data table !Define µ1 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define first compressibility parameter !Define second compressibility parameter Refer to Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. PLANE183.5.0003882 ! (Constants 5.3.3.MOONEY) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56.. PLANE162.4.1 TBDATA. 8. 8–21 . five-term. you can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from a set of known experimental test data.5 TBDATA.4. and HYPER158 use up to a nine-term Mooney-Rivlin elastic potential function.163498 TBDATA. SOLID185.-4. 7. using *MOONEY to generate a generally applicable hyperelastic material model will require test data that encompasses all possible modes of deformation: tension.0. HYPER58.1.0.1 . HYPER74. The Mooney-Rivlin constants for any given hyperelastic material are not generally available in the open literature. Hyperelastic material behavior is much more complicated than typical metallic material behavior.1.HYPER).4. Theory Reference for information on the Mooney-Rivlin function. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . but you might find that you need to obtain more data from a testing laboratory. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181.92 TBDATA.0047583 TBDATA.4. and SOLID187. compression.3.49999 ! NUXY should be almost equal to.-9.. Refer to the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a detailed description on writing a user hyperelasticity subroutine.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden foam option with 2 parameters: TB.1. Theory Reference for a discussion of hyperelastic test methods and equivalent deformation modes. and shear modes of deformation. or nine-term MooneyRivlin constants.0.4.0 in this example) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB.85 TBDATA. HYPER58. SOLID164. 001972 .4. three-term.2.20 TBDATA.-0. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. or SOLID168. (See the ANSYS.USER) allows you to use the subroutine USERHYPER to define the derivatives of the strain energy potential with respect to the strain invariants.1. HYPER74.125076 TBDATA..FOAM TBDATA. 8.HYPER.0. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin for these elements is presented below : MP.1.0. you can enter them directly with the TB family of commands.11. 8.1.1. SOLID186..014719 TBDATA. Consequently.NUXY.1.Section 8. Inc.MOONEY) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the constants required as input for this option. If you already know the values for two-term. Sometimes the manufacturer of the material will be able to supply some or all of the needed test data.6. ANSYS element types HYPER56. and shear. see Section 8.10. User-Defined Hyperelastic Option The User option (TB. Inc. you can also specify the material function as a User Programmable Feature (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).

you discover that the available test data do not adequately characterize the model's response. even if fewer than three types of test data are available. we will use specific array names. 001972 . Additionally. do not model a part that experiences significant shear deformations. such as STRAIN. do not model a part that experiences 150% strain. In most cases. This advice is simply common sense . and SORTSS. 3. Evaluate the quality of the automatically determined Mooney-Rivlin constants. In other words. Fill the input-data arrays with engineering stress and strain test data. . you can use it in future analyses to define that same material's Mooney-Rivlin constants . it writes an ASCII file (Jobname. Determining and Applying Mooney-Rivlin Constants The procedure for determining and applying Mooney-Rivlin constants consists of five main steps: 1. arranged in three columns: • • • Column 1: uniaxial tension and/or compression data Column 2: equibiaxial tension and/or compression data Column 3: shear data (planar tension and/or compression) This array has the dimensions N x 3. the program can still determine usable hyperelastic material properties. and so on. This array must always be N x 3.if you do not know how the material behaves in a certain mode of deformation or range of strain.) The arrays are STRAIN. after reviewing your analysis. 4. For example. Once such a file exists. 2. Mooney-Rivlin constant storage. Although it might be preferable to input the data points in order of ascending strain values. Dimension all arrays that will be used for data input. You can substitute any other valid parameter names that you like. CALC. N = 20. the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) that will be experienced in the model. If your test data extend only from 0% to 100% strain. ANSYS Release 8. it is not necessary to do so.1 . you will need to dimension at least six different arrays. if you have 20 data points from uniaxial tension/compression tests and 10 data points from shear tests. if only uniaxial tension data are available). but for convenience. if all you have is uniaxial tension data. in such cases the deformations experienced in the model should be limited to be of the same nature as those experienced in the tests. © SAS IP. Step 1: Dimension the Arrays Command(s): *DIM GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit You must dimension arrays before using the *MOONEY command. 8–22 Structural Analysis Guide .you do not need to use the *MOONEY command every time to regenerate these constants. you cannot accurately predict the behavior of a part that experiences such deformations or strains. For example. in our discussion. get more test data! You can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from experimental test data. 5. Inc. If. However. STRESS.TB) that records the Mooney-Rivlin constants in the form of a series of TB and TBDATA commands. ANSYS determines the constants and stores them in the database. STRAIN Array: An array of engineering strain data from mechanical material tests. where N equals the maximum number of data points in any one of the three columns. SORTSN. Determine the Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis If an incomplete set of data is provided (for instance. (You can give these arrays any valid parameter names. Apply the Mooney-Rivlin constants in your analysis. and calculated stress-strain evaluation. CONST. and in an array parameter. STRESS.

As a practical matter. 5.SORTSS. SORTSS Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input stress data are stored. and if you wanted to generate a five-term set of Mooney-Rivlin constants.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities STRESS Array: An array of engineering stress data from mechanical material tests input stress-data array. or 9.1 Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants Number of Points in the Stress-strain Curve No inflection points (that is.5.3 *DIM. These stress values will be sorted into the same order as their corresponding sorted strain values (which will be sorted into ascending order). and examine the resulting stress-strain curves to decide which function gives you the best combination of tight fit and satisfactory curve shape. Structural Analysis Guide . any other value will produce an error message when *MOONEY is invoked.. if your test data contained up to 20 data points for any one test type.CALC. The *MOONEY command later reads the dimensions of this array to determine how many Mooney-Rivlin constants to generate.. you should have at least twice as many data points (N.3 *DIM. Dim.SORTSN.20.. Inc.. Using more terms will usually improve the statistical quality of your curve fit (that is. array array array array array array (STRAIN) for 20 input strain-data points (STRESS) for input stress data (20 pts. you might issue the following commands to dimension the necessary arrays (remember that you can substitute any valid parameter names for the ones shown here): *DIM. © SAS IP.20.15 Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves CALC Array: An output stress-data array of dimension N x 3 (where N is as described above). where M equals the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants. CONST Array: A Mooney-Rivlin constant array of dimension M x 1. you should probably try two-term. and then writes the values of those constants to this array.1 *DIM.3 ! ! ! ! ! ! Dim. but the overall shape of the curve might be worse than that obtained with fewer terms.20.STRAIN. Dim. single curvature) One inflection point (that is. ANSYS Release 8. You must input stress data points in the same order as the corresponding strain-data input.Section 8.20. it will probably be more tightly fitted through the data points). For example. Table 8.CONST.20. in which sorted calculated stress values are stored. and nine-term functions in sequence. Dim.1 . SORTSN Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input strain data are stored...) (CONST) for 5-term M-R constants (CALC) for sorted calculated stresses (SORTSN) for sorted input strain data (SORTSS) for sorted input stress data See the *DIM command description for more information.STRESS.) You actually tell the program in this dimensioning operation how many Mooney-Rivlin constants you want. as defined above) as the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants. also of dimension N x 3. How many Mooney-Rivlin constants should you use? As a rule of thumb. double curvature) Two inflection points Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Function Two-term Five-term Nine-term Figure 8. (M must be either 2. Dim.3 *DIM. 8–23 . Dim. 001972 . five-term.3 *DIM.

Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Step 2: Fill the Input-Data Arrays Once you have dimensioned your arrays. with each column of the arrays containing data from one type of test. Likewise. ANSYS Release 8. has equibiaxial compression as its equivalency. uniaxial tension. but the second column of the array contains data from equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression. you must leave the missing columns blank. remember that you can give these arrays any valid parameter names. data input might be represented as shown in Figure 8. © SAS IP. The first mode of deformation. 001972 . Schematically. Inc.1 . but the first column of the array contains data from uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression. you can then fill the STRAIN and STRESS arrays with test data using the *SET command (GUI path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters). 8–24 Structural Analysis Guide .16: “Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays”. Table 8.) Note — The *MOONEY command interprets all input stress and strain data as engineering stress and engineering strain. in this order: • • • First column: Uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression Second column: Equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression Third column: Shear (planar tension or compression) Note that these do not have a 1:1 relationship with the modes of deformation and their equivalencies. . the second mode of deformation. has uniaxial compression as its equivalency.2 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Mode of Deformation Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial tension Shear Equivalent Test Types Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial compression Equibiaxial tension Uniaxial compression Planar tension Planar compression Array Location for Test Data Column one Column two Column two Column one Column three Column three If fewer than three types of tests are used. particular array names are used here only for the convenience of this discussion. (Again. These arrays are of dimension N x 3. equibiaxial tension.

. you can use any valid parameter names): TB.1). and the number of data points represented by N1 and N2 in this example can be any integral numbers): ! Uniaxial Tension Data *SET.MOONEY.SORTSN(1). Uniaxial equations will be used for the data in column 1.... the arrays can have any valid array names.. ! *SET.. Step 3: Determine the Mooney-Rivlin Constants To generate Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically.1).. . SORTSS(1). .Fname.STRESS(1.STRAIN(1.1).STRESS(1.STRESS(11. ! *SET.TB).. Step 4: Evaluate the Quality of the Mooney-Rivlin Constants Structural Analysis Guide ..1). . with Lab = MOONEY and TBOPT = 1..1)..CALC(1).Section 8.1 .Ext The program automatically determines the Mooney-Rivlin constants.. 001972 . and planar (pure shear) equations for the data in column 3.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8.3).STRAIN(1. . inserting the appropriate names of arrays that you have already dimensioned (particular names have been used in this example for convenience of discussion only. equibiaxial equations for the data in column 2.STRAIN(11. ANSYS Release 8..CONST(1).16 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Consider a case in which data from uniaxial tension and shear tests are available.Ext (default file name = Jobname..STRAIN(1.. Inc.MAT.NTEMP. Next. Note — All the laboratory test data entered in the STRAIN and STRESS arrays will be used to determine the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material constants.3). The commands to store the strain and stress data in the input-data arrays could look something like this (of course. ! ! Shear Data *SET.STRESS(1. and writes a series of TB and TBDATA commands in the ASCII file Fname. ! *SET. issue the *MOONEY command.1). ! *SET. first use the TB command. ! First 10 strain data points Strain data points 11 through N1 (if N1<21) First 10 stress data points Stress data points 11 through N1 Strain data points 1 through N2 (if N2<11) Stress data points 1 through N2 See the *SET command description for more information. 8–25 . © SAS IP. stores them in the database and in the CONST array (which can have any valid parameter name)..1 *MOONEY.

a value of 2. you will want to make P fairly large in order to generate a very smooth curve. Finally. (Typically. you can readily do a *EVAL following a *MOONEY operation in the same ANSYS session. graph [*VPLOT] the calculated stress-strain curve. any valid parameter names may be used). and *VPLOT command descriptions for more information. The following example demonstrates how to graph a calculated curve for the uniaxial compression deformation mode: ! Dimension strain and stress arrays for the calculated curve: ! (Any valid parameter names can be used) *DIM. In comparing these curves. You can fill this array fairly easily.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis In your printout (file Jobname.ECALC(1) See the *DIM. but should be "close" to 1. then that portion of the display will be meaningless. specify the mode of deformation. you must first dimension [*DIM]and fill the CONST array with the Mooney-Rivlin constants before you can evaluate the curves [*EVAL].TABLE.1000 ! Specify the mode of deformation (EVPARM). given that the CONST array is either 1 x 2.1.TB file to make this operation more convenient.0. Each of these table array vectors should have dimension P. you should compare the calculated uniaxial compression curve against the uniaxial compression data only. Because *EVAL reads these same constants from this CONST array.Engineering Strain /AXLAB. and fill the arrays with engineering strain and calculated engineering stress data. /AXLAB.Engineering Stress ! Plot the calculated uniaxial compression curve: *VPLOT. If you already have the Mooney-Rivlin constants (and thus will not be doing a *MOONEY calculation). 8–26 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc." These two values give you a statistical measure of how well your calculated stress-strain curve fits the experimental data points. Similarly. For instance. That is. define an extended range of strain.XMAX.1000 *DIM. © SAS IP.ECALC(1) ! Label the graph axes: /AXLAB. examine the "ROOT-MEAN-SQUARE ERROR (PERCENTAGE)" and the "COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION. you should graph a uniaxial tension curve only in regions of positive strain. Graphing your curves over such an extended range can help you qualitatively understand your model's behavior if its response ever happens to exceed the range of experimental strain. you should use the *EVAL and *VPLOT commands (GUI paths Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Mooney-Rivlin> Evaluate Const and Utility Menu> Plot> Array Parameters) to graph the input and calculated stress-strain curves. 1 x 5. should be "close" to zero. The *MOONEY command automatically writes the Mooney-Rivlin constants to the CONST array. typically 0. You could also add the *DIM and array-filling commands to your archived Jobname.1 . where P is the number of points you want to use to plot your curve. realize that if you extend a displayed curve into a region that represents a different mode of deformation. .ECALC.XVAL.5 means 2.XMAX). The coefficient of determination will be less than 1.XMIN.5 %).99 or better). define the strain range ! (XMIN.2. To check your curve's shape. Remember that good practice usually requires that the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) experienced by your model. *EVAL. and the calculated shear curve against the shear data only. you should compare calculated values against test data that represent the same mode of deformation.0 (that is. ANSYS Release 8. When you graph your calculated stress-strain curves. or 1 x 9 at most.Y. in order to obtain a visual check on how well the calculated curve matches the experimental data. The root-mean-square error. 001972 . using the *EVAL command.X. you can extend the displayed curve into regions that were not defined by the experimental data. In addition.XVAL(1). and a uniaxial compression curve only in regions of compressive strain. you should compare the shape of the calculated uniaxial tension curve (EVPARM = 1 in the *EVAL command) against uniaxial tension data only (column 1 of the sorted STRAIN and STRESS arrays). and use the M-R constants (CONST) to fill the strain (XVAL) ! and stress (ECALC) arrays with calculated data: *EVAL.CONST(1). you must dimension [*DIM] two more table array vectors (identified as XVAL and ECALC in the *EVAL command description. which is expressed as a percentage (that is.OUT).TABLE.) Next. However.XVAL(1).

.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8. ANSYS Release 8. (The *MOONEY command will have stored these constants in the database. equibiaxial tension and compression. Analyses involving hyperelastic elements are sometimes very sensitive to material property specification and load application.1 . Inc. and covers a stretch ratio ranging from 0.TB to load the constants into your new database.) In future analyses using the same material model. 8–27 . 001972 . The sample warning message below lists the nominal strains where Material 1 loses stability.Section 8. you will not see any message or indication.NUXY. and planar tension and compression). Therefore. a message appears that states the critical values of the nominal strains where the material first becomes unstable.17 Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve Step 5: Using the Mooney-Rivlin Constants If the curve-fit statistics and the overall curve shape are satisfactory. Always remember to examine your analysis results carefully to determine whether or not your model's modes of deformation and values of maximum strain were properly represented by the original test data. These checks occur at two levels: • The first stability check occurs before the analysis. If the material is not stable over the range. and lists the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you entered. If the material is stable over the range. do not forget to define a value for Poisson's ratio [MP. Some values of Mooney-Rivlin constants result in very stable stiffness matrices whereas others do not. © SAS IP.. However.].. you can simply read in [/INPUT] the file Jobname. ANSYS provides internal stability checks for hyperelastic materials based on the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you enter. then lists the constants that were entered for this example: Structural Analysis Guide . The check is for six typical stress paths (uniaxial tension and compression. choose constants with caution and experiment with slightly different values.1 to 10. then you can proceed to use the generated Mooney-Rivlin material properties in your analysis.

5000 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. © SAS IP. may occur at various times during the 8–28 Structural Analysis Guide .110 TIME= 16:59:52 Material 1 can become unstable under certain loading. MAX DOF INC= 10. The sample message below shows that. using a Blatz-Ko function to describe the material properties.1 .000E+00. HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. 001972 . 0. ANSYS detected 3 Gauss points that exceeded the material stability limit: DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 22. For nearly incompressible materials with Poisson's ratio greater than 0.516E+00 -0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.645E+00 -0. and HYPER158).170E+02. In general. the program checks every Gauss point in the problem for stability violations. . The strain (nominal) limits where the material becomes unstable are: UNIAXIAL TENSION UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION EQUIBIAXIAL TENSION EQUIBIAXIAL COMPRESSION PLANAR TENSION PLANAR COMPRESSION 0. For each equilibrium iteration. 0. the instability indicator is set to 1 and stored in the result file as an item in the SMISC record. 0. HYPER74. it is recommended that you use HYPER56.1917E+05 >>> 3 Gauss points have exceeded the material stability limit For elements that contain at least one unstable Gauss point. Problems using hyperelastic elements can be sensitive to the rate of load application.000E+00 • For the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56.000E+00. HYPER158 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. See the appropriate table for the SMISC item that corresponds to instability indicator STFLAG. Inc. Select the Blatz-Ko option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1 for these elements.000E+00. we recommend that you use the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56. An incompressible hyperelastic material option is also available for HYPER84 and HYPER86. The material stability check is simply a tool to help you diagnose the problem when the solution fails to converge. HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. HYPER58. for the particular element of interest: HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands.000E+00. The SMISC number for STFLAG differs for some of the elements.369E+00 Mooney-Rivlin constants of the hyperelastic material are: 0. In most instances. then use MP commands to enter appropriate values for EX and NUXY to define the initial material shear modulus. it does not necessarily mean that your solution is invalid once the material enters the unstable region.49. HYPER58. Bifurcation of the solution. and HYPER158).000E+00. ANSYS Release 8. HYPER58. 0. foam-like elastomers.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis *** WARNING *** CP= 1. but it is limited to two-term Mooney-Rivlin only.00 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. You can plot the region of instability in POST1 by plotting this SMISC record identified as STFLAG for the element.585E+00 -0. You will not see any messages if the problem passes the check. you can also have ANSYS perform a stability check during an analysis by setting KEYOPT(8) = 1. you will see a message in the solution history section of the ANSYS Output window reporting the total number of Gauss points that were unstable for that iteration.220E+00 0. Each problem may be unique and require special consideration.5018E+07 CRITERION= 0. 0. 0. load application should be slow so as not to over-distort elements in the converging sequence.000E+00 0.81 CRITERION= 0. You should be aware that even though a material failing a stability check is often an indication of convergence difficulty. HYPER74. indicating that two or more different geometric configurations have the same minimum potential energy. If the problem fails the stability check. Note — The element types HYPER84 and HYPER86 are intended primarily for modeling compressible. during an analysis. HYPER74.150E+03 0.565E+00 0. or HYPER158 (not HYPER84 or HYPER86) for all incompressible hyperelastic materials.

The explicit creep method supports the following elements: LINK1.3. SOLID187. Structural Analysis Guide . Creep constants cannot be dependent on temperature. as well as simultaneous coupling with isotropic hardening plasticity models. and irradiation induced creep. see Figure 8. Note — The terms “implicit” and “explicit” as applied to creep. strain. SOLID45. and recommended for general use. The explicit creep method is useful for cases where very small time steps are required. Conversely. It can handle temperature dependent creep constants. PLANE42. Figure 8. such as for nuclear reactors. Creep Creep is a rate dependent material nonlinearity in which the material continues to deform under a constant load.” or any elements referred to as “explicit elements. fast. SOLID185. suppose you apply a preload to some part in a nuclear reactor to keep adjacent parts from moving.18 Stress Relaxation and Creep Creep is important in high temperature stress analyses. LINK180. Creep can also be significant for some materials such as prestressed concrete.1 . the reaction force (and stresses) will diminish over time (stress relaxation. SOLID186. for the explicit creep option.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(b). PLANE82. PIPE60. ANSYS Release 8. Over a period of time at high temperature. secondary. SOLID95. SOLID62.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities loading history. © SAS IP. PIPE20. PLANE82. PLANE182. PLANE2. SOLID65. Typically.) Some equations require specific units. BEAM23. the creep deformation is permanent. temperatures used in the creep equations should be based on an absolute scale.The implicit creep method is robust. In particular. The three stages of creep are shown in Figure 8. SHELL51. have no relationship to “explicit dynamics. Both are applicable to static or transient analyses. and BEAM189. Inc. ANSYS analyzes creep using two time integration methods. LINK8. if a displacement is imposed. and input procedures for. The creep strain rate may be a function of stress. SOLID45. and neutron flux level. BEAM188.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(a)). these various creep equations.ON] is often effective in overcoming these difficulties. SHELL181. Libraries of creep strain rate equations are built into the ANSYS program for primary. the preload would decrease (stress relaxation) and potentially let the adjacent parts move. BEAM24. 8. SOLID92.Section 8. The ANSYS program has the capability of modeling the first two stages (primary and secondary). (See Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for discussions of. Coupling with other plastic models is available by superposition only. SHELL43. accurate. Automatic time stepping with bisection [AUTOTS. The tertiary stage is usually not analyzed since it implies impending failure.5.” The implicit creep method supports the following elements: PLANE42. 001972 . temperature. 8–29 .1. SOLID92. For example. PLANE183. and SOLID95.

apply mechanical loading !Creep analysis turned off !Time period set to a very small value 8–30 Structural Analysis Guide .19: “Time Hardening Creep Analysis”). TB. Here the mechanical loading was kept constant. The following example shows how five state variables are defined. The following example shows a procedure for a time hardening creep analysis (See Figure 8. For this example. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.4. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.C3. .1 .2 TBTEMP. The second load step is a creep analysis.19 Time Hardening Creep Analysis The user applied mechanical loading in the first load step.CREEP.3.5 You can simultaneously model creep [TB. TBOPT = 2 specifies that the primary creep equation for model 2 will be used.100 TBDATA. bilinear kinematic. The following example input shows the use of the implicit creep method. Figure 8.1. the time period for this load step should be small. ANSYS Release 8. Temperature dependency is specified using the TBTEMP command.1.1.5. and the material creeps as time increases.C2. Inc.1.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. To perform an implicit creep analysis. 001972 .. and choosing a creep equation by specifying a value for TBOPT. with Option = ON (or 1). TB.OFF TIME. The RATE command must be turned ON.CREEP] and isotropic. © SAS IP.C1. and the four constants associated with this equation are specified as arguments with the TBDATA command.STATE.1. Since the time period in this load step will affect the total time thereafter. see Section 8. Also.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. you must also issue the solution RATE command. /SOLU RATE.1. the user specified a value of 1. You can define the number of state variables using the TB command with Lab = STATE.0E-8 !First load step. and turned the RATE command OFF to bypass the creep strain effect. Implicit Creep Procedure The basic procedure for using the implicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP.C4 You can input other creep expressions using the user programmable feature and setting TBOPT = 100.3.1.0E-8 seconds.

CREEP. For most materials.20: “Shape Memory Alloy Phases”. you may need to examine the effect of the time increment on the results carefully because ANSYS does not enforce any creep ratio control by default.C6 For the explicit creep method.1. Note that all constants are included as arguments with the TBDATA command. PLANE82.2. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. SOLV !Solve this load step !Second load step. 8. Structural Analysis Guide .C4.CREEP. a small time step must be used with the explicit creep method.HILL). The ratio may vary with materials so your decision on the best value to use should be based on your own experimentation to gain the required performance and accuracy. Shape Memory Alloy The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) material behavior option describes the super-elastic behavior of nitinol alloy.C3.3. a martensite phase (also linear elastic).. SOLV RATE. For implicit creep. SHELL181. you can use the RATE command with the following elements: PLANE42.Section 8. For larger analyses. For highly nonlinear creep strain vs.0e-6. ANSYS Release 8. Nitinol is a flexible metal alloy that can undergo very large deformations in loading-unloading cycles without permanent deformation.CREEP with TB. then specify a large maximum incremental time step by using solution command DELTIM or NSUBST. you can use the RATE command with the following elements: LINK180. the creep strain rate changes significantly at an early stage.CRPLIMIT. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the implicit creep options defined in TB. the material behavior has three distinct phases: an austenite phase (linear elastic).100 . a suggestion is to first perform a time increment convergence analysis on a simple small size test. Creep strains are not computed if the time step is less than 1.1. Inc. As illustrated in Figure 8. A creep time step optimization procedure is available [AUTOTS and CRPLIM] for automatically adjusting the time step as appropriate. SOLID45. SOLID186. TBOPT is either left blank or = 0. and BEAM189. PLANE183. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information. and BEAM189.. PLANE183. and the transition phase between these two. SHELL181. 8–31 . SOLID92. You can always enforce a creep limit ratio using the creep ratio control option in commands CRPLIM or CUTCONTROL. 001972 . The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command. and that there is no temperature dependency.C2. When modeling anisotropic creep (TB. 8. © SAS IP. PLANE182. SOLID95. SOLID185.1.ON TIME. The following example input uses the explicit creep method. A recommended value for a creep limit ratio ranges from 1 to 10.C1. PLANE182.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities . When modeling implicit creep with von Mises potential.1 .. time curves. . BEAM188. SOLID185. SOLID186.5. a general recommendation is to use a small initial incremental time step. Because of this. Explicit Creep Procedure The basic procedure for using the explicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP and choosing a creep equation by adding the appropriate constant as an argument with the TBDATA command.3. no further mechanical load !Creep analysis turned on !Time period set to desired value !Solve this load step The RATE command works only when modeling implicit creep with either von Mises or Hill potentials. SOLID187. SOLID187. LINK180.1 TBDATA. you can incorporate other creep expressions into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).. BEAM188.6. TB.

Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.0.10. Use the TBDATA command to enter the specifics (data sets) of the alloy material.520. © SAS IP.3 TB.1.420.20 TBDATA.1.300.300. SOLID185. 50% or greater).0.4. SOLID186.540.7.1 .0.5.0.0E3 ! Define austenite elastic properties ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as SMA. The primary applications are high-temperature metal forming processes such as rolling and deep drawing.60. 8–32 Structural Analysis Guide . with two temperatures Define first starting temp Define SMA parameters See TB.12 TBDATA. ¡¥¢ ¦ ¡ ¥¢ ¦ ¢ ¤¡ ∫ ε Define second starting temp Define SMA parameters £¡ ¢ .10 TBDATA. A typical ANSYS input listing (fragment) will look similar to this: MP.NUXY.15 TBDATA.1.200. Inc. The plastic strains are typically very large (for example.1.0.0. You can enter up to six sets of data.0. ANSYS Release 8.600.0.0. and the TB.07. which involve large plastic strains and displacements with small elastic strains (see Figure 8.21: “Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation”).SMA.1. 8.20 Shape Memory Alloy Phases σ ε σ σ σ σ ∫ Use the MP command to input the linear elastic behavior of the austenite phase. where the development of the plastic strains are dependent on the rate of loading.7.200. requiring large strain theory [NLGEOM.1.0.3.0.0E3 MP. SOLID187.0E4 TBTEMP.ON]. SMAs can be specified for the following elements: PLANE182.EX. 001972 .0.0. Viscoplasticity Viscoplasticity is a time-dependent plasticity phenomenon.2 TBTEMP. and TBDATA for more information. PLANE183.7.SMA command to input the behavior of the transition and martensite phases.

The Rate-Dependent Plasticity (Viscoplasticity) or TB. You must use the models in combination with the BISO. see Section 8. ANSYS Release 8. 8. PLANE183. and BEAM189. Inc. Figure 8. or NLISO material options to simulate viscoplasticity.21 Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation Viscoplasticity is defined by unifying plasticity and creep via a set of flow and evolutionary equations. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. LINK180. PLANE182. Some plastics are also considered to be viscoelastic. you can simulate anisotropic viscoplasticity by also combining the HILL option.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. MISO.8. One type of viscoelastic response is illustrated in Figure 8. This option is also suitable for large strain analysis. PLANE82.1 . Some typical applications of these material options are metal forming and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). VISCO107. BEAM188. 001972 .3. SOLID95. The plasticity and thus the strain rate hardening effect are active only after plastic yielding. SOLID45. Theory Reference for details).22: “Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model)”. the intent is for simulating the strain rate hardening of materials rather than softening.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Viscoplasticity is modeled with element types VISCO106. SOLID187. using Anand's model for material properties as described in Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference. SOLID186.3. In contrast to other rate-dependent material options in ANSYS such as Creep or Anand's model.1. Viscoelasticity Viscoelasticity is similar to creep.RATE option allows you to introduce the strain rate effect in material models to simulate the time-dependent response of materials. the Perzyna and Peirce models also include a yield surface. and is applicable to the following elements: PLANE42. 8–33 . A common viscoelastic material is glass. For isotropic hardening.Section 8. Inc. A constraint equation is used to preserve volume in the plastic region. SOLID92. but part of the deformation is removed when the loading is taken off. and VISCO108. Structural Analysis Guide . the Perzyna model and the Peirce model (see the ANSYS. Two material options are available. © SAS IP. Further. SOLID185. Also. SHELL181.

For LINK180.0E5 !elastic properties mp. You must input material properties using the TB family of commands.1.1. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. ANSYS Release 8. BEAM188. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information.0..2.3.0 tb.5.1. USERSW.1.25. 001972 .0.462E4. !Small Strain Viscoelasticity mp. Inc.20.3 tb..0.. you must write your own swelling subroutine.2. Inc.1.prony.1.2.shear !define viscosity parameters tbdata. For SHELL181. (See the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a discussion of User-Programmable Features.hyper.1.0..1.) Swelling Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference discusses how to use the TB family of commands to input constants for the swelling equations.0 tb.bulk !define viscosity parameters (bulk) tbdata.0.2E-6 tb.1 .bulk !define viscosity parameters tbdata. PLANE183. Use the TB. SOLID186.moon !elastic properties tbdata. The elasticity constants correspond to those of the fast load limit.1.nuxy.1.0.PRONY.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. SHELL181..9.2. SOLID185.0. and BEAM189. PLANE182. and SOLID187 the underlying elasticity is specified by either the MP command (hypoelasticity) or by the TB.25.1. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command.5.22 Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model) Viscoelasticity is modeled with element types VISCO88 and VISCO89 for small deformation viscoelasticity and LINK180.1.0. SOLID186. PLANE183.1. Theory Reference for details about how to input viscoelastic material properties using the TB family of commands.PRONY and TB..4.shear !define viscosity parameters (shear) tbdata.1.2. and BEAM189 for small and large deformation viscoelasticity..prony. PLANE182.1. or swelling.5.SHIFT commands to input the relaxation property (see the TB command description for more information). 8.4.2.HYPER command (hyperelasticity). The ANSYS commands for nuclear swelling can be used analogously to define swelling due to other causes.0 See Viscoelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference and the ANSYS. the underlying elasticity is specified using the MP command (hypoelasticity) only. . Swelling can also be related to other phenomena. Swelling Certain materials respond to neutron flux by enlarging volumetrically.0.1. © SAS IP.38. In order to include swelling effects. such as moisture content. SOLID187. BEAM188.0 !Large Strain Viscoelasticity tb.5. SOLID185.prony. 8–34 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the viscoelastic options defined by TB.ex.prony.

1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3. 8–35 . ANSYS Release 8.1.3. For information on the CHAB option. © SAS IP.Section 8.180.7E-4.7. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.10000 TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. Inc.9.EX.2 Structural Analysis Guide . MP.CHAB.1.1 TBPT.3 TB. Material Model Combinations You can combine several material model options discussed in this chapter to simulate complex material behaviors.20.1.1.1.2.5 ! CHABOCHE TABLE TBTEMP.1.0.2.40.NUXY.3.1 TBDATA.185E3 MP.0E3 MP.20000.1 ! THIS EXAMPLE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT TBDATA.180.2.CHAB.0 TBTEMP. 8.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB.1.100.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.3.1. 8.CHAB.3 TB.EX. BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity. and Section 8.180.1.3.1.0.0. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.100.20.BISO.3.NUXY. MP.1.380 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! THIS EXAMPLE ISOTHERMAL ! MISO TABLE For information on the MISO option. and Section 8..1.40000.1 .200. For information on the CHAB option.3.1.2.3.1. MP..1000.180 TBPT.3 TB.1. These sample input listings are presented below in sections identified by the TB command labels.3.200.200 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE For information on the BISO option.100.3 TB.100.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.1. Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference presents the model options you can combine along with the associated TB command labels and links to sample input listings. NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.185.500.EX.MISO. 8. and Section 8. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 TBDATA.1. and Section 8.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.NUXY.1.2. MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.0E5 MP. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 001972 .1 TBDATA.100.

1.3 TBDATA. and Section 8.1.1.030. 8–36 Structural Analysis Guide .025.60.39000 TB.38000 TBPT.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA. and Section 8.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the BISO option. MP.20.2 TBDATA.3.1.0.NUXY. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. MP.1000.32000 TBPT.244000.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.400.1.7.43800.2. and Section 8. and Section 8.. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. 001972 .3.1.1 .0.2600.880. For information on the RATE option.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.3.EX.500.5. For information on the CHAB option.10200 TBDATA.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.0.NLISO.MISO.1.1 TBPT.0..20.60.30000 TBPT.2800.2 TBTEMP.0. and Section 8.0.0 TBTEMP.0..1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.7 ! NLISO TABLE For information on the NLISO option.120.7.. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the MISO option.2000.9000.1080.NUXY.RATE.020.BISO.1.. © SAS IP. .1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.500.3.2.1.40.1.. MISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB..040.45800.4.1. 8.3 TBTEMP. ANSYS Release 8.1. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3 TB.PERZYNA TBDATA.80.0.RATE.0.0E5 MP.204000.0.1.3.1.015.1080.060.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3.0.880.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.050.35000 TBPT.1. and Section 8.0.EX.5.10000 TB. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3 TB. 8.1400.12200 TBDATA.1 TBDATA..1.0E5 MP.1.3000. Inc. BISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB. For information on the RATE option.PERZYNA TBDATA.1. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.0.0.700.900..36500 TBPT.1..7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.5.0.0.0.33800 TBPT.3.200.0 TB..3.1 TBDATA.

.3.1. For information on the CREEP option.5.1.0 For information on the BISO option.1. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference..0E5 MP.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.050.1.30000 TBPT.EX.1.0.. and Section 8. ANSYS Release 8.9000.015..35000 TBPT.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.3.3.5625E-14.040.5200.025. and Section 8.1 . BISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5. MP.0.38000 TBPT. 001972 .1.1. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 TBDATA.CREEP.2.3 TB.2.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.EX. MISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.6.5625E-14.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. and Section 8.NLISO.36500 TBPT.3.1 TBDATA. MP. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. Structural Analysis Guide .1...MISO.1.5. and Section 8.. © SAS IP.1.5.0. Inc. 8.2.NUXY.0. and Section 8.PERZYNA TBDATA.1.1.7.0.1 TBPT.5.20.0.RATE.BISO.RATE command to model viscoplasticity..0E5 MP.0.1. MP. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.172 TB.1.3 TB.3 TB.NUXY.1.3.0. 8. For information on the RATE option.1.1.30000.NUXY..0.1.5.0.0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.Section 8.0.030.-0..1.3.33800 TBPT.1.CREEP.1..020. NLISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1.3.8.0E5 MP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..20.20.100000.0.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the NLISO option.0 For information on the MISO option. 8–37 .10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE TB.1.0.EX.32000 TBPT.060..3.-0.0.

NUXY. 001972 .0.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB. and Section 8.325.07895.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.400.1.5. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.124. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.HILL.1 TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3. 8.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1.0.1.94.1.2.CREEP.4e-21.1.0 ! BISO TABLE For information on the HILL option.1.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.374. and Section 8. and Section 8. HILL and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening.NLISO.3.0.1.3.0.20.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the CREEP option.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. Inc.32 TB. 8.2.30000.0.NUXY.1.10.0 For information on the NLISO option. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.5. 8–38 Structural Analysis Guide .3. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.1 TBTEMP.5.5200.BKIN.1.2 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1e7 MP.0.586 TBTEMP.1. For information on the CREEP option.EX.200 TBDATA.461.1 .1.5. 8.0. MP. MP.20. © SAS IP. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.CREEP. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.0.2 TBTEMP.42000.5.0402.24897.0.3.0E5 MP.1.NUXY.9.3.1.1.11. MP. and Section 8.1.1..1.2.1. ANSYS Release 8.5625E-14.1.3.1.0E5 MP.100000.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter. For information on the CREEP option. and Section 8.1.0.3 TB.1.BISO. BKIN and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.1.EX.100 TBDATA..1.1.1.6 TBDATA.1..9.0.3.1000 TB.1.1.7.1.9 TB.97.0. and Section 8.0.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.5.1. NLISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.EX. TBDATA.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLE For information on the BKIN option.200 TBDATA.9. .100 TBDATA.0.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB.-0.3..

1. HILL and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening.NUXY.9.1.0E5 MP.1. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.85.1.1.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.015.0.2.30000 TBPT.0E5 MP.20.3.1.3.12.1.1.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.1.0.33800 TBPT.0. and Section 8.BKIN.0.0. For information on the NLISO option.0.0.9.0.1.1. MP..36500 TBPT.1 .35000 TBPT.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. and Section 8.1.1. 8–39 . ANSYS Release 8.1 TBDATA.1. MP.1.0. Inc.100000.0.MISO.0.9.050.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. and Section 8.1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the BISO option.1. 8.0E5 MP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. MP..2.80 For information on the HILL option.040.Section 8. and Section 8.020.EX.20.0.20.3 TB. 8.10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE TB.HILL..13.1.3 TB. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference..NLISO.3.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.80 For information on the HILL option.0.HILL.HILL.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0.1..9. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.0.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB. Structural Analysis Guide .EX.3.0.32000 TBPT. and Section 8.1.1.85.1 TBPT. For information on the MISO option.0. © SAS IP.1.14.NUXY.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..0.EX.38000 TBPT.0.1.025.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.30000. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5200.3.1..3.030.9.1.85.3 TB. 8. and Section 8.0.NUXY.3.1.80 For information on the HILL option.9.1 TBDATA. HILL and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear kinematic hardening.3.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.060. HILL and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening.9000. 001972 .2.0.

800 TBDATA.1.060E4 TB.0.377 MPDATA.006.20.20E6.0 TBDATA.1..1.NUXY.1.3 TB.00E6.25.01.190E4. 001972 .00E6.30.0.1E3 TBPT.104880.83040 TB.20.1.0. For information on the MKIN option.0.160E4. Inc.34665.0.1.1.1.1.MKIN.1.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.0.36E6.27.080E4.375.0.1.1.76E6 MPDATA.1.88588.060E4 MPDATA. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.HILL.00.1.110E4.060E4 MPDATA.1.0 TBDATA.62280.27.0.1.1.109440 TBTEMP.110E4.37800.1.23.160E4.0.1.351.359.25.190E4.0.1.0.1.3.650 TBDATA.0.0.3 TBPT.950.5.1. and Section 8.11E6.00.00. HILL and KINH Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening.3.1.60.1.strain TBDATA.EX.650. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.45000.1.0.1.1.0.30. 8.0.79580.190E4..76E6 MPDATA.93.110E4.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPDATA.080E4.1.115000.1.351..23.31140.0.0. HILL and MKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening.6E4 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! KINH TABLE 8–40 Structural Analysis Guide .93.1.0. and Section 8.1.60000.160E4.2.GXY.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.41520.30.92440 TBTEMP.04.351.00 TBTEMP.800.5 ! MKIN TABLE TBTEMP.1.1.0.PRXZ.650.1 TBTEMP.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the BKIN option.2.0.0.0.0.93.1.20.1.EY.1.20 TBDATA. MP.1.EZ.1.50400.400.1.400 TBDATA.0.11E6.0.1.1.1. .2E3 TBPT.1.76E6 MPDATA.1.GYZ.1.0.93. and Section 8.0.1.20E6.1.1.1.1.1.00E6.20.400.3.1.0.1.1. MPTEMP.20.82080.20E6 MP.3.5E-5.1.0.1.1.0.20E6.368.1 .93.0 TBDATA.080E4.0.0.1.0 TBDATA.16.25.41040.0.1.0.PRYZ.0.1.1.15.93 TBTEMP.11E6.0.GXZ.0.368.0.100800 TBTEMP.1.1.EX.93 TBTEMP.950 TBDATA. 8.0015.93 TBTEMP.1.359.90000.00 For information on the HILL option.0.27.368.1.0.1.1.36E6.0.0.375.1.54720.1.1.75600.00.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.359.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.93.46220. © SAS IP.KINH..0.1..375.PRXY.3.1.08.1.0. ANSYS Release 8.377 MPDATA.96600.0.23.1.1.0 TBDATA.36E6.69330.120000 TBTEMP.377 MPDATA.800.

