Principles of First Aid, Safety and Emergency Scene Management
How to apply principles of safety. How to apply the principles of First Aid. How to apply the principles of emergency scene management. How to prioritize your casualties. How to provide a casualty with follow-up care
Five basic principles of safety
Always assess risks. Safe work practices. Train for the job Use Protective clothing and equipment. Make a Personal commitment to Safety.
Objectives of the First Aider
To treat the patient and his injuries. To prevent his condition from worsening. To assist the patient with his/ her recovery Remember, the assistance you render as a First Aider can make all the difference in the world when it comes to saving lives.
How to prioritize a patient
P1 Critical & needs hospitalization ASAP. P2 Serious, but stable P3 Stable, not necessarily in need of hospitalization. P4 Dead N.B.!! Remember your safety always comes first.
Emergency Scene Management
Always approach the incident by looking up, down, left and right for any hazard that may injure you or the patient you are going to treat. There are three sources of help that you as a First Aider can utilize.
Bystanders. Authorities i.e. traffic department or SAP. Medical services i.e. a doctor or sister on scene
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 others Step 5 Take charge Call for help Assess hazards Make the area safe for you and Identify yourself and offer help
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
Know the components of the body Know where the different bones of the body are Know the Physiological system of the body
The Cardiovascular system
Blood carries oxygen around the body. Oxygen sustains life within the body.
The Respiratory System
Every time we breathe in, our body absorbs oxygen in the air to help maintain all life in our body.
THE HUMAN BODY
THE THE THE THE THE THE THE HEAD (SKULL) NECK AND SPINE (Vertebrae) SHOULDERS CHEST (THORAX ) ABDOMEN AND PELVIC CAVITY ARM LEGS
The central nervous system (Brain and spinal cord) Circulatory system ( Heart and blood vessels ) The respiratory system ( lungs ) The integumentry system ( skin ) The reproductive system ( Reproduction of human life ) The Urinary system The endocrine system ( Hormone function ) The gastro intestinal system The skeletal system The sensory system
Patient treatment and care How to asses and examine the casualty How to manage and treat the casualty
Steps for treatment
The The The NB!! Primary Survey Secondary Survey Head to Toe Examination Always treat the areas that the patient complains about first unless it is life threatening !!!
History, Signs and Symptoms
"History" is what caused the accident or led to the incident. "Signs" are the things that you can see on the casualty that indicate illness or injury i.e. sweating and pale color skin. "Symptoms" is what the casualty tells you he feels i.e. dizzy, nausea and pain.
There are three vital signs you as a First Aider should know. These are
Temperature, Pulse Breathing.
Follow up Care
Shelter and keep the casualty warm Continuously monitor the patient s condition Hand all of the casualty s belongings to the officials. Document all of the patient s particulars. Treat the casualty to the best of your ability until the Medical services arrive.
Artificial Respiration NB!! If for any reason our body goes without oxygen for more than five minutes, brain damage will occur.
How to assess the level of consciousness
Call out to the casualty and ask if the person is all right. Gently shake the person by the shoulders.
Alert Verbal response Pain response Unconsciousness
Obstruction of the airway Lack of oxygen in the atmosphere Heart and lung dysfunction Other examples include; smoke filled areas, car fumes, LPG, grain silo's, underground tunnels, sewers and even allergic reactions can cause oxygen deficiency
Common causes of airway obstructions
The tongue Food and toys Near Drowning
Three common techniques to ventilate a non-breathing person
Mouth-To-Mouth ventilation. Mouth-To-Nose ventilation. Bag Valve Mask or Barrier Device ventilation
Make the area safe. Check for Responsiveness Check for Breathing Check for a Pulse. Open the airway. Give one breath every five seconds if pulse is present. After twelve times, re-check for a pulse
CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION A patient that is not breathing and has No pulse needs C.P.R. The sooner C.P.R. is started, the better the chances of recovery
What you will learn from this module
Steps to prevent Choking. How to recognize the signs of choking. How to provide First Aid for choking Choking is when your airway becomes partially or completely obstructed. This is an emergency. The tongue, food, fluid, toys and even allergic reactions can cause an airway obstruction.
Be careful when you eat and drink. Cut your food into small pieces and chew before you swallow. Do not gulp down drinks when there is food in your mouth. Supervise children when they are eating, drinking and playing with toys. Never run while you are eating
Signs of Choking
The most common sign of choking is grabbing of the throat The casualty may cough, wheeze or stop breathing suddenly. A choking casualty may get up and leave the table suddenly because of embarrassment. Always check up. The patient may start to go blue in the face, become confused
First Aid For Choking
The aim is to dislodge the foreign body from the upper airway. You as a First Aider can use abdominal thrusts, Chest thrusts and Finger sweep for foreign bodies
When to give First Aid
Do not treat the casualty if there is good air exchange. Give First Aid if air exchange is poor or completely blocked.
