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Nature of Science

Nature of Science

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Published by: Allen A. Espinosa on Jul 06, 2011
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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

Rachel Patricia B. Ramirez University of the Philippines Integrated School

What is SCIENCE? ‡ With a partner, compose a definition. Be prepared to share with the class.

What is SCIENCE?
‡ Science is an area of knowledge. ‡ Science is a process. ‡ Science is a method of exploration and investigation. ‡ Science is biology, chemistry, physics, geology, environmental science, earth science.

Science is a way of thinking and doing.

What does a SCIENTIST look like? ‡ Draw a picture of a scientist. Include as much detail as you can. ‡ Be prepared to share.

What does a SCIENTIST look like?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Wild hair Eye glasses White lab coat Working alone Holding a bubbling flasks

The Nature of Science
‡ The Scientific World View ‡ Scientific Methods of Inquiry ‡ The Nature of the Scientific Enterprise

Strategies?
Techniques!

Rules?

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW
‡ Scientists share certain basic beliefs and attitudes about what they do and how they view their work.

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW
Erwin Schrödinger Werner Heisenberg Louis de Broglie

Max Born Niels Bohr Max Planck Albert Einstein

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW
‡ The world is understandable.
Scientists believe that through the use of the intellect, and with the aid of instruments that extend the senses, people can discover patterns in all of nature.

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW Spherical cloud of
positive charge

‡ Scientific ideas are subject to change.
Change in knowledge is inevitable because new observations may challenge prevailing theories.

Electrons

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW
‡ Scientific knowledge is durable.
Continuity and stability are as characteristic of science as change is, and confidence is as prevalent as tentativeness.

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW
‡ Science cannot provide complete answers to all questions.

There are many matters that cannot usefully be examined in a scientific way.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ There simply is no fixed set of steps that scientists always follow, no one path that leads them unerringly to scientific knowledge.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ Science demands evidence.
Great value is placed on the development of better instruments and techniques of observation, and the findings of any one investigator or group are usually checked by others.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ Science is a blend of logic and imagination.
Sometimes discoveries in science are made unexpectedly, even by accident. But knowledge and creative insight are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ Science explains and predicts.
The essence of science is validation by observation.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ Scientists try to identify and avoid bias.
Scientists want, and are expected, to be as alert to possible bias in their own work as in that of other scientists.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
‡ Science is not authoritarian.
In the long run, however, theories are judged by their results: When someone comes up with a new or improved version that explains more phenomena or answers more important questions than the previous version, the new one eventually takes its place.

The Helicopter

The Helicopter
‡ Drop the helicopter ‡ Observe which way it spins ‡ Observe how fast it spins How do you get the helicopter to spin faster?

http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/lehman/HelicopterExplan.htm

The Helicopter
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Problem? Hypothesis? Experiment? Variables? Independent variable? Dependent variable? Data? Conclusion?

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

??? ? ?

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

Using Scientific Methods for Science Inquiry
Ask a question Construct a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Analyze your data Draw a conclusion Inquire further

Using Process Skills for Science Inquiry

OBSERVING

COMMUNICATING

CLASSIFYING

MEASURING

INFERRING

PREDICTING

DEFINING OPERATIONALLY

MAKING MODELS

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE
‡ Scientific activity is one of the main features of the contemporary world and, perhaps more than any other, distinguish our times from earlier centuries.

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE
‡ Science is a complex social activity.
Men and women of all ethnic and national backgrounds participate in science and its applications.

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE
‡ Science is organized into content disciplines and is conducted in various institutions.
With respect to purpose and philosophy, however, all are equally scientific and together make up the same scientific endeavor

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE
‡ There are generally accepted ethical principles in the conduct of science.
The strongly held traditions of accurate record±keeping, openness, and replication, buttressed by the critical review of one¶s work by peers, serve to keep the vast majority of scientists well within the bounds of ethical professional behavior.

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE
‡ Scientists participate in public affairs both as specialists and as citizens.

School science experiences should address the following:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Framing of questions for scientific research Methodologies used Ways in which teams cooperate Competitive side Interactions among science, technology, economy, politics, history, sociology, and philosophy ‡ History of scientific ideas

References
‡ http://www.project2061.org ‡ http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/leh man/HelicopterExplan.htm ‡ Weld, J.W. (Ed.) The Game of Science Education. Pearson. 2004. ‡

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