9.1. and Section 8. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.CHAB. and Section 8.1 TBDATA. 001972 .17.1.3 TB. © SAS IP.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE TB.CHAB.1 TBDATA.1.1.EX.NUXY. HILL and MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.HILL.1. Structural Analysis Guide .0.9.0.0.1. 8.1 TBDATA.90.80 For information on the HILL option.1.3 TB.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.85.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.3.400.85.0.185E3 MP.85.2.3.1.180.1.1.Section 8.0.3. For information on the CHAB option. For information on the KINH option. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.2.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference. HILL and BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. and Section 8.3. For information on the BISO option. MP.0. and Section 8.1.1. and Section 8. For information on the CHAB option.9.NUXY.100. 8.0.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.BISO.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3. 8–41 .1.1.1.1.1.2.1 .0.18.3 TB. 8.1.0.1. Inc.0.1 TBDATA.1.185E3 MP.1.1.1.9.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0. MP.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1.3.0.19.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.9.200 TB.0.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.HILL.0. HILL and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.EX. ANSYS Release 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.HILL.180.95 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1 TBDATA.3.180. and Section 8.1. and Section 8.1.0.3. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.

865E4 ! MPDATA.1.000E4.3.1.160E4.386.040E4 MPDATA.0.PRXY.PRYZ.2.389.GYZ.1.0.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.20.0.950 ! MPDATA.946E4.100.368..1.1.1.0.1.1.1.1.1.070E4.0.1.750.210E4.020E4.1.368.PRYZ.080E4.1.GXZ.180. Inc.1.380 TB.1.250E4.973E4.1.377.020E4.1.0.0.1.0. MPTEMP.110E4. 001972 .0.0.375.1.600.EY..0.908E4.0.995E4.210E4..0.400.0.0.1.1.1.0.377.946E4.946E4.351.1 TBDATA.CHAB.210E4.0.1.9.1.3 TB.0.080E4.1.1.550.040E4 MPDATA.0.932E4.384.MISO.020E4.140E4.380 MPDATA.1.900.0.NLISO.377.865E4 ! MPDATA.100.0.995E4.1 TBDATA.908E4.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.1..0.GXY.PRXY.1.1.0. .1.890E4.382.EX.995E4.391.0.0.140E4.NUXY.1.1.380 MPDATA.190E4.1.020E4.1 TBPT.100.384.1.CHAB.393 ! MPDATA.1.1.3.1.180.250E4.1.060E4. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.351.0.0.389.5 ! TB.1.1.185.090E4.060E4.0. ANSYS Release 8.932E4.1.1.160E4.850..1.3.963E4.0.3.185E3 MP.0. For information on the CHAB option.963E4.1. © SAS IP.384.050E4 MPDATA. For information on the MISO option.0.0.1.0..040E4 MPDATA.000E4.HILL.1.EX.0.0.0.973E4.GXY.1.1. and Section 8.1.890E4.0.1.3 ! NLISO TABLE ! CHABOCHE TABLE 8–42 Structural Analysis Guide .160E4.0.1.1.1.110E4.393 ! MPDATA.001.359.1 .1 TBDATA.359.20.0.0.0.1.1.PRXZ.EZ. and Section 8.250E4..185 TBPT.1.1.375.1.0.0.0.1.0.0.. HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.0.020E4.0.110E4.1.GXZ.389.386.190E4.0.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.380 MPDATA.963E4.0.1.1.070E4.060E4.9.070E4.391.1.800.391.1.0.0.890E4.090E4.1. 8.0.393 ! MPDATA.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! MISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1..140E4.0.0.375.1. and Section 8.GYZ.1.85.351.1.700.1.1.0.368.932E4.0.0.EY.0.190E4.0.1.1.1.382.0.382.887E4 TB.1.0.1.080E4.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.PRXZ.973E4.050E4 MPDATA.359.EZ.0.887E4 ! MPDATA.908E4.0.1.000E4.887E4 ! MPDATA.0.0.1.1.1.0.0.1.200.386.1.1.0..0.3 TB.0..1.1 TBDATA.090E4.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP.0..1.020E4.EX.0. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.050E4 MPDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.

0.0.0.1.1.36E6.93.400.0.1.760000 ! BISO TABLE TB.00E6. Inc.0.30.1.20.Section 8.23.0.3.377 ! MPDATA.0.375.0.060E4 ! MPDATA.93.351.160E4.110E4.0.1.0 TBDATA.0.0.23.190E4.0.1.1.1.368.20.0.1.1.93.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.BISO.160E4.00E6.0.1.0.1.190E4.1.20.351.368.1.GXZ.0 TBDATA.27.PRXZ.20 TBDATA..93.0.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1.0.1.0.1. MPTEMP. For information on the NLISO option.93.0 TBDATA.1.900.3.36E6.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. 001972 .368.1.1.HILL.27.080E4.3 TBTEMP.EX.0.1.0.0.1.1.93.27. 8.0.93.1.0.93 TBTEMP. and Section 8.375.1.1. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.1.1.375.850.080E4.PRYZ.0 TBDATA.HILL. 8–43 .0.650.1.00.5 TBTEMP.36E6.1.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.RATE.20.1.93.30.1.0.080E4.950.1.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.800.1.3.950 TBDATA.1.0.1. For information on the CHAB option.1.0.1.0.0.0.0 TBDATA.0.1.0.1.1.3.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.351.1.1.1.25.1.0 TBDATA.1.1.93.25.0.377 ! MPDATA.1.0.1.1.1.0.377 ! MPDATA.93.110E4.060E4 TB.160E4.1.93 TBTEMP.1.76E6 ! MPDATA.21.76E6 ! MPDATA.850.1.0.1.0.1.0.0.EY.20E6.0.30.1.1.1.190E4.1.0.0.1. and Section 8.1.0 Structural Analysis Guide .900.25.GXY.1.11E6.GYZ.0.3.93 TBTEMP.76E6 ! MPDATA.1.1.1.750.0.23. © SAS IP.0.00.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.20E6.93 TBTEMP.0.11E6.93.359.0.0. HILL and RATE and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.0 TBDATA.45000.00.359.1.1.1.00 TBTEMP.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MPDATA.1.0.1.93 TBTEMP.EZ.0.0.800.5 ! RATE TABLE TB.1.1.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.00. and Section 8.93.0.1.11E6. TBDATA.PRXY.1. ANSYS Release 8.0.110E4.750.0 TBDATA.0.060E4 ! MPDATA.0.2.800.2.1 .0.1.93 TBTEMP.0.00E6.359.1.1.20E6.PERZYNA TBTEMP.1.1.0.0.

1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1.0.00..3. and Section 8.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3.2.NUXY. © SAS IP.1.1.1. For information on the BISO option. For information on the MISO option.85.. For information on the RATE option.1.23. .1.00 For information on the HILL option.1.0. and Section 8.1 TBPT.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.1 ! RATE TABLE For information on the HILL option..0.1.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.22.0.3. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.020.060.1. ANSYS Release 8.RATE.0E5 MP.0.0 TBDATA..00.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3.0.2.0. HILL and RATE and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA..1.0. 001972 .050.1..0. For information on the RATE option. and Section 8.5.85.1.0.38000 TBPT.9.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.0.1.1.1 ! RATE TABLE 8–44 Structural Analysis Guide .0.0.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.HILL.00. MP.025.PERZYNA TBDATA.9.EX.1. HILL and RATE and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.0..30000 TBPT. Inc.00 TBTEMP.1. and Section 8.0.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.9.3.1 . 8.0.1.00.3 TB.1.1. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.100000..1.1.1..NLISO.1.1.80 TB. 8.0E5 MP.NUXY. and Section 8.3.32000 TBPT.20.0.5.015.0.0..35000 TBPT.0.0.MISO.RATE.1.950. MP.PERZYNA TBDATA. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.30000.3 TB.1.1.9.1.0.0.33800 TBPT.20..7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.0.3.1.0. and Section 8.80 TB.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.030.HILL.1.36500 TBPT.1.EX.1 TBDATA.5200.1.040.

MPTEMP.1.020E4.1.0.0.1.PRXZ.382.384. and Section 8.GYZ.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.750.1.090E4.1.900.0.0.368.CREEP.0.080E4.890E4.1 .1.995E4.GXZ.HILL.359.1.000E4.110E4.EX.1.93.GYZ.110E4...946E4.. and Section 8.1.1.210E4.140E4.Section 8.1.1.GXY.190E4.1.140E4.0.377.020E4. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0..1.0.1. Structural Analysis Guide .0.351.0.00 TBTEMP.2 TBDATA.3.0. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.1.0.020E4.0.1.PRYZ.1.5.0 TBDATA.0.EZ.1.1.1..995E4.750.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.393 ! MPDATA.050E4 MPDATA.1.0.PRXY.375.1.93.EX.210E4.0 TBDATA.0.393 ! MPDATA.1.25.963E4.040E4 MPDATA.389.PRXY.550.1.351.160E4.1.210E4.1.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.1.1.946E4.3.1.1.6.0.1.1.0.1.380 MPDATA.800.391.359.359.995E4.389.24.93.250E4.1.890E4.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.080E4.000E4.1.1.0.1.0.1.0.0.93 TBTEMP.973E4.090E4.110E4.1.040E4 MPDATA.0.377..0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the HILL option.1.060E4.1.850.0.391. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.932E4.1.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.932E4.1.1.1. © SAS IP.050E4 MPDATA.0.1..0.140E4. For information on the CREEP option.0.060E4.0.1. 8.0. and Section 8.0 TBDATA.0.1.351.020E4.0.000E4.1.PRXZ.93..391.1.1.PRYZ.400.1. and Section 8.0.0.1.1.3.020E4.160E4.1.93.0.1.0.0.1. 001972 .0.080E4.0.1.0.0.1.190E4.0.1.0.0.382.0 TBDATA.0..1.0.0. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.190E4.393 ! MPDATA.0.973E4.368.0..0.911E-34.1.0.0.0.887E4 ! MPDATA.865E4 ! MPDATA.963E4.1.382.0.700.250E4.93 TBTEMP.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.950 ! MPDATA.600.0.93.200.0.050E4 MPDATA..0.1.5 TBTEMP. For information on the NLISO option.0.386.1.0.908E4.0.0.946E4.1.1.0.1.0.160E4.1.020E4.1.1.1.1.070E4.0.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.887E4 TB.93 TBTEMP.0.384.1.1.040E4 MPDATA.1.375.3.1.070E4.0 TBDATA.0.0.389.1.1.850.1.070E4.384.0.20.1.377.EY.973E4.1.GXZ.1.EZ.1.963E4.1.1.250E4.0.0.932E4.386. Inc.2.3.1.0.1.5.GXY.1.00.3.900.0.386.00.1.00.0.380 MPDATA.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.00.0. and Section 8.1.0.368.0.1.1.380 MPDATA.800.908E4. 8–45 .1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter..375.0.950. HILL and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep.EY.1.0.1.0.1.1.1.0.090E4.1.908E4.0.1.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.-0.1.890E4. ANSYS Release 8.060E4.0.0.0. For information on the RATE option.

0.1.368.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.946E4.160E4.950. For information on the CREEP option.1.0. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0.1.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.1.0.1.0.1. and Section 8.0.0.1..1.382.384.110E4.1.973E4.020E4.368.1.BISO.1.0.050E4 MPDATA. and Section 8.GYZ.PRYZ.0. © SAS IP.0.1.0.93 TBTEMP.0.1.93.850.1.0.140E4.890E4.0. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.0.0.963E4.190E4.0. Inc.200 ! BISO TABLE TB.890E4..377.1.1.382.0.1.377.1.1.887E4 TB.0.0.932E4.995E4.93.391.1.0.0..1.963E4.386..0 TBDATA.1.0.1. 001972 .0.1.GYZ.0.140E4.190E4.0. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.380 MPDATA.800.EZ.1.0.1.-0.0.800.020E4.0.0.0.393 ! MPDATA.1.210E4..1.0.3.EZ.1.375.080E4.391.0.0.1 .386.GXY.0.1.380 MPDATA.0.908E4.93.090E4.393 ! MPDATA.1.0.1.0.GXZ.391.1 TBDATA.900.1.0.359. For information on the BISO option.946E4.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.1.1.060E4.CREEP..080E4.389.1.1.1.1.6.1.040E4 MPDATA.5 TBTEMP.0.1.351.865E4 ! MPDATA.210E4.HILL.0.1.00.384.1.908E4.060E4.0.PRYZ.25.1.2.1.93.1.93.600.1..1.0.1.384.070E4.EX.PRXY.3.020E4.0.0.932E4.380 MPDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.1.190E4.973E4.1.386.110E4.0.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.1.0.1.00..0.0.1.1. .0.040E4 MPDATA.0.0.1.0.359.GXY.946E4.1.040E4 MPDATA.3. MPTEMP.210E4.887E4 ! MPDATA.0.2 TBDATA.000E4.1.0.700.090E4.950 ! MPDATA.070E4.850.1.1..1.750.1.1.973E4.0.EY.0.1.GXZ.0.995E4.050E4 MPDATA.1.0.0.00..060E4.393 ! MPDATA.1.932E4. and Section 8.1.1.911E-34.1.PRXY.1.1.93 TBTEMP.0.400.1.900.25.0.1.EX.1.0.1.1.0. ANSYS Release 8..382.1.1.1.0.351.1.1.0.250E4.1.908E4.0.1.0 TBDATA.0 TBDATA.110E4.1.550.1.0.0.375..865E4 ! MPDATA.1.0.020E4.5.1.963E4.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.0.1.250E4.070E4.377.EY.000E4.00 TBTEMP.359.375.0.0 TBDATA.750.080E4.0 TBDATA.1.0.3.5.180.93.PRXZ.0.93 TBTEMP.1.0.1. 8–46 Structural Analysis Guide .0.1.995E4.250E4.351.1.000E4.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.1.0.020E4.090E4.1.0.0.020E4.140E4.20.1.1.0.1.050E4 MPDATA.1.00. HILL and CREEP and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.389.0.1.1.200.160E4.389.0.PRXZ.1.368.1.1.890E4.0.1.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.0.160E4.

3.5.0.0. HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.1.3.0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1. HILL and CREEP and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.9.3.80 TB. MP.0.-0.025.1.1.26.9.1.3.0..HILL. For information on the NLISO option.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1.5625E-14.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3.36500 TBPT. and Section 8.1.0.1.1.. 8.1. For information on the CREEP option.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.85.1.5. 8.0. and Section 8.2.030.3 TB.1.. HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity. and Section 8.3.3 TB.0.0E5 MP.5625E-14.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.HILL. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference..1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.Section 8.0. For information on the MISO option.060. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.80 TB.32000 TBPT.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.100000. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3. and Section 8.2.0.33800 TBPT.1..1. MP.1.CREEP.5.9.1 TBPT.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.1. and Section 8.1.NUXY.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..0.5.27.1.1 .CREEP.1.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.20. Inc.1.0.050.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.0.3.NLISO.0.1. © SAS IP.1.0. 8–47 .0.-0.3.1.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.NUXY. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.9. and Section 8.1.5200. 001972 .0.1 TBDATA.020.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0 For information on the HILL option.38000 TBPT. For information on the CREEP option.0E5 MP.. ANSYS Release 8.1.1.85.30000 TBPT.040.28. Structural Analysis Guide .1.0 For information on the HILL option.30000.35000 TBPT...MISO.2..172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.0.EX.0.0.015.0.0.5.EX.20..5.

5. Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS ANSYS employs an automatic solution control method that.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. Inc.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.HILL.3.EX.0. The following commands are set to optimal defaults: AUTOTS DELTIM NSUBST CNVTOL LNSRCH ARCLEN PRED NROPT TINTP CUTCONTROL OPNCONTROL CDWRITE MONITOR NEQIT SSTIF KBC EQSLV LSWRITE These commands and the settings they control are discussed in later sections.1.4e-21. Note — The Solution Controls dialog box. and Section 8.BKIN.CREEP. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. © SAS IP. For information on the CREEP option.6 TBDATA. or if you wish to use an input list from a previous release of ANSYS. .1. ROTY. For information on the BKIN option.1.1.0.0.5.1. ROTX.3. UZ. and Section 8. and ROTZ.3.42000.1000 TB.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA. If you are not satisfied with the results obtained with these values.15. 001972 .1.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLES TB.0.1.NUXY.0 For information on the HILL option. Instead. ANSYS Release 8.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter. you can manually override the settings.1. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.OFF in the /SOLU phase.1 TBDATA.1e7 MP.1. 8..5. 8. sets various nonlinear analysis controls to the appropriate values. You can also refer to the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference.1. ANSYS' automatic solution control is active for the following analyses: • • Single-field nonlinear or transient structural and solid mechanics analysis where the solution DOFs are combinations of UX.4. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP. which is described later in this chapter. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.. Single-field nonlinear or transient thermal analysis where the solution DOF is TEMP. See the SOLCONTROL command description for more details.32 TB.7.1.3.1. issue SOLCONTROL. If you do choose to override the ANSYS-specified settings. cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis.05.0.1.1 . and Section 8.1.1. based on the physics of your problem.1. Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis The procedure for performing a nonlinear static analysis consists of these tasks: 8–48 Structural Analysis Guide . UY.

5.4: Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS.3.2.2.6: Review the Results 8. and solve. keep in mind that not all nonlinear analyses will produce large deformations. Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations Special considerations for setting these options in a nonlinear structural static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM.5. 8.3.5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities. For more information on building models in ANSYS.1: Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box Section 2.3. “Structural Static Analysis”.5. with exceptions noted: • • • • • • • Section 2.9: Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements.5.) Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) for a sample problem that walks you through a specific nonlinear analysis. Build the Model This step is essentially the same for both linear and nonlinear analyses. apply loads. for more details. rather than a restart. after you issue your first SOLVE command).3: The Transient Tab Section 2.5: Solve the Analysis Section 8. and always requires equilibrium iterations.5.3. See the following sections in Chapter 2. Inc. ANSYS Release 8.5. The general procedure for performing these tasks follows.2. 001972 .3. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. For a nonlinear analysis.4: Apply the Loads Section 8. the default settings in the Solution Controls dialog box are essentially the same settings employed by the automatic solution control method described in Section 8.2: Using the Basic Tab Section 2.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities for further discussion of large deformations. your stress-strain data must be expressed in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain. (But.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2. You cannot change this setting after the first load step (that is. © SAS IP.3. choose Large Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis.1.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis • • • • • • Section 8. You will usually choose to do a new analysis.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab 8.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2.1: Build the Model Section 8. After you have created a model in ANSYS. A nonlinear solution will differ from a linear solution in that it often requires multiple load increments.2.5.2.2.Section 8. and Section 8. analysis options. you set solution controls (analysis type. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls for a nonlinear analysis involves the same options and method of access (the Solution Controls dialog box) as those used for a linear structural static analysis.2.2. See Section 8. See Section 8.3. 8–49 . although a nonlinear analysis might include special elements or nonlinear material properties.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 8. If your analysis includes large-strain effects.5.1 .2: Set Solution Controls Section 8.1. Restarts are discussed in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Structural Analysis Guide . load step options. See Section 8.5. and so on).

000 or more DOF).Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis • When working with time settings.2. you must be doing a static analysis or a modal analysis with the PowerDynamics method. If it is a 3-D solid structure and the number of DOF is relatively large (that is. 200. A nonlinear analysis requires multiple substeps (or time steps. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. the solver will iterate to the specified number of iterations and stop if it fails to converge. only the last substep is written to the results file in a nonlinear analysis. except for the generation pass of a substructure analysis (which uses the frontal direct solver). The sparse direct solver is the default. Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced analysis options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. When this happens. Other parts of the model that do not meet the above criteria will be solved using global assembly for the stiffness matrix. If automatic time stepping is off [AUTOTS].2. is a robust solver. © SAS IP.5. and maximum step size). are discussed in Section 8. but by reciprocal means. although the solution time may increase depending on the manufacturer of your computer and the speed of your processor.5. 8–50 Structural Analysis Guide .2. See Chapter 2. it triggers bisection.2. ANSYS Release 8. NSUBST defines the number of substeps to be taken within a load step. 8. the entire nonlinear load step can be solved. minimum. Eventually. For applications using solid elements (for example. Inc. After completing the bisection. MSAVE. in addition to those available on the Solution Controls dialog box. remember that these options can be changed at any load step. Only 1000 results sets (substeps) can be written to the results file. choose the sparse direct solver. By default.5. 8. The MSAVE command triggers an element-by-element approach for the parts of the model that use SOLID92. whereas DELTIM defines the time step size explicitly.2.NRES to increase the limit (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). in sharp contrast to the iterative solvers included in ANSYS. To use this command. when the PCG solver encounters an ill-conditioned matrix. Although the PCG solver can solve indefinite matrix equations. 001972 . Other choices include the frontal direct and PCG solvers. Equation Solver ANSYS' automatic solution control activates the sparse direct solver (EQSLV. 2 x 2 x 2 integration for SOLID95). the PCG solver may be faster. the two terms are equivalent) within each load step so that ANSYS can apply the specified loads gradually and obtain an accurate solution. and/or SOLID187 elements with linear material properties. . SOLID92 or SOLID45).OFF) analysis. you may be able to considerably reduce your memory usage with the MSAVE command. SOLID186. The sparse direct solver. If you are using the PCG solver. Use the following guidelines for selecting either the sparse or the PCG solver for nonlinear structural analysis: • • If it is a beam/shell or beam/shell and solid structure. especially when doing 3-D modeling. The NSUBST and DELTIM commands both achieve the same effect (establishing a load step's starting. • OUTRES controls the data on the results file (Jobname. choose the PCG solver. it must be a small strain (NLGEOM.ON can result in a memory savings of up to 70% for the part of the model that meets the criteria. If using SOLID186 and/or SOLID187 elements.1 . but you can use the command /CONFIG. then the starting substep size is used throughout the load step.SPARSE) for most cases.1.RST).3: Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box. Advanced time/frequency options. as well as the chosen element options (for example. SOLID95. the solver continues the solution if the resulting matrix is wellconditioned.

The default value of VALUE is the SRSS of the applied loads (or.5%.2.2. the entire default criteria will be overwritten. Convergence Criteria The program will continue to do equilibrium iterations until the convergence criteria [CNVTOL] are satisfied (or until the maximum number of equilibrium equations is reached [NEQIT]).5. An internal auto-time step scheme ensures that the time step variation is neither too aggressive (resulting in many bisection/cutbacks) nor too conservative (time step size is too small).005. Inc. moment) convergence by comparing the square root sum of the squares (SRSS) of the force imbalances against the product of VALUE*TOLER. choose the sparse direct solver.3. or has a big difference in material properties in different regions of the model.01). ANSYS' automatic solution control uses L2-norm of force (and moment) tolerance (TOLER) equal to 0. you should change TOLER Structural Analysis Guide .ON]. the program will check for force (and.3.3.5. Automatic Time Stepping ANSYS' automatic solution control turns automatic time stepping on [AUTOTS. 001972 . for applied displacements. if you define displacement convergence checking. when rotational degrees of freedom are active. In most cases. You can define custom criteria if the default settings are not suitable. Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced load step options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. You can also add displacement (and.5.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis • If the problem is ill-conditioned (triggered by poor element shapes).OFF. By default. At the end of a time step. or has insufficient displacement boundary constraints. but at the cost of more equilibrium iterations. which is not recommended) your criteria.2.0 for force convergence. The default value of TOLER is 0.Section 8.001 and MINREF defaults to 1. you will have to redefine force convergence checking.1 . Note — If you explicitly define any custom convergence criteria [CNVTOL]. a setting that is appropriate for most cases. or MINREF (which defaults to 0.2. the program bases convergence checking on the change in deflections (∆u) between the current (i) and the previous (i-1) iterations: ∆u=ui-ui-1. TOLER defaults to 0. (Use multiple CNVTOL commands to define multiple convergence criteria.1. rotation) convergence checking. 8–51 . Thus. 8. If SOLCONTROL. The check that the displacements are loosely set serves as a doublecheck on convergence. an L2-norm check on displacement with TOLER equal to 5% is also used in addition to the force norm check. 8. You should almost always use force convergence checking. whichever is greater. the size of the next time step is predicted based on four factors: • • • • Number of equilibrium iterations used in the last time step (more iterations cause the time step size to be reduced) Predictions for nonlinear element status change (time step sizes are decreased when a status change is imminent) Size of the plastic strain increment Size of the creep strain increment 8. If you want to tighten (or loosen. ANSYS Release 8. For displacements. © SAS IP. of the Newton-Raphson restoring forces).) Using tighter convergence criteria will improve the accuracy of your results. when applicable.

F.0 CNVTOL.4. and if auto time stepping is on [AUTOTS]. If your analysis uses certain sets of units or has very low load levels.001 makes sense in the context of your analysis.) Example For the following example. Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the value of NEQIT to between 15 and 26 iterations. It is not so helpful 8–52 Structural Analysis Guide .10. . (Of course.3.0. 8.) However. If the convergence criteria have not been satisfied within this number of equilibrium iterations.3. PRED is turned off. You can activate a predictor on the DOF solution for the first equilibrium iteration of each substep. 001972 . Also.5000. 2.2.01). This feature accelerates convergence and is particularly useful if nonlinear response is relatively smooth.ON if there are no beam or shell elements present. In general. you might want to specify a smaller value for MINREF. The L2 norm performs the convergence check using the square root sum of the squares of the force (and moment) imbalances for all DOFs. Predictor-Corrector Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will set PRED.5.3. change the convergence criteria by adjusting TOLER.5. in a multi-DOF system.U. The idea is to employ a small time step with fewer quadratically converging iterations. 0. Inc.0. according to the instructions you issue in the NCNV command.2. ANSYS Release 8. CNVTOL. the predictor is also turned off. This option limits the maximum number of equilibrium iterations to be performed at each substep (default = 25 if solution control is off). The ANSYS program provides three different vector norms to use for convergence checking: • • • The infinite norm repeats the single-DOF check at each DOF in your model. additional L1 or L2 checking can be performed for a displacement convergence check. and if the change in displacements (checked as the square root sum of the squares) is less than or equal to 10*0. © SAS IP.0005 (that is. that is. and compare this value against the established convergence criteria (VALUE*TOLER). For transient analysis.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis by one or two orders of magnitude. the substep will be considered to be converged if the out-of-balance force (checked at each DOF separately) is less than or equal to 5000*0. You should make certain that the default value of MINREF = 0. the analysis will attempt to bisect.001. you compute the force (and moment) imbalance for the one DOF. depending upon the physics of the problem. (You can also perform a similar check for displacement (and rotation) convergence for your single DOF. then the analysis will either terminate or move on to the next load step. you should continue to use the default value of VALUE. Checking Convergence in a Single and Multi-DOF System To check convergence in a single degree of freedom (DOF) system. If bisection is not possible. often producing some unwanted residual force.001 (that is. The L1 norm compares the convergence criterion against the sum of the absolute values of force (and moment) imbalance for all DOFs. you might want to use a different method of comparison. we do not recommend putting two or more disjointed structures into one model for a nonlinear analysis because the convergence check tries to relate these disjointed structures. not VALUE.2 8.5). If the time step size is reduced greatly in the current substep.0005.1 .

For most non-contact problems. there is no maximum creep criteria by default. Using the predictor for large rotations can cause divergence and thus is not recommended for problems with large rotations. Line Search Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will toggle line search on and off as needed. Because the line search algorithm is intended to be an alternative to the adaptive descent option [NROPT]. Until one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. Instead. ANSYS includes stress stiffness in all geometrically nonlinear analyses. Stress Stiffness To account for buckling.5. 8. For implicit creep (Option = 1).2. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. adaptive descent is not automatically activated if the line search option is on. This is a reasonable limit for creep analysis. © SAS IP. otherwise. This convergence-enhancement tool multiplies the calculated displacement increment by a program-calculated scale factor (having a value between 0 and 1). you can turn stress stiffening off (SSTIF. use [CUTCONTROL. This command has no effect when used with several ANSYS elements. Lab = CRPLIM (creep increment limit) and VALUE is set to 10%.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis in analyses that incorporate large rotations or viscoelasticity. a run cannot converge until at least one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. see the ANSYS Elements Reference for the description of the specific elements you are using. Inc. The number of points per cycle for second order dynamic equations (Lab = NPOINT) is set to VALUE = 13 by default to gain efficiency at little cost to accuracy.1.2. VALUE.5.5. whenever a stiffening response is detected. 8. For explicit creep (Option = 0). bifurcation behavior. ANSYS Release 8.5. Lab.OFF). 8. ANSYS scales the entire ∆U vector. You can however. including the imposed displacement value. 001972 . you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults.6.3.3: Set Additional Solution Options. If you are confident of ignoring such effects.3. This field is set to such a large value for avoiding unnecessary bisections caused by high plastic strain due to a local singularity which is not normally of interest to the user. LNSRCH is toggled on.5. for Lab = PLSLIMIT (maximum plastic strain increment limit). and their default settings rarely need to be changed.1. Option]. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used infrequently.1. As noted above in Section 8. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Structural Analysis Guide .5.3. VALUE is set to 15%. For most contact problems. specify any creep ratio control. Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced analysis options that you can set for your analysis. Cutback Criteria For finer control over bisections and cutback in time step size. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution.1 .5. We do not recommend activating both line search and adaptive descent simultaneously. 8–53 . ANSYS does not impose the full value of the displacement.Section 8. By default. a "small" displacement would occur everywhere except at the imposed DOF. 8.3. When an imposed displacement exists. LNSRCH is toggled off. 8.3.

but it often requires more iterations to achieve convergence.8. the program discards the divergent iteration and restarts the solution. as long as the residual decreases. .4. the program will use the tangent stiffness matrix only as long as the iterations remain stable (that is. It is not applicable to large deformation analyses. an unsymmetric contact stiffness matrix would fully couple the sliding and the normal stiffnesses. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution.1 .AUTO): The program chooses which of the options to use. If you are defining an unsymmetric material model using TB. The underlying contact elements require adaptive descent for convergence. BEAM23. If divergent trends are detected on an iteration. Adaptive descent will be automatically activated. node-to-surface contact elements are used for contact analysis with friction. it would be updated at the iteration in which it changes status. when node-to-node. it generates and uses unsymmetric matrices that you can use for any of the following: – – – If you are running a pressure-driven collapse analysis. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration.1 for an element. See Section 11.UNSYM if you experience convergence difficulties. however. Adaptive descent is not available. However. • Modified (NROPT. the program will resume using the tangent stiffness matrix. If adaptive descent is on (optional). 001972 .INIT): The program uses the initial stiffness matrix in every equilibrium iteration. The matrix is not changed during equilibrium iterations at a substep.UNSYM to fully use the property you defined.5. Initial Stiffness (NROPT. BEAM24. PIPE20. If you are running a contact analysis. you can specify one of these values: • • Program-chosen (NROPT. you would need NROPT. Note that using an unsymmetric solver requires more computer time to obtain a solution. Full with unsymmetric matrix (NROPT. where n is the element number) in the ANSYS Elements Reference.FULL): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure. Full (NROPT.MODI): The program uses the modified Newton-Raphson technique.1. in which the tangent stiffness matrix is updated at each substep. Inc. an unsymmetric pressure load stiffness might be helpful in obtaining convergence. This option is not applicable to large deformation analyses. based on the kinds of nonlinearities present in your model. Adaptive descent is not available.USER.n. Activating adaptive descent will usually enhance the program's ability to obtain converged solutions for complicated nonlinear problems but is supported only for elements indicated under "Special Features" in the Input Summary table (Table 4.2. • If a multistatus element is in the model. using a weighted combination of the secant and tangent stiffness matrices. In addition. You can include pressure load stiffness using SOLCONTROL.UNSYM): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure. irrespective of the Newton-Raphson option. and no negative main diagonal pivot occurs). Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Use this option only in a nonlinear analysis. When the iterations return to a convergent pattern. ANSYS Release 8.FULL. This option can be less likely to diverge than the full option. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration. If you choose to override the default.4: Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration in this manual for details.3. then try NROPT. © SAS IP.INCP. than if you use a symmetric solver. 8–54 Structural Analysis Guide . and PIPE60). when appropriate. then adaptive descent is automatically turned on (for example. • • You should first try NROPT. Newton-Raphson Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will use the FULL Newton-Raphson option with adaptive descent off if there is a nonlinearity present.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.

the time step can be opened quickly. the program will then decrease the next time step size. The time step size can then be opened continuously for greater solution efficiency. or set the time steps to be longer than the previous time step. 8. this creep criterion will have no effect. Time Step Open Control This option is available for thermal analysis.2. The default is that if the TEMP increment is smaller than 0. For instance. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands or the standard corresponding menu paths instead.5.2.3.3. rather than attempting to gather this information from a lengthy output file.) The program will compute the ratio of creep strain increment (∆εcr. (The program will also base automatic time stepping on the number of equilibrium iterations.) This option's primary use is in unsteady state thermal analysis where the final temperature stage reaches a steady state.2. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion Note — If you do not want to include the effects of creep in your analysis. The command also provides the user with a means to quickly review the solution convergence efficiency. if an excessive number of attempts were made for a substep. the time step size can be "opened-up" (value = 0.CRCR. © SAS IP.5.5. This problem can be avoided by making the minimum time step size sufficiently small [DELTIM and NSUBST]. there is no maximum creep limit by default. a divergent solution is possible and the analysis will be terminated with an error message.1 in three (NUMSTEP = 3) contiguous substeps. if the ratio ∆εcr / εel is above the stability limit of 0.1 by default).0e-6 longer.Section 8. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. The time step size will be adjusted to the minimum size calculated for any of these items.5.3.2. you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below.) For explicit creep (Option = 0). As noted above in Section 8. if it is less.25. for all elements. and plastic strain increment.5. you can specify a creep criterion for automatic time step adjustment [CRPLIM. but not more than 1. In such cases.2. Inc.1 . If the maximum ratio is greater than the criterion CRCR. the information contained in the file provides hints to either reduce the initial time step size or increase the minimum number of substeps allowed through the NSUBST command to avoid an excessive number of bisections. Command(s): MONITOR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor Structural Analysis Guide . Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced load step options that you can set for your analysis.3. specify any creep ratio control. ANSYS Release 8. Creep Criteria If your structure exhibits creep behavior.3: Set Additional Solution Options. For implicit creep (Option = 1). use the RATE command with Option = OFF. and if the time increment cannot be decreased. 8. Option]. (Remember that you cannot perform a thermal analysis using the Solution Controls dialog box.1. 8–55 . (If automatic time stepping [AUTOTS] is off. impending element status change. the change in creep strain in the last time step) to the elastic strain (εel).3. the program might increase the next time step size. Solution Monitoring This option provides a facility to monitor a solution value at a specified node in a specified DOF. 001972 .5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis 8. You can however. Instead. Command(s): OPNCONTROL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Open Control 8.

8.2.5.2. which you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box.3. Extrapolation of results [ERESX] copies an element's integration point stress and elastic strain results to the nodes instead of extrapolating them. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for load information.5. and by removing its mass from the overall mass matrix.5. 001972 .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. © SAS IP. Remember that inertia and point loads will maintain constant direction. there are several other output control options that you can set for an analysis: Command(s): OUTPR.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in this guide for more information. “Structural Static Analysis” in this guide and Chapter 2.2. Command(s): EKILL. you cannot create new elements in SOLUTION. and so on) for inactive elements are also set to zero.4.1 . but surface loads will "follow" the structure in a large-deformation analysis. and then reactivated at the beginning of the appropriate load step. and (if NLGEOM.4. You can deactivate [EKILL] and reactivate [EALIVE] selected elements to model the removal or addition of material in your structure.3. and so on) is updated to match the current displaced positions of their nodes.4. heat flux. You can apply complex boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter). EALIVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Kill Elements Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Activate Elem The program “deactivates” an element by multiplying its stiffness by a very small number (which is set by the ESTIF command). you can change the material properties for selected elements [MPCHG] between load steps. if nonlinear strains (plasticity. Apply the Loads Apply loads on the model. Inc. particularly if you change nonlinear [TB] material properties. You need to define all possible elements during preprocessing. 8–56 Structural Analysis Guide . 8. When elements are reactivated. Element loads (pressure. Another way to affect element behavior during solution is to change the material property reference number for selected elements: Command(s): MPCHG GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Change Mat Num Note — Use MPCHG with caution. See Chapter 2. area. Changing material properties in a nonlinear analysis may produce unintended results. See the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information on birth and death. ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Printed output [OUTPR] includes any results data on the output file (Jobname.3. swelling) are present in the element. Output Control In addition to OUTRES. they have a zero strain state. Those elements to be “born” in later stages of your analysis should be deactivated before the first load step. thermal strains. . The integration point nonlinear strains are always copied to the nodes. ANSYS Release 8. Birth and Death Specify birth and death options as necessary. See Chapter 2.ON) their geometric configuration (length. As an alternative to the standard birth and death method. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. See Section 2. creep.5.OUT).

ANSYS Release 8.5.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis 8. issue RESUME.6. that arc-length results should not be identified by time. Reviewing Results in POST1 1. (Note. other than to determine why convergence failed. Verify from your output file (Jobname. and reaction forces.2. If not.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time.Section 8. the general postprocessor.5. 001972 . Solve the Analysis You solve a nonlinear analysis using the same commands and procedure as you do in solving a linear static analysis. or in POST26. Review the Results Results from a nonlinear static analysis consist mainly of displacements. Enter POST1.5: Solve the Analysis in Chapter 2. load step options. the ANSYS program will perform a linear interpolation to calculate the results at that value of TIME. Remember that in POST1. 8. and then save and solve for each of the additional load steps. “Structural Static Analysis”. You can also limit the amount of data written from the results file to the database through the INRES command.23: “Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error”).RST.5.RST) must be available. Additionally. you probably will not want to postprocess the results. Thus.are described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 3. then continue postprocessing. you can use the ETABLE command to store result items for selected elements.5. • • 2. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read in results for the desired load step and substep. however. strains. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1.3. You can review these results in POST1. The results file (Jobname. Realize that this interpolation will usually cause some loss of accuracy in a nonlinear analysis (see Figure 8. only one substep can be read in at a time. Caution: If you specify a TIME value for which no results are available. 8–57 . If your solution converged. Other methods for multiple load steps .6.RST. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. 8. 8. See Section 2.1. the time-history postprocessor. you should usually postprocess at a TIME that corresponds exactly to the desired substep.6. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname.) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step You can also use the SUBSET or APPEND commands to read in or merge results data for selected portions of the model only. stresses. for a nonlinear analysis. If your model is not currently in the database. If you need to define multiple load steps. Inc. you must respecify time settings. The LIST argument on any of these commands lists the available solutions on the results file.5. See the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.the load step file method and the array parameter method .1 . and so on. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated.

1]. or with adjacent deactivated and activated elements).1 .. you might prefer to use a true scale display [/DSCALE. strains. PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Use PLETAB to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. and so on. Selecting logic (described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) provides a means of avoiding such errors. © SAS IP. you should take care to avoid nodal stress averaging errors in your results. or any other applicable item.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRETAB PRITER (substep summary data). Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses. Inc. NSORT ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB. 8–58 Structural Analysis Guide . The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. with different material types. If you have adjacent elements with different material behavior (such as can occur with plastic or multilinear elastic material properties. Display the results using any of the following options: Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape In a large deformation analysis.23 Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error 4. .

Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence might follow these steps: 1. 8.ABT). 001972 . 2.6. If your model is not currently in the database. issue RESUME. OUTRES.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis) and linear full transient dynamic analyses (described in Chapter 2. and SOLU command descriptions for more information. SSTIF. the time-history postprocessor. you might graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. NROPT. However. See Chapter 6. 8. Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis Many of the tasks that you need to perform in a nonlinear transient analysis are the same as (or similar to) those that you perform in nonlinear static analyses (described in Section 8. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro Define the variables to be used in your postprocessing session. You can often restart an analysis if it successfully completed one or more iterations before it terminated. KBC. ANSYS Release 8. NCNV.mapping results onto a path.6. 8.1 .OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all desired load steps. ESOL. where you can incorporate them into your postprocessing.3. © SAS IP. Verify from your output file (Jobname. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. NEQIT. 4.5. If your solution converged. Restart procedures are covered in Section 3. or if a convergence failure occurs. Terminating a Running Job. Structural Analysis Guide . TIME. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. See the NLGEOM. Restarting You can stop a nonlinear analysis by creating an "abort" file (Jobname.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.5. For instance. enter POST26. AUTOTS. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes 3. See Chapter 3. Command(s): NSOL. this section describes some additional considerations for performing a nonlinear transient analysis. and so on are available in POST1. 8–59 . “Structural Static Analysis”). “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.7. PRED. CNVTOL. report quality listings.6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions .Section 8. Inc. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another. Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26. NSUBST. The program will also stop upon successful completion of the solution. The SOLU command will cause various iteration and convergence parameters to be read into the database. You should not base design decisions on unconverged results. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST26. or you might list the plastic strain at a node and the corresponding TIME value. RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Graph or list the variables.

