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As noted in the introduction, every career draws on the competencies of an individual. Some of these competencies may be general and some peculiar to the chosen career. You may understand competencies to mean abilities and skills. However, we would desist from calling these as personality traits as such a conceptualization only reinforces the mistaken belief that entrepreneurs are born rather than made. We believe that recognition of these competencies as abilities and skills makes entrepreneurship as a teachable and learnable behaviour. In this section we orient you towards a set of entrepreneurial competencies developed by the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDI) Ahemdabad. These competencies were identified by a thorough research procedure based on critical analysis of the case studies of the successful entrepreneurs. We also annex a questionnaire that you can use to evaluate your score on each of these competencies. We would also suggest how you might improve on your scores.
_______________________________________________ ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES IDENTIFIED BY THE EDI
(i) Initiative- acting out of choice rather than compulsion, taking the lead rather than waiting for others to start. (ii) Sees and Acts on Opportunities- A mindset where one is trained to look for business opportunities from everyday experiences. Recall ‘oranges’ example. (iii) Persistence- A ‘never say die’ attitude, not giving up easily, striving Information seeking continuously until success is achieved. (iv) Knowing- Knowing who knows, consulting experts, reading relevant material and an overall openness to ideas and information. (v) Concern for High Quality of Work- Attention to details and observance of established standards and norms. (vi) Commitment to Work Contract- Taking personal pains to complete a task as scheduled. (vii) Efficiency Orientation- Concern for conservation of time, money and effort. (viii) Systematic Planning- Breaking up the complex whole into parts, close examination of the parts and inferring about the whole; e.g. simultaneously attending to production, marketing and financial aspects (parts) of the overall business strategy (the whole). (ix) Problem solving-Observing the symptoms, diagnosing and curing. (x) Self-confidence- Not being afraid of the risks associated with business and relying on one’s capabilities to successfully manage these. (xi) Assertiveness- Conveying emphatically one’s vision and convincing others of its value. (xii) Persuasion- Eliciting support of others in the venture. (xiii) Use of Influence Strategies- Providing leadership. (xiv) Monitoring- Ensuring the progress of the venture as planned.
if any. along with the educational qualifications. you need to acquire practical experience in that field. Whichever area you might decide upon to start a venture be it a school. summer training as well as prior work experience hone the entrepreneurial competencies. Barriers to Entrepreneurship . you find yourself lacking in the competency. the world changes for you. This is consumer’s mindset. garments.’ they say. Given that these competencies matter in entrepreneurial success. at Nagpur you marvel at the size of the oranges and the price at which they are available. Italy? Would Indians like to consume packaged juices when by the roadside they can get fresh juice? … Exports? Which are the countries that could serve as the potential market? What would be their quality expectations? … The role of Prior Work Experience Project work. is the first step towards ‘improvement’ and ‘success. Thinking Like an Entrepreneur On a trip down south. and government officials. Suppose.‘opportunity spotting. EDI estimates that development of these competencies can substantially (as much as 33%) bring down incidence of business failures/industrial sickness.’ you may start practicing to think like an entrepreneur (See Box entitled ‘Thinking like an Entrepreneur’). Similarly you may work on the other competencies as well. courier service. with confidence and with minimal of costly mistakes.Believing in employee well being as the key to competitiveness and success and initiating programmes of employee welfare. it is appropriate that you also think in terms of how to improve your scores.(xv) Concern for Employee Welfare. interior decoration etc. he may buy and enjoy the oranges as well. delay or non-availability of raw materials and a host of other things. The self-administered questionnaire in the annexure to this chapter would help you measure where you stand on these competencies. would also start thinking what if I arrange for their transportation and sale at my place… if volume-weight factor and perishability is the constraint how about packaged orange juice… where would the technology come from. You buy in dozens and consume these merrily en route. On the contrary. DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES ‘Awareness. For it is while you get on the job training/experience that you familiarise your self with all aspects of the venture. an entrepreneurially thinking individual. financiers. You can learn as to how to handle customers. restaurant. You will also be able to acquaint yourself with the nitty-gritty’s of the production process. With just a little change in perspective. Day to day dealings of the various facets of business will equip you to handle your own venture deftly. bottlenecks like power disruptions.’ Now that you are aware of the critical competencies for entrepreneurial success and also have a measure of your scores on these. suppliers.