In a nonlinear transient analysis. BETAD.1. Build the Model This step is the same as for a nonlinear static analysis. In a nonlinear analysis the stiffness may change drastically . Instead. Specify transient analysis type and define analysis options as you would for a nonlinear static analysis: • • • • 2.DAMP]. The general. New Analysis or Restart [ANTYPE] Analysis Type: Transient [ANTYPE] Large Deformation Effects [NLGEOM] Large Displacement Transient (if using the Solution Controls dialog box to set analysis type) Apply loads and specify load step options in the same manner as you would for a linear full transient dynamic analysis.do not use BETAD. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for procedures for defining nonzero initial conditions. which is the method described in Section 8. or swelling. If you want to. See Chapter 5. viscoplasticity. 8.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis. and transient integration parameters. . cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis. • Damping Rayleigh damping constants are defined using the constant mass [ALPHAD] and stiffness [BETAD] matrix multipliers. However. viscoelasticity. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. These 8–60 Structural Analysis Guide . time must be greater than zero.3: Damping for details about damping. TINTP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Transient Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration An explanation of the dynamics options follows. nonlinear. if your analysis includes time-integration effects. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for further discussion about ramped vs.DENS]. TIMINT. birth and death. For creep. with the first load step typically used to establish initial conditions (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). time integration effects. 001972 .1 . © SAS IP. and output control options available for a nonlinear static analysis are also available for a nonlinear transient analysis.10. be sure to include a value for mass density [MP. except with care. You can also specify dynamics options: alpha and beta damping. Command(s): ALPHAD. ANSYS Release 8. A transient load history usually requires multiple load steps.6. stepped loads. use a static analysis). you must specify whether you want stepped or ramped loads [KBC].6. For a nonlinear transient analysis. Inc.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Remember that the Solution Controls dialog box. you can also define material-dependent structural damping [MP. you should turn the time integration effects off (that is. • Time Integration Effects [TIMINT] Time integration effects are ON by default in a transient analysis.2. 8. See Section 5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 1.

you can access all of these options [ALPHAD. with ! these possible additions: nonlinear material ! properties. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. 8–61 . Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files After you have solved all load steps. 3. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis A sample input listing for a nonlinear transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model: /PREP7 --------FINISH ! ! Similar to a linear full transient model. ANSYS Release 8. (See your ANSYS. Time-history postprocessing using POST26 is essentially the same for nonlinear as for linear transient analyses. 4.Section 8.) ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the defaults to a new time integration scheme for use by first order transient equations. Inc. 8. you can use POST1 to postprocess results at a specific moment in time.7: Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis time-dependent effects are usually not included in dynamic analyses because the transient dynamic time step sizes are often too short for any significant amount of long-term deformation to occur. 6. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As Start solution calculations. 001972 . Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. TRNOPT] on the Transient tab. See the postprocessing procedures outlined in Chapter 5. Review the Results As in a nonlinear static analysis. Other methods for multiple load steps are described in Chapter 1. Note — If you are using the Solution Controls dialog box to set solution controls. The oscillation limit tolerance defaults to 0. TINTP. Procedures are much the same as described previously for nonlinear static analyses. More details of postprocessing procedures can be found in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. you will rarely need to adjust the transient integration parameters [TINTP]. Theory Reference for more information about these parameters. Except in kinematic (rigid-body motion) analyses. 8. “Getting Started with ANSYS” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.1 .6.7. Again.0. TIMINT. 5. KBC. which provide numerical damping to the Newmark and HHT methods. leave SOLUTION. you should verify that your solution has converged before you attempt to postprocess the results. this is the backward Euler scheme.0 (set by SOLCONTROL. so that the response first order eigenvalues can be used to more precisely determine a new time step value. nonlinear elements Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.3. This is typically used for unsteady state thermal problems where θ = 1. ON). Write load data for each load step to a load step file. “Transient Dynamic Analysis”. It is unconditionally stable and more robust for highly nonlinear thermal problems such as phase changes. Inc. BETAD.

.3 ! Initiate multiple l.3 NSOL. ! Postprocess as desired PLNSOL. ! Time step controls (starting. ALPHAD..8. NEQIT..2. ! Load Step Options: TIME..... ! Convergence criteria ! NEQIT=25 by default NCNV.s. max) AUTOTS.1 ... © SAS IP...ON ! TIMINT.. NLGEOM... NROPT... ! Mass damping TIMINT.. stresses. 8–62 Structural Analysis Guide . as needed --LSSOLVE. ! Store results (displacements. NCNV. ! Read results from desired time step PLDISP...3. and SOLU command descriptions for more information.ON ! Automatic time stepping.. ANSYS Release 8.. ! Graph results vs. min. D.CNVG ! Check convergence SOLU.. SSTIF. CNVTOL.ON by default. TIMINT. ! Nonconvergence termination controls PRED.FOCV PRVAR.2.1.. FINISH See the ANTYPE.) as ! variables PLVAR.. NSORT. Inc... etc.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.... AUTOTS.FULL by default --! Establish initial conditions as in linear full --! transient analysis LSWRITE ! Initial-condition load step NLGEOM.. TIME to evaluate general quality ! of analysis.. TRNOPT.ON ! Stress stiffening effects ! NROPT=AUTO by default: Program will choose appropriate Newton-Raphson and ! Adaptive Descent options. ..ON ! Predictor ON OUTRES. ! TIME at end of load step DELTIM.. etc.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution: /SOLU ANTYPE. Restarts Restart procedures for a transient analysis are essentially the same as for a static analysis... KBC.. 001972 ... PRNSOL. LSSOLVE.TRANS ! TRNOPT. OUTRES. depending on ! nonlinearities encountered ! Loads: F.ALL. unless you turned it OFF for ! initial-condition load step ! Nonlinear Options: CNVTOL.ON ! Nonlinear geometric effects (large deformations) SSTIF.. see Section 3.. LSWRITE.. DELTIM... TIME. solution SAVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results: /POST26 ! Time-History Postprocessor SOLU.. including bisection ! KBC=0 by default (ramped loading) ! Dynamic Options: ALPHAD. PRED.ALL ! Results for every substep written to database LSWRITE ! First "real" transient load step --! Additional load steps. FINISH ! /POST1 ! General Postprocessor SET. 8. determine critical time step.

Some of the nonlinear element features described below are available only in the ANSYS Multiphysics. • • • • • • • • • • COMBIN7 COMBIN14 COMBIN37 COMBIN39 COMBIN40 CONTAC12 and CONTAC52 TARGE169. For nonlinear static models. linear transient dynamic. Inc. CONTA172. • Gain preliminary insight into your structure's behavior by analyzing a preliminary simplified model first. “Element Birth and Death” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements Nonlinear elements display an abrupt change in stiffness when they experience a change in status. The following suggestions should be useful. TARGE170. when a cable goes slack.10. and CONTA175 LINK10 SHELL41 SOLID65 8. 8." The birth and death options [EKILL. you can avoid many difficulties commonly associated with nonlinear analyses. For example.1. complicated model. ANSYS Release 8. 8–63 . Structural Analysis Guide . Element Birth and Death Sometimes. its stiffness suddenly drops to zero.9. CONTA171. CONTA174. EALIVE.10. 001972 . CONTA173. and make sure you understand how to handle this feature before you use it in a large. ESTIF] (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other) can be used to deactivate or reactivate selected elements in such cases. 8. When two separate bodies come into contact. by applying birth and death options to applicable elements (see the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide).1.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis 8. Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis This section describes tips and guidelines that can help you to perform a nonlinear analysis.9. 8. Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave If you have not used a particular nonlinear feature before. and ANSYS Structural products only.1.Section 8. and springs can provide insight into the structure's dynamics at minimal cost. The birth and death feature is discussed in detail in Chapter 11. Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis By taking your time and proceeding with reasonable caution.10. a preliminary model of beams. their overall stiffness changes drastically. These and other status-dependent stiffness changes can be modeled by using nonlinear elements (described below). or by changing material properties [MPCHG]. a preliminary linear static analysis can reveal which regions of your model will first experience nonlinear response. © SAS IP.1. ANSYS Mechanical. and at what load levels these nonlinearities will come into play. an element's status changes between "existent" and "nonexistent. containing only a few elements). masses. For nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. construct a very simple model (that is. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for details.1 . Preliminary nonlinear static.

If you can reduce your model size through the use of symmetry or antisymmetry surfaces. • • 8. do so. or axisymmetric model. thus lower-order elements provide the same accuracy as higherorder elements. Keep It Simple • Keep your final model as simple as possible. so as to minimize the number of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations required. Inc. If you can represent your 3-D structure as a 2-D plane stress. material instabilities. At a minimum. ANSYS Release 8. The number of elements needed depends on the elements' assumed displacement shape functions. © SAS IP. plane strain.10. For path-dependent problems. as well as on the mode shape itself. Apply the Load Gradually • • For nonconservative. Overcoming Convergence Problems When performing a nonlinear analysis you may encounter convergence difficulties due to a number of reasons. Consider substructuring the linear portions of your model to reduce the computational effort required for intermediate load or time increments and equilibrium iterations.1 .10.3. Antisymmetry can also be rendered inapplicable by large deflections. Solution control (SOLCONTROL) automatically adjusts solution parameters and attempts to obtain 8–64 Structural Analysis Guide . Higher-order elements use only the corner integration points for nonlinear analyses. 8.) If you can omit a nonlinear detail without affecting results in critical regions of your model. or large deformations causing mesh distortion that result in element shape errors. Use a mesh density adequate to resolve any transient dynamic wave propagation through your structure. Use a mesh density adequate to characterize the highest mode shape of interest.1. then provide at least 20 elements to resolve one wavelength. do so. (However. Model transient dynamic loading in terms of static-equivalent loads whenever possible. before you try to postprocess your results. If wave propagation is important.2. the 18x elements are recommended for nonlinear analyses.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis and/or modal analyses can also help you to understand various aspects of your structure's nonlinear dynamic response before you undertake the final nonlinear transient dynamic analysis. • • • • 8. if your model is loaded antisymmetrically. However. large load increments causing nonconvergence.10. Provide a mesh density adequate for resolving stresses.1. path-dependent systems.10. Some examples may be initially open contact surfaces causing rigid body motion. Areas where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively fine mesh compared to that needed for displacement or nonlinearity resolution.4. do so. Provide an adequate mesh density on contact surfaces to allow contact stresses to be distributed in a smooth fashion.1. 8. • Read and understand the program's output messages and warnings. you can generally not take advantage of antisymmetry to reduce a nonlinear model's size. You can sometimes improve the convergence behavior of conservative systems by applying the load gradually. you need to apply the load in small enough increments to ensure that your analysis will closely follow the structure's load-response curve. the printout's equilibrium iteration record can be especially important in helping you to determine if your results are valid or not. 001972 . Use an Adequate Mesh Density • Recognize that regions undergoing plastic deformation require a reasonable integration point density (mesh density is particularly important in plastic-hinge regions). make sure your problem converged.2. .

and CNCHECK commands help you verify if there are any obvious problems with the model before you start the solution. Using ESCHECK at different time points will help you to identify the load conditions that cause mesh deterioration. some portions of the initial mesh can become highly distorted. By tracking the way the residuals change over several equilibrium iterations you can identify a portion of your model where large residuals persist. and element shape checks. for example.10. The MCHECK command can help you identify defects in the mesh such as holes or cracks. 8–65 . The CNCHECK command provides the initial contact status of contact pairs. a contact pair's properties) instead of having to deal with the entire model.1 . where the model has a large number of contact surfaces and other nonlinearities. Highly distorted elements can take on unacceptable shapes. nonlinear analyses fail to converge for the following reasons: ANSYS has default limits which.NRRE command. Other limits are fixed. and after a solution. or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model. including missing elastic properties. 8. You can restart the analysis and issue an NLDIAG. Such a capability can be useful when you experience convergence difficulties in the middle of a load step. ANSYS Release 8. thereby allowing them to retain acceptable shapes. MCHECK.Section 8. Identify Regions of High Residual Forces Issue the NLDIAG. This can cause your nonlinear solution to stop. providing inaccurate results. Structural Analysis Guide . Some limits are user-controlled. the CNCHECK command can help you identify this potential error condition. use the ESCHECK command to perform shape checking of deformed elements in the postprocessor (based on the current set of results in database). for example. during. especially when the mesh is imported from a third party software. When this happens.1.2. unconstrained model. the CUTCONTROL command sets the maximum plastic/creep strain increments allowed in an iteration. which will help to identify regions of high residual forces.NRRE command to write out the residuals. when exceeded. 001972 . If. determine when convergence criteria have been violated. You can then focus on the nonlinearities in that area (for example. identifying whether the contacts are initially open or closed. Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics The nonlinear diagnostics tool NLDIAG can help you find problems in your model when an analysis will not converge. accurate solution.NRRE command to write the Newton-Raphson residuals from equilibrium iterations to a file. The following sections detail some of the techniques that you can use to attempt to improve the convergence performance of your analysis. When you analyze models with large deformations. Inc. The CHECK command does an overall verification of the model. A convergence failure can also indicate a physical instability in the structure. © SAS IP.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis a robust. This deformed-shape checker will help you to identify the portions of your model that require different meshing. CHECK. Identify Problem Elements • • • • Too large a distortion Elements contain nodes that have near zero pivots (nonlinear analyses) Too large a plastic or creep strain increment Elements where mixed u-P constraints are not satisfied (mixed U-P option of 18x solid elements only) Typically. In addition. You can then contour plot the residual forces via the PLNSOL. several tools are available in ANSYS that can help you identify potential problems before. a part in your model is constrained only through contact with other parts and if the contact surfaces are open.

10. You can also request element nodal data such as stresses and strains at specific elements to be graphed. a reaction force-deflection curve could indicate when possible buckling behavior occurs. © SAS IP.2. Pair-based contact data are also available.24: “Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature” shows a typical GST display: 8–66 Structural Analysis Guide . use either of the following: Command(s): /GST GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track Figure 8.ndxxx). The command creates components of elements that violate a certain criterion for a particular equilibrium iteration (or iterations). Use the supplied file browser to navigate to your Jobname. Monitor the Diagnostics Results in Real Time The NLHIST command allows you to monitor results of interest in real time during solution. You can also track results during batch runs. You can use this utilty to read the file at any time. you can request nodal data such as displacements or reaction forces at specific nodes. GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. To turn GST on or off. or type nlhist81 at the command line. For example. even after the solution is complete (the data in the file must be formatted correctly). ANSYS computes convergence norms with corresponding convergence criteria each equilibrium iteration. By default. . Process the Tracked Results Issue the NLDPOST command to process the . Either access the ANSYS Launcher and select File Tracking from the Tools menu. Available in both batch and interactive sessions. the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence norms and criteria while the solution is in process. and click on it to invoke the tracking utilty. Tracking Convergence Graphically As a nonlinear structural analysis proceeds.1 . 8. Before starting the solution.EFLG command identifies elements that violate the above criteria and records them in a file (Jobname.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis The NLDIAG.2. The result data are written to a file named Jobname. Inc.nlh file. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 .nlh. Nodal results and contact results are monitored at every converged substep while element nodal data are written as specified via the OUTRES setting.ndxxx nonlinear diagnostics files.

Do not use α-damping (mass matrix multiplier. 8–67 . Using Automatic Time Stepping • Be sure to place an upper limit on the time step size using DELTIM or NSUBST. especially if a coarse time step is used. turbine blade and hub assemblies) in which the low-frequency energy content of the system could dominate the high-frequency areas.24 Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature 8. ramped portions of the load history may be inaccurately characterized.1 on the TINTP command) into the solution to filter out the high frequency noise.2. Problems that include structures that are continuously excited over a range of frequencies (for example. • Take care when modeling kinematic structures (systems with rigid-body motions).3. ALPHAD command) in a dynamic kinematic analysis.1 . Problems with short ramp times on some of their loads.Section 8. These guidelines can usually help you obtain a good solution: – Incorporate significant numerical damping (0. ANSYS Release 8. This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included. – Avoid imposed displacement history specifications. because imposed displacement input has (theoretically) infinite jumps in acceleration. Inc. seismic problems). © SAS IP. If the time step size is allowed to become too large. especially for complicated models. Structural Analysis Guide . as it will dampen the rigid body motion (zero frequency mode) of the system.05 < γ < 0.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis Figure 8. This can be important in the following situations: – – – Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example.10. 001972 . which causes stability problems for the Newmark time-integration algorithm.

4. it can be difficult to determine a value of limiting load or deflection within some known tolerance when using the arc-length method in a nonlinear buckling analysis. . and adjust and re-analyze as needed. The actual load at convergence is somewhat less. In general. you want to choose the minimum number of substeps required to produce an optimally efficient solution. adaptive descent [NROPT. automatic time stepping [AUTOTS. Use the force criteria [CNVTOL. you cannot use this method to obtain a solution at a specified load or displacement value because the value changes (along the spherical arc) as equilibrium is achieved. When choosing the number of substeps. You generally have to adjust the reference arc-length radius (using NSUBST) by trial-and-error to obtain a solution at the limit point.10. consider that more substeps will result in a longer solution time. Inc. When using the arc-length method. Note in Figure 8. If an arc-length solution fails to converge within the prescribed maximum number of iterations [NEQIT]. ANSYS Release 8.ON]. or until the minimum arc-length radius is used (the minimum radius is defined by NSBSTP [NSUBST] and MINARC [ARCLEN]).4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. DELTIM]. using the following formula: (Total Load or Displacement) NSBSTP B Reference Arc -Length Radius = where NSBSTP is the number of substeps specified in the NSUBST command. You might consider setting line search on in the following cases: • • • When your structure is force-loaded (as opposed to displacement-controlled).F] instead.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. • Do not use line search [LNSRCH]. the predictor [PRED]. TIME. please keep in mind the following considerations: • • The arc-length method is restricted to static analyses with proportional (ramped) loads only.1 . the program will automatically bisect and continue the analysis. • a F1 • • • • is only used as a starting Similarly.2.5.2. 8. If you are analyzing a "flimsy" structure which exhibits increasing stiffness (such as a fishing pole). Using Line Search Line search [LNSRCH] can be useful for enhancing convergence. the maximum number of equilibrium iterations in a single substep [NEQIT] should be less than or equal to 15.. Arc-Length Method” how the specified load point. To help minimize solution time with the arc-length method..U]. The program calculates the reference arc-length radius from the load (or displacement) increment of the first iteration of the first substep. 001972 .10. You might have to take an "educated guess" of the desired number of substeps. Using the Arc-Length Method You can use the arc-length method [ARCLEN and ARCTRM] to obtain numerically stable solutions for many physically unstable structures. © SAS IP. but it can be expensive (especially with plasticity). Do not attempt to base convergence on displacement [CNVTOL. If you notice (from the program output messages) oscillatory convergence patterns. Ideally. It might 8–68 Structural Analysis Guide . or time-integration effects [TIMINT] when the arc-length method is active. Bisection will continue either until a converged solution is obtained.

2. (A single value of TIME might reference more than one solution.OFF]. ANSYS Release 8. Do not reference results by a TIME value. It is usually good practice to graph your load-deflection curve (using POST26 commands) with every analysis. This approach can be used to start a static analysis closer to the equilibrium position. The total arc-length load factor (item ALLF on the SOLU command) can be either positive or negative. or to control displacements through periods of unstable response (for example. which can cause a solution failure with this solver. When reading arc-length results into the database for POST1 postprocessing [SET]. to switch from arc-length to Newton-Raphson iterations. Study the loaddeflection curve to understand this problem. © SAS IP. which in an arc-length analysis is related to the total arc-length load factor. snap-through or postbuckling).1 . Often. • You should usually avoid using the JCG solver [EQSLV] in conjunction with the arc-length method. An arc-length solution terminates under these conditions: – When limits defined by the ARCTRM or NCNV commands are reached – When the solution converges at the applied load – When you use an abort file (Jobname. Negative ALLF or TIME values can be commonly encountered in various snap-through analyses. or passes through. 8–69 . 001972 . deactivating the arc-length method in the first load step of the restart [ARCLEN. TIME. • • • • • 8. an unsuccessful arc-length analysis can be traced to an arc-length radius that is either too large or too small. because the arc-length procedure might result in a negative definite stiffness matrix (negative pivot). You can freely switch from the Newton-Raphson iteration method to the arc-length method at the start of any load step. the program cannot correctly interpret negative TIME values (which might be encountered in a snap-through analysis).6. You can then use the NSUBST and ARCLEN commands to adjust the arc-length radius size and range. you can use imposed displacements instead of applied forces.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis be more convenient to use standard Newton-Raphson iterations with bisection [AUTOTS] to determine values of nonlinear buckling loads. Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response If you do not want to use the arc-length method to analyze a force-loaded structure that starts at. Negative values of ALLF or TIME indicate that the arc-length feature is applying load in the reverse direction. you should always reference the desired results data set by its load step and substep number (LSTEP and SBSTEP) or by its data set number (NSET). Similarly.ABT) See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for a discussion of termination and restart procedures. Inc.) Additionally. If TIME becomes negative. is one typical difficulty that is caused by using too large or too small an arc-length radius. you must terminate the analysis and restart. a singular (zero stiffness) configuration." in which the analysis retraces its steps back along the load-deflection curve. can also be either positive or negative. Structural Analysis Guide .10. because TIME in an arc-length analysis is not always monotonically increasing. in order to maintain stability in the structure. "Drifting back. you can sometimes use other techniques to artificially inhibit divergence in your model's response: • In some cases.Section 8. remember to define an appropriate variable range [/XRANGE or /YRANGE] before creating any POST26 graphs. as appropriate. However. • Use the load-deflection curve as a guide for evaluating and adjusting your analysis to help you achieve the desired results.

ON .8. . . doing so precludes the ability to model any bending.10. . . . . . . or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT].NO PRINTOUT LOAD STEP NUMBER. . . . . . The idea here is to artificially restrain the system during intermediate load steps in order to prevent unrealistically large displacements from being calculated. . . . . You can also apply temporary artificial stiffness to unstable DOFs. . using the PRITER command. Figure 8. . . . Such singularities can cause convergence problems. . (Printout either appears directly on your screen. . . However. . © SAS IP. .10. . . . Inc.10. .25 Typical Nonlinear Output Listing SOLVE command echo Checking Logic Load step summary table ***** ANSYS SOLVE COMMAND ***** *** NOTE *** CP= 13. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS .) You can examine some of this same information in POST1. 8. When activating or deactivating elements. The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections. ANSYS Release 8. . Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ANSYS provides "incompatible" modes" formulation (also referred to as "extra shapes") for modeling bending applications.7. . . . the artificial stiffness is removed. . . . As the system displaces into a stable configuration. do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. CONVERGENCE CONTROLS.2. .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis • Another technique that can be effective in circumventing problems due to initial instability is running a static problem as a "slow dynamic" analysis (that is. . . . . . . . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING . . 200. . 2 . MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS. . . . . using control elements (such as COMBIN37). .2. . using time-integration effects in an attempt to prevent the solution from diverging in any one load step).USE DEFAULTS . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . NO .1 . . . . . Read Your Output Remember that the ANSYS program performs a nonlinear analysis as a series of linear approximations with corrections.) Also be aware of possible singularities (such as sharp reentrant corners) that might be created as you activate or deactivate elements. 10 . 001972 . or using the birth and death option on other elements. . . . 100 . . . .YES (EXIT) . INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . 10000 . • 8.2. TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. . . . DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT BASI -10 8–70 Structural Analysis Guide . A typical nonlinear output listing is shown in Figure 8. . 15 . . . then you may choose to turn extra shapes off to reduce CPU/storage requirements and enhance convergence. is captured on Jobname. .891 TIME= 11:09:22 Nonlinear analysis.9. . (Use a small time step size if necessary to accomplish this. . TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . . . . If your problem is predominantly bulk deformation.25: “Typical Nonlinear Output Listing”. . . . . You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. . . using the SOLU and PRVAR commands. PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . 8. . Using Birth and Death Wisely Realize that any sudden change in your structure's stiffness matrix is likely to cause convergence problems.00 . . L O A D S T E P O P T I O N S . . or in POST26. . In particular. . .OUT. try to spread the changes out over a number of substeps. NROPT set to 1 (full Newton-Raphson solution procedure) for all DOFs. .

MAX DOF INC= 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED.1 .2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= 0. MAX DOF INC= -0.50000 CUM ITER = 13 Load step 2 substep 2 Load step 2 substep 3 Equilbrium iteration summaries Substep summary 8.9 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.8570E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 101.7 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= 0.8570E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 77. Structural Analysis Guide .2 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED.6943E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.3 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED.2.2 CRITERION= 502.5329E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 8237. MAX DOF INC= 0. and so on) should show relatively smooth response histories. The results of interest (displacements. TIME INC = 1.4 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. CRITERION= 532.2006E+06 CRITERION= 1125.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.1272E-01 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 4267. MAX DOF INC= 0. CUM ITER = 9 *** TIME = 102. You will also learn how to interpret the monitor file that ANSYS writes for a nonlinear analysis. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 0.9019E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. © SAS IP.9905E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 41. you will run a nonlinear analysis of an elastic-plastic circular plate under the action of a dead load and a cyclic point load. CRITERION= 540.10. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. Any non-smoothness may indicate that too coarse of a time step was used. 8–71 .000 TIME INC = 1.5 CRITERION= 497.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) Load step 2 substep 1 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.9 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= 0.4318E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 626.000 TIME INC = 1. CRITERION= 534. and reviewing the iteration history.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0.1451E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1135.10. as well as load step options. and the various load steps that describe externally applied loads.4 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 *** LOAD STEP 2 *** TIME = 103.9578 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.1451E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. POST26 graphs of load and response histories should agree with your informed expectations about your structure's behavior.4318E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.87 CRITERION= 512. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. the maximum and minimum number of substeps for a load step.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= 0.3628E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.3628E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 3905.11. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.1746E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.95 CRITERION= 551. Graph the Load and Response History This verification technique may be considered to be a graphical combination of two other techniques: checking for reasonableness. You will define a kinematic hardening plasticity curve.9 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED.6943E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 347.1333E+05 CRITERION= 575.5329E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. reaction forces. stresses. MAX DOF INC= -0.3 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. CRITERION= 480. 001972 .000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.500 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED.00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6674E+05 CRITERION= 594. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.9019E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1751. ANSYS Release 8. 8.1272E-01 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.Section 8. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. Inc.4 CRITERION= 507.1034E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 0. CRITERION= 488.00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.1746E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 778.

ANSYS uses a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure to solve each substep.11.08 29. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. you will use an axisymmetric model for the plate.004471788 0. then the load increment can be cut back to 1/50 the total load. As described earlier in this chapter. The nodes located at the outer edge are constrained to have zero radial and axial displacement.11. Specify the kinematic constraints as follows: The nodes located at the center of the plate are constrained to have zero radial displacement. Problem Specifications The circular plate has a radius of 1.3: Problem Sketch. If you define the number of substeps.1 m. using four-node PLANE42 elements with the axisymmetric option to mesh the model.3 The kinematic hardening plasticity curve for the material is: Log Strain 0. You must specify the number of substeps for each load step.125N/m2. The history of the cyclic point load is shown here: 8–72 Structural Analysis Guide . the maximum and minimum number of substeps all to be the same. Inc. If the plate exhibits mild nonlinear behavior. ANSYS automatically determines the size of the load increment for each subsequent substep in a load step. 001972 . with a maximum of 25 and a minimum of 2 substeps. then ANSYS uses a constant load increment for all substeps within the load step. You will also specify a maximum of 50 and a minimum of 5 substeps to ensure that if the plate exhibits a severe nonlinear behavior during the solution.07 31. You will perform a geometrically nonlinear analysis. you will monitor the history over the entire solution of the vertical displacement of the node at the location where the point cyclic load is applied and the reaction force at the node located at the bottom of the clamped edge.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ANSYS uses an incremental solution procedure to obtain a solution to a nonlinear analysis. The following material properties are used for this problem: EX = 16911.1.006422389 True Stress (Pa) 19. See Section 8. 8. You can control the size of the load increment for these subsequent substeps by specifying the maximum and minimum number of substeps. For the subsequent six load steps that apply the cyclic point load. . then the load increment can be increased up to 1/5 the size of the total load. You will apply the dead load in load step 1 and the cyclic point load in six subsequent load steps.2.1 .001123514 0.73 The plate has a dead load acting as a uniform pressure of 0.80 25.23 Pa PRXY = 0. the total external load within a load step is applied in increments over a certain number of substeps.00 22.125 N/m2. For this example. since this number controls the size of the initial load increment applied in the first substep of the each load step.11. In this example. Problem Description In this example.002562402 0. You will specify 10 substeps for the first load to ensure that the increment of the dead load applied over the first substep is 1/10 of the total load of 0. 8.0 m and a thickness of 0. you will specify 4 substeps.001865643 0.

7.3. Click on Options. scroll to "Axisymmetric" and select it. Set the Analysis Title and Jobname 1. 2. ANSYS Release 8.2. In the list on the left. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname. Type the text “axplate” in the entry box and click OK. click once on "Structural Solid. Type the text "Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate. 6. The Change Jobname dialog box appears.Section 8." In the list on the right. Structural Analysis Guide ." Click on OK. 5.3. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.11. Define the Element Types 1. 8. I F F H G 9¤F 9FEDE¤¤8 @ 9¢7 53 ¢32 C B 4 A 5 8 6 4 1 8. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. © SAS IP. Click on OK.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) Figure 8. Problem Sketch a Y I X V G 7` "¨¤WH FUD R ¦¦¤R Q"P Q T S S $%# " ! 0 ) ( ' & C R %`b 4B 6 ¤ 1 ¤ 8–73 ." Click on OK. 3. 001972 . In the scroll box for element behavior. 2. 3.3. 9. 4. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. click once on "Quad 4node 42. The PLANE42 element type options dialog box appears.11.26 Cyclic Point Load History © §¨¦£¤¢ ¥ ¡ 8. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.1. Inc. Click on Add. 4.11. 5.1 .

The dialog box appears that includes the Strain/Stress data pairs that you entered. Type "thick=0. . von Mises Plasticity.00112.1 . 4. Click on the Add Point button.3. Elastic. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Click on OK. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Type "radius=1. In the Material Models Defined window.0" in the Selection field and click Accept. Multilinear (General). Enter True Stress for the Y-axis label and click OK. 8. Click Close. double-click in Material Model Number 1. Enter the following Strain/Stress value pair in the table: 0. Kinematic Hardening Plasticity.00642. revise the stress/strain values and click on the Graph button again. and Multilinear Kinematic (General). 3. 3.3. Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables 1. Enter Total Strain for the X-axis label. 2. 22. Repeat the previous step to enter the following Strain/Stress value pairs: 0.3. 2. 4. Enter 16911. Click on OK.7. 8. 19. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. If necessary.1" in the Selection field and click Accept. 31.3 for PRXY (Poisson's ratio). Enter . Click on OK. 2.1.00447. 8. 3. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears. 29. Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) 1. ANSYS Release 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. 5. © SAS IP.5.3. A dialog box appears. Inelastic.4. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. and enter the next Strain/Stress value pair: 0. 25. Rate Independent. 8. 6. Linear. double-click on the following options: Nonlinear. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. Create Rectangle 1. 001972 . A dialog box appears. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 3. 7. This value is the radius of the plate.8.3. 6. Click on the Graph button. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 5. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears.00187. 0. 5. Repeat revisions and graphing as needed until you are satisfied with the graphed results. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. In the Material Models Available window. Isotropic. double-click on the icons next to the following options: Structural. Inc.11. 0. 2.6.11. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes.00256.0. This value is the thickness of the plate. Define Material Properties 1. A graph of the data table values appears in the Graphics window.11. 8–74 Structural Analysis Guide . In the Material Models Available window. 4.1.11.23 for EX (Young's modulus).

Click on Close on the MeshTool. Click Size Controls> Lines> Set.11. 6. 4. The Monitor picking menu appears. 2. 3. Turn large deformation effects ON and click OK. ANSYS Release 8. 3.0. Enter "0. Click OK on the picking menu.8. Assign Analysis and Load Step Options 1. The Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box appears. Enter 8 for number of element divisions and click on OK. 8.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 4. 5. then Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.7. Click OK. but choose horizontal lines 1 and 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. Mesh the Rectangle 1. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 2. The MeshTool dialog box appears. 8–75 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. 2. Set Element Size 1. © SAS IP. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. 4. 5. as well as the reaction force at the fixed end of the plate. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. Inc. Type "nright = node(radius. Type "ntop = node(0. and choose Every substep for the File write frequency. radius" for X-coordinates. Repeat these steps (1-3). On the MeshTool.3. Click on Pick All.0. scroll to "UY" and select it. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.0. Click OK. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears. A rectangle appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Enter "0. Click OK in the picking menu.11.3. Click on the two vertical lines (2 and 4). 4. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 8.1 . 8.0)" in the Selection field and click Accept.thick.9. The Monitor dialog box appears. you monitor the displacement of the node located at the axes of symmetry.3. thick" for Y-coordinates and click on OK.0)" in the Selection field and click Accept.11. 1.0. 001972 . The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 6.10. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. then click MESH. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears. 2. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. 8. pick Quad and Map. and specify 40 element divisions. Monitor the Displacement In this step. 7.3.11. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears.Section 8. 3. Verify that All items are selected. Structural Analysis Guide . 3.

11. 2. © SAS IP. 8. scroll to "FY" and select it.0" as the Displacement value. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Click on "UX" for DOFs to be constrained. Click OK. Click on All DOF to deselect it. and click on Close.125" in the Load PRES value field and click OK. In the scroll box for Variable to redefine. 16. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Click Pick All. Click OK. 001972 . 8. Enter 10 as the number of substeps. Click OK. Verify that X coordinates are selected. 2. enter 50 as the maximum number of substeps. and enter 5 as the minimum number of substeps. ANSYS Release 8. scroll to "Variable 2" and select it. Enter "0" in the Min. 8. 15. 10. 8–76 Structural Analysis Guide . The Apply U. The Apply U. The Select Entities dialog box appears. This will select the nodes at the X=0 position. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Click OK.11. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box. The Apply PRES on nodes dialog box appears. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Enter "0. 9. . The Apply U.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears.1 . Solve the First Load Step 1. 12. Click OK in the picking menu. Click on "All DOF" for DOFs to be constrained. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Verify that Nodes.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. and enter "radius" in the Min.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 7. Enter "0. Click on Y coordinates and enter "thick" in the Min. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 7. 17. 5.12.3.11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. Inc. Click OK. Type "nright" in the picker and press RETURN.3. The Monitor dialog box appears. 4. The Monitor picking menu appears. and X coordinates are selected. 9. 11. Max field. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 3. Select Nodes and By Location in the first two selection boxes. Click OK. Review the information in the /STAT window. Max field and click OK. Max field. Click on Pick All. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 14. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 13. By Location. Verify that Nodes and By Location are selected. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. The Apply U. Apply Constraints 1. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Click Pick All. 8.

7. for a total of three cycles (six substeps).Section 8. Review the time step size. 001972 . "25" for the maximum number of substeps. Repeat Steps 5-11 two more times. Enter "-f" in the Force/moment value field. and click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. choose Strain-plastic. Click on Close. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu. Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.1 . 8. 2. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Structural Analysis Guide . 3. Repeat Steps 5-10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set. Enter "f = 0. 6. In the selection box on the left. 10. Enter "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. 6. Review the Monitor File 1. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Select "FY" in the Direction of force/mom selection box.11. The List File dialog box appears. Click on Def + undef edge for items to be plotted. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.13. 11. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. 8. Click OK. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. Click OK.3. Solve the Next Six Load Steps 1. 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. choose Eqv plastic EPEQ. 5. Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results. 2.3. Click OK.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 5.11. 8. 13. 6. 5. The deformed mesh appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Enter "4" for the number of substeps.mntr file and click on OK. Select the axplate.14. and "2" for the minimum number of substeps. Click OK. 8. 9. Inc. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Choose menu path Utility Menu> List> Files> Other. Click OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu. Click Close. ANSYS Release 8. vertical displacement.15. and reaction force evolution over the entire solution.11. 3. 12.3. In the selection box on the right. entering "f" in the Force/moment value field at Step 7. 4. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Review the information in the /STAT window. © SAS IP. The Contour Element Solution Data dialog box appears. Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 8–77 . The contour plot appears in the Graphics window. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears.010" in the Selection field and click on Accept. 4.

Choose Stress in the selection list on the left. 5. 8–78 Structural Analysis Guide . and it is stored as variable 5. Verify that Nodes is selected. Click on Add. 6. Enter Y-Stress as the Y-axis label. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box reappears. 13. Click OK on the picking menu. 18. Click on Single variable for the X-axis variable and enter 5 as the single variable number. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. Click on Add. © SAS IP. Click OK. Choose Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. and name SY. Verify that Nodes and By Num/Pick are selected in the first two boxes. Choose Y-dir'n EPEL Y in the selection list on the right. 12. with variable reference number 3. This adds the elastic and plastic strains that you stored as variables 3 and 4.1 . 8. Inc. 5. Click on Close on the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. 4. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 2. Plot Time-History Results 1. Repeat steps 7-10. Click OK.16. 14. The Select Entities dialog box appears.11. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph. component Y. 3. 8. item S. 7. and enter 4 as the 2nd variable. Click OK. Enter 5 for the reference number for result. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Choose Attached to in the second drop-down selection box. .11. 2. enter 3 as the 1st variable. Click OK. Choose Y-direction SY in the selection list on the right.3. Enter Total Y-Strain as the X-axis label. 001972 . The Select Entities dialog box appears. Choose Y-dir'n EPPL Y in the selection list on the right. The Select nodes picking menu appears. Click OK. Click on the top left element in the ANSYS Graphics window. node number 50. with a second variable listed (ESOL). Click OK. Click OK. 9. Repeat steps 7-10. 3.3. Click on the top left node of the top left element. Click OK. The dialog box should show element number 281. choose Strain-plastic in the selection list on the left. 16.17. The Define Element Results Variable dialog box appears. Click on Element results. 10. Click OK on the picking menu. Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing 1. Click OK. Verify that the reference number of the variable is 2.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. Their sum is the total strain. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. 4. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. 17. Click on Add. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Math Operations> Add. Click OK. 11. The Define Elemental Data picking menu appears. Choose Elements in the first drop-down selection box. with variable reference number 4. 15. The Add Time-History Variables dialog box appears. choose Strain-elastic in the selection list on the left. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. The Graph Settings dialog box appears.

_Y1.1 ! Thickness of plate (m) YM=16911. 7._Y CMDEL.5.ORDE. .Section 8.1.1 ! PLANE42 axisymmetric element mp.0.001123514. total log strain curve for this material model ! using 5 points.radius. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.thick ! Select the left and right bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 8 (8 elements through the thickness of the plate) FLST. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments.5.YM mp.1.3 ! Define a Kinematic Hardening Plasticity curve using the KINH material model tb. /BATCH. 001972 . Inc.KINH.KINH. . ..002562402.2.. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 8.. 8.5..2 FITEM.Log Strain (N/m^2) /axlab.18..4 CM.1.5 ! Define the true stress vs. Enter 2 as the first variable to graph..11.8. 2. 8–79 .0 ! Radius of the plate (m) thick=0._Y.LINE CMSEL.07 tbpt.22. CMDEL.19.004471788.LINE LSEL..0. Click on the save option you want. First point defines the elastic limit tbpt.1 ! Plot and verify the material stress-strain curve ! Define a rectangle which is the axisymmetric cross section of the plate.1.. Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate /filnam. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example nonlinear static analysis of a copper cylinder impacting a rigid wall using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.08 tbpt.23 et.73 ! Set the axles labels for the stress-strain curve plot /axlab.0.4.X.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 6.80 tbpt.1.12. Click OK. . Exit ANSYS 1.0.3.P51X !* CM.LIST /title._Y1.1 .PLANE42. and click on OK..31. ._Y LESIZE.True Stress (N/m^2) tbpl. ! The rectangle has a length equal to the radius of the plate and a height equal ! to the thickness of the plate rect.ex.1.2 FITEM. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. ANSYS Release 8.00 tbpt..Y.0.25._Y1 !* Structural Analysis Guide .nuxy.001865643.006422389.29.axplate /prep7 radius=1.0.

.10.x.125 alls! Select all nodes ! Define the number of substeps (10).LINE LSEL._Y1.all CMDEL. . .all ! Select the nodes located at left end and constrain their radial (x) direction ! displacement to be zero.0.1. . ! Select the nodes located at top surface of plate and apply a uniform pressure ! of 0._Y. .thick.3 CM.all ! Output all the results for all substeps to the ! results file for later postprocessing ! Select the nodes located at right end and constrain their radial (x) and ! axial (y) direction displacement to be zero. nsel.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ! Select the top and bottom bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 40 (40 elements through the radius of the plate) FLST.1 FITEM. 1 CM. .mntr monitor. and the minimum number of substeps (5) for the automatic ! time stepping algorithm. nsel._Y amesh. © SAS IP.fy outres.125 N/m^2 as dead load on the plate.0.0 d. .S. nsel. nsub.5 8–80 Structural Analysis Guide .all.4.1 . 001972 .loc.5.2. ANSYS Release 8.0) ! Activate the monitoring of the displacement and reaction force histories ! during the analysis.ntop._Y1.2.loc._Y CMDEL.5.all.AREA CHKMSH.all.2 FITEM.40.AREA ASEL._Y LESIZE._Y1 CMDEL.on! Turn on geometric nonlinearity ! Get the node numbers for the nodes located at the top ! of the axis of symmetry and at bottom right of the model ntop = node(0. .ux. .all._Y1 !* CM.thick sf. Also define maximum number of ! substeps (50).uy monitor._Y1.0.5.50.'AREA' CMSEL. This will be written out to the monitor file ratch.LINE CMSEL._Y2 fini /solve nlgeom. CMDEL.ORDE.radius d.s.y..x.nright.P51X !* CM._Y._Y CMDEL. Inc.1.loc.s.pres.0.0) nright = node(radius.0 ! Define the load for Load Step 1.s.

fy. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 2 ! Define load for load step 3 ! Set the number of substeps. ANSYS Release 8.s. ! Over six load steps apply a cyclic point load of magnitude f = 0.ntop f.node.ntop f.s.4.01 ! Solve load step 1 ! Define the parameter.node.4.s.s.node.25. used to apply ! the cyclic point load.. Inc.2 solve nsel.all. ! ! ! ! Plot the deformed mesh with the undeformed edge only Plot the total accumulated equivalent plastic strains ! Plot the mesh ! Select the node where the point load is attached Structural Analysis Guide . 8–81 .all nsubst.nl.fy.25.f nsel. © SAS IP.all.ntop f.ntop f.s.node.25.s.ntop f.01 units ! applied at the center of the plate over three cycles ! Start Cycle 1 ! ---------------nsel.4.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) solve f = 0. f.fy..2 solve nsel.2 solve save fini /post1 set.25.node.-f nsel.epeq fini /post26 eplo nsel.all nsubst..-f nsel..fy..4.Section 8.25.f nsel.node.1 .. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 4 ! Define load for load step 5 ! Set the number of substeps. 001972 . ! Solve load step 7 ! Read in the results from the last substep of ! the last step. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 6 ! Define load for load step 7 ! Set the number of substeps.all.f nsel.4.2 solve ! Start Cycle 2 ! ---------------nsel.all nsubst.-f nsel.last ! (final state) pldi. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 3 ! Define load for load step 4 ! Set the number of substeps.25.2 solve ! Start Cycle 3 ! ---------------nsel..all nsubst.ntop ! Define load for load step 2 ! Set the number of substeps.2 ples. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 5 ! Define load for load step 6 ! Set the number of substeps.fy.all nsubst.all.ntop f.all.all nsubst.all.4.fy.node.2 solve nsel.s. max and min number ! of substeps.

Hyperelastic Thick Cylinder Under Internal Pressure VM78 .1.Liquid-Solid Phase Change VM124 .5 ! Set the axes for subsequent x-y plot to be variable 5 ! Define the x and y axes labels for subsequent x-y plot /axlab. ADD. ! Define variable 4 to be Y component of plastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL. describe additional nonlinear analyses.ntop.ntop.Bending of a Reinforced Concrete Beam Structural Analysis Guide .1.3.Y. . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of nonlinear analysis test cases: VM7 .y. .2.Y.elem. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.x. xvar. ! Define variable 3 to be Y component of elastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL.Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM104 .Plastic Loading of a Thick-Walled Cylinder Under Pressure VM56 . ANSYS Release 8.EPPL.Plastic Compression of a Pipe Assembly VM11 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Residual Stress Problem VM24 .Plastic Hinge in a Rectangular Beam VM38 .Motion of a Rod Due to Irradiation Induced Creep VM134 . .5.Heat Transferred to a Flowing Fluid VM132 .4.Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM80 .1 .ntop.S.nosav ! Plot the Y-stress stored in variable 2 8.3.13. However.EPEL. © SAS IP.Total Y-Strain /axlab.elem. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. 001972 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.4.Y.0.Discharge of Water from a Reservoir VM126 .Y-Stress plvar. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. Inc.2 fini /eof /exit.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis esln elem=elnext(0) alls ! Select the element attached to this node ! Get the number of this element ! Select back everything in the model ! Define variable 2 to be Y component of stress at the node where the point ! load is applied ESOL. . ! Add the elastic and plastic strains in variables 3 and 4 and store the total ! strain in variable 5.elem.Stress Relaxation of a Bolt Due to Creep VM133 .Plastic Bending of a Clamped I-Beam VM146 . 8–82 .

001972 . © SAS IP.Current Carrying Ferromagnetic Conductor VM198 .13: Where to Find Other Examples VM185 .Large Strain In-Plane Torsion Test VM199 .Section 8.Hyperelastic Circular Plate VM220 .Eddy Current Loss in Thick Steel Plate Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.Viscoelastic Sandwich Seal Analysis VM218 . ANSYS Release 8.1 . 8–83 .Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM200 .

8–84 .

You perform curve fitting either through an interactive user interface or via batch commands. Creep and Viscoelastic material behavior for Curve Fitting • Section 9. your creep strain rate or creep strain as a function of time. Polynomial. time data is converted to ANSYS supported Prony series format.2.2. Ogden. ANSYS Release 8.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting For viscoelastic material models. you compare experimental stress data versus ANSYS-calculated stress data for different nonlinear models. Gent. Based on these comparisons.1. Curve fitting is based on the data table configurations outlined in the TB command.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing ANSYS to the file location in the GUI or by specifying the filename and path (batch) on the command line. • Section 9.1 . 9. you decide which material model to use during solution. perform a regression analysis.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting For creep material models.1. You input your experimental data. Hyperelastic curve fitting is based on the HYPER option of the TB command. Compressible hyperelastic models Ogden hyper-foam and Blatz-Ko are also supported. your shear modulus vs time and/or bulk modulus vs. stress or temperature can be converted to any of the thirteen ANSYS supported implicit creep models. Section 9.2. Inc. With this feature. ANSYS hyperelastic models can define three types of behavior: Purely Incompressible.1. 9. Applicable Material Behavior Types ANSYS supports Hyperelastic. 9. and Yeoh.2. . Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Hyperelastic curve fitting is a tool for estimating the material constants for your material by inputting your experimental data and comparing it to the ANSYS supported hyperelastic material models. 001972 . Arruda-Boyce.1. • Section 9. including Mooney-Rivlin. your stress-strain curves can be converted to any of the available ANSYSsupported hyperelastic models. Curve fitting for temperature dependency is supported using the SHIFT option. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior The steps for Hyperelastic Curve Fitting are defined as follows: 1 2 Section 9. The data manipulations and constructions are performed by the TBFT command. compare the fits to the experimental data.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma. choose a model from one of nine hyperelastic models supplied. graphically view the curve fitting results. and write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands to the database for the subsequent finite elements analyses.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting For Hyperelastic material models.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Use the ANSYS material curve fitting feature to evaluate experimental data for use as coefficients for certain nonlinear material models built into ANSYS. © SAS IP. Neo-Hookean. Structural Analysis Guide . Nearly Incompressible and Compressible. Curve fitting helps you estimate coefficients for these situations.

Hyperelastic curve fitting does not support temperature dependent data. 5 6 7 Section 9. Prepare Experimental Data Curve fitting requires experimental test data. 001972 . © SAS IP.Nearly Incompressible Models (see Table 9.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 3 Section 9.1. Section 9.5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Section 9. Once you pick a model. Write curve fitting results as the TB command to ANSYS database.1.Compressible Models (see Table 9. depending on the model. 4 Section 9. referencing your stress vs.Totally Incompressible Models (see Table 9.1.7: Write Data to TB Command 9. . You review and verify the results by comparing the experimental data and the regression errors.2. you can still change to another model if an ideal fit is not realized.1 Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko Experimental Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) Column 2 Engineering Stress Engineering Stress Engineering Stress True Stress Table 9. Inc. and the associated process for each are listed in Table 9.1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 3 .1. Table 9.1.Hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear regression or a cients nonlinear regression process.1. Nine hyperelastic models are supported.1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 2 .1 .2.4: Initialize the Coeffi. If the results you obtain are not acceptable repeat steps 3 to 5 to perform a new curve fitting solution.6: Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze You will specify the type of error norm to be used to generate the curve fit. The hyperelastic material models.2.2: “Experimental Details for Case 3 Models”) The types of data required for each of these cases is defined in the tables below.2.1.2.2 Experimental Details for Case 3 Models Experimental Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Longitudinal Engineering Lateral Direction Engineer. strain values. ANSYS Release 8.2. Hyperelastic curve-fitting supports three main behaviors: • • • Case 1 . Your hyperelastic curve fitting data needs to be a comma or space delimited file.3: Select a Material Model Option The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are defined in the TB command.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types”.Engineering Stress Strain ing Strain Biaxial Engineering Strain Thickness Direction Engin.Engineering Stress eering Strain 9–2 Structural Analysis Guide .

2. 3. All of the stress values will be engineering stress. Batch TBFT.1 9.00 118.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Experimental Type Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Shear Engineering Strain Thickness Direction Engin.1. Table 9.EADD.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types”.1.Option4 Option1 = UNIA. Separate input is performed for each Option1 value (UNIA.Option3.2 231. etc. BIAX. Input the Data into ANSYS The EADD argument for the TBFT command determines how you input your data files. except for the volumetric option (true stress).Option2. and those model options will be available. You can also “Browse” to a file in a specified location. and only the available options will be available. © SAS IP. shear or volumetric. 001972 .1 . below lists the models that are available for hyperelastic curve fitting. or VOLU Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9.3 Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types Model Name Mooney-Rivlin Polynomial Yeoh Neo-Hookean Ogden Abbreviation moon poly yeoh neoh ogde Order/Options 2.3. and also include the appropriate path.ID.2.Engineering Stress eering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) True Stress Note — J is the ratio of current volume to the original volume. a compressible. BIAX. The file should be a simple. 9–3 .2. 5.8847 60.9127 0. First you designate whether they are uniaxial. Inc. When no volumetric data is supplied. 9. Option3. Option4 fields. 9.1.1.2.). All stresses that ANSYS outputs in POST1/POST26 are true stresses and logarithmic strains. the model is understood to be incompressible. GUI The Material Properties GUI provides an input field where you can type the filename of your data file.Option1. SHEA. SHEA.2.Section 9. Select a Material Model Option Table 9. and then you designate the location in the Option2.2.1.2. biaxial. or nearly incompressible model is implied. Supplying zero coefficients for the volumetric data field will also denote an incompressible model.2. delimited set of stress and strain values similar to the following: 0. ANSYS Release 8.2 175. 9 1 to N 1 to N 1 to N No.9412 0. When volumetric data is supplied. of Coefficients Linear/Nonlinear [1] Fitting 2/3/5/9+1 see below [2] N+N 1+1 2*N+N Linear Linear Linear Linear Nonlinear Structural Analysis Guide .9703 0.

the experimental data you supply will require additional fields. The number of coefficients is usually the sum of the number of deviatoric coefficients and the number of volumetric coefficients.5. the initial coefficients you supply will determine how accurate and efficient your curve fit will be.Option5 Option2 = Model name. More information on the hyperelastic models ANSYS supplies for curve fitting can be found in Section 2. © SAS IP. 9. 2. Option3 = Order or number of coefficients. The options displayed will be dependent on the format of your experimental data file. 001972 .1.1.Option2. ANSYS Release 8.2. The Gent model.FADD. The number of coefficients for a polynomial will be dependent on the polynomial order N.Option2.ID.SET.2: Hyperelastic Material Constants. all of the coefficients are free to vary.4.ID.2.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Model Name Arruda-Boyce Gent Blatz-Ko Abbreviation boyc gent blat Order/Options 1 to N No.HYPER.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above).Option3 Option2 = Model name.1.1.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) specifies the number and type of coefficient(s) necessary for each hyperelastic model type. GUI You can navigate to a pull-down selection menu in the material GUI to pick the applicable material model option. of Coefficients Linear/Nonlinear [1] Fitting 2+1 2+1 1 2*N+N Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Ogden Hyper-foam foam 1. See Table 9. 9.Option4.3. 1 or -1 is a good starting point. for instance. However.HYPER. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged.3. hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear or a nonlinear regression process. For Ogden hyper-foam. Number of Coefficients = ∑ (1 + i) + N i =1 N Blatz-Ko and Ogden hyper-foam are compressible models. as specified in Table 9.2.1 . The initial values of the coefficients generally come from experience. Option3 = not applicable 9–4 Structural Analysis Guide .1. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on. Initialize the Coefficients Depending on the model you choose. . and also from studying the function that defines the model you are attempting to compare/fit your data to. Batch TBFT.1. Batch TBFT.Option3. For most hyperelastic models. coefficient values can vary greatly depending on the model chosen. By default. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients.4. Table 9. Inc. where applicable. You can then release the fixed coefficient later if desired.2. 9. 9.2. provides good fit with initial coefficient values as high as 1000.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available.

9.5.SOLVE. Inc. GUI The GUI lets you specify all of your control parameters (error norm. Option4 = curve fitting procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares. 9. ANSYS Release 8. GUI The GUI automatically updates your coefficient tables depending on the model you pick.Option3. Select the options and Solve to generate the coefficients. 2. 1 for fixed. 1 = normalized least squares Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solution parameters are available..3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. Wherever nonlinear regression is used.ID. your hyperelastic curve fitting will be either a linear or nonlinear regression process (see Table 9.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. See Table 9. See the TBFT command for details.4. The unused options are disabled whenever necessary. Option3 = The order or number of your coefficients.. .1. © SAS IP.2.2. you need to initialize your coefficients.1.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = entr “0” for variable.5. 9. Structural Analysis Guide . Specify Control Parameters and Solve Depending on the model. Batch TBFT.HYPER. Change the parameters and repeat the solution as necessary to ensure the accuracy of the results. 001972 .Option2. solution control parameters.2.1. and the solver options) interactively. 9. 9–5 . number of iterations residual tolerance coefficient change tolerance The solution stops when both residual tolerance of error norm and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met.2..1. Normalized error norms generally give better results than the unnormalized error norms.2. since normalized error gives equal weight to all of your data points.Option4. The solution control parameters of a nonlinear regression include: 1. Option7 Option2 = Model name.1 .1. See Table 9.2.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for details). 3.5.Section 9. Your error norms can be either normalized and unnormalized. The normalized error norm is the default regression option. You can modify these values to initialize them at values you believe more appropriate.

3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. You use the /WINDOW command to configure the graphs for each of the resultant curves for the individual stress types. Error norm values are not always the best indicator of a valid curve fit. You can use the middle-mouse button to eliminate a specific curve and clarify or refine the remaining curve. Review/Verify After plotting the curve fitting results.Option4 Option1 = UNIA. the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors.ID.Option1.PLOT. plotted as a function of column 1.2.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values.Option2. Plotting the curves and visually assessing the result is often the best indication.1. Other plotting utilities can be found by using the right click of mouse button on the listed data in the curve fitting GUI window.Option3. The data in column 1 is always the X-axis.2. Inc.1. Column one is always your X. you may want to go back to step 3 and solve again.1.HYPER. Repeat steps 3-7 until you get an acceptable solution. BIAX.6.1.7.ID.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. ANSYS Release 8.1. FSET.7. increasing the order.1. Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze After you initiate Solve.6. or redefining your initial values of the coefficients or other control parameters. SHEA. You can also turn the legend and/or axis displays on and off. See Table 9.6.HYPER. 9–6 Structural Analysis Guide . 9. GUI Use the GRAPH button to plot the data.Option3 Option2 = Model name.2. By default all the experiments are plotted in separated graphs in the GUI window.2. 9. Batch TBFT. and pick a desired option to view the results. Write Data to TB Command After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results. and switch the scales between log scale and regular scale. 9.6.1 . Option4 = The order or number of your coefficients. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables. Your plots will show Columns 2 and above as separate curves. you can use the right click of mouse button on the specific dataset. 9. To view a specific data and its corresponding fitting result. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses.2.1. These values help you determine the quality of curve fitting and whether to accept the results. you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT. © SAS IP. with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one.3.2. See Table 9. If the results are unacceptable. 001972 . . you can then review them and also verify the error norm/residual values that are printed in the curve fitting GUI window. 9.1. Batch TBFT.FSET. or VOLU Option3 = Model name. See Table 9. either by picking a different model. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results.2.axis.

GUI Once you complete the process and update your material data properties with the representative curve data. If they are not acceptable.1. biaxial.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file with headers to describe the data types and attributes.1.3: Select a Material Model Option The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are defined in the TB command.3.1. Section 9. Inc. derived as a function of time. 5 6 7 Section 9.7: Write Data to TB Command 9. delimited by a space or a comma. You can use either the interactive user interface (GUI) or batch commands.3.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. 9. You then graphically view the curve fitting result.1.1. See Table 9.3. 3 4 Section 9.Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression.1. along with the tools to fit derived coefficients to your experimental data. 9. © SAS IP. stress and/or creep strain.2. ANSYS Release 8. The test data must be delimited by a space or a comma.1. repeat steps 3 to 5 to obtain a new curve fitting solution.4: Initialize the Coeffi.3. 9–7 . temperature. For the creep analysis.3. choose a model from one of the supplied creep models. If the curve is acceptable. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior The steps for creep curve fitting are defined as follows: 1 Section 9. and then perform a regression analysis. All thirteen implicit creep models are supported. The experimental data is named “creep” to distinguish it from other types of data such as uniaxial.1. You review and verify the results by comparing them with the experimental data and the regression errors. which contains the headers and the test data as a table.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Option3 = The order or number of your coefficients. etc. Prepare Experimental Data You need to provide accurate experimental test data in order to achieve valid curve fitting results. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior.1 .5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Section 9.1. you can still switch to another model if an ideal fit is not realized. you write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands (ANSYS TB command format) to the database for the subsequent finite element analyses. You input your experimental data. Creep Material Curve Fitting ANSYS provides a number of creep models. Thirteen implicit creep models are supported. The creep data must be a plain text file. Write curve fitting results in the TB command format to the ANSYS database.7.1. you will use either the creep strain value or creep strain rate. the initial values cients of the coefficients to be determined can be very important for a successful solution. Once you pick a model. 2 Section 9. you are returned to the material properties dialog.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing ANSYS to the file location in the GUI or by specifying the path (batch) on the command line.Section 9. 9. Structural Analysis Guide .3. and compare it for fit with your experimental data.1.6: Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze You choose the error norm to be used for an acceptable curve fit.3.3.3. tension. Section 9.3. The type of data you need to provide will depend on the creep model chosen. 001972 .2.

The model you choose will determine the experimental data required for the curve fitting process. For instance.000181314 4000 0.creq ! indicate first column is creep strain /2.00664691 0.0220102 0.0151416 0.00215869 100 0.00406109 100 0.000203055 4000 0. 001972 .00664691 100 0.000165303 4000 0.4000 ! indicate this creep has a constant stress of 4000 /temp. you need to input both creep strain and creep strain rate in the experimental data. Table 9. the stress and temperature are constant throughout the range. ANSYS Release 8. in the above example. An example of a typical data input is shown here: /1.100 ! indicate this creep data is at a constant temperature of 100 /1.temp ! indicates third column is temperature /4.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. Table 9.00215869 0.000140946 0.creq ! indicates second column is creep strain /3. where n is the index of the data column in the file. you can define it as an attribute. .dcreq ! indicates fourth column is creep strain rate 4000 0. as described in Table 9.000140946 When a particular column is unchanged over the loading history.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. and abbr is the abbreviation for the type of data in the column.000152217 0. abbr.000165303 0.0102068 100 0.000181314 0. The following tables describe the creep data required to perform curve fitting for each model type. and value is the value of the attribute.seqv ! indicates first column is stress /2. © SAS IP.1 .0102068 0. value. There are a total of five different creep data types. Please note that for strain hardening and modified strain hardening.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting The header can be used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data. where attr is the abbreviation of data type. An example of a typical input data using attributes is shown here: /seqv.000152217 4000 0.000130945 There are thirteen model types available from ANSYS for creep curve fitting.000203055 0. You define a data attribute in the header as follows: The header format to define a data attribute is /attr.dcreq ! indicate second column is creep strain rate 0.00406109 0. see Table 9.4 Creep Data Types and Abbreviations Time Equivalent Creep Strain Equivalent Creep Strain Rate Equivalent Stress Temperature time creq dcreq seqv temp The header format that defines the type of data column is /n.0151416 100 0. Inc.5 Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute Creep Model Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham creq x dcreq x x x x x x x time seqv x x x x temp x x x x 9–8 Structural Analysis Guide .

3.ID.1.1 . to perform a creep curve fitting.Option4 Option1 = creep Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9. Input the Data into ANSYS The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file. Inc.Option2.1.3. 9. You'll find it helpful to view the formula before you proceed to solve.CREEP. © SAS IP. GUI In interactive mode you can input experimental data by typing the filename (with the appropriate path if the file is not in the default directory) into the appropriate area. The header portion is absolutely required for creep analyses.2.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations” to determine a starting point for the initial creep model coefficients. You prepare this file according to the previous section. You will use the creep model abbreviation in subsequent equations to identify the creep model (see Table 9. and can be a complete set of experimental test data or a part of a series of files of experimental test data. Batch TBFT.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Creep Model Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening x x x x x x x x x x x x creq dcreq x time x x seqv x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x temp 9. You pick the one that best satisfies your requirements.2.Option2. 9.1. Select a Material Model Option There are thirteen models available for curve fitting. 9–9 .EADD. Use the creep models table (below) to view the formulae of the creep models and to determine the number of coefficients. You can also “Browse” to a file in a particular location. Batch The EADD argument of the TBFT command is used to identify and specify the location of your data files. 001972 .1. Also see Table 9. including both header information and formatted test data. ANSYS Release 8.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”).Option3.1.3. There is no restriction on the number of data sets you can add.3.Option3 Structural Analysis Guide . The command syntax is: TBFT. There are two ways to input the experimental data.1. 9.3.3.ID.3. Each file is viewed as a data set in ANSYS. Use the Add Data Set button to add additional data sets for creep curve fitting.2.1.Option1.FADD.Section 9. such as tests performed at different stress levels and/or temperatures. You can include several data sets. It will tell you what initial coefficients you might use and also lets you determine the format of your experimental data.2.

When this happens you can adjust the initial value of specific coefficients and rerun the problem again. see Table 9. 9.3.1.SET. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on. as follows: TBFT. the more difficult it is to get the solution to converge. Option3 = not used for creep curve fitting. Initialize the Coefficients Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process. You can then release the fixed coefficients to obtain a solution.3.1. © SAS IP.Option3. 9. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged. For some creep models the initial value of certain coefficients is critical to achieving a successful fit.3. The following table describes the creep models available and their abbreviated names for Option2 (above). Batch You define your coefficient values using the SET option of the TBFT command.Option2. All of the options and constraints listed for batch input apply. Table 9. Inc. ANSYS Release 8.4.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”. By default.6 Creep Models and Abbreviations Model Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening Fitting Name/Option2 shar thar gexp ggra gbla mtha msha ggar expo nort psth psrp gtha Note — It is very important for the experimental data to be consistent with the creep model you choose.3.2. .ID. See Table 9.CREEP. 9. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients.5: “Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute” for the data types required for each creep model.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Option2 = Creep model abbreviation.Option5 Option2 = Creep model name Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient 9–10 Structural Analysis Guide .Option4. This suggests that certain variances may cause your curve fit to fail to converge.4. all of the coefficients are free to vary.1.1 . A successful curve fit depends greatly on the initial coefficient values. GUI You can pick the appropriate model option from a menu in the data entry area. 001972 . In general the more parameters a model has.1.

9.ID. The coefficients are updated after every iteration during the solve process. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze After you initiate Solve. Column one is generally your X. 9.1. the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors.CREEP. Structural Analysis Guide .1. Option7 Option2 = Creep function name (See Table 9.ID.Option4.SOLVE. Inc. and each option must be specified before Solve will begin. maximum number of the allowed iterations and the error tolerance will affect the accuracy of your results. Each of the options specified in the command line description is presented as a pull down menu or fill in box.axis. ANSYS Release 8. 9–11 .Section 9.Option3. 9.Option5 Option2 = Creep model name Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = 0 variable.Option2. 1 = normalized (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solving parameters are available.1.2.5.1.3.FIX. See the TBFT command for details.CREEP. residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance. .3. 9. GUI You pick your creep model from the choices on the creep model tree.5. including initializing and/or fixing certain coefficients.Option4.2.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”) Option3 = not applicable for Creep models Option4 = error norm: 0 = unnormalized. Normalized curve fitting is the default option used to calculate error norms. © SAS IP. ANSYS automatically configures the coefficients for the model.6.3.1.1. The plot utility also incorporates many “right mouse click” context sensitive functions that will help you to configure and optimize your plot(s). The coefficients are updated in the GUI after the solution is complete. TBFT. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Error norm. 001972 .3. There are two available error norms available for the regression. Other available solve criteria are number of iterations. with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one.4. 1 fixed 9. GUI The solution phase is entered automatically after you fill in the last set of coefficient values..3.5.Option3.Option2... Batch The batch command is TBFT. You can then make modifications. The solution stops when both residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met. It generally gives better results than unnormalized curve fitting since normalized fitting gives equal weight to all data points when minimizing the errors norms.1 .3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Option5 = value of coefficient Then you can modify the coefficients with the FIX option of the TBFT command.

Option3 Option2 = Creep Model Abbreviation Option3 = Not applicable 9. These tips are not hard and fast specifications.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Clicking in various areas of the display window brings up context sensitive functions that are particular to that area.1. Write Data to TB Command After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results.6. Refer to Section 2.7. and then solve again with a new model. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit You use the GUI to graphically review the curve fitting result.1.1. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables. Batch TBFT.PLOT.3.7. Batch TBFT. ANSYS Release 8.1. 9. 001972 . 9. (e.Option1. You can then determine the quality of a curve fitting and decide whether to accept the results.g.3. GUI You can simultaneously display many data sets for each function plotted.6.11: Creep Equations for additional details on each implicit creep model . © SAS IP.2. 9. 9. you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT.Option2. In this way you can ensure a good fit throughout the range of data.3.ID. you may want to go back to step 3. 9.Option3.FSET.Option4 Option1 = CREEP Option3 = Creep model name Option4 = Not Used 9. click the Write to Database button to write the fitted coefficients of your creep model as a creep data table in ANSYS material database.1.1.5.2. only suggestions.3. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior. If the results are unacceptable. GUI When you complete the process.CREEP.3.3.3. Inc.7. FSET.Option2.1. following them does not guarantee a solution. Use the plotted curve fitting results both to determine the degree of fit at various locations. Also. You are then returned to the material properties dialog. Each window of your display can be used to display each one of the data sets you are plotting against column one.1 . and also modifying some of the other control parameters.1. and also to verify the error norm/residual value. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses.6. These functions change according to the type of graph you are creating and to the entity you click on in the graph. Repeat steps 3-6 until you obtain a satisfactory solution. redefining certain initial values of the coefficients.ID. .3. clicking on the legend area brings up controls to define and configure your graph legend). Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models The following are some useful tips that will ensure successful curve fitting. You can also use a middle mouse click to hide a particular curve within a graph. Name Notes 9–12 Structural Analysis Guide ..2.

9–13 . If you do not have temperature dependent data. use experimental data for only one temperature.1 . Then solve. 9 Exponential Form Structural Analysis Guide . If you do not have temperature dependent data. Modified Strain Hardening has 3 coefficients. keep c2σ close to one when you initialize the coefficients. C4 is for temperature dependency. C1 was replaced with C12 but converted to the right form before it was written to ANSYS database. C2 and C3. To keep eσC2 within floating-point range. Modified Time Hardening has 4 coefficients. release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. Exponential Term has 3 coefficients. To keep the Sinh term within floating-point range. Use a low value of C5 (e. C4 is for temperature dependency. release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. set C4 to zero. fix C4 to zero. Then add data for other temperatures. release C8 and solve for the remaining coefficients individually. Generalized Exponential has 5 coefficients. Use experimental data for only one temperature. 8 Generalized Garofalo Generalized Garofalo has 4 coefficients. Similarly try to keep σ/C4 and C7σ close to 1. Then solve. C2 and C3. fix C4 to zero.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting 1 Strain Hardening Strain hardening has 4 coefficients. release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. and solve. 1e-3) to avoid floating-point overflows in the exponential term of this model. set C4 to zero. This model is complex as far as curve fitting is concerned. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. set C3 to zero. Then add data for other temperature. Time hardening has 4 coefficients. C4 is for temperature dependency. Use experimental data for only one temperature. Generalized Blackburn has 7 coefficients. set C4 to zero.g. set C8 to zero. To keep the 2 Time Hardening 3 Generalized Exponential 4 Generalized Graham 5 Generalized Blackburn 6 Modified Time Hardening 7 Modified Strain Hardening C1σC2 [(C3 + 1)ε]C3 term from going negative. To keep eC2σ within floating-point range. If you do not have temperature dependent data. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. set C4 to zero. It is advisable to look at exponential term and try to keep them from floatingpoint overflows. If you do not have temperature dependent data. 001972 . C3 is for temperature dependency. fix C8 to zero. fix C4 to zero. Then add data for other temperature. Then solve. © SAS IP. C4 is for temperature dependency. Use experimental data for only one temperature and fix C4 to zero. If you do not have temperature dependent data. Then add data for other temperature. Generalized Graham has 8 coefficients. If you do not have temperature dependent data. keep σ/C2 close to one.Section 9. ANSYS Release 8.. C4 is for temperature dependency. You use C8 for temperature dependency. C2 and C3. make sure the initial value of C2 is such that C2σ is close to 1. If you do not have temperature dependent data. Inc.

Time Hardening has 7 coefficients. the solution control parameters.4.4. Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model The steps for Viscoelastic Curve Fitting are defined as follows: 1 2 3 Section 9.1. . users can input the experimental data.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 10 Norton Norton model has 3 coefficients. and solve.4. Section 9. Use a low value of C3 to keep 10C3σ within floating-point range.1. and write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands to the database for the subsequent finite elements analyses. Either through an interactive user interface or the batch commands. Section 9. release all coefficients. Fit only the secondary data by fixing C1 to 1 and then set all other coefficients except C2.1. 5 9–14 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression. compare to the experimental data. If you find it hard to fit this data. Section 9.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS from GUI or ANSYS batch command line as a plain text file. C3 and C4 to zero. Generalized Time Hardening has 6 coefficients. 001972 .4.3: Select a Material Model Option This includes Prony series expansion of shear and/or bulk moduli as well as shift function. 9. Currently the tools allow you to fit shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift functions. 4 Section 9. 11 Prim+Sec Time Hardening 12 Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial 13 Generalized Time Hardening 9.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma. C3 is for temperature dependency.1 . If you do not have temperature dependent data. When initializing coefficients set C5σ close to 1 to avoid floating-point overflows. Set C6 to zero if you have temperature independent data. set C3 to zero. Then add the primary creep data. it is advisable for you to split experimental data into primary creep data and secondary creep data. Primary creep data is the initial part of the curve that covers the nonlinearity in the strain rate. Here it is advisable to solve for temperature independent data first and then introduce temperature related data.1.4. the initial cients values of the coefficients to be determined can be very important for a successful solution. and perform the nonlinear regression. The supported shift functions include WLF and TN.5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Specify the error norm to be used. Coefficients C5 to C10 in curve fitting refers to coefficients C7 to C12 in the implicit creep equation.4. view the curve fitting results graphically. Inc.4: Initialize the Coeffi.1.1. perform nonlinear regression. This is a complex model. © SAS IP. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting Viscoelastic material curve fitting is a tool to determine the material constants of the Prony series expansion for both shear and bulk modulus of the ANSYS hypoviscoelastic material option from experimental data. Rational Polynomial is a very complex model for curve fitting with 10 coefficients. define the order of Prony series expansion.4.

073456 20 2842. ANSYS Release 8.0141125 40000 586. Prepare Experimental Data Curve fitting requires experimental test data.530649 8 2905.199197 8000 1470. when multiple temperatures are present. Review and verify the results by comparing with the experimental data and the regression errors.264527 20000 964.100 ! define temperature attribute 0.45541 4 2942. repeat steps 3 to 7 to perform a new curve fitting solution. 001972 . either WLF or TN shift functions are used to account for the temperature dependency. Each file must contain only one temperature. Instead.262053 800 2366. The viscoelastic test data have 4 data types. Table 9. 9–15 .1. The header is used to define the test data type and the temperature for your test data.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 6 Section 9.475394 600 2431.1. Inc.4.142793 60 2772.506984 40 2798.631843 100 2730.383729 80 2750.186777 80000 277. The viscoelastic test data must be a plain text file containing the headers. and the temperatures of each of the files can be the same or different.1 .01 2992. if not acceptable. © SAS IP. such as hyperelasticity or creep.580897 1000 2313.922594 4000 1833.7: “Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations”. This also makes documenting your analyses more convenient.7: Write Data to TB Command 9. 7 Section 9. along with the test data as a table of data delimited by a space or a comma. For curve fitting viscoelastic materials.955396 2000 2117.1405449 60000 392.612202 10 2891.734397 6000 1627.4.6: Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze View graphically the curve fitting results. you don't calculate each temperature point and write it as a temperature-dependent Prony data table. the experimental data must be shear modulus and/or bulk modulus as a function of time and temperature.1. seeTable 9.53 1 2978.2706253 Structural Analysis Guide .4.125432 400 2517. Write curve fitting results as the TB command to ANSYS database.514207 2 2965.6806 10000 1347.293214 6 2922. The experimental data is named “viscoelastic” to distinguish it from other data types.7 Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations Time Shear modulus Bulk modulus Temperature time smod bmod temp The headers are used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data. followed by the delimited data: /temp. The following listing contains the appropriate headers.Section 9.398114 200 2643. For viscoelastic curve fitting with multiple temperatures.1.

9–16 Structural Analysis Guide . and include both the header information and the formatted test data.4. you must first define a “casename”.EADD. You can include several datasets. You can use the GUI window or batch command to input your experimental data. Separate input is performed for each data type (Option1 = sdec. You can also “Browse” to a file in a specified location. which can then be accounted for by either WLF or TN shift function. Two types of data may be required for viscoelastic curve fitting.2.Option4 ID = Index corresponding to the ANSYS material number. Although different datasets can have the same/or different temperature. if required.669209118 600000 0. including tests performed at different temperatures.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 100000 202. bulk terms.2. The data can also be a function of temperature. the number of shear terms.Option2. and then to compare the curve fitting results. Inc. either shear or bulk Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory Note — “sdec” refers to the shear modulus as a function of time and “bdec” refers to the bulk modulus as a function of time. You can use the “casename” to define several different options that characterize the same test data.1.ID. 9. Input the Data into ANSYS You use the EADD argument of the TBFT command to input your data files.2.1 . time. Once you create a case.4. each file can have only one temperature. GUI Click on the Add Dataset button and type the filename into the area provided.156653269 800000 0. The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file. ANSYS Release 8. . Select a Material Model Option The TBFT command provides the curve fitting tools for viscoelastic material modeling. First you define a case “casename” to associate the set of coefficients for the Prony expansions with the shift functions that characterize the material behavior. or shift options cannot be changed.1.1.0137224 1000000 0.4. and can be the complete set of experimental test data or a part of an experimental test data.Option3.3. You need to create an additional case to define different shear order. 001972 . Multiple temperature datasets must be input with multiple files.005591539 9. Batch TBFT. © SAS IP.4. Option1 = Experimental Date Type. 9. either shear modulus vs time and/or bulk modulus vs.1.87056342 400000 2.0025278 200000 46. and then specify the order of shear and bulk moduli and the type of the shift function(s).1.2. bulk order or shift options. Each file is viewed as a dataset in ANSYS.Option1. The experimental data must be prepared as discussed in the previous section. To define the material model. or bdec) 9. You represent your viscoelastic material behavior by a set of Prony series expansions of shear and/or bulk moduli to characterize the shear and the bulk deformation of the material. You can also use the shift functions to characterize the material's temperature dependency.

and the shift function.FCASE. and you can fill in the appropriate “casename” in a text box field. logical guesses for τ1G .1.1. Initialize the Coefficients The initial values you choose for your coefficients will determine the success of your viscoelastic curve fitting operations. α2K. NG is the order of the Prony series expansion of the Shear modulus. bulk modulus and shift options.Option3 Option2 = PVHE (Refers to Prony Viscohypoelastic) Option3 = User Specified casename TBFT. You create the case with the TBFT. 9. (1.1.000 (also (1). τ2G. The follow syntax examples and argument descriptions illustrate the relationship of these activities.3.4. The coefficients are ordered as shear terms first. τ2G and τ3G that span this range could be τ1G = 1. if the time values vary from 1 to 10000. α2G. … αnG. By default. For example.ID. Then you specify the number of shear terms. TBFT.3.ID. τ2K. and τ3G = 10.2.Option3 CATEGORY = VISCO Option2 = pshear or pbulk or shift Option3 = Dependent on Option2 as follows: • • Option2 = pshear or bulk.FADD.000) or (1). A good guess for the WLF or TN parameter is the reference temperature you used during your partial solve for shear and bulk. ID. Each of the shear.” but you should redefine the initial values before solving. bulk and shift options can be selected. and if you use 3rd order Prony.FCASE. τ2G = 100. The coefficients are ordered as α0G. FCASE command.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 9. While initializing the coefficients. then the bulk terms. You should also note that αnG used in curve fitting is the square root of the αnG used in ANSYS TB tables. … αnK. ANSYS Release 8.ID. You can then release the fixed coefficient later if desired. © SAS IP. (10) and (10. As you choose the options. or 1 to N Option2 = shift. A shift function must be used together with your shear and/or bulk modulus for temperature dependent experimental data. The index of the reference/base temperatures is the sum of NumShear + NumBulk + 1. 9–17 .1. 001972 . Option3 = NONE or TN or WLF TBFT.000) and (10. and then the shift function. the coefficient table is automatically created.1 . You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients. bulk terms.Option2. you should set αnKs to 1 and τnKs to time values that are equally distributed in the log scale. Option3 = NONE. GUI You can use the GUI to interactively navigate the tree structure of the curve fitting window. Batch You define a viscoelastic material with the Prony series expansion by creating a case and setting the order of shear modulus. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on.4. NEW.000). and α0K.Section 9. spanning the data range from minimum to maximum time. and τnG for shear modulus.NEW. The default coefficient is set to “one.FINI 9. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged. α1K.CATEGORY. This was done to keep all αnG used in the TB tables positive. A complete model has (2*NG+1)+(2* Nk +1)+ NS number of the coefficients. The first line will include FCASE. τ1G. and τnK for bulk modulus.4. τ1K. all of the coefficients are free to vary.Option2. Inc. α1G. Nk is the order of the Prony series expansion of the bulk modulus. Structural Analysis Guide .4. The case is actually created only after the option is issued. NS is the number of coefficients of the shift function (NS = 2 for the TN option and NS =3 for the WLF option). in the shear decay versus time data file. respectively).