Leora Klapper. compared to 11. Entry regulations hamper the creation of new firms. and Raghuram Rajan Policymakers in country after country are trying to implement policies that will foster entry. compared to 13.7%.2% in Lithuania to 3.9% in Western Europe. compared to the average of 10% for other European G-7 countries. with its myriad small firms.5%. Take. one might expect that Italy. Our study suggests an explanation for such low levels of entry: the average direct cost of fulfilling the bureaucratic regulations for setting up a new business in Italy is a huge 20% of per capita GNP. the share of new firms in Eastern European countries is 15. number of required procedures and entry costs. Overall. selected countries Country % of new firms Number of entry Entry cost Private Credit . vary from an excessive 86% in Hungary to just 1% in Finland and the UK. should have tremendous new firm creation (we use “new firm creation”. The direct costs of setting up a new business. with the average at 20%. comprehensive database on private and publicly traded firms in 34 countries in Eastern and Western Europe. Some facts about entrepreneurship are striking. Having excluded countries with incomplete coverage and poor data quality. We find that the average share of new firms is 13. for example. and older firms are slower to expand and thus remain smaller. utility. Entry rates higher in Eastern Europe Our analysis is based on the Amadeus database. Table: Entry rates.4 million firms in 21 countries. and public sectors). as well as certain industries (such as the agriculture. expressed as a percentage of per capita GNP in US dollars. we end up with a sample of almost 3. Yet many questions remain about which government policies can help foster a business climate favorable to entrepreneurship. mining.5% on average for other European countries in the G-7. Such are the adverse effects of the lack of competition from new entrants. especially in industries that naturally should have high entry. finance. “entry”. Regulations beneficial to entrepreneurship are those that improve access to finance and protect property rights.3%. and “entrepreneurship” interchangeably).5% in Italy (see the table). Value added per employee in such industries grows more slowly. Our empirical analysis of more than 3 million firms in Europe confirms that bureaucratic entry regulations are neither benign nor welfare improving. Luc Laeven. new firms (up to 2 years of age) as a portion of the total number of firms is only 3. the debate in continental Europe on the lack of home-grown venture capital for promoting new firm creation in high-tech industries. This figure ranges from 19. a new. This difference reflects the recent emergence of a large number of private firms in the transition economies. Actually. For instance.
31 1. On average. Under the assumption that these barriers are low in the United States (entry costs in the U. We therefore need to know what entry would look like if there were few artificial or infrastructural barriers to entry.80 Note: the analysis is limited to 1998 – 1999 to avoid potential survivorship bias Most of the entering firms are small.e. According to this view. In particular. all that is important .38 3.15 (% of per capita GNP) 19. i.30 15.procedures Bulgaria Czech Republic Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Latvia Poland Romania UK Average.07 112.34 17. By contrast. larger firms in the Eastern European countries. we find a greater proportion of new. The “natural” propensity reflects technological barriers like economies of scale or incumbent organizational efficiencies obtained from experience.34 84.46 15.68 12. Nevertheless.03 23. we test whether entry is relatively lower in “naturally high entry” industries in countries with excessive bureaucratic regulations. Interestingly.87 20. such as rigid labor regulation or poor access to financing. 12% have 50-250 employees and 2% have more than 250 employees.69 85.84 21. are just 0. we focus on cross-industry.01 11.50 28. To address the problem of causality.87 120.67 10 10 5 15 10 8 16 7 11 16 5 8. a long literature from Adam Smith to Joseph Stigler describes regulations as devices to protect the private interests of industry incumbents or regulators. How do bureaucratic regulations affect entrepreneurship? The early debate on corporations emphasized the possibility that crooks might register with little capital and dupe unsuspecting investors or consumers. we would expect the rate of entry in an industry in the United States to be a good proxy for the “natural” propensity for entry in that industry. 23% have 10-50 employees. 63% of new firms have fewer than 10 employees. entry regulations serve the public interest by preventing fraud.97 15. The largest new firms are likely to be existing firms that reincorporate following a merger or acquisition.16 12. the possibility that in countries with generally low entrepreneurship people may not be sufficiently motivated to press for the repeal of archaic regulations.22 16.13 11.41 8.16 14.60 11.43 15.92 15. compared to the European average of 20%).27 80. Of course. there is a degree of heroism in assuming that entry in the United States does not suffer from artificial barriers.30 58.85 10. cross-country interaction effects.29 (% of per capita GNP) 14. Western Europe Average.02 42.5% of per capita GNP.46 18.84 60.S. This may reflect continued privatization and reincorporation of larger state-owned firms following transition.22 1.89 9.13 14.04 17.55 11. transition countries 8.48 56.34 25.