SET.4.2.Option2. The normalized error norm is the default regression option for calculation of the error.1 ! Fix the first coefficient to a value set via TBFT. TBFT.2 TBFT. Inc.FIX.1. You can then examine the curve fitting results and the solution history before proceeding any further. but to stop as the maximum iterations criteria is reached.1 . . GUI The coefficients table is automatically updated in the viscoelastic curve fitting GUI window when the order of shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift function are defined.SET. myvisco1. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process.CASE. myvisco1. myvisco1..1.1. The solution control parameter of a nonlinear regression includes number of iterations.1.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9. the bulk modulus and the shift function.ID.2 ! Initialize the second coefficient to 1. and shift function (or all) are provided to allow user to solve only Prony coefficients of the shear modulus.SET ! Fix the second coefficient to a value set via TBFT.4.. Batch TBFT. It is normal for a solution to not converge at first. TBFT.1.5 Use the TBFT.FIX.FIX. However the coefficients of shift function can't be solved before the shear or bulk modulus are solved.4.1. The coefficients are updated when the solution is completed. SET command or to release a previously fixed coefficient. For viscoelastic curve fitting. You can then adjust parameters and resolve the problem whenever it is necessary. 0 to vary For example: TBFT.FIX command to fix a coefficient to a value set by the TBFT.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = Index of coefficient Option5 = 1 to fix.ID.5.1.2. and check the appropriate boxes to fix them or allow them to vary.2.Option2. ANSYS Release 8.CASE.1. Three solver options including shear modulus only. The solution stops when both residual tolerance of error norm and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met. myvisco1.Option3.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = value of coefficient For example: TBFT. bulk modulus.1.. coefficients are not fixed.Option4. You can use either normalized or unnormalized error norm for the regression.5 ! Initialize the first coefficient to 1.1. Specify values for your coefficients in the coefficients table in the curve fitting GUI window.1.4.SET 9. residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance.Option3. © SAS IP.1.4. 001972 . since the normalized error gives equal weight to all data points. Prony coefficients of the bulk modulus and coefficients of the shift function.Option4. By default.SET. In general it is very difficult to directly solve a complete case including coefficients of the shear modulus. This error norm generally gives better results than the unnormalized error norm option. 9.1.. you should follow these three steps to perform the regression: 9–18 Structural Analysis Guide .

Set the partial solve option using TBFT...Option2... TBFT.. Structural Analysis Guide ....1. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT..CASE. Set the partial solve option using TBFT. Solve Note — When only the shear and bulk buttons are checked. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Solve 2. ANSYS Release 8.Option4..SET.Option3.Option2.. The reference temperature should be the same for both shear and bulk.1 .SOLVE.. . 1 = normalized least squares (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solving parameters are available. Batch Solution option command is: TBFT. 9. PBULK.COMP.ID. To solve for both shear and bulk.TREF. tolerances and number of iterations.1. 9–19 . TX.. Option7 Option2 = Creep Function Name (See Table 9. you must check all three buttons. PVHE.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 1.Option3.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = comp Option5 = pshea (for Shear only) or pbulk (for bulk only). See the TBFT command for details. SET... Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Solve 3. SET. Inc. only your shear coefficients are solved. Set the partial solve option using TBFT. © SAS IP.4. Solve the shear coefficients (if there are any).6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”) Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = Curve Fitting Procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares.. The SOLVE command allows you to specify procedure types. TREF is not used when you solve for all parameters.ID... 001972 . PSHEAR.5. TX.Option4..TREF.COMP.Section 9... Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT. SET. All temperature data is used to estimate the coefficients.. Solve the shift function (or all) coefficients. SET.COMP.. SET. Solve the bulk coefficients (if there are any).CASE.

001972 . If not.1.6. the last step is to write the curve fitting data as ANSYS Prony data table (the TB.4. To view a specific data and its corresponding fitting result. This information helps you determine the quality of a curve fitting and decide whether to accept the results.4. With the middle button you can eliminate certain curves from each window's display in order to see the remaining data more clearly.1. GUI Graph button provides direct means to plot the data.Option3 Option3 = casename 9. 9. solution control parameters. Batch TBFT.1.6.1.ExpIndex. you can then review it and also verify the error norm/residual value that is printed in the curve fitting GUI window. You can also use the right mouse button to turn the legend and/or axis on and off. 9.Option3 Option2 = CASE Option3 = casename 9–20 Structural Analysis Guide . Reviewing your curve fitting result graphically is the only way to ensure a good fit.1. solve again by changing the order of the Prony series.6.6.4.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9. and possibly other control parameters. ANSYS Release 8. The scales can be also switched between log scale and regular scale. with the corresponding fitted data as a function of column 1.3. redefining certain initial values of the coefficients. Batch You enter the plotting parameters from the command line as follows: TBFT. you click the right mouse button on the specific dataset.ID. Columns 2 and above are each plotted in a separate graph.ID. Once you complete these specifications and solve. Inc.4. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit All of your data is plotted as a function of column 1 for the X-axis. in a separate window.2.1. you may want to go back to step 3.CASE.1. By default all the shear datasets and/or the bulk datasets as well as the corresponding fitting results are plotted in two separated graphs in a GUI window.1.7.PLOT. .4. GUI The GUI provides access for you to choose your error norm.4. you can go back and modify your parameters as necessary to obtain a good curve fit. After plotting the curve fitting results.FSET. and solver options.1. © SAS IP.Option2. Write Data to TB Command After a successful curve fitting.Prony command) to ANSYS database.2. 9. Repeat steps 3-7 until you are satisfied with the solution.4. 9.7. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze The best way to verify a good fit between your experimental data and the provided curves is to plot your curves and visually inspect them.1 .5. 9. and pick a desired option. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing TB commands.

Section 9. Please note that the coefficients you see in the curve fitting module are different from those in the TB tables. They are also normalized to make α at time 0 = 1. The τ values remain the same.1 .2. GUI Click the “Write to Database” button and the fitted coefficients are automatically written to the ANSYS material database according Prony data table. but the α values are different.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 9.7. ANSYS Release 8. The α values shown in ANSYS are the square of the α values derived during curve fitting. 001972 . 9–21 . Inc. © SAS IP.1.4. Structural Analysis Guide .

9–22 .

GASKET to define four types of data input: general parameters. 001972 . © SAS IP. through thickness. and the gasket element's use with contact 2. you can account for transverse shear behavior by using an element Keyopt setting and transverse shear option of the gasket material data table. such as steel. although the TB command provides options to account for transverse shear. A typical example of a gasket joint is in engine assemblies. and tension (unloading). Also.4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic. and in particular. There are no special considerations for building or importing the model for a gasket joint analysis. Use TB. The stiffness contributions from membrane (in plane) and transverse shear are much smaller in general compared to the through thickness. You specify the type using TBOPT. 3. ANSYS Release 8. Overview of Gasket Joints Gasket joints are essential components in most structural assemblies. The primary deformation of a gasket is usually confined to one direction. See Section 10. By default. you must define structural element types and corresponding interface element types. Inc. This includes an understanding of the behavior of gasket joint components themselves in an engine operation. Define material. You then input the sets of data using the TBDATA and TBPT commands. 10. as applicable. Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis A gasket joint analysis involves the same overall steps that are involved in any ANSYS nonlinear analysis procedure. 4. Gaskets as sealing components between structural components are usually very thin and made of many materials. Each of these commands involve special considerations for interface elements. See Section 10. The stiffness contribution therefore is assumed to be negligible. see Section 10. You can also mesh interface layers using the VDRAG command.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. You can also plot most of the gasket data types using the TBPLOT command. However. To properly simulate gasket joints. See the TB command documentation and the specific element documentation for more information. A thorough understanding of the gasket joint is critical in engine design and operation. Structural Analysis Guide . You can use TB.1 .2. Elements within the ANSYS family of interface element are used to model gaskets.5: Material Definition in this chapter for more details on this topic.1. compression (loading). See Section 10. .1: Element Selection for a table of corresponding structural and interface elements. You perform this step as you would in any typical ANSYS analysis. For further details on building the model. Use the AMESH or VMESH commands to mesh the structural element types. and use the IMESH command to mesh the gasket layer. See Section 1. rubber and composites. Presented below are the overall steps with the special considerations noted. 5. There are special solving considerations when you perform a gasket joint analysis. Special restrictions apply to the IMESH command in terms of matching the source and target. These are primarily concerned with the gasket element stiffness loss. transverse shear stiffness.4. 1. gaskets act to transfer force between components.6: Meshing Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic. Solve. Most of these steps however warrant special considerations for a gasket joint analysis.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. the order in which you execute these commands is critical. along with links to applicable sections where more detailed information is included on that topic.GASKET to define the gasket joint material. Mesh the model. Build or import the model. and can generate interface elements directly using the EGEN command. Define element type. and the interaction of the gasket joint with other components. namely. From a mechanics point of view. these elements are designed to account for gasket through-thickness behavior.

Element Topologies An interface element is composed of bottom and top surfaces.3. and computed inside of ANSYS.1. 10. The Gauss integration scheme is used for the numerical integration.1 . See Section 10. ¥ ¦ § © & %$# " ! ¢ ¨ £ ¡ ¤ . Figure 10.8: Reviewing the Results in this chapter for more details on this topic. 6. The element formulation is based on a corotational procedure.3.7: Solution Procedure and Result Output in this chapter for more details on this topic. offer a direct means to quantify through-thickness deformation of the gasket joints. or ESOL commands. Review Results. Finite Element Formulation The primary deformation behavior of gasket joints is through-thickness deformation. ANSYS provides several types of interface elements for the analysis of the gasket joints. Thus the pressure versus closure behavior can be directly applied to characterize the gasket material. which are based on the relative deformation of the top and bottom surfaces. The numerical integration of interface elements is performed in the element midplane. 10. and thermal closure. No ESYS coordinate system is allowed for the elements. © SAS IP. An element midplane is created by averaging the coordinates of node pairs from the bottom and top surfaces of the elements. You can also use these items with the *GET command in POST1. Theory Reference for further details.1 Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element 10. PRNSOL. Refer to Gasket Material in the ANSYS. See Section 10. Thickness Direction The thickness direction is defined as the normal direction of the mid plane of the element at the integration point. total inelastic closure. Inc.1: “Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element” shows the geometry of a 3-D 8-node interface element available in ANSYS. The interface elements. ANSYS Release 8. PLESOL.3. The thickness direction is then noted as the X-direction according to the ANSYS notation convention. It is therefore difficult to use solid continuum elements to effectively model gasket joints. The through thickness deformation is quantified by the relative deformation of bottom and top surfaces along the thickness direction. using the PRESOL. You can print or plot any of four gasket output items: stresses (also pressure).2. 10–2 Structural Analysis Guide . Figure 10. Inc.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation elements. total closure. PLNSOL. The positive direction is defined by the right-hand rule going around the nodes in the midplane. 001972 .

ANSYS Release 8. HYPER86. Element selection is done by the element type command.. 16-node. A good example of the use of 2-D element INTER192 or INTER193 is the gasket between the "flanged" ends of pipe line. PLANE82.2-D. HYPER84. SOLID92. plane stress / strain / axisymmetric. Structural Analysis Guide .4.2.4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements 10. Applications In general. VISCO88. If elements are to follow a curved boundary closely. SOLID185 Proper element type is chosen based on the stress states of interest and structural element types used. SOLID95.4. SOLID65. INTER194 . 10–3 . linear . VISCO106.3-D. INTER195 . They are referred to as interface elements and are summarized as follows: • • • • INTER192 . Quadratic elements are necessary if stress gradients are present in surrounding bodies. 4-node..1 . SOLID187 SOLID45. quadratic 3-D. Inc. for example. consisting of the gasket and the structural elements on either side of the gasket. ANSYS Family of Interface Elements ANSYS offers 4 types of elements to simulate gaskets. 001972 . HYPER58. for example. SOLID186..3-D. 10. Use the following table as a guideline for choosing interface and structural elements that have the same characteristics: For elements with these characteristics: 2-D. In this case the gasket properties do not vary significantly with geometric location.1.. INTER192 and INTER193. PLANE182 PLANE2. quadratic elements are ideal because their edges are arcs. involves choosing interface elements and structural elements that have the same characteristics. HYPER56. ET. © SAS IP.4. linear element. ET. use this interface element: INTER192 INTER193 INTER194 INTER195 . quadratic element. 8-node. SOLID46. quadratic 3-D. 10. with one of these structural elements: PLANE42. quadratic element. SOLID64. linear and quadratic elements are chosen for the following reasons: • • • • Fewer nodes produce a smaller model that runs faster with less computer resources.195 defines element type 1 as element INTER195. 2-D elements are the ideal choice. PLANE183 VISCO89. With a free mesh (tetrahedral elements) the mid-node (quadratic) is required for an accurate solution. SOLID62. linear element The 2-D elements.Section 10.1.2-D. INTER193 . use a KEYOPT to define various stress state options. When a surrounding structure can be considered as a 2-D structure. linear 2-D. 6-node. Element Selection The simulation of an entire gasket joint assembly. SOLID96.

Therefore. the material behavior follows the compression curve while it is unloaded.2: “Pressure vs.1. and then set an initial gap for the gasket material to account for it. in between cylinders.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation For a 3-D structure such as an internal combustion engine. The GASKET option allows you to directly input data for the experimentally measured complex pressure closure curve for the material model (compression curve). and the through thickness deformation is decoupled from the in plane deformation.5. INTER194. 3-D element INTER194 or INTER195 is a good choice for simulating the gasket between the cylinder head and block. As it is a joint component. no pressure is acted on the gaskets. For example in a cylinder head. On the other hand. ANSYS Release 8.5. . In this case there is no "nice" geometry because the gasket must fill in between two complicated surfaces. Material Characteristics The TB command option GASKET allows gasket joints to be simulated with the ANSYS interface elements. A stress cap is used to restrict tension pressure in the gasket joint elements. The sample was unloaded and reloaded 5 times along the loading path and then unloaded at the end of the test to determine the materials unloading stiffness. 001972 . The material under compression is highly nonlinear. gasket joints generally do not have tension pressure. in which there is only one element through the thickness. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material” shows the experimental pressure vs. closure (relative displacement of top and bottom gasket surfaces) data for a graphite composite gasket material. As long as the closure is less than the initial gap. Also. Figure 10. The gasket material is usually under compression. and INTER195. INTER193. The remainder of the gasket is much softer. it is a lot easier to fill the spaces or volumes between the adjacent components with the interface meshes.1 . Also the gasket properties can vary in different zones. Inc. © SAS IP. The gasket material also exhibits quite complicated unloading behavior when compression is released. from a modeling point of view. and around other holes and passages. Material Definition 10. there will be an open gap. The GASKET material option must be used with interface elements INTER192. there often exists an initial gap or void. When no unloading curves are defined. 10. when it is under tension loading. there is usually a much stiffer zone immediately around the cylinder to contain combustion pressure (called the "fire ring"). and also for several unloading pressure closure curves. 10–4 Structural Analysis Guide .

NTEMP. The material data consists of 2 main parts: general parameters and pressure closure behaviors. COMP: gasket compression data. 001972 . You input the general parameters using the TBDATA command. LUNL: gasket linear unloading data.GASKET.NPTS. NUNL: gasket nonlinear unloading data.5. © SAS IP. The pressure closure behavior includes gasket compression (loading) and tension data (unloading). Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. stable stiffness for numerical stabilization.GASKET. 10–5 .MAT. TSS: gasket transverse shear stiffness data.TBOPT where TBOPT = one of the following types of gasket material data: • • • • • PARA: gasket material general parameters.2 Pressure vs. Input Format You input gasket material data using TB.Section 10. Inc.2. then input the compression and unloading data using the TBPT command. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material 10.1 . Presented in the following sections are examples of inputs for the various types of gasket data. The TB command specification for defining a gasket material is: TB. The general parameters define initial gasket gap.5: Material Definition Figure 10. and stress cap for a gasket in tension.

GASKET.3.NTEMP.47400E+09 TBPT.10.37200E+09 TBPT. The following input listing is an example showing the linear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points TB. 0. 001972 .NPTS.5.43200E-03. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 10 data points.54000E+08 TBPT. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values.1. 0. 0.5.x2.25100E+12 10–6 Structural Analysis Guide . and C3 in the following example: TB. .y2 TBPT.MAT. Define Linear Unloading Data (TBOPT = LUNL) The linear unloading gasket material definition option is a simple way to define the gasket unloading behavior.x2. Several unloading slopes can be defined to accommodate the comprehensive unloading behavior as follows: TB.78000E-04. © SAS IP.NPTS.35800E-03. 0.GASKET.y1 TBPT.2.GASKET. 0. TB... Define General Parameters (TBOPT = PARA) The gasket material general parameters include the initial gap. 0.1.89550E+09 ! define compression data 10.LUNL TBPT.12000E-03. 0..50500E-03..30000E+09 TBPT..y2 TBPT.y1 TBPT.15150E+09 TBPT. Define Compression Load Closure Curve (TBOPT = COMP) The compression pressure closure curve gasket material definition option is defined as follows: TB.2..xi.2. 0.20000E-04. . . Inc.1. C2. 0. xi is the closure where unloading started.x1..LUNL ! define linear unloading data TBPT. 0..78000E+09 TBPT.. 0.58500E+09 TBPT. 0.GASKET.2. 0.40000E-04. 0. 0. 0.MAT. 0.xi. 0..28600E-03.67350E+09 TBPT.1.5..yi where: NPTS is the number of unloading points.19000E-03..x1. 0.C2. The following input listing is an example defining a compressive pressure vs..NTEMP.COMP TBPT.PARA TBDATA.GASKET.24900E+09 TBPT. 0. 0.NPTS..C1.C3 Refer to Gasket Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for further details on these parameters.78000E-04. These parameters are defined as C1.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10. ANSYS Release 8.NTEMP....3.MAT. and yi is unloading slope. stable stiffness and the maximum tension stress cap.1 . 10.yi where: xi. 0.60000E-04.COMP TBPT.

0. 0.2. The input listing format is: TB.66900E-04.NPTS.24750E+08 TBPT.54100E-04.25500E+12 TBPT. 10–7 .4.63100E-04. ANSYS Release 8.GASKET. 0..1.xi. Inc.x1. 0..00000E+00. 0. Several unloading curves can be defined.1.10600E+13 A sample plot representing linear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10.5.15000E+07 TBPT. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values.. 001972 .. 0.y1 TBPT. 0.00000E+00 TB.30000E+09 TBPT.5. Figure 10. 0.3: “Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves”.GASKET..MAT. 0. . 0.78000E-04..NTEMP.50500E-03.y2 TBPT. 0.5: Material Definition TBPT.3 Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves 10... 0.1 .x2.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data TBPT. .Section 10..28600E-03. Define Nonlinear Unloading Data (TBOPT = NUNL) The nonlinear unloading gasket material definition option provides a more comprehensive way of defining gasket material unloading behavior.yi where: xi. 0.NUNL TBPT.5.GASKET. 0. © SAS IP.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data Structural Analysis Guide . An example showing the nonlinear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points is as follows: TB..82500E+07 TBPT.

x1.y2 ANSYS will automatically interpolate the temperature data to the material points using linear interpolation.. 0. 0..1.4 Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves 10.NPTS. 0. 0. 10–8 ..T1 TBPT.3.90000E+07 0.y1 TBPT.58500E+09 0.00000E+00...33900E+08 TBPT.46800E-03. TBPT.. 0. © SAS IP. When the temperature is out of the specified range.T2 TBPT. 0. 0. The following format shows this procedure.47500E-03..x1.LUNL TBTEMP. the closest temperature point is used.00000E+00 ! define third nonlinear unloading data TB.47800E-03.NUNL TBPT.5.. ANSYS Release 8. Inc.13500E+08 TBPT. 0.y2 TBTEMP. 0.89550E+09 TBPT. 0.25600E-03..00000E+00.15000E+07 0.x2. Structural Analysis Guide .5. TBPT.4: “Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves”. Figure 10.28600E-03.GASKET.00000E+00 A sample plot representing nonlinear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10.NTEMP. 0.50500E-03. 0. 0.26400E-03.MAT. 0.x2..1 .15000E+07 TBPT.GASKET. TBPT.22350E+08 0.26100E-03. ... TB.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT. TBPT.y1 TBPT. 0. 0.. 001972 .. Temperature Dependencies Inputting temperature dependent gasket material properties follows the standard ANSYS procedure for inputting temperature dependent data for other materials.

TBPT.78000E-04.66900E-04.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.GASKET.19000E-03.40000E-04.24900E+09 TBPT. 0. ANSYS Release 8.29850E+08 TB. 0. 0.35800E-03.50500E-03.. 0. 0. 0.97500E+08 0. 0.54100E-04..43200E-03. 0.1.... 0.000 TBPT.43200E-03. 0.. 0.GASKET.5: Material Definition The following is an example input listing defining a compressive pressure vs..22450E+09 0.44900E+08 0. 0. TBPT.60000E-04. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 100. and 3 nonlinear unloading curves with each curve having 5 temperatures and 5 data points...26000E+08 0. TBPT.78000E-04. TBPT.COMP ! define compression data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.37200E+09 TBPT. 0.1.. TBPT... TBPT..82500E+07 TBPT..20000E-04. 0. TBPT...60000E-04.000 TBPT.12000E-03.79000E+08 0. TBPT.12000E-03..40000E-04.30000E+09 TBPT. 0.28600E-03.19000E-03. 10–9 .15800E+08 0.60000E-04. 200. 0.000 TBPT. TBPT.30000E+09 TBPT.50500E-03...35800E-03..78000E-04.19500E+09 0. © SAS IP. 0..28600E-03. 100..35800E-03. TBPT. 0. TBPT.50000E+08 0.89550E+09 TBTEMP. 0. TBPT...50500E-03.13000E+09 0.58500E+09 TBPT. TBPT.31600E+08 0. 0.... 300. Inc.50500E-03. TBPT. 0.. 0. 0. TBPT... 0.50500E-03. 5.29850E+09 0. 0. 0. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 5 temperature points and up to 10 data points for each temperature point. 001972 .78000E+09 TBPT. 0. TBPT. TBPT.12000E-03.28600E-03. 0. 0.35800E-03.78000E-04. 500.15000E+07 Structural Analysis Guide . 0.12000E-03.15800E+09 0.000 TBPT.. 0.10100E+08 0..90000E+07 0. TBPT.40000E-04. 0..50500E+07 0.12400E+08 0.. 0. TBPT.Section 10. 0. 0. 0.60000E-04. TBTEMP.12000E-03.1 .25250E+08 0.63100E-04. 0..83000E+07 0. TBPT. 0. 0.78000E-04.47400E+09 TBPT. 0. TBPT.40000E-04.. TBPT.40000E-04.. 0.. 0.19000E-03.83000E+08 0. 0. TBPT. 0.39000E+08 0.14925E+09 0. 0.000 TBPT.16600E+08 0.12400E+09 0...78000E-04..67350E+09 TBPT.52000E+08 0.20000E-04. TBPT. TBPT.35800E-03.. 0. 0.11225E+09 0... 0. 400.28600E-03.60000E-04. 0..26000E+09 0. 0..54000E+08 TBPT. TBPT.59700E+08 0. 0.19000E-03. 0. 0. TB. TBPT.18000E+08 0.10000E+09 0. 0.20000E+08 0. TBTEMP. TBPT.15150E+09 TBPT. TBPT. 0.. 0..000 TBPT.. 0.43200E-03.50500E+08 0. 0.10000E+08 0. 0. 0. 0.62000E+08 0.28600E-03..43200E-03.10.24800E+08 0.20000E-04. 0. TBTEMP.19500E+08 0.41500E+08 0.24750E+08 TBPT.5. TBPT.22450E+08 0.18000E+07 0.36000E+07 0.. 0. TBPT. 0.19000E-03.43200E-03. 0...20000E-04.20000E-04.. 5. 0. TBPT.

TBPT. 0.5. 0.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT.25600E-03. 0. TBPT.27500E+07 0.28600E-03. 100. 0.66900E-04.82500E+07 0. TBPT. TBPT. TBPT..89550E+09 TBPT..26100E-03.000 TBPT..63100E-04.60000E+06 0..30000E+07 0. 0.00000E+00..50000E+08 0. 0..00000E+00. 0.000 TBPT. TBPT. 0.. 400. 0.. 0.. 0. TBPT.GASKET.GASKET. © SAS IP.000 TBPT. 0. 0. 0..25000E+06 0. 0. TBPT.50000E+06 0.26100E-03.1.74500E+07 0. TBPT.. 5. TBPT. TBPT. TBTEMP..26100E-03. TBPT. TBTEMP. 0. 0. TBTEMP. 0.19500E+09 0.. TBPT. 0..00000E+00.26400E-03.000 TBPT.25600E-03.50000E+05 0.28600E-03.13750E+07 0.25000E+06 0.13500E+08 TBPT.00000E+00.50000E+06 0.50500E-03. 0.66900E-04. 0. 0.000 TBPT. 0.30000E+06 0..15000E+07 TBPT.00000E+00 TBTEMP. 0..54100E-04.00000E+00.26100E-03.97500E+08 0.78000E-04. 100. TBPT.. 0. 0. TBTEMP.00000E+00.... 0. 500..66900E-04. TBPT.37250E+07 0. TBPT. TBPT.00000E+00 TBTEMP...00000E+00 0. 0. 0...00000E+00 TB.16500E+07 0. 0.25600E-03. 300.. 0.63100E-04. 0. TBPT.. 0. 0.000 TBPT. 0.26400E-03.000 TBPT.10000E+09 0.27500E+06 0. TBPT. 0. TBPT.00000E+00 TB.00000E+00.10000E+06 0.78000E-04..00000E+00.47800E-03..54100E-04. 0. 0.20000E+08 0. 0..NUNL ! define third nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP..58500E+09 TBPT.28600E-03.25600E-03. 0.00000E+00 0. TBPT.50000E+05 0.78000E-04.26400E-03.000 TBPT. TBTEMP. 0.63100E-04.. 0..28600E-03.000 TBPT. Inc.5.74500E+06 0. 0.47500E-03.41250E+07 0.1.. 0. 0...26400E-03. 0.000 TBPT.90000E+07 TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0.. 0.19500E+08 0. TBPT..63100E-04.. 0.00000E+00 0. TBPT. TBPT. 400.55000E+06 0. 0. .. 0.15000E+07 10–10 Structural Analysis Guide . 0..1 .78000E-04.54100E-04. TBPT.66900E-04.00000E+00.10000E+06 0..10000E+08 0.... 0. TBPT. 0. 0.15000E+07 0.33900E+08 TBPT. 0..28600E-03.82500E+06 0. 200.54100E-04. ANSYS Release 8. TBPT.00000E+00 0. 0.14900E+07 0. TBPT. 0. 0. 500. TBPT.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP..26400E-03....46800E-03. 0.00000E+00.00000E+00 0.26100E-03. TBPT. 200. TBTEMP. 0. 5.22350E+08 TBPT. TBPT.39000E+08 0.00000E+00 0.25600E-03. 001972 . 300.

47500E-03. TBPT. 0.45000E+07 0.000 TBPT. 300.. TBPT. 0.5 Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures 10.90000E+06 0.00000E+00 Sample plots of compression and unloading curves for gasket data to two temperatures is shown in Figure 10. Inc.1 . 0. TBPT..46800E-03. 0. TBPT. © SAS IP. 0.46800E-03.000 TBPT. TBPT. TBPT. ANSYS Release 8. TBPT.29850E+08 0.46800E-03.5: Material Definition TBPT.47800E-03.47800E-03. TBPT. TBPT.00000E+00 0.50500E-03.46800E-03. 0..00000E+00. 500.47500E-03...59700E+08 0.10000E+06 0..47500E-03. 001972 . TBPT..14925E+09 0. TBPT.22600E+07 0. 0. TBTEMP. Figure 10.45000E+06 0.50500E-03. TBTEMP.. 0.50500E-03....00000E+00 0. 0. Plotting Gasket Data You can plot gasket compression.00000E+00.47800E-03..00000E+00.000 TBPT.. 200.Section 10.5.50000E+06 0.. 0. 0.50500E-03. 0.47800E-03. 400. TBTEMP. TBPT.47500E-03.11300E+07 0. TBPT. 0. 0.25000E+06 0.50000E+05 0. 0.00000E+00. TBPT. 0. 0.000 TBPT. The use of this command to plot gasket data is as follows: Structural Analysis Guide .22500E+07 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.. 0.4. linear unloading and nonlinear unloading data using the TBPLOT command.56500E+07 0...00000E+00 0.00000E+00. 0.29850E+09 0.5: “Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures”...11300E+08 0.. % '52$"#!¦ '!¦4¥ ¨ '526' ©102¦ )2 ( % $ " 3 ¡¢ $ " ¨ '%&#!¦ ©¦§¥ 10–11 " 3 1 0 ) '%&$ !2¦ ( £ ¤ .. TBPT.00000E+00 TBTEMP. TBPT.

z1 k.6.6: Generating an Interface Mesh for Gasket Simulations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for further details on this type of meshing. use the VDRAG command.0.2.TEMP.0.0 k. * of two blocks with gasket elements (INTER194) defined * /com.1.z1 k. Meshing Interface Elements Three options are available for meshing interface elements: • • • For meshing gasket layers as an area or volume. or a curve at a specified temperature.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPLOT. /batch. See Section 7.z1 k.1. ANSYS Release 8.0. TEMP specifies plotting either all of the temperature dependent data curves. * /com. 10.1 k.4. © SAS IP.z2 10–12 Structural Analysis Guide .1. For generating interface elements directly from a pattern.0.1 k.0.0.1.0.6.0.2.z2 k.1.0 IH=0. Inc. and SEGN specifies whether or not to add the segment numbers to the curves.1.SEGN where TBOPT specifies the gasket material option to be plotted.9.1 DX=0 DY=0 DZ=IH Z1=EH Z2=Z1+IH Z3=Z2+EH !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Keypoints !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ k.z2 k. * between them.5. use the IMESH command. * command to generate gasket elements.5. Test to demonstrate the use of IMESH command /com.0. * * /com.1.12.1. 001972 . The following example input listing shows the use of the IMESH command.1.11.0 k.list /title.3. .1.1. use the EGEN command. * * /com.1.8. The model consists * /com. For meshing gasket layers by dragging an area mesh along a path.7.GASKET.z2 k.0.TBOPT. There are special requirements for meshing interface elements. ************************************************************ /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et.187 ! Solid tetrahedral element et.MAT.z1 k.10.1 . ************************************************************ /com. * This is a simple test to demonstrate the use of IMESH * /com.194 ! Interface layer element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ EH=1.

Inc.3.2 imesh.1 mat.7. Structural Analysis Guide .TOL !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh Second Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type. 10–13 .1 eplot finish Figure 10.9: “Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh” shows the mesh with solid tetrahedral element.DY.DX.0.6: “Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry” shows the geometry of the finite element model. 001972 .area.8 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Second Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.1.10. INTER195.14.0. INTER194.1.13.11.8. Figure 10.9.5.5.4 ! !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh First Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type. SOLID187. a thin interface layer between two block volumes. in the interface layer between the two blocks.2 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Plot Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /view.1.7: “Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element” shows the mesh with solid brick element. in top and bottom of block volumes.1 vmesh.2 mat.1 mat.1. ANSYS Release 8.1 vmesh.15.1.12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Size !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ esize.0.0.1 .6.. in the interface layer between the two blocks.1 .z3 k.z3 k.16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.10: “Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements” shows the mesh of interface element (degenerated wedge). in top and bottom of block volumes.6.15.Section 10.6: Meshing Interface Elements k.12.4. and Figure 10. SOLID185.1.DZ.1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Interface Layer with IMESH command !* using Element Type 2 (INTER194) !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type. and Figure 10.0.6.8: “Interface Layer Mesh” shows the mesh of interface element.16.10.2.14.1.z3 k.9.z3 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate First Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.7. Figure 10.11.13. © SAS IP.7.

. 001972 .1 .7 Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element 10–14 Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. Inc.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10.6 Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry Figure 10.

001972 .Section 10. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP.1 .9 Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh Structural Analysis Guide .8 Interface Layer Mesh Figure 10.6: Meshing Interface Elements Figure 10. Inc. 10–15 .

Like most nonlinear problems. Other solution procedures for gasket solutions are not recommended. A convergence failure can indicate a physical instability in the structure. or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model.1 . Inc.7. © SAS IP. In 10–16 Structural Analysis Guide . then subsequently ramp it up . This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included and that the problem is solved effectively.10 Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements 10. It is always a good practice to place the lower and upper limit on the time step size using the DELTIM or NSUBST commands. • Like any other type of nonlinear analysis. Even if you do so. the ANSYS program performs a series of linear approximations with corrections. convergence behavior of a gasket joint analysis depends strongly on the particular problem to be solved. Gasket elements must be configured to support transverse shear. using the PRITER command. You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. is captured on Jobname. ANSYS Release 8. using the SOLU and PRVAR commands.) You can examine some of this same information in POST1.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10. Some special considerations for solving a gasket problem are as follows: • • By default a zero stress cap has been enforced on the gasket. The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections. When the element goes into tension. and ascertain the mesh compatibility of the gasket layer and its mating components. . and to start with a small time step. ANSYS has provided a comprehensive solution hierarchy. unless you are sure about the benefits of the changes.OUT. is the default method for performing this type of analysis. especially for contact and other nonlinear applications. The full Newton-Raphson solution procedure (the standard ANSYS nonlinear method). or in POST26. You should not use gasket elements with contact elements unless you configure the elements accordingly. 001972 . or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT]. it will lose its stiffness and may cause numerical instability. (The printout either appears directly on your screen. errors can result. Solution Procedure and Result Output Gasket material behavior is highly nonlinear. therefore it is always recommended that you use the ANSYS default solution options.

. . . . . © SAS IP. . . . .4200E+07 CRITERION= 0. . . . . . . 1 . . . . COPY INTEGRATION POINT VALUES TO NODE .erot O P T I O N S . DEGREES OF FREEDOM. When other types of nonlinearity such as contact or materials are included. .1: Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing. . . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING . 20 . . Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing S O L U T I O N PROBLEM DIMENSIONALITY. A typical output listing with gasket nonlinearity only is shown in Section 10. Minimum= 388758681 at element 0. 10–17 . .0 = 0. . . . . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . . . . . .YES.PROGRAM CHOSEN *** NOTE *** CP= 0. UZ . .0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. . Inc. . . . . .7. . Maximum wavefront = . . . .Section 10. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS. . . ALL CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME= FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. 001972 . LOAD STEP NUMBER. . NO .000000 Time at end of element matrix formulation CP= 0.YES . ANALYSIS TYPE . . TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 Present time 0 is less than or equal to the previous time. . . . . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 Nonlinear analysis. *** ELEMENT MATRIX FORMULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP AVE CP 1 2 SOLID185 0. . . PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES NEWTON-RAPHSON OPTION . . Number of equations = 24. . TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. . 10. 15 . . . Memory available (MB) = 0.7: Solution Procedure and Result Output particular. . . Memory required (MB) 0 = 0. MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS .3-D .STATIC (STEADY-STATE) .326388889E+11 at element 0. .000 0. . Time will default to 1.NO PRINTOUT DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT ALL ALL SVAR ALL Range of element maximum matrix coefficients in global coordinates Maximum= 4. . additional information will be printed out. . . O P T I O N S . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 The conditions for direct assembly have been met. . . FOR ELEMENTS WITH ACTIVE MAT. .1. . . .7. .2000E-06 NEW TRIANG MATRIX. *** NOTE *** CP= 0. . . . . . . . . . . INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . . . INCLUDED. . .emat or .1 . . .USE DEFAULTS . files will be produced. .4000E-05 Structural Analysis Guide . . . 1. . . . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . CONVERGENCE CONTROLS. . L O A D S T E P No . ANSYS Release 8. . . do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. . . 20000 . 200 . . . . . . MAX DOF INC= -0. . .000000 2 1 INTER195 0. .000 0. . .1130E-04 CRITERION= 0. . . . .YES (EXIT) .2143E+05 SPARSE MATRIX DIRECT SOLVER. . . *** NOTE *** CP= 0. . . . NONLINEARITIES PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . . . . . NROPT set to the FULL Newton-Raphson solution procedure for ALL DOFs. . ON . . .0000 . . UX UY . . . . .

2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. Inc.3257E-20 CRITERION= 0.456250E-01 TIME INC = 0.37969E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 0.3753E-19 CRITERION= 0.25313E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.4656E-19 CRITERION= 0.000000 0.0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1468E-08 CRITERION= 295.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1951E-20 CRITERION= 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= -0.112500E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= -0.1800E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 5 COMPLETED.1964E-08 CRITERION= 176.7716E-09 CRITERION= 100. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.253125E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. CUM ITER = 3 *** TIME = 0.6750E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.1 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.3000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.2 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.16875E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1. MAX DOF INC= 0.000 0.500000E-02 TIME INC = 0.4503E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. CUM ITER = 5 *** TIME = 0.3 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 4 COMPLETED. .75000E-02 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1. ANSYS Release 8.750000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.2664E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.100000E-01 TIME INC = 0.1833E-07 CRITERION= 459.35 <<< CONVERGED DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.2322E-07 CRITERION= 714.50000E-02 UNCHANGED FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. CUM ITER = 6 *** TIME = 0.3713E-08 CRITERION= 289. CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. MAX DOF INC = -0.500000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= -0.3550E-08 CRITERION= 468.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.500000E-02 *** AUTO STEP TIME: NEXT TIME INC = 0.1642E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. CUM ITER = *** TIME = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.3748E-20 CRITERION= 0.1013E-05 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.4 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.8307E-09 CRITERION= 179.000 AVE CP 0.287500E-01 TIME INC = 0.5000) 10–18 Structural Analysis Guide .000 0.1 . © SAS IP.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.709375E-01 TIME INC = 0.4500E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.000000 0.175000E-01 TIME INC = 0.11250E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.4624E-09 CRITERION= 102.000 AVE CP 0.6406E-08 CRITERION= 728.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.5 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 6 COMPLETED.000000 *** NODAL LOAD CALCULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP 1 2 2 1 SOLID185 INTER195 0.7198E-20 CRITERION= 0.1367E-08 CRITERION= 51.000000 2 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED.2234E-20 >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** ELEMENT RESULT CALCULATION TIMES TYPE 1 2 NUMBER 2 1 ENAME SOLID185 INTER195 TOTAL CP 0.6 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.2744E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. 001972 . CUM ITER = 4 *** TIME = 0.168750E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.

). are always displayed and listed in the local coordinate system. only one substep can be read in at a time. or any other applicable item. Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses. ANSYS will plot the geometry of those components in gray. such as pressure and closure. closure. If not. if other structural mating components are not included.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. Reviewing Results in POST1 1. 3. If your model is not currently in the database. See the Output Data sections of the element descriptions for any of the interface elements (for example INTER192) for a description of the available output components.RST. © SAS IP. strains and reaction forces of the structural components and the gasket joint layer information (gasket pressure. 10–19 . stresses.2. Inc. When displaying the gasket pressure distribution. • • 2. 10. Verify from your output file (Jobname. or in POST26. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps.RST) must be available. ANSYS Release 8.8: Reviewing the Results 10. Option: Tabular Listings Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 .1. Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read in results for the desired load step and substep. Note that gasket results.1 . 10. You can review these results in POST1. The results file (Jobname. To have a better visualization of a gasket pressure plot. it is better for you to select gasket elements only. Note that in POST1. strains. If your solution converged. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the results using any of the following options. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1.RST. then continue postprocessing. Enter POST1.8.8. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. you probably won't want to postprocess the results. 4.8. Reviewing the Results Results from a gasket joint analysis consist mainly of displacements. the general postprocessor. issue RESUME. the time-history postprocessor.Section 10. other than to determine why convergence failed. etc.

* other SOLID185 element is fixed. The ANSYS commands are shown below. * The test case is set up with two solid SOLID185 elements * /com. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another. * load step negative z-displacement is applied to one * /com. * applied causing the unloading (tension) of gasket element.8. etc. In the first * /com.0e-5 is imposed so that no tension stress is generated. See steps 1 through 4 in Section 8. Inc.list /title. For instance.3. Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26. 10. * /com. * /com. * /com. * * /com. or you might list the gasket pressure at a node and the corresponding TIME value. * /com.3: Reviewing Results in POST26 included in Chapter 8. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. * element. Two block elements with element type SOLID185 were generated as supporters and a gasket element INTER195 was created. Test to Verify Gasket Material and Element /com. /batch. A prescribed displacement is placed on top of the supporter element. * Displacement is applied to one SOLID185 element while the * /com. the time-history postprocessor. * * /com. GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Option: Animation You can also animate gasket results over time: Command(s): ANTIME GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST1. * with gasket element (INTER195) defined between them. * /com.0E-05 is enforced so that there is no * /com. The whole system is fixed along one side of each axes to prevent rigid body motion. The gasket material is assumed to have a nonlinear compression behavior with 5 different linear unloading slopes. which should correspond to the material behavior defined by TB. * tension pressure in gasket material. * * 10–20 Structural Analysis Guide . A pressure stress cap of 1.1 . You might also graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. © SAS IP. 10.9.GASKET. ************************************************************** /com.6.5. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . in the second load step. * A Stress Cap of 1. * SOLID195 element causing compression of gasket elements. * The problem is solved in two load steps. Two load steps were used. Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses. gasket pressure. . a reverse displacement is * /com. * Then. you might graph the gasket closure vs. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence for a gasket analysis is the same as the sequence for a typical nonlinear analysis.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRITER (substep summary data). Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) This is a simple finite element model created to demonstrate the gasket material simulation. * This is a simple test case to verify gasket material and * /com. * /com.

. 0.0.816400E-03. 1.1.563189E+08 tbpt. 0. 0.0.para tbdata.109326E-02.430000E+11 tbpt. 0.. 0. ************************************************************** /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++ et.4E8 dp = -2.088000e+12 tbpt.765600E-03.161226E+07 tbpt. 0. 0.259960E+08 tbpt.714800E-03.613200E-03.0008 dis2 = -0..0.92300E+11 tbpt.1 Structural Analysis Guide .2..0.2. 3.nuxy. 0.gasket.0..113134E+08 tbpt. 0. 001972 .357453E+08 tbpt.1.Section 10.all !*++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*++++++++++++++++++ n1 = 20 n2 = n1*100 n3 = n1 dis1 = -0.714800E-03.0..490000E+12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* List Gasket Material Model !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tblist. 0. © SAS IP.scap !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Compression Curve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb..748254E+08 tbpt..5.440064E+08 tbpt. 0. 5.1.157147E+09 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Linear Unloading Curve !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb.200499E+08 tbpt.460800E-03..968800E-03.290345E+08 tbpt.967287E+08 tbpt..562400E-03..0e7 scap = 1..1.0e-5 tb.109326E-02.0.2.gask.000001 pres = 1..101960E-02.0.0e7 elb = 1.0.867200E-03.. 0. 2..0.stiff0.0.lunl tbpt. ANSYS Release 8.. 0.comp tbpt.2.460800E-03.520884E+07 tbpt.129001E+09 tbpt.0.816400E-03.0.0.delta0.9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /com.0. 10–21 .968800E-03.ex.0e7 pres2 = 10 pres3 = 1.00e-3 stiff0 = 0..gask.gask.195 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Linear Elastic Material Type 1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ mp. 1.1E12 mp.0.511600E-03. 1.918000E-03. Inc..0 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Initial Gap.0..565000E+11 tbpt.0 elg = 0. Stress Cap !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ delta0 = 0.185 et.0. Stable Stiffness.2.0.1.1 ..13.664000E-03.

185.0.5.n1.0.0 ngen. .s.0.all.0.1 .6.195. Inc.7.6.0.svar.uz.0.8.0.12 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Boundary Condition !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsel.all outres.0.13.uz nsel.16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle INTER195 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et.z. 001972 . Compress the Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst.x d.n2.dis2 nall solve finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Postprocess the Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ 10–22 Structural Analysis Guide .loc.11.elb ngen.4.1 mat.1.11.n3 outres.2.3.s.4.4.all outres.12.all.0.2 e.elb+elg ngen.all solve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve Second Load Step.all.all.dis1 nsel.loc.0.1.8 e.12.s.7.4.elb*2+elg d.9.1.2.15.0.4.1.all nsel.2.0. n.svar.2.elb*2+elg d.all finish /solu !*+++++++++++++++++++ !* Apply Displacement !*+++++++++++++++++++ nsel.0.1.2 mat..n3 outres..1.4.loc.0 n.0. ANSYS Release 8.uz.loc.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation !*+++++++++++++++ !* Generate Nodes !*+++++++++++++++ n.s..all !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve First Load Step.1.1.8.2*elb+elg !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Front and Back SOLID185 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et.10.0 n.n1. © SAS IP.5.z.n2. type..9.all.all nsel. Open the Elements !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst.1 e.1.ux nsel.all.10.3..z d.1.2.y d.2.0.s.loc.all nsel.all.uy nsel.14.

25000 0.640200E-03 0..5 xvar.809000E-04 0.3.100000E-04 0.2. Inc.last pres.152775E+08 0.5.100000E-04 -0.208613E+08 -0.delta add.318937E-03 -0. 0. -697442. ANSYS Release 8..100000E-04 -0.398672E-04 0.738405E-03 0.440450E-03 -0.120850E-03 0.585450E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.9500 2.15000 0.965988E+07 -0.320600E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.55000 0. ! change sign for plotting add. -418465..5500 1.100000E-04 -0.358804E-03 -0.680150E-03 0.7000 1.100000E-04 0.2000 1.111591E+07 -0.640200E-03 -0.100000E-04 -0. 976418.4 finish /exit.x.95000 1.560300E-03 -0.1 .100000E-04 -0. 836930.100000E-04 -0.710900E-03 -0.2500 1.989280E+07 0..656120E-03 -0.360550E-03 -0.153437E+07 0. -836930.100000E-05 Structural Analysis Guide .111591E+07 0. .550578E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.x.2.75000 0.120850E-03 -0.227277E+08 -0.8500 1.438539E-03 0.4500 1. -0.199336E-03 0.35000 0..797343E-04 -0.100000E-04 5 ADD delta 0.250737E+08 0.1500 1.9000 1.765909E-03 -0.557968E+07 0.278389E+07 0.200750E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.30000 0.100000E-04 0.730387E-03 0.4000 1.398672E-03 -0.45000 0.8000 1. Print and Plot Gasket Element Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /post26 esol.440450E-03 0.100000E-04 0.2.797343E-04 0. © SAS IP.139488E+07 0.160800E-03 0.70000 0.40000 0. 10–23 .152775E+08 -0..Section 10.139488E+07 -0. .320600E-03 -0.600250E-03 0.3000 1.press.100000E-04 0.965988E+07 0.80000 0.-1.0000 1.epel.5000 1.50000 0.0000 3 S X press -139488.989280E+07 -0.278389E+07 -0.50000E-01 0.520350E-03 -0.100000E-04 0. -557953.3.239203E-03 -0. -----------------------------------------------------------------------***** ANSYS POST26 VARIABLE LISTING ***** TIME 0.125539E+07 -0.153437E+07 -0. 001972 .100000E-04 3 EPELX delta -0.100000E-04 0.3.600250E-03 -0.318937E-03 0.-1.3.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 -0.560300E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.438539E-03 -0.693558E-03 0.100000E-04 0.585450E-03 0. 697442.125539E+07 0.765909E-03 0. -976418.100000E-04 -0.400500E-03 0.100000E-04 0. 418465.100000E-04 0.10000 0.100000E-04 0.90000 0.240700E-03 0.400500E-03 -0. 557953.357955E+08 0.680150E-03 -0.710900E-03 0.epel finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Post26.9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /post1 set.65000 0.159469E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.20000 0.279070E-03 0.357955E+08 -0.100000E-04 0.620132E-03 0.360550E-03 0.557968E+07 -0.480400E-03 0.s.0500 1.514686E-03 -0.693558E-03 -0. . 278977.277640E+08 0.480400E-03 -0.6000 1.310936E+08 -0.277640E+08 -0.227277E+08 0.310936E+08 0.250737E+08 -0.3500 1.279070E-03 -0.239203E-03 0.119601E-03 -0.656120E-03 0.160800E-03 -0.60000 0.208613E+08 0.4. .398672E-03 0.press esol.730387E-03 -0.100000E-05 4 ADD press 139488.6500 1.4.550578E-03 0.809000E-04 -0.s pres.100000E-04 0.epto pres.409500E-04 0.epel prns.199336E-03 -0.3.5 plvar.358804E-03 0. ! change sign for plotting prvar.200750E-03 -0.514686E-03 0.477349E-03 0.240700E-03 -0.477349E-03 -0.280650E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.409500E-04 -0.100000E-04 0.85000 0.100000E-04 -0.738405E-03 -0.100000E-04 -0.7500 1.1000 1.119601E-03 0.159469E-03 -0.280650E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.nosave Presented below is the POST26 output resulting from this analysis.100000E-04 -0.398672E-04 -0.520350E-03 0.620132E-03 -0. -278977.delta.

10–24 .

is the more common type. see the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide. It is important that you understand the physics of the problem and take the time to set up your model to run as efficiently as possible.. one or more of the contacting surfaces are treated as rigid (i.2. The other class. Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. Explicit capabilities are ideally suited for short-duration contact-impact problems.7. and magnetic flux in the areas of contact. Structural Analysis Guide . you generally do not know the regions of contact until you've run the problem.6. Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints 11. In addition to these two difficulties. Constraint equations are only available for small strain applications (NLGEOM. Frictional response can be chaotic. such as the conductance of heat.Chapter 11: Contact This chapter covers the following topics: 11. both (or all) contacting bodies are deformable (i.7: Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints for more information).e. GUI Aids for Contact Analyses 11. have similar stiffnesses). Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. Performing a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis 11. ANSYS Release 8. General Contact Classification Contact problems fall into two general classes: rigid-to-flexible and flexible-to-flexible.off). .4. 001972 . and other factors. Contact Overview 11. making solution convergence difficult.1. flexible-to-flexible.. Contact problems present two significant difficulties. Explicit Dynamics Contact Capabilities In addition to the implicit contact capabilities discussed in this chapter. Many metal forming problems fall into this category. Contact Overview Contact problems are highly nonlinear and require significant computer resources to solve. Inc.5. For more information on the ANSYS LS-DYNA product and its contact capabilities. Second. “Coupling and Constraint Equations” in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information). 11. ANSYS Contact Capabilities 11. material. it has a much higher stiffness relative to the deformable body it contacts). There are several friction laws and models to choose from.3. In general. An example of a flexible-to-flexible contact is bolted flanges. In this case. most contact problems need to account for friction.1.8. many contact problems must also address multi-field effects. and all are nonlinear.1. © SAS IP. Depending on the loads.e. In rigid-to-flexible contact problems. electrical currents. the problem may be assumed to be rigid-to-flexible. you may be able to use the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) feature (available for certain contact elements) to model various types of contact assemblies and surface-based constraints (see Section 11. 11.2. any time a soft material comes in contact with a hard material. General Contact Classification 11. boundary conditions.1 . First. If you do not need to account for friction in your model. surfaces can come into and go out of contact with each other in a largely unpredictable and abrupt manner. Another alternative is to use constraint equations or coupled degrees of freedom instead of contact to model these situations (see Chapter 12.1. and the interaction between the bodies is always bonded. ANSYS also offers explicit contact capabilities with the ANSYS LS-DYNA explicit dynamics product.

172 173. Inc.automat.174 TARGET TARGET TARGET 169.automatic ic ic ic EINTF Y EINTF Y ESURF Y Y (2-D only) ESURF Y Y Y Y Y Y Y ESURF Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Auto-meshing Tools Lower-Order Higher. © SAS IP. the corresponding component of your model is an element: either a beam. the corresponding component of your model is a node.1 . ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . ANSYS Contact Capabilities ANSYS supports three contact models: node-to-node.Surface-to-Surface Surface CONTA CONTA CONTA 175. If one of the interactions is at a point. 170 169 170 Y Y Y Y small Y small Y Y small Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y large large Y Y Y large Y Point-to-Point Point-to-Surface Surface-to-Surface 2-D 3-D Sliding Cylindrical Gap Pure Lagrange Multiplier Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Lagrange Multiplier on Normal and Penalty on Tangent Internal Multipoint Constraint (MPC) Contact Stiffness Y Y Y Y userdefined EINTF Y Y Y usersemisemisemisemidefined automat. Table 11.automat.1 ANSYS Contact Capabilities Node-to-Node CONTAC CONTAC CONTA 12 52 178 Node-to.Chapter 11: Contact 11.1: “ANSYS Contact Capabilities”. node-to-surface. you first must identify the parts to be analyzed for their possible interaction. Each type of model uses a different set of ANSYS contact elements and is appropriate for specific types of problems as shown in Table 11. shell. If one of the interactions is at a surface.3. or solid element.Order Rigid-Flexible Flexible. 11–2 Structural Analysis Guide . 171.Flexible Thermal Contact Electric Contact Magnetic Contact Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y To model a contact problem. . and surface-to-surface.

such as pipe whip or snap-fit assemblies. Using these elements for a rigid target surface. 001972 . CONTA175 is typically used to model point-to-surface contact applications. CONTA172. You also can use surface-to-surface contact elements for most contact regions and use a few node-to-surface contact elements near contact corners. You can find more details on defining these elements and their shared real constant sets in Section 11. Inc. Surface-to-surface contact elements are not well-suited for point-to-point. Node-to-Surface Contact Elements CONTA175 is a node-to-surface contact element. large deformation.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis. The different contact elements that ANSYS uses.2.Section 11. harmonic.1 .3: ANSYS Contact Capabilities The finite element model recognizes possible contact pairs by the presence of specific contact elements. An overview of the ANSYS contact elements and their capabilities follows. Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements ANSYS supports both rigid-to-flexible and flexible-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact elements. and the corners of snap-fit parts. Structural Analysis Guide . More complex rigid forms or general deformable forms can be modeled using special preprocessing techniques (see Step 3 of Section 11. parabolas. 11. The surface-to-surface contact elements only support general static and transient analyses. cones. These contact elements use a "target surface" and a "contact surface" to form a contact pair. © SAS IP.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis for more information). and procedures for using them. such as normal pressure and friction stress contour plots. assign the same real constant number to both the target and contact elements. such as two beams contacting each other (at a beam tip or sharp corner node). Inc. It supports large sliding. respectively).3. 11. you can model straight and curved surfaces in 2-D and 3-D.1. Theory Reference. Provide better contact results needed for typical engineering purposes. and deep-drawing problems. These contact elements are overlaid on the parts of the model that are being analyzed for interaction. buckling. often using simple geometric shapes such as circles. Have no restrictions on the shape of the target surface. or edge-to-surface contact applications. are described in the remainder of this chapter. These elements: • • • Support lower and higher order elements on the contact and target surfaces (in other words. and different meshes between the contacting components. 11–3 . forging. The contact surface is modeled with elements CONTA171.3. These surface-to-surface elements are well-suited for applications such as interference fit assembly contact or entry contact. For detailed information on any of these elements. or substructure analyses. modal or spectrum analyses. and cylinders. • • The target surface is modeled with either TARGE169 or TARGE170 (for 2-D and 3-D. spheres. point-to-surface. Surface discontinuities can be physical or due to mesh discretization. and CONTA174. The surface-to-surface contact elements have several advantages over the node-to-node element CONTA175. cornernoded or midside-noded elements). ANSYS Release 8. You should use the node-to-surface or node-tonode elements in these cases. CONTA173. refer to the ANSYS Elements Reference and the ANSYS. To create a contact pair.

Another use of node-to-node contact elements is in extremely precise analysis of surface stresses. Inc. An example of a node-to-node contact application is the traditional pipe whip model. It offers a wider range of options and solver types than the other elements.1. one of the boundaries is conventionally established as the "target" surface. For 3-D contact 11–4 Structural Analysis Guide . See Section 11. You can access the manager via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar. Using Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements In problems involving contact between two boundaries. Unlike the node-to-node contact elements. both contact and target surfaces are associated with the deformable bodies. The following sections explain how to set up a contact analysis using the both command and GUI approaches. the relative sliding deformation is negligible. and deflections (rotations) of the two surfaces remain small.4. CONTA175 does not support 3-D higher-order elements on the contact surface side. or via the menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair. the target surface is always the rigid surface. To use nodeto-node contact elements.3. ANSYS Release 8. 11. and the other as the "contact" surface. Large deformation and large relative sliding are allowed. The element can fail if the target surface is severely discontinous. nor do the contacting components need to have a compatible mesh. Node-to-node contact elements can also be used to solve a surface-to-surface problem if the nodes of the two surfaces line up. unless otherwise noted. An interference fit problem is an example of a surface-to-surface problem where the use of node-to-node contact may be sufficient. or CONTA175 to define a 2-D contact pair. you need to know the location of contact beforehand. CONTA172. CONTAC12 and CONTAC52 are available largely for reasons of backward compatibility with existing models.Chapter 11: Contact You can also use CONTA175 to model surface-to-surface contact. you do not need to know the exact location of the contacting area beforehand. No contour plots are available for contact results.3. These are typically problems with faceted and simple geometry. 11. Note — The following sections also apply to node-to-surface contact analyses using CONTA175. These two surfaces together comprise the "contact pair. Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can use the surface-to-surface contact elements to model either rigid-flexible or flexible-flexible contact between surfaces. if the contacting surface is defined by a group of nodes and multiple elements are generated. . An example of this type of contact problem is a wire inserted into a slot. © SAS IP.1 . where the contact point is always located between the pipe tip and the restraint. The Contact Manager provides an easy-to-use interface to help you construct and manage contact definitions.4." Use TARGE169 with CONTA171. For rigid-flexible contact. and the contact surface is the deformable surface.5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses for more information on using the Contact Manager. such as in turbine blade analysis. These types of contact problems usually involve small relative sliding between contacting surfaces (even in the case of geometric nonlinearities). For flexible-to-flexible contact. Node-to-Node Contact Elements Node-to-node contact elements are typically used to model point-to-point contact applications. ANSYS element CONTA178 is the best choice for most node-to-node problems. although this capability can also model small sliding. 11. 001972 . The surfaces can be either rigid or deformable.

1 . Each step is then explained in detail in the following pages. 5. Identifying Contact Pairs You must identify where contact might occur during the deformation of your model. © SAS IP. use TARGE170 with CONTA173. as discussed in Section 11.4. and material properties as you would for any ANSYS analysis. which will then track the kinematics of the deformation process.3. ANSYS Release 8. There is no limit on the number of surfaces allowed.4. Note — If you prefer a graphical approach to setting up your contact analysis. Structural Analysis Guide .4. Once you've identified potential contact surfaces. Inc. 7. Steps in a Contact Analysis The basic steps for performing a typical surface-to-surface contact analysis are listed below. Target and contact elements that make up a contact pair are associated with each other via a shared real constant set. you may want to define smaller.1: The Contact Manager. 8. real constants. Set element types. Solve the contact problem 11. create solid model entities that represent the geometry of the contacting bodies. 1.5. Create the model geometry and mesh Identify the contact pairs Designate contact and target surfaces Define the target surface Define the contact surface Set the element KEYOPTS and real constants Define/control the motion of the target surface (rigid-to-flexible only) Apply necessary boundary conditions Define solution options and load steps 10. localized contacting zones. you can use the Contact Toolbar. even if the element real constant values do not change. you define them via target and contact elements. VMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Note — You should avoid midside-noded elemets for 3-D contact surfaces when using node-to-surface element CONTA175. however. 001972 . or CONTA175. Mesh the contacting bodies by meshing the areas or volumes with the element type that you have chosen. Review the results Each contact-specific step also has a corresponding GUI approach where you use functions and features on the Contact Toolbar. Command(s): AMESH. for the most efficient solution (primarily in CPU time). Different contact pairs must be defined by a different real constant set.4. Each contact pair is identified via the same real constant number. 11. 3. 11–5 . 4. 11. 6.2.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis pairs. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. 11.Section 11. Creating the Model Geometry and Mesh First. The contact zone can be arbitrary. but be sure your zones are adequate to capture all necessary contact. 2. CONTA174. For more information. 9.

Designating Contact and Target Surfaces Contact elements are constrained against penetrating the target surface. If one surface has a fine surface mesh and.5. However. the fine mesh should be the contact surface and the coarse mesh should be the target surface. the other has a coarse mesh. Inc. 11–6 Structural Analysis Guide . For rigid-to-flexible contact.1: “Localized Contact Zones”. target elements can penetrate through the contact surface. If one surface is stiffer then the other. the designation is obvious: the target surface is always the rigid surface and the contact surface is always the deformable surface. For flexible-to-flexible contact. in comparison.1 Localized Contact Zones Depending on the geometry of the model (and the potential deformation). the flat/concave surface should be the target surface. Consider the following guidelines when designating the surfaces: • • • If a convex surface is expected to come into contact with a flat or concave surface.4. See Figure 11. multiple target surfaces could interact with the same zone of the contact surface.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11.1 . the softer surface should be the contact surface and the stiffer surface should be the target surface. the choice of which surface is designated contact or target can cause a different amount of penetration and thus affect the solution accuracy. each with its own real constant number. In such cases. you must define multiple contact pairs (using multiple overlapping contact elements). © SAS IP. 001972 . 11. ANSYS Release 8. .

This is known as symmetric contact (or "two-pass contact"). © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . However. Using KEYOPT(8) When there are several contact pairs involved in the model. Both surfaces have very coarse meshes.4. for example. for 3-D node-to-surface contact. in fact. the symmetric contact algorithm may not significantly improve performance and may. For a symmetric contact definition.1.4. However.5.1. In this case. Note — In any contact model.4. Background Asymmetric contact is defined as having all contact elements on one surface and all target elements on the other surface. ANSYS will internally select which asymmetric pair is to be used at the solution stage based on the guidelines mentioned above in Designating Contact and Target Surfaces. Obviously. Symmetric Contact 11. you can mix different types of contact pairs: rigid-to-flexible or flexible-toflexible contact. however.7: Defining the Structural Analysis Guide . you can just define the symmetric contact pairs and. a self-contact case). the lower-order elements should be the contact surface. the larger surface should be the target surface. asymmetric contact may not perform satisfactorily for your model. However. you can designate each surface to be both a target and a contact surface. be more "expensive" in CPU time. and the graphical picking of contact and target surfaces is difficult. it can be difficult to interpret the results. ANSYS may find one side of a contact surface as closed and the other side of the surface as closed.2. only one type can exist with a contact pair.1. Asymmetric Contact vs.5. 11. • These guidelines are true for asymmetric contact. by setting KEYOPT(8) = 2. symmetric contact is less efficient than asymmetric contact. many analyses will require its use (typically to reduce penetration). Defining the Target Surface The target surface can be 2-D or 3-D and either rigid or deformable.4. the surface with the underlying higher-order elements should be the contact surface and the other surface should be the target." This is usually the most efficient way to model surfaceto-surface contact. In such cases. Specific situations that require symmetric contact include models where • • The distinction between the contact and target surfaces is not clear. Inc.4. symmetric contact or asymmetric contact.1 . 11. You can then generate two sets of contact pairs between the contacting surfaces (or just one contact pair. However. under some circumstances asymmetric contact does not perform satisfactorily.6. 11–7 .5. In such circumstances.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis • If higher-order elements underly one of the external surfaces and lower-order elements underly the other surface. This is sometimes called "one-pass contact. The total contact pressure acting on both sides is the average of the contact pressures on each side of the surface. The higher-order elements should be the target surface. such as in the instance where one surface surrounds the other surface. You can follow the same method to generate the deformable contact surface (see Section 11. The following section details the difference between asymmetric and symmetric contact and outlines some of the situations that require symmetric contact. If the meshes on both surfaces are identical and sufficiently refined. you will normally use the ESURF command to generate the target elements along the boundaries of an existing mesh. For deformable target surfaces.Section 11. pick one surface to be the target and the other the contact surface.1. If one surface is markedly larger than the other surface. The symmetric contact algorithm enforces the contact constraint conditions at more surface locations than the asymmetric contact algorithm. 11.

You can use any combination of low/high-order triangles and quadrilaterals to model a target surface with a complex.1. Pilot Nodes The rigid target surface can also be associated with a "pilot node. and sphere primitives to model the target (which require real constants to define the radius).1 . You can use any combination to define the complex target surface geometry. CYL1. quadrilaterals. 11. Inc. Primitives cannot be defined directly in the Contact Wizard. arbitrary geometry. or sphere. • For CONTA173 and CONTA174 (also applies to node-to-surface element CONTA175): – – R1 is the radius if the target shape (TARGE170) is a cylinder. cone. triangles.6. The location of the pilot node is important only when rotation or moment loading is required. 11.4. SPHE. CONE.2. whose motion governs the motion of the entire target surface. If you define a pilot node. Element Types and Real Constants Before generating the target element. The default value is 1. and quadrilaterals) to define a target surface. CIRC. R2 is the radius of a cone at the second node. 11. You should not use the following rigid target segments for a deformable target surface: ARC. cylinders. ANSYS checks for boundary conditions only on the pilot node and ignores any constraints on other nodes. Primitives You can use circle. . You can think of a pilot node as a handle for the rigid target surface. Defining Target Element Geometry You define characteristics of the target element geometry through real constants R1 and R2 as follows: • For CONTA171 and CONTA172: – – R1 is the radius if the target shape (TARGE169) is a circle.4. which can be represented with TARGE170.1.4." which is really an element with one node.4.Chapter 11: Contact Deformable Contact Surface for details).6. all of which can be represented with the target segment element TARGE169. The pilot node can be one of the nodes on the target element or a node at any arbitrary location. the shape of the target surface is described by a sequence of straight lines. or PILO. 001972 . CARC. cones. the following provides general guidelines. To set the real constant number for the target elements: Command(s): REAL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants 11–8 Structural Analysis Guide . Forces/moments or rotations/displacements for the entire target surface can be prescribed on just the pilot node. R2 is the element thickness if the underlying element is a superelement set as plane stress with thickness (KEYOPT(3) = 3).6. and parabolas.3. For rigid target surfaces. In 2-D cases. circular arcs. the shape of the target surfaces is described by a sequence of triangles.6. In 3-D cases. and spheres. parabolas. first define the element type (TARGE169 for 2-D or TARGE170 for 3-D): Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete 11. cylinder. © SAS IP. cone. You can combine primitive segments with general segments (such as lines. ANSYS Release 8.3.

see Chapter 9.4. If a portion of the underlying elements of a deformable surface are deleted. 11. Using Direct Generation to Create Rigid Target Elements To generate target elements directly. element shapes. You cannot mix rigid target elements with deformable target elements on the same target surface. all subsequent elements will have that shape until you specify another shape. 001972 . For more information on direct generation modeling techniques. or use the Contact Toolbar. Command(s): N. “Direct Generation” in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. Inc. Note — Specifying real constants (R1.Section 11.4. an error will occur in solution. see the description of TARGE169 and TARGE170 in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 11–9 . R2) manually is necessary only if you use direct generation to create your target elements. ANSYS Release 8. Possible shapes are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Straight line (2-D) Parabola (2-D) Clockwise arc (2-D) Counterclockwise arc (2-D) Circle (2-D) Three-node triangle (3-D) Six-node triangle (3-D) Four-node quadrilateral (3-D) Eight-node quadrilateral (3-D) Cylinder (3-D) Cone (3-D) Sphere (3-D) Pilot node (both 2-D and 3-D) Once you specify a target element shape. E GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements You can then verify your element shapes by listing the elements. use the following command or GUI path: Command(s): TSHAP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes You then specify the element shape.6. For a complete description of the target elements. You can generate the nodes and elements using standard ANSYS direct generation techniques. you need only set real constants R1 and R2 (if required). and real constants. You can also use the ANSYS meshing tools to create the elements.1 . ANSYS assigns a deformable status to target elements with underlying elements and assigns a rigid status to target elements without underlying elements. © SAS IP. During solution.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis For TARGE169 and TARGE170. Note — You cannot mix 2-D and 3-D target elements on the same target surface. Command(s): ELIST Structural Analysis Guide .

© SAS IP.6. ANSYS might not create a single circular segment. If all the arcs form a closed circle. To generate 2-D rigid target elements. Command(s): LMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Lines Figure 11. parabolic segments over B-splines. ANSYS creates a single circular segment (see Figure 11.2 ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements 11–10 Structural Analysis Guide .2: “ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements”). use the following command or GUI path: Command(s): KMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Keypoints Note — KMESH always creates pilot nodes. . use the following command or GUI path. Using ANSYS Meshing Tools to Create Rigid Target Elements You can also let ANSYS generate the elements automatically using the standard ANSYS meshing capabilities. and arc segments over each arc and line fillet (see Figure 11. 001972 .Chapter 11: Contact GUI: Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attributes 11. However. To generate a pilot node. if the arcs that form a closed circle are created from imported or archived geometry (such as IGES). ANSYS will recognize the proper target element shape based on the solid model and will ignore the TSHAP setting. ANSYS creates a single line over each line.4.3: “A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments”). Inc.5. ANSYS Release 8.1 .

ANSYS Release 8.Section 11. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the target element definition.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11. By doing so. Note — Low-order target elements result in "cheaper" CPU usage in getting penetration and gap. 11–11 . By creating fewer elements. 001972 . use the following command or GUI path. The following command or GUI path will generate a mapped mesh wherever possible (otherwise. If you want a triangular target element shape. Note — If target elements are created via program meshing (through the KMESH. use MSHAPE. you should use AMESH to generate target elements.3 A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments To generate 3-D rigid target elements. It is more important that the target elements represent the rigid surface geometry well.1 . cylinder. For arbitrary surfaces. Command(s): AMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas If the surface segments on the solid model form a complete sphere. or cone. © SAS IP. then ANSYS automatically generates a single primitive 3-D target element through the AMESH command. In these cases. however. the analysis becomes more computationally efficient. Higher-order target elements are more "expensive" to use in getting the penetration and gap. We recommend using mapped meshing on all possible areas. The default target element shape is quadrilateral.1. LMESH. per line. If the target surface is curved you should select high-order target elements (6-node triangular or 8-node quadrilateral). the quality of the meshed target shape is not important. If there is no curvature on the edges of the surface. Structural Analysis Guide . assign one division on that edge. it will generate a free mesh). if not possible. or ESURF commands) the TSHAP command is ignored and ANSYS chooses the correct shape codes automatically.4: “Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces” shows the meshing patterns for arbitrary target surfaces.2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Target Surf If the target surface is flat (or nearly flat). Inc. TARGE169 with a rigid specification will always mesh with one element division. ignoring any LESIZE setting. the meshed surface may not be smooth. Figure 11. Command(s): MSHKEY. you may select low-order target elements (3-node triangular or 4-node quadrilateral elements). but they need many fewer elements to discretize the whole curved target surface.

001972 .1. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. .Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. Some Modeling and Meshing Tips A target surface can be made up of two or more disconnected regions. To avoid such modeling problems.5. you should localize the contact zone by defining multiple target surfaces (each with a different real constant number). It can be difficult to obtain a converged solution in a large sliding simulation if the target surface has sharp convex corners. you must ensure that the mesh discretization of the curved surfaces on the rigid target surface is adequate.1 . However. or use high-order element in the region of abrupt curvature changes (see Figure 11.4 Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces 11. Excessively coarse discretization can cause numerical convergence problems.4. use line or area fillet functions on the solid model to smooth out the sharp corner. use a more refined mesh. 11–12 Structural Analysis Guide .5: “Smoothing Convex Corner”). There are no restrictions on the shape of the rigid surfaces. © SAS IP. Smoothing is not required. Where possible.6.

the associated (deformable) contact elements must lie to the right of the target surface when moving from the first node to the second node along the target surface line (see Figure 11.5. turn on the element coordinate systems. Command(s): /PSYMB. To check the direction of the normals.Section 11.6: “Correct Node Ordering”). For 2-D contact. The outward normal is determined by the right-hand rule.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11.1 Structural Analysis Guide .4.6. Verifying Nodal Number Ordering (Contact Direction) of Target Surface The node order of the target surface elements is critical because it defines contact direction. Inc.ESYS. 11–13 . ANSYS Release 8.2.1 . 001972 . the target triangular element numbering should be such that the rigid surface's outward normal points toward the contact surface.5 Smoothing Convex Corner 11. © SAS IP. Figure 11.6 Correct Node Ordering For 3-D contact.

1 .4. 11–14 Structural Analysis Guide . The higher-order contact elements can match lower-order underlying elements by dropping the midside nodes. The contact surface elements are of the same order as the underlying elements (lower. select this element and reverse the direction of the surface normals. or 2-D beam elements. shell.or 3-D). These contact elements have the same geometric characteristics as the underlying elements of the deformable body.or higher-order). ANSYS Release 8.1. or CONTA175 for (2.7. The contact surface can be on either side of the shell or beam elements. cone. Element Type The four contact element types are listed below. axisymmetric harmonic elements may not be used as underlying elements.Chapter 11: Contact GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols If the element normals do not point toward the contact surface. 001972 . Defining the Deformable Contact Surface To create the deformable contact surface. The underlying elements can be solid. you must define that surface using contact elements CONTA171 or CONTA172 (for 2-D). The underlying elements may also be a superelement. . cylinder. then select the correct real constant number (the real constant number must be the same as the one used for the target surface for each contact pair). Inc. reorient the element normals: Command(s): ENORM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Elements> Shell Normals Note — Contact on target primitives (such as a complete circle. As with the target surface elements. you must define the contact surface element type.REVE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf or. 11.4.. 11. along with a brief description. with compatible nodes along the edges. can occur only on the outside surfaces of such target bodies. or CONTA173 or CONTA174 (for 3-D). or sphere). © SAS IP. However. The contact surface is defined by the set of contact elements that comprise the surface of the deformable body. For complete information on these element types. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. Command(s): ESURF.7. and finally generate the elements.

shell. CONTA172: This element is a 2-D. Structural Analysis Guide .7 node quadrilateral/triangular shapes.2. or beam elements (such as BEAM3. 8-node.1 .7. higher-order quadrilateral element that can be located on the surfaces of 3-D solid or shell elements with midside nodes (such as SOLID92. the contact normal stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 100. higher-order parabolic element that can be located on the surfaces of 2-D solid or beam elements with midside nodes (such as PLANE82 or VISCO88). ANSYS uses the material properties of the underlying elements to calculate an appropriate contact (or penalty) stiffness. PLANE42. you need to select the correct real constant set. or SHELL93). © SAS IP.Section 11. lower-order line element that can be located on the surfaces of 2-D solid. ANSYS automatically defines a default value for tangent (sliding) contact stiffness that is proportional to MU and the normal stiffness. 3-node. CONTA174: This element is a 3-D. CONTA173: This element is a 3-D. 4-node. CONTA175: This element is a 2. 001972 .4. 2-node. Real Constants and Material Properties After defining the element type. ANSYS Release 8. SOLID95. It can be degenerated to 3 . Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete Note — Use CONTA175 for node-to-surface contact. • • 11. Each contact pair must reference its own real constant number.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11. Inc. lower-order quadrilateral element that can be located on the surfaces of 3-D solid or shell elements (such as SOLID45 or SHELL181). 11–15 . the material property set for the contact elements must be the same as that of the original structural elements used during the formation of the superelement. In cases where the underlying element has TB plasticity material properties defined (whether active or not). The real constant set for each contact surface must be the same one used for the corresponding target surface for each contact pair. It can be degenerated to a 3-node triangular element. or SHELL51). If the underlying element is a superelement.or 3-D 1-node element that can be located on the surface of 2-D low order and higher order solid or beam elements or 3-D low order solid or shell elements.7 Contact Element Types • • • CONTA171: This element is a 2-D.

Use the BOTTOM setting to generate contact elements with their outward normals opposite the beam or shell elements' normals. If you are certain that particular nodes will never come into contact.7. ANSYS automatically determines the outward normal needed for contact calculations. . Otherwise. For each surface. ANSYS Release 8. For 3-D elements. Figure 11.. you can omit those nodes and reduce CPU time. 3. Check the direction of the outward normals for the contact elements. this approach is simpler and more reliable. the node numbering follows the right hand rule to define its outward normal. © SAS IP. Select the nodes on the meshed deformable body.ESYS GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols 2.Chapter 11: Contact 11. follow these steps: 1. We recommend that you use automatic generation. If the underlying elements are solid elements. Command(s): ESURF GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf If the contact surface is attached to areas or volumes that are meshed with solid elements. If the underlying elements are beam or shell elements. Command(s): ESURF. view the node list. then the TOP or BOTTOM setting has no effect.4. the analysis will fail immediately. you should always include more nodes than you think you'll need so that you don't miss unexpected areas of contact. Command(s): /PSYMB. Command(s): NSEL GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities Generate the contact elements. To automatically generate contact elements. You must make sure that all elements in the beam or shell element selection have their normals consistently oriented. The direction of the contact surface's outward normal is critical for proper contact detection. 001972 . 11–16 Structural Analysis Guide .TOP or BOTTOM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf Use the TOP setting (default) to generate contact elements with their outward normals the same as the beam or shell elements' normals.1 . In most of these cases. Generating Contact Elements You can generate contact elements either through direct generation or by generating the surface automatically from the exterior faces of the underlying elements. ANSYS may detect over-penetration of the surfaces at the beginning of the analysis and have difficulty finding an initial solution. However. you must indicate which surface (top or bottom) is the target surface.3.8: “Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal” illustrates both proper and improper specification of the contact surface's outward normal. The contact surface's outward normal should point toward the target surface. Inc.

reorient the element normals.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11.1. Set the Real Constants and Element KEYOPTS ANSYS uses several real constants and KEYOPTs to control contact behavior using these surface-to-surface contact elements.8. Inc. Real Constants Two real constants. ICONT defines an initial closure factor (or adjustment band). ANSYS Release 8.4.4. TAUMAX specifies the maximum contact friction. For more information in addition to what is presented here. PMIN and PMAX define an allowable penetration range for initial penetration.TOP or BOTTOM and checking the direction of outward normals will not apply to nodeto-surface contact (CONTA175) because it is a single-node element with no surface normal associated with it. 11.8. you must either change them by reversing the node number order of the selected elements. CNOF specifies the positive or negative offset value applied to the contact surface. refer to the individual contact element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference.REVE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf or.Section 11. 11..8 Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal If the surface normals are specified incorrectly. © SAS IP. PINB defines a "pinball" region.. R1 and R2. Command(s): ESURF. Command(s): ENORM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Elements> Shell Normals Note — ESURF. • • • • • • • • R1 and R2 define the target element geometry.1 . are used to define the geometry of the target surface elements. FKN defines a normal contact stiffness factor. 001972 . Structural Analysis Guide . 11–17 . FTOLN is a factor based on the thickness of the element which is used to calculate allowable penetration. The remaining are used by the contact surface elements.

RDVF specifies the radiation view factor. Table 11. See your ANSYS sales representative for more information about ANSYS Workbench. DC specifies the decay coefficient for static/dynamic friction. © SAS IP. FHEG specifies the fraction of electric dissipated energy converted into heat. 001972 . FWGT specifies the weight factor for the distribution of heat between the contact and target surfaces for thermal contact or for electric contact. SBCT specifies the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.1 . TCC specifies the thermal contact conductance coefficient. SLTO controls maximum sliding distance when MU is nonzero and the tangent contact stiffness (FKT) is updated at each iteration (KEYOPT(10) = 2). ECC specifies the electric contact conductance or capacitance per unit area. FACT specifies the ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. MCC specifies the magnetic contact permeance (3-D only). Inc. COHE specifies the cohesion sliding resistance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name R1 R2 FKN FTOLN ICONT PINB PMAX PMIN TAUMAX CNOF FKOP FKT COHE TCC Target circle radius Superelement thickness Normal penalty stiffness factor Penetration tolerance factor Initial contact closure Pinball region Upper limit of initial penetration Lower limit of initial penetration Maximum friction stress Contact surface offset Contact opening stiffness Tangent penalty stiffness Contact cohesion Thermal contact conductance 11–18 Structural Analysis Guide . . Real constant defaults can vary depending on the environment you are working in.Chapter 11: Contact • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • FKOP specifies the stiffness factor applied when contact opens.00E+20 0 1 1 0 0 n/a n/a [1] 0. The following table compares the default values between ANSYS and the ANSYS Workbench. TNOP specifies the maximum allowable tensile contact pressure. FKT specifies the tangent contact stiffness.1 0 [2] 0 0 1. TOLS adds a small tolerance that extends the edge of the target surface.1 0 [2] 0 0 1.2 Summary of Real Constant Defaults in Different Environments Real Constants Description ANSYS Default ANSYS Workbench Default 0 1 1 0.00E+20 0 1 1 0 [3] No. FHTG specifies the fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat. ANSYS Release 8.

the depth will usually be 4 times the element thickness. © SAS IP.ON. PINB. FKT. FTOLN. 4. When KEYOPT(10) = 0.OFF. For all other. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Name FHTG SBCT RDVF FWGT ECC FHEG FACT DC SLTO (blank) TOLS MCC Target edge extension factor Magnetic contact permeance Frictional heating factor Stefan-Boltzmann constant Radiation view factor Heat distribution weighing factor Electric contact conductance Joule dissipation weighting factor Static/dynamic ratio Exponential decay coefficient Allowable elastic slip 1.1 . KEYOPT(9) setting.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Real Constants Description ANSYS Default ANSYS Workbench Default 1 0 1 0. PMAX. you can specify either a positive or negative value. 10% of target length for NLGEOM. FKN = 1. a positive value of 0. Depends on contact behavior (rigid vs. Inc.0. ANSYS uses the depth of the underlying element as the reference value to be used for ICONT. Positive and Negative Real Constant Values For the real constants FKN.1 indicates an actual adjustment band of 0. 001972 . PMAX. and TNOP. FKT. If the underlying elements are shell or beam elements.5 0 1 1 0 1% [4] 0 1 n/a n/a 0. NLGEOM. FKOP. KEYOPT(12) setting. flex target).1.4. and the value of CNOF (see Section 11.Section 11. the settings are based on each individual contact element (geometry and material behaviors). Calculated as a function of highest conductivity and overall model size. PINB. PINB. FTOLN. ANSYS Release 8. when KEYOPT(10) = 3.4.9: “Depth of the Underlying Element” shows the depth of the underlying element for a solid element.9. 3. 11–19 . Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): R GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants 11. or 5. SLTO) are averaged across all contact elements in a contact pair. FTOLN. Figure 11. 4.1 units. PMIN. 2. ANSYS interprets a positive value as a scaling factor and interprets a negative value as the absolute value. SLTO.1 for ICONT indicates an initial closure factor of 0. FKN. However.1 x depth of the underlying element.5 n/a n/a 1 0 1% [4] n/a No. or 2. a negative value of 0.2: Using PINB). For example. FKN = 10 for bonded.ON or OFF. However. PMIN. all the contact related settings (ICONT. 2% of target length for NLGEOM. FKN = 1 for all.8. but if bonded and other contact behavior exists. ICONT. and PMIN.8. PMAX.1. 1.