firms start out larger when young in Italy. There may be two explanations for this finding: slower growth could be attributed to incumbents having more monopoly power and restricting quantities. Access to finance stimulates entry Liquidity constraints hinder people from starting businesses. older firms working in a more competitive environment in countries with low entry barriers become relatively more efficient and continue to grow. so entry rates should be lower in countries with less developed financial systems. entry is higher in industries that depend heavily on external finance in countries that have better financial development. while the relative growth of young firms is indistinguishable. We find evidence for the latter explanation: older firms in naturally high-entry industries grow relatively more slowly in countries with high bureaucratic barriers. or incumbents may be less efficient as they are less subject to the discipline of competition. we plot average value added for firms in different age groups for two countries. Findings: Barriers to entry slow down business growth Growth in value added is relatively lower in naturally high-entry industries in a country with substantial bureaucratic barriers to entry. but grow more slowly. but perhaps because there is too little! Figure 3.S. As predicted.. Firm size and age. We also expect that access to finance is especially important for new firms in industries that require a lot of external financing. and measures of banking and capital market development. What is particularly interesting is that entry is relatively higher in industries that depend on trade credit financing in countries .is that the rank ordering of entry in the U. such that firms in the United Kingdom are about twice as large by age ten. UK vs. such as supplier trade credit. This suggests Italy has small firms not because there is too much entry. Italy It turns out that entry barriers are more effective in preventing firm creation in high-income countries. high entry-barrier Italy and low entry-barrier United Kingdom. suggesting that their purpose is not to screen out the untrustworthy.S. Bank credit is likely to be the most important form of financing for small firms but we also examine access to start-up capital. More interestingly. we find high entry rates in the computer and communications industries and low entry rates in infrastructure-related sectors. implying that their purpose may well be to protect incumbents and their rents. Across all industries. Both in Europe and the U. or that lowincome countries have other natural barriers that prevent firm creation. Since age should not affect the incentive to restrict quantities. entry barriers are effective in retarding entry only in the least corrupt countries. corresponds to the rank ordering of natural barriers across industries and carries over to other countries. As a suggestive comparison.
Small firms may not be able to afford to keep their employees through downturns and thus might “underhire” in the face of strict labor regulations. Other regulations are important There are other regulations and aspects of the business environment that might affect entry. Interestingly. higher taxes work much as regulatory barriers. This is an interesting example of a situation where more advanced countries have “bad” institutions. finance. Regulations that expand access to finance and strengthen property rights help the creation of new firms. • Better property right protection in a country promotes entry in R&D-intensive industries. Moves to reduce bureaucratic entry regulations will help their countries. However.e. where existing entry regulations are most effectively enforced. . New entrants that do not have the organizational structure. and the effects of taxes. Supplier credit turns out to be an important aid to entrepreneurship. it is by no means obvious that the best way to encourage entry and competition is to eliminate all regulation. and Entry is significantly higher in high-entry industries in countries where tax rates on corporate income are much lower than those on personal income. and their absence can be an effective entry barrier.with greater extension of trade credit. i. labor regulations. entry regulations especially hurt countries that are more developed and less corrupt. Our examination reveals that: Labor regulation hampers entry in labor-intensive industries. That is. or intellectual capital to create a significant first mover advantage and dissuade potential imitators might have a greater incentive to do research if they know it will be legally protected. even after controlling for the traditional effects of financial development. • Conclusions Policy makers should note that competition has disciplinary effects that outweigh any possible screening benefits from entry restrictions. The cost of compliance with regulations may inhibit entry through fixed components. such as protection of intellectual property. which are costly for small businesses.
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