We recommend using the default settings.) (KEYOPT(12)) 11–20 Structural Analysis Guide . For some specific applications. Contact model for node-to-surface contact. Location of contact detection point (KEYOPT(4)) CNOF Automated adjustment (KEYOPT(5)) Time step control (KEYOPT(7)) Asymmetric contact selection (KEYOPT(8)) Effect of initial penetration or gap (KEYOPT(9)) Contact stiffness update (KEYOPT(10)) Shell thickness effect (KEYOPT(11)) Behavior of contact surface (rough.8. Element KEYOPTS Each contact element includes several KEYOPTS. you can override the defaults. • • • • • • • • • • • Degrees of freedom (KEYOPT(1)) Contact algorithm (defaults to augmented Lagrangian) (KEYOPT(2)) Stress state when superelements are present (KEYOPT(3)) for 2-D surface-to-surface contact. 001972 . which are suitable for most contact problems. Inc.1 . . 1.4. bonded. the machine precision may not guarantee the accuracy of penetration to be calculated. or 2. ANSYS Release 8. each contact pair has a pair-based depth which is obtained by averaging the depth of each contact element across all the contact elements in a contact pair.9 Depth of the Underlying Element When KEYOPT(10) = 0. This can avoid the problem of very different element-based depths when there are meshes with large variations in element sizes. etc. The element KEYOPTS allow you to control several aspects of contact behavior. 10-5). Note — When the contact pair depth is too small (for example. © SAS IP. You should scale the length unit in the model.2. 11.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11.

no sep) Auto n/a gauss No adjust ANSYS Workbench. Default Nonlinear (standard. Lagr. ANSYS offers several different contact algorithms: • • • • • Penalty method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) Augmented Lagrangian (default) (KEYOPT(2) = 0) Lagrange multiplier on contact normal and penalty on tangent (KEYOPT(2) = 3) Pure Lagrange multiplier on contact normal and tangent (KEYOPT(2) = 4) Internal multipoint constraint (MPC) (KEYOPT(2) = 2) The penalty method uses a contact “spring” to establish a relationship between the two contact surfaces.4.Section 11. The following table compares the default values between ANSYS. This method uses the following real constants: FKN and FKS for all values of KEYOPT(10). Aug.8. Structural Analysis Guide . ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete 11. Selecting a Contact Algorithm (KEYOPT(2)) 11. Table 11.1. the ANSYS Contact Wizard. Lagr. Inc. 001972 . Background For surface-to-surface contact elements. rough) Auto Pure Penalty n/a gauss No adjust No control No action Include all/ramped Between load steps Exclude n/a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Selects DOF* Contact Algorithm Manual Aug. See your ANSYS sales representative for more information about ANSYS Workbench.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis KEYOPT defaults can vary depending on the environment you are working in.8. Auto: Selection is based on DOF of underlying element. 11–21 .3. © SAS IP. The spring stiffness is called the contact stiffness.3. ANSYS Release 8.4. and the ANSYS Workbench.1 . Command(s): KEYOPT. plus FTOLN and SLTO if KEYOPT(10) = 1 or 2. Pure Penalty Stress state when superelement no super is present elem Location of contact detection point CNOF/ICONT adjustment (blank) Element level time increment control Asymmetric contact selection Effect of initial penetration or gap Contact stiffness update Beam/shell thickness effect Behavior of contact surface gauss No adjust No control No control No control No action No action No action Include all Include all Exclude all Between Between load steps substeps Exclude Standard Exclude Standard Between load steps Exclude Bonded *Manual: Requires user to define.3 Summary of KEYOPT Defaults in Different Environments KEYOPT Description ANSYS ANSYS Contact Wizard Auto no super elem gauss No adjust ANSYS Workbench Default Linear (bonded.

When using these options. be careful not to overconstrain the model. It requires chattering control parameters. See Section 11. The model is overconstrained when a contact node has prescribed boundary conditions. The Lagrange multiplier also introduces more degrees of freedom which may result in spurious modes for modal and linear eigenvalue buckling analyses. Any iterative solver (PCG or AMG) will encounter a preconditioning matrix singularity with these methods. FKN and FKS. . there is no guarantee that the program will eliminate all the cases of overconstraint. Background For the augmented Lagrangian method and penalty method.4. Therefore. you do not need to define the contact stiffness. FTOLN and TNOP.Chapter 11: Contact The augmented Lagrangian method (which is the default) is an iterative series of penalty methods. The amount of slip in sticking contact depends on the tangential stiffness. Higher stiffness values decrease the amount of penetration/slip. Inc. However. However.7: Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints for more information on how to use this feature. The amount of penetration between contact and target surfaces depends on the normal stiffness. especially if the deformed mesh becomes too distorted. 11. normal and tangential contact stiffnesses are required. Instead it requires chattering control parameters. Compared to the penalty method. The pure Lagrange multiplier method enforces zero penetration when contact is closed and “zero slip” when sticking contact occurs. This method adds contact traction to the model as additional degrees of freedom and requires additional iterations to stabilize contact conditions. the augmented Lagrangian method may require additional iterations. allowable penetration (FTOLN). Note — The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. the augmented Lagrangian method usually leads to better conditioning and is less sensitive to the magnitude of the contact stiffness.1 .4. In addition. ANSYS usually detects and eliminates the overconstraints. ANSYS provides default values for contact stiffnesses (FKN. 4) introduce zero diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. and allowable slip (SLTO).8. The augmented Lagrangian method would be a better choice for these analysis types. It often increases the computational cost compared to the augmented Lagrangian method. CE and CP equations.1. as well as the maximum allowable elastic slip parameter SLTO. the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) algorithm. we recommend that you use KEYOPT(10) = 1 to allow the program to update the contact stiffness automatically. Note — The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. ANSYS Release 8. Ideally. 11–22 Structural Analysis Guide . FKT). Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration 11. You should always verify your model carefully to address this issue. Another method. 4) and MPC approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2) do not support the Gauss point detection option (KEYOPT(4) = 0) for surface-to-surface contact.4. in some analyses.4. © SAS IP. In most cases. FTOLN and TNOP. but can lead to ill-conditioning of the global stiffness matrix and to convergence difficulties.8. An alternative algorithm is the Lagrange multiplier method applied on the contact normal and the penalty method (tangential contact stiffness) on the frictional plane. They support the nodal detection options for surface-to-surface contact and node-to-surface contact. The contact tractions (pressure and frictional stresses) are augmented during equilibrium iterations so that the final penetration is smaller than the allowable tolerance (FTOLN). but a low enough stiffness that the problem will be well-behaved in terms of convergence. The pure Lagrange multiplier method does not require contact stiffness. is used in conjunction with bonded contact (KEYOPT(2) = 5 or 6) to model several types of contact assemblies and kinematic constraints. Lower stiffness values can lead to a certain amount of penetration/slip and produce an inaccurate solution. 001972 . This methods enforces zero penetration and allows a small amount of slip for the sticking contact condition. you should switch to sparse solver. you want a high enough stiffness that the penetration/slip is acceptably small.

In certain cases users can override FKT by defining a scaling factor (positive input value) or absolute value (negative input value) (see Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information). Note — When the contact stiffness is too large (for example.0.1 . The default value is appropriate for bulk deformation. FTOLN is a tolerance factor to be applied in the direction of the surface normal. PRES. The real constant SLTO is used to control maximum sliding distance when FKT is updated at each iteration. ANSYS provides default tolerance values which work well in most cases.0 (usually less than 0.1). A larger value will enhance convergence but compromise accuracy. current normal pressure. Based on the tolerance. Using FKN and FTOLN For certain contact problems. You can override the default values for SLTO (1% of average contact length in pair) by defining a scaling factor (positive value when using command input) or an absolute value (negative value when using command input).4.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11.4.01-1. Structural Analysis Guide .9: “Depth of the Underlying Element”). The range for this factor is less than 1. the global solution is still considered unconverged. the tangential contact stiffness FKT can be obtained automatically. 001972 .0. Inc. In cases where the underlying element has a TB plasticity material defined (whether plasticity is active or not). For KEYOPT(10) = 1 or 2. 4) as a chattering control parameter.8. 1016). the contact normal stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 100.Section 11. ANSYS Release 8. Using FKT and SLTO ANSYS automatically defines a default tangential contact stiffness that is proportional to MU and the normal stiffness FKN. with a default of 1. we recommend using a smaller value (0. you should scale the force unit in the model if possible. you may choose to use the real constant FKN to define a normal contact stiffness factor.8.2). The depth is defined by the average depth of each individual contact element in the pair. the machine precision may not guarantee good conditioning of the global stiffness matrix. 11–23 .4. even though the residual forces and displacement increments have met convergence criteria. and friction coefficient. 11. In this case.0. shell. Use real constant FTOLN in conjunction with the augmented Lagrangian method. The default tangential stiffness corresponds to a default value of FKT = 1. If ANSYS detects any penetration larger than this tolerance. a negative value indicates an absolute value of tangential stiffness. If bending deformation dominates. Note — FTOLN is also used in the Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. © SAS IP. SLTO (FKT = MU* PRES/SLTO). This factor is used to determine if penetration compatibility is satisfied. A positive value for FKT is a factor. The usual factor range is from 0.2. and maximum allowable elastic slip. with a default of 0. or when the Lagrange multiplier on normal and penalty on tangent option is used (KEYOPT(2) = 3).1. and is based on the depth of the underlying solid. ANSYS updates tangential contact stiffness based on current contact normal pressure. or beam element (see Figure 11.4. You can also define an absolute allowable penetration by specifying a negative value for FTOLN.3. Contact compatibility is satisfied if penetration is within an allowable tolerance (FTOLN times the depth of underlying elements).

4. PMAX.4. FKN or FKT may be overestimated. Inc. The default contact stiffness is determined by underlying element depth and material properties. The tangential contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current contact pressure. and SLTO can be modified from one load step to another. the normal contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current mean stress of the underlying elements and the allowable penetration. either automatically (due to large strain effects that change the underlying element's stiffness) or explicitly (by user-specified FKN or FKT values). In most cases we recommend that you use KEYOPT(10) = 1 to allow the program to update contact stiffnesses automatically. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis. FTOLN. it is better to underestimate this value rather than overestimate it. The possible settings for KEYOPT(10) are outlined below. 11. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis. you can try the following procedure as a “trial run”: 1. KEYOPT(10) governs how the normal and tangential contact stiffness is updated when the augmented Lagrangian or penalty method is used. MU. FKT has units FORCE/LENGTH3. if more iterations were used to converge the problem to within the penetration tolerance than to converge the residual forces). Adjust FKN. the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. MU. the normal contact stiffness will be updated at every substep based on the mean stress of the underlying elements from the previous substep and the allowable penetration. PINB. In general.4. for contact forcebased models (KEYOPT(3) = 0) in CONTA175. KEYOPT(10) = 2 (covers KEYOPT(10) = 1). FKT. and allowable slip (SLTO). Check the penetration and the number of equilibrium iterations used in each substep. same as KEYOPT(10) = 0. KEYOPT(10) = 1 (covers KEYOPT(10) = 0). • • • 11–24 . FKN may be underestimated or FTOLN may be too small. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis.2 for each bisection. the contact stiffness FKN. KEYOPT(10) = 3. If the penetration control becomes dominant in the global equilibrium iterations (that is. ANSYS Release 8. Stiffness and other settings (ICONT. SLTO. The default normal contact stiffness for the first substep of the first load step is the same as described for KEYOPT(10) = 0.2 for each bisection. If the global convergence difficulty is caused by too much penetration (rather than by residual forces and displacement increments). Use a low value for the contact stiffness to start. © SAS IP. and allowable slip (SLTO).1 . you may increase FTOLN to permit more allowable penetration or increase FKN. 001972 . FTOLN.8. They can also be adjusted in a restart run. 2. the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. FTOLN. However. To arrive at a good stiffness value.Chapter 11: Contact Note — FKN. The tangential contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current contact pressure. the contact stiffness will be updated at each load step if FKN or FKT is redefined by the user. FTOLN. FKT. Determining a good stiffness value may require some experimentation on your part. 4. The default normal contact stiffness for the first iteration is the same as described for KEYOPT(10) = 0. or SLTO as necessary and run the full analysis. Using KEYOPT(10) The normal and tangential contact stiffness can be updated during the course of an analysis. FTOLN. the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. Run the analysis up to a fraction of the final load (just enough to get the contact fully established). If the global convergence requires many equilibrium iterations for achieving convergence tolerances of residual forces and displacements rather than the resulting penetration. 3. except in the first substep of the first load step. • KEYOPT(10) = 0. the contact stiffness has units FORCE/LENGTH. except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair. Note — Generally. except in the very first iteration.2 for each bisection. and PMIN) are averaged across contact elements in a contact pair. Structural Analysis Guide . Penetration problems resulting from a low stiffness are easier to fix than convergence difficulties that arise from a high stiffness.

11.1 . A negative value is used as an absolute value (which overrides the default). FTOLN and TNOP. Instead they require chattering control parameters.8. If the contact status from the previous iteration is closed and the current calculated contact pressure is positive but smaller than TNOP. at which sliding on the surface begins as a fraction of the contact pressure p (τ = µp + COHE. The sticking/sliding calculations determine when a point transitions from sticking to sliding or vice versa. except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair. © SAS IP. where µ is the friction coefficient and COHE specifies the cohesion sliding resistance). This state is known as sliding. Structural Analysis Guide .4. then contact remains open. 4) or MPC algorithm (KEYOPT(2) = 2) is used. The objective of FTOLN and TNOP is to provide stability to models which exhibit contact chattering due to changing contact status. KEYOPT(10) is ignored. then the contact status changes from closed to open and ANSYS continues to the next iteration. same as KEYOPT(10) = 1. FTOLN defaults to the displacement convergence tolerance. Inc. Keep in mind the following when providing values for FTOLN and TNOP: • • A positive value is a scaling factor applied to the default values. the solution will require more iterations.4. same as KEYOPT(10) = 2. If the tensile contact pressure is larger than TNOP.4. KEYOPT(10) = 5. The behavior can be described as follows: • If the contact status from the previous iteration is open and the current calculated penetration is smaller than FTOLN.1.4. However. Note — A negative contact pressure occurs when the contact status is closed. if the values are too large. ANSYS Release 8. by which ANSYS assumes that the contact status remains unchanged. FTOLN is the maximum allowable penetration and TNOP is the maximum allowable tensile contact pressure. Once the shear stress is exceeded. Otherwise the contact status switches to closed and another iteration is processed.8. the accuracy of the solution will be affected since a certain amount of penetration or tensile contact force is allowed. Note — When a Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 3. two contacting surfaces can carry shear stresses up to a certain magnitude across their interface before they start sliding relative to each other. 11–25 . FKN and FKT. 001972 . Chattering Control Parameters The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. 4) do not require contact stiffness. If the values you use for these tolerances are too small.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis • • KEYOPT(10) = 4.5. TNOP defaults to the force convergence tolerance divided by contact area at contact nodes. • ANSYS will provide reasonable defaults for FTOLN and TNOP.5. This state is known as sticking. then contact remains closed.Section 11. but not necessarily an open contact status.8. 11. the two surfaces will slide relative to each other. Background In the basic Coulomb friction model.5. Choosing a Friction Model 11. except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair. The Coulomb friction model defines an equivalent shear stress τ. A tensile contact pressure (positive) refers to a separation between the contact surfaces.

Typically. which has units of stress. If frictional stresses have a substantial influence on the overall displacement field and the magnitude of the frictional stresses is highly solution dependent. the contact element stiffness matrices are symmetric. It provides sliding resistance. COHE (default COHE = 0).5. Using TAUMAX.UNSYM) to improve convergence. Contact problems involving friction produce unsymmetric stiffnesses. 11. ANSYS provides the following exponential decay friction model: µ = MU × (1 + (FACT − 1)exp( − DC × Vrel )) where: 11–26 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. MU. the material property set must be the same as the one used for the original elements that were assembled into the superelement. DC. the static coefficient of friction is higher than the dynamic coefficient of friction.0e20. Figure 11. © SAS IP. 001972 . For this reason.10 Sliding Contact Resistance Two other real constants. as described in the next section. ANSYS uses a symmetrization algorithm by which most frictional contact problems can be solved using solvers for symmetric systems.8. regardless of the magnitude of normal contact pressure. Static and Dynamic Friction Coefficients The coefficient of friction can depend on the relative velocity of the surfaces in contact.4. Use MU = 0 for frictionless contact. and bonded contact. This maximum contact friction stress can be introduced so that. FACT and DC are involved in specifying static and dynamic friction coefficients. where σy is the yield stress of Another real constant used for the friction law is the cohesion. 5. . Using an unsymmetric solver is more computationally expensive than a symmetric solver for each iteration. choose the unsymmetric solution option (NROPT. or 6. rough. for the Coulomb friction model.8. 3. σy Empirical data is often the best source for TAUMAX. sliding will occur if the friction stress reaches this value. Its value may be close to the material being deformed. and COHE One of the material properties used for contact elements is input via the interface coefficient of friction. MU can be specified as a function of temperature. For rough or bonded contact (KEYOPT(12) = 1.4. If the underlying element is a superelement (MATRIX50).Chapter 11: Contact For frictionless.5. 11. In such cases.10: “Sliding Contact Resistance”). the symmetric approximation to the stiffness matrix may provide a low rate of convergence. TAUMAX defaults to 1. see Selecting Surface Interaction Models). 3 . FACT. ANSYS Release 8.1 . You typically use TAUMAX when the contact pressure becomes very large (such as in bulk metal forming processes). ANSYS assumes infinite frictional resistance regardless of specified value of µ.2. ANSYS provides one extension of classical Coulomb friction: TAUMAX is maximum contact friction with units of stress. even with zero normal pressure (see Figure 11.3.

Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis µ = coefficient of friction. MU = dynamic coefficient of friction input using the MP command. FACT = ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. It defaults to the minimum value of 1.0 DC = decay coefficient. It defaults to 0.0 and it has units of time/length. Therefore, time has some meaning in a static analysis. Vrel = slip rate calculated by ANSYS. Figure 11.11: “Friction Decay” shows the exponential decay curve where the static coefficient of friction is given by:

µs

= FACT × MU

Figure 11.11 Friction Decay

You can determine the decay coefficient if you know the static and dynamic coefficients of friction and at least one data point (µ1 ; Vrel1). The equation for friction decay can be rearranged to give:

DC = −

**µ1 − MU × n Vrel1 (FACT − 1) × MU
**

1

If you do not specify a decay coefficient and FACT is greater than 1.0, the coefficient of friction will change suddenly from the static to the dynamic value as soon as contact reaches the sliding state. This behavior is not recommended because the discontinuity may lead to convergence difficulties.

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Chapter 11: Contact

**11.4.8.6. Selecting Location of Contact Detection
**

11.4.8.6.1. Background

Contact detection points are located at the integration points of the contact elements which are interior to the element surface. The contact element is constrained against penetration into the target surface at its integration points. However, the target surface can, in principle, penetrate through into the contact surface, see Figure 11.12: “Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point”.

Figure 11.12 Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point

ANSYS surface-to-surface contact elements use Gauss integration points as a default, which generally provide more accurate results than the nodal detection scheme, which uses the nodes themselves as the integration points. The node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 always uses the nodal detection scheme.

**11.4.8.6.2. Using KEYOPT(4) and TOLS
**

The nodal detection algorithms require the smoothing of the contact surface (KEYOPT(4) = 1) or the smoothing of the target surface (KEYOPT(4) = 2), which is quite time consuming. You should use this option only to deal with corner, point-surface, or edge-surface contact (see Figure 11.13: “Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point”). KEYOPT(4) = 1 specifies that the contact normal be perpendicular to the contact surface. KEYOPT(4) = 2 specifies that the contact normal be perpendicular to the target surface. Use this option (KEYOPT(4) = 2) when the target surface is smoother than the contact surface.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis

Figure 11.13 Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point

Be aware, however, that using nodes as the contact detection points can lead to other convergence difficulties, such as "node slippage," where the node slips off the edge of the target surface, see Figure 11.14: “Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2”. In order to prevent node slippage, you can use real constant TOLS to extend the target surface when the default setting still cannot avoid the problem. For most point-to-surface contact problems, we recommend using CONTA175; see Section 11.6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis later in this chapter.

Figure 11.14 Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2

Smoothing is required for nodal detection algroithms, and it is performed by averaging surface normals connected to the node. As a result, the variation of the surface normal is continuous over the surface, which leads to a better calculation of friction behavior and a better convergence.

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Chapter 11: Contact Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally extend the edge of the target surface when you define the contact detection at the nodal point (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2). TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes are likely to lie on the edge of targets (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a nodeto-node contact pattern). In these situations, the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off the target surface and go completely out of contact, resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. Units for TOLS are percent (1.0 implies a 1.0% increase in the target edge length). A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring. The default value is 10 for small deflection and 2 for large deflection (NLGEOM, ON). Note — The definition of KEYOPT(4) in node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 is different. KEYOPT(4) = 1 for surface-to-surface contact is equivalent to KEYOPT(4) = 1 for node-to-surface contact. However, KEYOPT(4) = 2 for surface-to-surface contact is equivalent to KEYOPT(4) = 0 for node-to surface contact. See Section 11.6.1.1.2: KEYOPT(4).

**11.4.8.7. Adjusting Initial Contact Conditions
**

11.4.8.7.1. Background

Rigid body motion is usually not a problem in dynamic analyses. However, in static analyses, rigid body motion occurs when a body is not sufficiently restrained. "Zero or negative pivot" warning messages and impractical, excessively large displacements indicate unconstrained motion in a static analysis. In simulations where rigid body motions are constrained only by the presence of contact, you must ensure that the contact pairs are in contact in the initial geometry. In other words, you want to build your model so that the contact pairs are "just touching." However, you can encounter various problems in doing so: • • • Rigid body profiles are often complicated, making it difficult to determine where the first point of contact might occur. Small gaps between element meshes on both sides of the element pair can be introduced by numerical round-off, even if the solid model is built in an initially-contacting state. Small gaps can exist between the integration points of the contact elements and target surface elements.

For the same reasons, too much initial penetration between target and contact surfaces can occur. In such cases, the contact elements may overestimate the contact forces, resulting in nonconvergence or in breaking-away of the components in contact. The definition of initial contact is perhaps the most important aspect of building a contact analysis model. Therefore, you should always issue the CNCHECK command before starting the solution to verify the initial contact status. You may find that you need to adjust the initial contact conditions. ANSYS offers several ways to adjust the initial contact conditions of a contact pair.

**11.4.8.7.2. Using PMIN, PMAX, CNOF, ICONT, KEYOPT(5), and KEYOPT(9)
**

The following techniques can be performed independently or in combinations of one or more at the beginning of the analysis. They are intended to eliminate small gaps or penetrations caused by numerical round-off due to mesh generation. They are not intended to correct gross errors in either the mesh or in the geometric data. 1. Use real constant CNOF to specify a contact surface offset. Specify a positive value to offset the entire contact surface towards the target surface. Use a negative value to offset the contact surface away from the target surface.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Note — If user-defined values are input for both CNOF and PINB, you must ensure that PINB is greater than CNOF. Otherwise, CNOF will be ignored. However, if a user-defined CNOF is input and the PINB value is left at its default value, the PINB value will be adjusted so that it is larger than the CNOF value, as described in Using PINB. ANSYS can automatically provide the CNOF value to either just close the gap or reduce initial penetration. Set KEYOPT(5) as follows: 1: Closes the gap 2: Reduces initial penetration 3: Either closes the gap or reduces initial penetration 2. Use the real constant ICONT to specify a small initial contact closure. This is the depth of an "adjustment band" around the target surface. A positive value for ICONT indicates a scaling factor relative to the depth of the underlying elements. A negative value indicates an absolute contact closure value. The value of ICONT defaults to zero if KEYOPT(5) = 0, 1, 2, or 3. (The ICONT default is different when KEYOPT(12) = 6 for bonded-initial contact; see Section 11.4.8.11: Selecting Surface Interaction Models for more information). If KEYOPT(5) = 4, ANSYS provides a small (but meaningful) value for ICONT according to the geometric dimensions, and prints a warning message stating what value was assigned. Any contact detection points that fall within this adjustment band are internally shifted to be on the target surface (see Figure 11.15: “Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT”(a)). Only a very small correction is suggested; otherwise, severe discontinuity may occur (see Figure (b)). The difference between CNOF and ICONT is that the former shifts the entire contact surface with the distance value CNOF, the latter moves all initially open contact points which are inside of adjustment band ICONT onto the target surface.

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Chapter 11: Contact

**Figure 11.15 Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT
**

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Use real constants PMIN and PMAX to specify an initial allowable penetration range. When either PMAX or PMIN is specified, ANSYS brings the target surface into a state of initial contact at the beginning of the analysis (see Figure 11.16: “Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN, PMAX)”). If the initial penetration is larger than PMAX, ANSYS adjusts the target surface to reduce penetration. If the initial penetration is smaller than PMIN (and within the pinball region), ANSYS adjusts the target surface to ensure initial contact. Initial adjustment for contact status is performed only in translational modes. Such adjustment of initial contact status will be performed for a rigid target surface that has either prescribed loads or displacements. Similarly, a target surface that has no boundary conditions specified may also be adjusted for initial contact. When all the target surface nodes have a prescribed value of zero, the initial adjustment using PMAX and PMIN will not be performed. Note that ANSYS treats applicable degrees of freedom for target surface nodes independently. For example, if you specify the UX degree of freedom to be "zero," then no initial adjustment is possible along the X direction. However, the PMAX and PMIN options will still be activated in the Y and Z directions.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis The initial status adjustment is an iterative process. ANSYS uses a maximum of 20 iterations. If the target surface cannot be brought into an acceptable penetration range (i.e., in the range of PMIN to PMAX), the analysis proceeds with the original geometry. ANSYS issues a warning message in such circumstances, and you may need to manually adjust your initial geometry. Figure 11.17: “A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail” illustrates a problem in which initial contact adjustment iteration will fail. The UY degree of freedom for the target has been restrained. Therefore, the only possible adjustment for initial contact is in the X direction. However, in this problem, any movement of the rigid target surface in the X direction will not establish initial contact. For flexible-to-flexible contact, this technique not only moves the entire target surface but also moves the whole deformable body which attaches to the target surface. Make sure there is no other contact surface or target surface connecting with the deformable body.

Figure 11.16 Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN, PMAX)

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Chapter 11: Contact

Figure 11.17 A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail

4.

Set KEYOPT(9) to adjust initial penetration or gap; see Figure 11.18: “Ignoring Initial Penetration, KEYOPT(9) = 1”. True initial penetration includes two parts: • • Penetration or gap due to geometry Penetration or gap due to user-defined contact surface offset (CNOF).

See Figure 11.19: “Components of True Penetration”. KEYOPT(9) provides the following capabilities: • • To include initial penetration from both geometry and contact surface offset, set KEYOPT(9) = 0. This is the default. To ignore initial penetration from both effects, set KEYOPT(9) = 1. When KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5, this setting for KEYOPT(9) will also ignore the initial force in open-gap springs, thus creating an initially "perfect" contacting surface having no initial forces acting across the contact interface. To include the defined contact surface offset (CNOF) but ignore the initial penetration due to geometry, set KEYOPT(9) = 3. When KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5, this setting for KEYOPT(9) will also ignore the initial force in open-gap springs, thus creating an initially "perfect" contacting surface having no initial forces acting across the contact interface.

•

For problems such as an interference fit, over-penetration is expected. These problems often have convergence difficulties if the initial penetration is step-applied in the first load step. You may overcome convergence difficulties by ramping the initial penetration over the first load step, see Figure 11.20: “Ramping Initial Interference”. The following KEYOPT(9) settings provide ramped capabilities: • • To ramp the total initial penetration (CNOF + the offset due to geometry), set KEYOPT(9) = 2. To ramp the defined contact surface penetration, but ignore the penetration due to geometry, set KEYOPT(9) = 4.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis For both of the above KEYOPT(9) settings, you should also set KBC,0 and not specify any external loads in the first load step. Also, be sure that the pinball region is big enough to capture the initial interference. You can use the above techniques in conjunction with each other. For example, you may wish to set a very precise initial penetration or gap but the initial coordinates of the finite element nodes may not be able to provide sufficient precision. To accomplish this, you could: 1. 2. 3. Use ICONT to move the initial open contact points just onto the target surface. Use CNOF to specify a penetration (positive value) or gap (negative value). Use KEYOPT(9) = 3 to resolve the initial penetration in the first substep (or KEYOPT(9) = 4 to gradually resolve the initial penetration).

Figure 11.18 Ignoring Initial Penetration, KEYOPT(9) = 1

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1 . 001972 . © SAS IP. . Inc.19 Components of True Penetration 11–36 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. ANSYS Release 8.

or when the contact/target elements have been killed. This problem can be alleviated by issuing the CNCHECK. which physically moves contact nodes towards the target surface under the following circumstances: Structural Analysis Guide . If no contact is detected for a specific target surface. 001972 .4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11.ADJUST command. See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on these real constants. © SAS IP. Inc. This information is helpful for determining the maximum penetration or minimum gap for each target surface.4. This occurs when the target surface is far from contact (i.e.. However the initial contact adjustment is kept during the entire analysis as a rigid zone.20 Ramping Initial Interference ANSYS provides a printout (in the output window or file or via the CNCHECK) of the model's initial contact state for each target surface at the beginning of the analysis.1 . 11–37 . ANSYS Release 8.8. outside of the pinball region). ANSYS issues a warning. Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface The initial contact status can be adjusted to close the gap by defining real constant ICONT or by ignoring the penetration (setting KEYOPT(9) = 1).8. 11. The initial contact adjustment can cause a certain amount of residual force if a large rotation appears at the contact surface.Section 11.

. the coordinates of the nodes that have been moved are modified as shown in Figure 11. © SAS IP.21: “Effect of Moving Contact Nodes”. Figure 11. Issuing the SAVE command before issuing the CNCHECK.ADJUST command is recommended in order to resume the . ANSYS Release 8. This distance 11–38 Structural Analysis Guide .8.21 Effect of Moving Contact Nodes 11. do not define KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2. You can change other contact related settings in PREP7 (for example.DB file with the original contact configuration.4. Initially penetrated nodes with KEYOPT(9) = 1. For those contact pairs whose contact nodes you do not wish to physically move towards target surface. Initially open contact nodes inside the ICONT zone.1 .1. 001972 . Inc. Determining Contact Status and the Pinball Region 11.8.9. After issuing the CNCHECK. or when using CONTA175. ANSYS monitors each contact element and assigns a status: • • • • STAT = 0 Open far-field contact STAT = 1 Open near-field contact STAT = 2 Sliding contact STAT = 3 Sticking contact A contact element is considered to be in near-field contact when its integration points (Gauss points or nodal points) are within a code-calculated (or user-defined) distance to the corresponding target surface.9.4.ADJUST command. set KEYOPT(4) = 0 to use the Gauss detection option) and save the db file. Background The position and motion of a contact element relative to its associated target surface determines the contact element status.Chapter 11: Contact • • • Only when using the nodal detection option (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2).

Figure 11. the default pinball region is half that of the large-deflection case. (For the no-separation (KEYOPT(12) = 4) and bonded-always (KEYOPT(12) = 5 options.) If you include no large-deflection effects (NLGEOM. the default setting should be appropriate for most contact problems. 11. ANSYS may erroneously assume contact between a contact and target surface that are in very close geometrical position as shown below. See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on this real constant.) Note — If you input a value for real constant CNOF (contact surface offset) and the default PINB value (as described above) is less than the absolute value of CNOF.10.8.4. Using PINB Use real constant PINB to specify a scaling factor (positive value for PINB when using command input) or absolute value (negative value for PINB when using command input) for the pinball region.4.1 . Avoiding Spurious Contact in Self Contact Problems In some cases of self contact. By default. Setting a proper pinball region is useful to overcome spurious contact definitions if the target surface has several convex regions.1. The computational cost of searching for contact depends on the size of the pinball region. the default for PINB will be set to the absolute value of (1.11: Selecting Surface Interaction Models for more information.9. Inc. (See the discussion of element depth in Section 11. ANSYS defines the pinball region as a circle for 2-D or a sphere for 3-D of radius 4*depth (if rigid-to-flexible contact) or 2*depth (if flexibleto-flexible contact) of the underlying element.ON).OFF). 11. The most complex calculations occur once the elements are in actual contact. The near-field calculations (for contact elements that are nearly or actually in contact) are slower and more complex.4.1: Positive and Negative Real Constant Values. The pinball region is a circle (in 2-D) or a sphere (in 3-D) centered about the Gauss point. 0 3 ¦98 7 #6 5¥ 0 ©©¡ ) ¡ 31 4¦£¤¦© 3 ¡ #$ 220 ¥ © §¥ ¡ 0 ) ) ' % #¥ § ¨¤(&£¤¡ $"!©¡ 11–39 § ¡ £ ¥ § £ ¤©¨¥¦¤¡¢ § ¡ £ ¥ ) 9$¤"CAB5§ @ . © SAS IP. See Section 11. the PINB default is different than described here. Far-field contact element calculations are simple and add little computational demands. ANSYS Release 8. You can specify PINB to have any value.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis is referred to as the pinball region.2.4.22 Auto Spurious Prevention Structural Analysis Guide .8. and assuming that large deflection effects apply (NLGEOM. 001972 . However.Section 11.8.1*CNOF).8.

in which the target and contact surfaces are bonded in all directions (once contact is established) for the remainder of the analysis. ANSYS issues such messages only once per load step. The default FKOP value is 1. 001972 . in which the target and contact surfaces are tied (although sliding is permitted) for the remainder of the analysis once contact is established. . This case corresponds to an infinite friction coefficient and ignores the material property MU.11. If FKOP is a scaling factor (positive value for command input). you may need to set a value for the FKOP real constant. It does not notify you of additional cases of spurious contact that were ignored during the load step. © SAS IP. Inc. define a larger value for FKOP. • • For modeling either no-separation or bonded contact. Background The surface-to-surface contact elements support normal unilateral contact models as well as other mechanical surface interaction models. KEYOPT(12) = 5 models bonded contact. If ANSYS encounters an abrupt change in contact that it classifies as spurious contact. that is.8. you'll see the following message: Contact element x status changed abruptly with target element y. the value is applied as an absolute contact opening stiffness. • • • • • KEYOPT(12) = 0 models standard unilateral contact.Chapter 11: Contact ANSYS will alert you when it first detects spurious contact in each load step. To reduce separation.8. ANSYS Release 8. in some cases separation is expected while connection between the contacting surfaces is required to prevent rigid body 11–40 Structural Analysis Guide .11. in which contact detection points that are either initially inside the pinball region or that once involve contact always attach to the target surface along the normal and tangent directions to the contact surface (fully bonded). the true contact opening stiffness equals FKOP times the contact stiffness applied when contact closes. No separation and bonded contact generate a "pull-back" force when contact opening occurs. in which the contact detection points that are initially in a closed state will remain attached to the target surface and the contact detection points that are initially in an open state will remain open throughout the analysis. This provides a stiffness factor applied when contact opens.11. KEYOPT(12) = 4 models no separation contact. KEYOPT(12) = 6 models bonded contact. We assume it (may be more elements) is spurious contact.4. you'll see the following error message: Contact element x has too much penetration related to target element y.4. 11. KEYOPT(12) = 2 models no separation contact. If ANSYS encounters such contact on the first load step. Selecting Surface Interaction Models 11. We assume it (may be more elements) is spurious contact. KEYOPT(12) = 3 models "bonded" contact.2. and that force may not completely prevent separation.4.8. 11. Using KEYOPT(12) and FKOP Use KEYOPT(12) to model different contact surface behaviors.1. Also. KEYOPT(12) = 1 models perfectly rough frictional contact where there is no sliding. in which contact detection points that are either initially inside the pinball region or that once involve contact always attach to the target surface along the normal direction to the contact surface (sliding is permitted).1 . normal pressure equals zero if separation occurs. If FKOP is an absolute value (negative value for command input).

a relatively small PINB value (pinball region) may be used to prevent any false contact. These elastic bodies can be modeled using superelements. Note that for this case.ON). Inc. Remember that any contact or target nodes must be either all master nodes of the superelements or all slave nodes of the superelements.2: Using PINB for more information. 11. Because the superelement consists only of a group of retained nodal degrees of freedom. the contact and target surface must be defined on the surface of the original elements before they are assembled into a superelement. In such instances. Information taken from the superelement includes nodal connection and assembly stiffness.4. a relatively large ICONT value (initial contact closure) may be used to capture the contact.05 (5% of the contact depth) when KEYOPT(5) = 0 or 4. ANSYS Release 8. In 3-D contact analysis.Section 11.4. When the contact pair is built in original elements used to generate superelements. or plane strain).5 (50% of the contact depth) for large deformation analysis (NLGEOM.OFF) and 0. KEYOPT(3) in elements CONTA173 and CONTA174 is ignored. 11–41 . Modeling Contact with Superelements 11.12.8. For these KEYOPT(12) settings. you can specify a small value for FKOP to maintain the connection between the contact surfaces (this is a "weak spring" effect).4.8. For this KEYOPT(12) setting.) For the bonded-initial option (KEYOPT(12) = 6). the default for PINB is 0. See Section 11. which greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom involved in the contact iteration.12. Therefore. © SAS IP.9.8. In elements CONTA171 and CONTA172. use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 2) Plane stress with thickness input use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 3).4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis motion. Using KEYOPT(3) Use KEYOPT(3) to provide information for the 2-D analysis with superelements.1. the options are as follows: • • • • No superelement used (KEYOPT(3) = 0) Axisymmetric.12. Structural Analysis Guide . (The default PINB value may differ from what is described here if CNOF is input. 001972 . See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on these real constants.2.1 .25 (25% of the contact depth) for small deformation analysis (NLGEOM. the default for ICONT is 0.4. One restriction is that the material property set used for the contact elements must be the same as the one used for the original elements before they were assembled into superelements. For the no-separation option (KEYOPT(12) = 4) and the bonded-always option (KEYOPT(12) = 5).8. ANSYS will automatically detect whether the underlying element is a superelement. the contact status will not change from its initial status. Background The surface-to-surface contact elements can model a rigid body (or one linear elastic body) contacting another linear elastic body undergoing small motions. use real constant R2 to specify the thickness. plane stress. use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 1) Plane strain or plane stress with unit thickness. it has no surface geometry on which ANSYS can define a contact and target surface. 11. but no material property or stress states (whether axisymmetric.

8. When used with SHELL181. 11. KEYOPT(7) = 3: Predict a minimal time increment for the next substep. The elements can be removed for part of an analysis and then reactivated 11–42 Structural Analysis Guide . if you are going to account for thickness. the contact distance is calculated from either the top or the bottom surface as specified previously in Section 11. See Section 11.4.8. Background You can account for the thickness of shells (2-D and 3-D) and beams (2-D) using KEYOPT(11). . In CONTA175. Inc.14. In this model. KEYOPT(3) = 1 defines the contact traction-based model. remember the offsets which may come from either the contact surface or target surface or from both. Background Time step control is an automatic time stepping feature that predicts when the status of a contact element will change and cuts the current time step back. ANSYS will automatically shift the contact surface to the bottom or top of the shell/beam surface.14. all of the real constant inputs and contact result quantities have the same units as the surface-to-surface contact elements. When building your model geometry.8. and beams and shells are discretized at their mid-surface in which penetration distance is calculated from the mid-surface.2. This setting is appropriate for most analyses when automatic time stepping is activated and a small time step size is allowed. • • • • KEYOPT(7) = 0: No control. 11. KEYOPT(11) = 0 for SHELL91). certain real constants and contact result quantities can have different units (a factor of AREA (Length2) difference).6.14. and KEYOPT(7) = 3 provides the most control. For flexible-to-flexible contact. ANSYS Release 8.2. where KEYOPT(7) = 0 provides no control (the default). Note — Only use KEYOPT(11) = 1 to account for thickness when you have shell or beam elements with nodes located at the middle surface (for example. 11.13. By default.4.1. Using the Birth and Death Option The surface-to-surface contact and target elements allow birth and death and also follow the birth and death status of their underlying elements.Chapter 11: Contact Note — KEYOPT(3) in node-to surface contact element CONTA175 has a different meaning. it is defined from the top or bottom of the shell/beam. ANSYS does not account for the element thickness.13.8.13. 11. The time step size is unaffected by the prediction. or if the contact status changes dramatically.4. When you specify a contact offset (CNOF) along with setting KEYOPT(11) = 1. Using KEYOPT(11) When you set KEYOPT(11) = 1 to account for beam or shell thickness. KEYOPT(7) = 1: Time step size is bisected if too much penetration occurs during an iteration.1: KEYOPT(3).8.4.2: Steps in a Contact Analysis. 001972 . In this case. Using Time Step Control 11. 11.1.8.1 .4.8. not the mid-surface.4.4.4. For rigid-to-flexible contact. ANSYS will automatically shift both the contact and target surfaces which are attached to shell/beam elements. © SAS IP. KEYOPT(7) = 2: Predict a reasonable increment for the next substep.1.1. Using KEYOPT(7) Use KEYOPT(7) to take one of four actions to control time stepping. KEYOPT(3) = 0 (default) defines the contact force model. changes in thickness during deformation are also taken into account.15. Accounting for Thickness Effect 11.

and three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom in 3-D. Neither constraint equations nor node coupling have been used to constrain such nodes. etc. You can apply boundary conditions (displacement. ANSYS will automatically define an internal node and an internal constraint equation. If all of the following conditions are met. To account for a rigid body's mass. Inc. If you want to apply any loads or constraints on the rigid target surface. The motion of the target surface is adjusted by the equilibrium condition. it should not be the node on the contact element. initial velocity).4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis for a later stage. The target surface is subjected to rotations. However. The degrees of freedom of the pilot node represent the motion of the entire rigid surface. you can have rigid body motions only. The rotational DOF of the pilot node is connected to the translational DOF of the internal node by the internal constraint equation. concentrated loads. you must use the pilot node to do so. 11–43 . The location of the pilot node becomes important only when rotations or moments are to be applied. Only the pilot node can connect to other elements.4. You cannot use constraint equations (CE) or node coupling (CP) to control the degree of freedom of the target surface when a pilot node has been defined.g.9.. 11. ANSYS Release 8. This feature is useful for modeling complex metal forming processes where multiple rigid target surfaces need to interact with the contact surface at different stages of the analysis.Section 11. For each pilot node. Target surface nodes are not connected to other elements. Structural Analysis Guide .1 . You must use a pilot node in any of the following situations to control the boundary conditions (and motion) of the entire target surface: • • • • The target surface is subjected to applied forces. and the motion of the entire surface is then defined by the imposed displacements on the pilot node (or the different nodes of the target surface if no pilot node was defined). then ANSYS treats the target nodes along the respective degree of freedom as fixed: • • • There are no explicit boundary conditions or prescribed forces for target surface nodes. including two translational and one rotational degree of freedom in 2-D. Controlling the Motion of the Rigid Target Surface (Rigid-to-Flexible Contact) Rigid target surfaces are defined in their original configuration. structural mass element MASS21). ANSYS ignores all boundary conditions on all nodes other than the pilot node. By default. define a mass element (MASS21) on the pilot node. rotations. to the pilot node. you must define a pilot node and apply the loads to that pilot node. © SAS IP. Springback modeling often requires removing the rigid tools at the end of the forming processes. Keep in mind the following restrictions on the target surface when using a pilot node: • • • • Each target surface can have only one pilot node. The target surface is connected to other elements (e. If you do not use a pilot node. ANSYS checks the boundary conditions for each target surface. 001972 . KEYOPT(2) = 0 for the target element. Note — The pilot node can be one of the nodes on the target elements or a node at any arbitrary location. If you need to attach the rigid surface to another element. This option cannot be used with "no separation" or bonded contact.

4. In this case. Which feature is active depends on the contact status: Closed Contact: Thermal contact conduction transfers heat between two contacting surfaces. free surface radiation. 11–44 Structural Analysis Guide .10. Heat generation due to frictional dissipation. 11. ANSYS releases the constraint conditions that were set internally. set KEYOPT(1) = 1. A free thermal surface can be a contact surface with no associated target (that is.10. When this KEYOPT is set. To activate both the structural and thermal DOFs. • • • • • Thermal contact conduction between two contacting surfaces. Near-Field Contact: Both heat convection and radiation between the contact and target surfaces are taken into account. there is no convective and radiative heat transfer between the contact and target surfaces. The constraint conditions stored in the results file (Jobname. 11.Chapter 11: Contact At the end of each load step. © SAS IP. the contact pair lacks target elements). The external flux value contributes to the contact surface. The following thermal contact features are supported.4. Free Thermal Surface If you wish to model free surface convection. The external flux value only contributes to both contact and target surfaces. Thermal Contact Behavior vs.DB) may be updated due to this change.2. you can define a “free” thermal surface.1. You can also set KEYOPT(3) = 1 of the target element type definition to define a free thermal surface. .1 .RST) and the database file (Jobname. You should carefully verify whether the current constraint conditions are expected before restarting an analysis or resolving the problem in interactive mode. both free surface radiation and convection are considered as long as open contact is detected. Heat convection from a “free surface” to the environment or between two open surfaces separated by small gap (“near field” convection). in combination with thermal-structural coupled field solid elements or thermal elements. If you wish. Contact Status Each contact pair can cover one or more thermal contact features. ANSYS ignores heat generation due to friction. Note — When KEYOPT(1) is set to 2. 11. Modeling Thermal Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements and the node-to-surface contact element. ANSYS Release 8. Frictional Sliding: Frictional dissipated energy generates the heat to both the contact and target surfaces. Inc.10. Heat radiation from a “free surface” to the environment or between two open surfaces separated by a small gap (“near field” radiation). you can control the constraint conditions of target nodes by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1 in the target element definition.4. set KEYOPT(1) = 2. 001972 . Heat flux input. to model heat transfer that occurs in the contact surface. or a surface with a supplied heat flux value. To activate the thermal DOF only. Free-Surface Contact: Heat convection and radiation between the contact surface and the environment are taken into account.

a temperature for both the contact and target surfaces is required. use KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5 to define either the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” options (see Selecting Surface Interaction Models). If contact occurs. the resulting temperature discontinuity tends to vanish and perfect thermal contact is approached.4. © ¡ ¨© ¤ 9 8¤§ (75£¤&3 )64 ¡ © ¨¡© ¤ © § ¥£ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ © § £ ) § '© ¤ )(¨21¦¤§© 0(¨©¡ §¦&$%¡¦¤#"¤§¨¨ £ © £ § ! © © § ¥£ ¡ 11–45 . The temperature at the intersection between the target surface and the normal from the contact detection point represents the target temperature. TCC has units of heat/(time x area x temp). To model contact conduction between two surfaces where a small gap exists.3. TCC: is the thermal contact conductance coefficient. Figure 11. a small value of TCC yields a measure amount of imperfect contact and a temperature discontinuity across the interface. For large values of TCC. near field convection. The temperature on the pilot node represents the entire rigid target surface temperature if the pilot node exists. or units of HEAT/(TIME * TEMPERATURE) for the traction-based model.4.1 . pressure. you need to specify the thermal contact conductance coefficient TCC through a real constant table. ANSYS Release 8.23 Target Temperature 11.Section 11. When not in contact. The TCC value is input through a real constant. it is assumed that no heat is transferred across the interface. © SAS IP. which can be made a function of temperature [(Tc + Tt)/2]. time. however. Inc. Modeling Conduction To take into account the conductive heat transfer between contact and target surfaces.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11.10.10.4. having units of HEAT/(TIME * TEMPERATURE * AREA) for force-based node-to-surface contact. Temperature on Target Surface For interface heat conduction. Using TCC The conductive heat transfer between two contacting surfaces is defined by q = TCC X (Tt -Tc) where: q: is the heat flux per area. or near field radiation.10.4. 11. Structural Analysis Guide . Tt and Tc: are the temperatures of the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. 001972 . and location by using the %TABLE% option.1.4.

ANSYS Release 8. specified through the material property definition.QUASI) in the contact analysis.6. Stefan-Boltzmann constant SBCT through a real constant. you need to specify one of the following: • • • Emissivity value EMIS.QUASI EQSLV. you must specify the heat convection coefficient CONV using the SFE command. you must specify bulk temperature through the SFE command. specified through a real constant.4. You can access this command through the following GUI paths: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props • • Radiation view factor RDVF.6.10.1. CONV can be a constant value (only uniform is allowed) or a function of temperature. and location as specified through tabular input. It is only used for free radiation and input on the SFE command with KVAL = 2 and CONV as a table parameter (this is the same as the bulk temperature in free surface convection modeling). . which can be a function of time and temperature. you must specify a temperature offset using the TOFFST command. The only real constant used is TCC.5.TRANS THOPT.10. 001972 . you must use the following contact element key options: KEYOPT(1) = 2 .10. (See Nonlinear Options in the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide for more information on this solver option. 11–46 Structural Analysis Guide .2. Environment (ambient) temperature. Background To model radiative heat transfer. This case requires the internal MPC approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2) and contact nodal detections (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2) or CONTA175. For free surface convection. time.10. Using the Quasi Solver Option You can take advantage of the fast thermal transient solver option (THOPT.4.4. 11. Offset temperature TOFFST.JCG/ICCG The following two cases are supported: • • Thermal conductivity at contact.) To do so.Bonded always or bonded initial The following solver options must also be set: ANTYPE.1 . If you define your data in terms of degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius.4.Chapter 11: Contact 11. Perfect thermal contact which supports dissimilar meshes on both sides of the contacting interface (TCC = infinity).4. You can access this command through the following GUI paths: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On Elements> Uniform Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On Elements> Uniform 11. Inc. Modeling Convection To model convective heat transfer. Modeling Radiation 11.Temperature DOF only KEYOPT(12) = 5 or 6 . © SAS IP.

10. V: The sliding rate.10. heat transfer through radiation can occur. ANSYS Release 8. Other freesurface conditions recognize user-specified RDVF.4. and if this is not defined the radiation effect is excluded.1 . when an intersection from a contact detection point to the target surface (in the direction of normal to the contact point) is detected. The amount of frictional dissipation on contact and target surfaces is defined by Structural Analysis Guide .10.4. RDVF: The radiation view factor input as a real constant (defaults to 1).4.0 and a user-assigned value is ignored. Background In order to model heat generation due to frictional dissipated energy.1. RDVF is set to 1.(Tc + TOFFST)4] Where TOFFST: The temperature offset from absolute zero to zero (defined through the TOFFST command. SBCT: The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (input as a real constant). and location by using the %TABLE% option. Using SBCT and RDVF When contact is open. For “near field” radiation. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value.) EMIS: The surface emissivity (input as material property). Using FHTG and FWGT In the coupled thermal-structural contact modeling. FHTG: The fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat. and the gap distance is smaller than the pinball radius. By defining RDVF as a function of gap.2. There is no default for SBCT. you should perform a coupled transient thermal-structural analysis. Inc. This value defaults to 1 and can be input as a real constant. RDVF can be defined as a function of temperature. FWGT is the weight factor for the distribution of heat between contact and target surfaces.STRUC. If you wish you can turn off transient effects on structural DOFs by using TIMINT. For far field radiation.10. It is only used for near field radiation. you must enter a very small value (for example.6.7. Te becomes the “ambient” temperature defined by “bulk temperature” input from the SFE command (using KVAL = 2 and CONV as the table).4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. Te is the target temperature at the intersection. The radiation modeling here assumes that the radiative heat transfer occurs in the direction of the normal between two surfaces with a small gap. 11.Section 11. Two real constants are required: • • FHTG is the frictional dissipated energy converted into heat. Modeling Heat Generation Due to Friction 11. gap distance.4. For “free surface” radiation.2. Use the Radiosity Solver method for more generalized radiation problems (see the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide for more information). you must include transient effects on the thermal DOF. 1E-8). 11. For an input of true 0. you can account for geometry effects. © SAS IP. If you enter 0. However.7. time.OFF.7. 11–47 . The equation is defined by q = RDVF x EMIS x SBCT [(Te + TOFFST)4 . 001972 . the rate of frictional dissipation is given by q = FHTG x τ x V Where τ: The equivalent frictional stress.

1. Background To take into account the surface interaction for electric contact. KEYOPT(1) provides degree of freedom options for modeling electric contact. set KEYOPT(1) = 5 to activate the structural and piezoelectric DOFs.4. By default. For pure thermal/electric contact. this parameter is ECC. set KEYOPT(1) = 4 to activate the thermal and electric current DOFs.11. You can also use surface-to-surface contact elements.5. The electric contact features are: • • • Electric conduction between two contacting surfaces. For piezoelectric contact. you need to specify the electric contact conductance per unit area if you are using the electric current degree of freedom. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. if KEYOPT(3) of the target element is set to 1. 11–48 Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Electric charge across the contacting interface. You specify ECC through a real constant table.4.Chapter 11: Contact qc = FWGT x FHTG x τ x V and qT = (1 . you can define two different contact pairs: one models convection and the other models heat flux.10.8. 11. or the electric contact capacitance per unit area if you are using the piezoelectric or electrostatic degrees of freedom.4. and time.1. For electrostatic contact. 11. . in combination with thermal-electric elements and solid coupled field elements to model electric current conduction. FWGT = 0. the external flux is applied on contact and will contribute to target elements. For combined structural/thermal/electric contact. contact interaction can occur between two surfaces separated by a narrow gap. Heat flux cannot be applied on target elements. Only uniform flux can be applied. Modeling Electric Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements or the node-to-surface contact element. On a given contact element either CONV or HFLUX (but not both) may be specified. you must enter a very small value (for example.4. 1E-8). If the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” option is set. Inc.11. thermal. set KEYOPT(1) = 3 to activate the structural. For an input of true 0. and electric current DOFs. However. in combination with piezoelectric and electrostatic elements.FWGT) x FHTG x τ x V Where qc is the contact side and qT is the target side. for near field contact. Heat generation due to electric dissipation. If you enter 0. Modeling External Heat Flux You can apply heat flux on the contact elements through the SFE command.1 .1. 11. average temperature on contact detection point (temperature as a table). For a free thermal surface. ANSYS Release 8. For either case. However. Modeling Surface Interaction 11.11. the external flux is only applied on the contact side. You can use a tabular input to define ECC as a function of contact pressure (pressure as a table). 001972 . set KEYOPT(1) = 6 to activate the electrostatic DOF. and FWGT is the weight factor for the distribution of heat between the contact and target surfaces (input as a real constant). to model electric charge across a contacting interface.

or 6). This value defaults to 1 and can be input as a real constant.FWGT) x q Where qc is the contact side and qT is the target side. To model surface interaction between two surfaces where a small gap exists.Vc) where: J = current density for the electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4). FWGT = 0. 1E-8). FWGT is the same real constant used for frictional heat generation.Section 11. By default. 001972 .5. For the current conduction option. by using the %TABLE% option. ECC = electric contact conductance for the electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4). the electric contact capacitance ECC has units of capacitance per unit area. ANSYS Release 8. 1E-8). or the electric contact capacitance per unit area for (KEYOPT(1) = 5.1. The amount of electric heat dissipation on contact and target surfaces is defined by qc = FWGT x q and qT = (1 .1 . For an input of true 0. Modeling Heat Generation Due to Electric Current For electric current field analyses (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4). If you enter 0. pressure. or 6). Structural Analysis Guide . Vt and Vc: The voltages at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. you must enter a very small value (for example. Note — For force-based node-to-surface contact.11. For an input of true 0. J: The current density. 11. © SAS IP. The ECC value is input through a real constant. ECC has units of (electric conductivity)(LENGTH) or the capacitance. you must enter a very small value (for example.2. Vt and Vc = voltages at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. use KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5 to define either the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” options (see Selecting Surface Interaction Models).11.2. If you enter 0.VC) Where FHEG: The fraction of electric dissipated energy converted into heat (Joule heating).4. and time.4. the electric contact conductance ECC has units of electric conductivity/length.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. Inc. 11–49 . which can be a function of temperature [(Tt + Tc)/2]. Using ECC The interaction between two contacting surfaces is defined by J = ECC x (Vt . For the piezoelectric and electrostatic options. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. the heat generation due to electric current is given by q = FHEG x J x (VT . and FWGT is the weight factor for the contact heat dissipation between the contact and target surfaces (input as a real constant). ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. or the electric charge density (KEYOPT(1) = 5.

Mc) where: MFLUX = magnetic flux density Mt . You can model this effect by inputting the gap permeance real constant. MAG. you must set KEYOPT(1) = 7 to select the degree-of-freedom option.12. • For both types of magnetic contact. This typically occurs at the interface between adjoining bodies.3. and time. CONTA173 and CONTA174. where µ is the gap permeability and t is the gap width. For an example input listing showing a 2-D static magnetic contact analysis. and scalar potential formulations (reduced (RSP). • Non-perfect contact to account for the effects of a small air gap between mating components. where the rotor and stator meshes meet. difference (DSP).1 . If the “no-separation contact” or “bonded contact” option is set (KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5). 11–50 Structural Analysis Guide .1. is active. there is a gap permeance effect where an MMF drop occurs. For the 2-D case. AZ). see Section 5. contact interaction can occur between two surfaces separated by a narrow gap. For details on how to set up a contact analysis. 001972 . For information on the use of the AZ degree of freedom. Note — Non-perfect magnetic contact is only available for the 3–D contact elements. For more information on which element types should be used for a particular analysis. In this situation. see Section 2. is active. ANSYS Release 8. AY. Using MCC The magnetic flux across the contacting interface is defined by: MFLUX = MCC x (Mt . pressure. the magnetic potential degree of fredom.3.1. Modeling Magnetic Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements or the node-to-surface contact element to model magnetic flux across two contacted bodies. MCC.6: Doing an Example 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis (Command Method). only the scalar potential degree of freedom. Inc.4. .12. For more information on the use of the MAG DOF. This is typically used to model the air gap in a machine.4. AZ. see Steps in a Contact Analysis. Mc = magnetic potential at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces MCC = contact permeance coefficient (Henries/meters2 in MKS units) The MCC value is input through a real constant. MCC values can be approximated as µ/t. 11. and the edge-based formulation (AZ). The following situations are possible. see Section 2. Note — 3-D magnetic contact is not supported for the MVP formulation (AX. Perfect contact across dissimilar meshes. This option works best if the magnetic flux is normal to the gap interface. by using the %TABLE% option. see the element discussions in the appropriate chapter of the ANSYS Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. for example. © SAS IP.3: Specifying Element Types and Options.5: Building the Model.Chapter 11: Contact 11. which can be a function of temperature [(Tt + Tc)/2]. For the 3-D case. or general (GSP)) are available (see MAGOPT).

6 for bonded contact. 001972 . For more information on applying boundary conditions. 11–51 . You must use the internal MPC approach by setting KEYOPT(2) = 2. 11. Command(s): NSUBST GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps Command(s): DELTIM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step Note — A reliable way to set an accurate time step size is to turn automatic time stepping on.4.Section 11. discontinuity can occur.4.4. Command(s): NROPT. The smooth transfer of contact forces is disrupted if the time step size is too large..13. and KEYOPT(12) = 5.1 .2. ANSYS Release 8. To avoid a slow convergence rate and use an updated stiffness matrix. Please see the ANSYS Commands Reference for further details. Inc. set the Newton-Raphson option to FULL. You must also set KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2 for contact nodal detection. 11. The following options are automatically invoked. The following commands adjust these parameters.FULL. © SAS IP. Command(s): AUTOTS.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11.OFF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Structural Analysis Guide .ON GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step or Time and Substps If the contact status changes during the iteration process. The time step size is specified by a number of substeps or the time step size itself. see the appropriate analysis descriptions in earlier chapters of this guide. The time step size must be small enough to capture the proper contact zone. The options listed below are either typical or recommended for most surface-to-surface contact analyses.14.12. but may override them if needed. Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions to the Deformable Elements You can now apply any necessary boundary conditions as you would for any ANSYS analysis. Modeling Perfect Magnetic Contact Perfect magnetic contact supports dissimilar meshes on both sides of the contacting interface (MCC = infinity). Defining Solution and Load Step Options Convergence behavior for contact problems depends strongly on the particular problem.

. set NLGEOM. 11.OFF) to avoid slow convergence or divergence.4.Chapter 11: Contact Also. ANSYS Release 8. and we recommend turning it off. Always check your results carefully using standard engineering guidelines. gradually increase the contact stiffness value to an appropriate level by redefining it using RMODIF commands over several load steps in a restart. do not use adaptive descent. If such estimated values lead to a convergence failure. set NLGEOM. and small sliding problems. Set the number of equilibrium equations to a number that is appropriate for a reasonable time step size. issue NLHIST to specify the pair-based contact items (such as contact penetration or gap.3. In cases where frictional sliding dominates. small displacements. Command(s): LNSRCH GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Line Search Turn the predictor-corrector option on.15.5: Solve the Analysis in Chapter 2. Be sure to follow the recommendations given earlier in this chapter for estimating contact stiffness. if the contact problem involves large sliding.1 . © SAS IP. If you detect any unexpected gap (or no contact) or overestimated penetration. 11–52 Structural Analysis Guide . “Structural Static Analysis”. If your model is experiencing convergence difficulties due to contact.. abort the analysis and then check your geometric model. Always check the target surface contact status in the beginning of the analysis. OFF. Keep the following points in mind: • • Always check the real constant sets which are related to contact pairs and check the constraint conditions on the target surfaces. Command(s): NEQIT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter Because the iterations tend to become unstable for large increments. contact normal stiffness. Note — For most small strains. depending upon the physics of the problem.nlh. This command defaults to between 15 and 26 iterations. Command(s): PRED GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Predictor Many convergence failures in contact analyses are the result of using too large a value for contact stiffness (real constant FKN). etc. • • See Section 2. In this case. Before starting the solution. reduce the contact stiffness and restart. if overpenetration occurs in your contact analysis. You can issue the CNCHECK command to verify the initial contact status. Solving the Problem You can now solve the analysis the same as you would for any nonlinear analysis. 001972 . The resulting data are written to a file named Jobname. however. set the unsymmetric solver option (NROPT. Any previous "trial runs" could have changed the settings.) to be tracked. use the line search option to stabilize the calculations. you probably need a larger value of FKN. Conversely. use the NLHIST command as a debugging tool to monitor contact information during the solution. This setting will speed up the searching time. except for large rotations or dynamic analyses. Inc. Adaptive descent usually does not provide any help for surface-to-surface contact applications. ON. UNSYM.

Inc.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below.2: Reviewing Results in POST1 in Chapter 8. the general postprocessor.6.5. 11. Verify the constraints carefully before restarting an analysis. Structural Analysis Guide . and the contact information (e.RST (or Jobname. For rigid-to-flexible contact or asymmetric flexible-to-flexible contact.1.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ANSYS Release 8. Points to Remember See Section 2. For contact-related results. Remember that in POST1. etc.. 11. reaction forces.6. contact pressure.). 11. 3-closed and sticking. you can select CONT as a plotting or list item. © SAS IP. the time-history postprocessor. You can review these results in POST1. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname. or in POST26. 0-open and not near contact. strains. See the "Output Data" section of the element descriptions (the ANSYS Elements Reference) for the available output components. the contact element provides the true pressure and friction stress.4. 11–53 .16. However. CONT “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ STAT PENE PRES SFRIC STOT SLIDE GAP FLUX CNOS Contact status. for symmetric flexible-to-flexible contact. Comp and you'll see a list of the options detailed above. stresses. follow the normal restart procedures as discussed in Section 3. only one substep can be read in at a time. and they can only be changed at the point of restart or at the beginning of a new load step. 001972 . 1-open but near contact. 2-closed and sliding. Only the real constants FKN.4. the true pressure and friction stress is the average of the pressures and friction stresses from both sides of the contact elements.RCN for the initial contact configuration calculated by CNCHECK. the following shows the various CONT options for the PLNSOL and PLESOL commands. and FKOP can be changed. be aware that the constraint conditions of target surfaces may have been set internally. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. FTOLN. Reviewing the Results Results from a contact analysis consist mainly of displacements. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”) with the following exceptions: For step 4. you can also review the results from within the Contact Manager (via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar). Choose Contact for Item.16.Section 11.1 . “Structural Static Analysis”.3. While in POST1.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis If you are restarting a contact analysis.16.2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2. Contact penetration Contact pressure Contact friction stress Contact total stress (pressure plus friction) Contact sliding distance Contact gap distance Heat flux at contact surface Total number of contact status changes during substep Note — You can set these options through the Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu menu item.2.POST).RST. However.g. PINB.4. sliding. Reviewing Results in POST1 The steps for reviewing results in POST1 are the same as those for a typical nonlinear analysis (see Section 8.

Use the FACT item to scale 2-D contour size. 11. (Primitives are not supported by contact wizard.4. ANSYS Release 8.24 Contact Manager Toolbar • Contact Wizard . Inc. Command(s): ANTIME GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time If you used CNCHECK. Contact Properties . or via the menu path Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair. the result file may be read improperly. respectively.16.5. solution (SOLU).1. Structural Analysis Guide .3. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. 001972 . Note that the contact-specific information (CONT) plots as follows.3: Reviewing Results in POST26 in Chapter 8. you must explicitly read the results of the first load step from the results file Jobname. The Contact Manager Toolbar provides an intuitive interface for the creation and management of contact pairs.) The wizard also supports surface-based constraint contact pairs. contact friction force. access the Contact Manager via the Contact Manager icon Toolbar.2: The Contact Wizard. To do so.POST to evaluate the initial contact state.RCN by issuing the FILE and SET.5. you may also list contact-specific information by using the CONT label and its arguments with the PRNSOL or PRESOL commands or their related menu items You can also animate contact results over time. the model will plot in gray and the requested item will be contoured as a 2-D surface where the contact elements overlay the model. For 2-D contact analyses. PRES. the model will plot in gray and the requested item will be contoured as an area (trapezoid) along the edge of the model where the contact elements are located. node-to-surface contact analysis (using CONTA175). and STOT are the contact normal force. Allows you to manually define target and contact surfaces. The Contact Manager in the ANSYS Standard To use the GUI method. you can view the contact results items for the initial contact configuration as you would for any other load step. You can access the Contact Manager at the Begin level and in the following processors: preprocessor (PREP7).5.Allows you to specify the properties of the contact pair(s) via real constants and KEYOPTs for the contact elements used. See the ANTIME command for details. SFRIC.Accesses the Contact Wizard GUI described in Section 11. and total contact force. The manager supports surface-to-surface contact analysis. Otherwise. Figure 11. and the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) method of contact . GUI Aids for Contact Analyses 11.Chapter 11: Contact Note — For the contact force-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 0) in CONTA175.FIRST commands before postprocessing. • 11–54 .6. Supports both 2-D and 3-D geometries as well as rigidflexible (with optional pilot node) or flexible-flexible contact. and general postprocessor (POST1). © SAS IP. For 3-D contact analyses. 11. Reviewing Results in POST26 The steps for reviewing results in POST26 are the same as those for a typical nonlinear analysis See Section 8.1 .5. For tabular listings.

8: Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface. elements are listed. (Note that CONTA175 results will not display graphically. target elements. specified in the Contact Results field for selected contact pairs. Structural Analysis Guide .5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses • • • Delete Contact Pairs .Inverts the target surface and the contact surface with each other. elements are displayed. or shows only the contact pairs. 001972 . or both.POST command) that can be subsequently postprocessed from the contact manager. © SAS IP.5. 11. ANSYS Release 8. The Contact Wizard This Contact Wizard will lead you through the process of manually creating contact pairs. and supports both surface-to-surface and node-to-surface configurations. specified in the Contact Results field for selected contact pairs. or lists the contact results. but can be listed with the List Elements/Results icon. The wizard supports rigid-flexible (with optional pilot node) and flexible-flexible contact.Specifies display of contact elements. Several options are available (click and hold down the Check Contact Status button to access these options): – – – Display a detailed listing of status information for each contact pair. You can select contact pairs from this list for displaying or editing purposes. The wizard steps you through setting up the contact analysis. Contact Selection Options . Results are displayed if Model Context is specified as “Result-”. Switch Contact and Target . or displays the contact results. if available (POST1 only).ADJUST command) in order to close a gap or reduce a penetration (see Section 11. Model Context . if available (POST1 only). otherwise.8. This action is limited to the elements specified in the Contact Selection Options field. Plot Elements/Results . The listing is restricted to the elements specified in the Contact Selection Options field.Section 11.Provides contact status information for selected contact pairs. (See CNCHECK for more information. or both as specified in the Contact Selection Options field. 11–55 . Run a partial solution of the initial contact state (CNCHECK. To use the Contact Wizard.Displays the contact pairs in the context of the entire model using a translucent plot.Flips the element normals of the selected contact pair. Results are listed if Model Context is specified as “Result-”.Specifies whether or not to display the normals on the elements when plotting contact pairs Flip Normals . otherwise. If set to “Result-” (POST1 only).Lists the elements of the selected contact pairs.4. List Elements/Results . Inc. The Contact Pair list box displays the defined contact pairs.Displays the elements of selected contact pairs.) Physically move contact nodes to the target surface (CNCHECK.) • • • • • • • Contact Results . controls display/listing of contact pair results. access the Contact Manager Toolbar and click on the Contact Wizard icon.) The Contact Wizard also supports surface-based constraint contact pairs.1 . Below is an example of the screens you will see. This is applicable only to flexible-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact pairs.2. The display can be limited to contact. The bar below the toolbar icons minimizes or maximizes the Contact Pair list box below it.Deletes the contact pairs selected in the contact pair list.Shows the contact result items for subsequent viewing using the Plot Elements/Results and List Elements/Results icons.) Show Normals . or target. Check Contact Status . (Note that the wizard does not support rigid target primitives.

.25 Example of a Contact Wizard Dialog The Contact Wizard remains unavailable (dimmed) if you haven't meshed any portion of your model.) After you specify the target and contact surfaces. 11. 2. a unique real constant set with the real constant values.5. Managing Contact Pairs As discussed in Section 11. If you specify a rigid target surface. Verify that the normals of the contact and target surfaces are in the correct direction Reverse normals of elements that are not oriented correctly 11–56 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. The contact manager provides tools that help you 1. selected set of nodes.1 . 001972 . If you wish to create a rigid-flexible model. (The pilot node step is mandatory if you define a surface-based constraint contact pair by picking the Pilot Node Only option. you can specify properties of the contact pair (real constants and KEYOPTs) before creating the contact pair. thus allowing multiple areas to form a single contact surface. click the Create button to create the contact and target element types. or node components. Note that the wizard allows you to choose more than one area for the target and contact surfaces. and the elements that make up the contact and target surfaces. ANSYS Release 8. When you finish specifying all the required data. volumes. © SAS IP.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis it is paramount that the contact elements be oriented correctly for proper contact detection. areas. mesh only those parts of the model which will be used as flexible contact surfaces (do not mesh the rigid target surfaces) before launching the wizard. you will then have the option to define a pilot node for that contact pair.3. mesh all parts of the model which will be used as contact surfaces (including target surfaces) before launching the wizard. Inc. If you wish to create a flexible-flexible model. You can specify target and contact surfaces using lines.

you can use these elements to represent contact between two surfaces by specifying one surface as a group of nodes. pressure. pins).1. you can display or list specific contact result items (contact status. rolling operations.POST command. is depicted in Figure 11. results can be listed but not displayed graphically. forces. etc. Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can use our node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 to model flexible-flexible or rigid-flexible contact between a surface and a node. metal forming. The properties include real constant values and key option values as discussed earlier. modeled by CONTA175) relative to lines or areas of another surface (the target surface. the properties dialog for those real constants or KEYOPT settings is left blank. modeled by TARGE169 or TARGE170). Using the Node-to-Surface Contact Elements Node-to-surface contact is represented in the ANSYS program by following the positions of points on one surface (the contact surface. CONTA175.26: “Node-to-Surface Contact Elements”. you need to issue the appropriate FILE and SET. Additionally.6.6.) Note — Prior to displaying or listing result items associated with the initial contact configuration resulting from the CNCHECK. (For CONTA175. Then you have an additional option of only displaying the contact surface or the target surface when verifying or reversing the element normals.6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can choose to display one or more contact pairs on which to perform the above listed operations. in two or three dimensions. bolts.FIRST commands to read the results from the proper results file (see CNCHECK for details). and temperature changes that occur due to contact between structural parts. Node-to-surface contact is a phenomenon that occurs in most engineering applications: fasteners (nuts. Finally. The Contact Properties button in the contact manager provides a simple to use interface that allows the properties of the selected contact pair(s) to be reviewed and modified if needed. Inc. In the later case the contact elements are highlighted in a translucent plot of your model.) for the selected contact pairs. it is possible to have conflicts in the real constant values or in the KEYOPT settings. When you have such conflicts. 11. ANSYS Release 8. 11–57 . rivets. and only if a result set is available. In addition these elements can be displayed independently or in the context of your entire model.1 . The contact results can be displayed independently or in the context of your entire model. penetration. 001972 .Section 11. etc. This option is only available in POST1. Another important function is to edit the properties of the contact pair(s) as needed. dynamic pipe whip. deflections. Engineers are interested in the stresses. 11. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . Note that when you have multiple contact pairs.

The midside-noded elements can only be used when bonded or no-separation contact is defined. CONTA175 follows the contact pair concept used by surface-to-surface elements CONTA171 through CONTA174. Inc. See Steps in a Contact Analysis for details. © SAS IP. These are described below. Does not support 3-D contact surfaces with midside nodes. CONTA175 is paired off with target elements TARGE169 and TARGE170. You should avoid midside-noded underlying elements of the contact surface. as do the surface-to-surface contact elements. Supports 2-D/3-D rigid-flexible and flexible-flexible contact. Generates elements using the ESURF command. CONTA171 through CONTA174 are recommended. b #$FV$9 UETR WP ¨ S QPF D B ¨ ¢ 0& ¦5 §#$CEC@A$¥98$76 )I" )4¥3§¥2)¥0) '%$#! (0 ¦ ( 1 ( &¤"" vwet gw`qr`pyxigwxed s d c ¡ § `#a`Y¤¢ 1 @¦ b vweut h§rd`aifhefd gsq p g WPF ¨ U S #$V$9 ETR X HGF D B @ ¨ 0& 5 §©CECA$¥9¢8$76 ¦)" ()4¥3§¥2)0¥() '%$#! 0 ¦ ( 1 &¤"" § ©§¥¤£¡ ¨¦ ¢ . CONTA175 uses most of the same element KEYOPTS and real constants as the surface-to-surface contact elements. the node-to-surface contact algorithm assumes that the stiffness is uniformly distributed across all the surface nodes when contact is made. the corner nodes have a negative stiffness associated with them. or via the menu 11–58 Structural Analysis Guide . This condition can lead to convergence difficulties when using midside-noded elements in contact.1 . The Contact Manager provides an easy-to-use interface to help you construct and manage contact definitions. especially in 3-D. You can still use midside nodes on 2-D contact surfaces or on 2-D/3-D target surfaces. The basic steps for performing a node-to-surface contact analysis using CONTA175 are the same as those used for a typical surface-to-surface analysis using CONTA171 through CONTA174. However. See Real Constants for more information. CONTA175 uses the same real constant set as the surface-to-surface contact elements.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. thermal. You can access the manager via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar. electric. for the 20-node bricks SOLID95 or HYPER86. See Identifying Contact Pairs for more information. For instance. Note — CONTA175 is recommended for point-to-surface or edge-to-surface problems. and magnetic analyses. For general surface-to-surface contact.26 Node-to-Surface Contact Elements Presented below are characteristics of CONTA175: • • • • • Has one node and its target surface is defined by TARGE169 or TARGE170. Supports structural. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . It can also be used to supplement a surface-to-surface pair at strategic locations where edge contact exists. The “effective stiffness” at the contact surface nodes is very nonuniform. but can support 2-D/3-D target surfaces with midside nodes or 2-D contact surfaces with midside nodes.

Inc. See Section 11. ANSYS Release 8. When the traction-based model is defined.8. A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring.1. ANSYS can determine the area associated with the contact node. the real constants FKN. similar to the surface-to-surface contact elements. as do postprocessing items PRES. and a contact traction-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 1). See Section 11. For instance.ON). As mentioned. KEYOPT(3) KEYOPT(3) in CONTA175 allows you to choose between a contact force-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 0. and shell thickness effect is included (KEYOPT(11) = 1).1. or CNOF is defined. 11. or perpendicular to the contact surface (KEYOPT(4) = 1. For the contact traction-based model.5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses for more information on using the Contact Manager.6. but contact pressure in the traction-based model. and MCC have the same units used in surface-to-surface contact elements (CONTA171 through CONTA174).1 . you can list the results using the PLESOL. However. but FORCE/LENGTH3 for the traction-based model. resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. The GUI path is: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Node to Surf Since CONTA175 is a one node element.6. default). © SAS IP. When the force-based model is defined. 11.4. CONTA175 KEYOPTS CONTA175 uses most of the same KEYOPTS that are used by the surface-to-surface contact elements CONTA171 through CONTA174. CONTA175 uses the ESURF command to generate elements between corresponding contact pairs. When contact occurs on the bottom surface of a shell or beam. you are not able to plot the contact results.1. TAUR. 11. 2). Structural Analysis Guide .1.6. For the single point contact case. TCC. PRES is the contact normal force in the forcebased model.6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair. 11–59 . Units for TOLS are percent (1. and TAUS.1. In these situations.1. KEYOPT(4) = 2 or 3 should be used in order to capture the contact. TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes are likely to lie on the edge of the target (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a node-to-node contact pattern). a unit area will be used which is equivalent to the contact force-based model. ECC. KEYOPT(3) and KEYOPT(4) are used but have different meanings when used with CONTA175.0 implies a 1. The contact normal can be either perpendicular to the target surface (KEYOPT(4) = 0. the contact node may repeatedly “slip” off the target surface and so completely out of contact. default or KEYOPT(4) = 3).2: Element KEYOPTS for a listing of the remaining KEYOPTS.0% increase in the target edge length).Section 11.1. contact stiffness FKN has units FORCE/LENGTH for the forcebased model. The default value is 10 for small deflection and 2 for large deflection (NLGEOM.2. 001972 . FKT. KEYOPT(4) KEYOPT(4) in CONTA175 allows you to choose the contact normal direction.CONT or PRETAB commands. Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally extend the edge of the target surface. the units of these quantities have a factor of AREA with respect to those used in the traction-based model.

7. For example: • • Degrees of freedom of the contact surface nodes are eliminated. 11. For large deformation problems. Multiphysics Contact You can use node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 to model thermal contact. no iteration is needed in solving the system of equations. this represents true linear contact behavior. Shape functions are taken into account automatically. © SAS IP. to define various contact assemblies and kinematic constraints. FCC. CONTA172. 001972 . no weight factor is needed for a force-distributed multipoint constraint (which is similar to the RBE3 command) if high order elements or axisymmetric Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.8. we recommend that you use the contact traction-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 1). For multiphysics contact. For a small deformation problem. You can use this method to model the following contact assemblies and surface-based constraints: • • • • • • Solid-solid assembly .2. ECC. and MCC consistently with the surface-to-surface contact elements.1: Real Constants. See a listing of the real constants in Section 11.the forces or displacements applied to the pilot node are distributed to contact nodes. The generation of internal MPC is simple because it utilizes contact pair definitions. and MCC for the contact force-based model. the MPC equation