An abdominal thrust (The Heimlich Maneuver) is basically an artificial cough. Pressure is applied in an inward and upward motion just above the navel to increase the pressure within the lung. The result is an explosion of air from within the lungs hopefully forcing the lodged object out. Caution!! Abdominal thrusts can cause serious internal damage, consult a doctor afterwards
What you will learn from this module
How to use dressings, bandages and slings. How to prevent contaminating and infecting the wound further. How to identify and manage internal and external bleeding. Manage embedded objects How to check for adequate circulation below the injury How to control bleeding from the nose, ear and scalp How to treat internal bleeding
Dressings, Bandages and Slings
Bandages and dressings are used to stop bleeding, support soft tissue injuries and provide protection from infection. Slings are used for support of the injured limb.
What you will learn from this module
As a First Aider, you will have to deal with wounds that are bleeding. A wound is damage to the tissues of the body. Bleeding is the result of wounds. Bleeding is the escape of blood from the vessels. The blood may escape into the tissues around the wound (internal bleeding), or outside the body (external bleeding). Remember!! Wounds open the door to germs and infection.
Types of Wounds
Incision Laceration Puncture Wound Graze/ Abrasions Gunshot Wound Contused Wound
Types of Bleeding
Internal bleeding External bleeding Bleeding falls into the following three categories
Arterial Bleeding Venous Bleeding Capillary Bleeding
Preventing Wounds and Bleeding
Wounds are normally caused by an external force that damages the tissues. Because of this, wounds are often caused by unsafe acts, especially in the workplace. Machinery and tools can easily cause wounds if they are not used safely. Normal safety precautions and a personal commitment to safety can help to prevent wounds.
Contamination and Infection
As a First Aider, it is a part of your responsibility to try and prevent wounds from becoming contaminated and infected. All wounds are contaminated to some extent. This is unavoidable, but you can prevent further contamination by taking proper precautions
Severe external bleeding occurs after a deep wound and requires urgent attention. Remember!! First comes SAFETY, then AIRWAY, then BREATHING, then CIRCULATION and finally comes SEVERE BLEEDING
Suspected Internal Bleeding
Here are some pointers that may indicate internal bleeding
The history of the accident The casualty s medical history i.e. ulcers Swelling and Rigidity in the injury area Bleeding from the mouth, nose and ears.
First Aid for External Bleeding
Apply direct pressure to the wound. Elevate the limb to slow circulation Apply In-direct pressure on a pulse to slow circulation. NB!! These patients go into shock as they have a shortage of blood to carry oxygen around the body.
First Aid for Nose Bleeds
Get the casualty to sit and lean forward. Pinch the nostrils closed and apply gentle pressure. If bleeding persists, apply a cold pack to help slow circulation and call for backup
First Aid for the Bleeding Ear
Never plug or block the ears. If blood or cerebral spinal fluid is oozing from the ear, apply a loose dressing over the area and immediately suspect a skull fracture. Monitor the casualty s vital signs and call for backup.
First Aid for Internal Bleeding
There is very little we can do for internal bleeding Treat for shock, monitor vitals and call the Emergency Services If the patient falls unconscious, immediately place the casualty into the recovery position.
Fractures and Immobilization How to identify and immobilize fractured limbs.
Treatment of Fractures
Stop the bleeding Dress all open wounds Immobilize and give support to the limb Splint and elevate the limb Avoid rough handling and use slow movements Splint in most comfortable position Test for circulation by looking at capillary refill and skin temperature. If there is no pulse below the fracture site or the skin becomes blue in color and cold, give a little bit of traction along the length of the limb.
Lower Leg Fractures
The two bones (The tibia and Fibula) found in the lower legs are commonly fractured when they are involved in pedestrian accidents. These fractures bleed very badly and the chances of infection are very high.
First-Aid for Open Fractures
The treatment for open fractures with protruding bone ends is similar to that of imbedded objects.
We use a ring pad and a dressing to stabilize the wound before we splint the injury. Raise the limb slightly to reduce pain and reassure and comfort the casualty.
Burns How to measure burns How to recognize the type How to treat burns
A burn is the result of tissue damage caused by dry or wet heat, chemicals, electricity or radiation. Most of the time burns occur at home i.e. children that pull a pot of burning oil or water over him or her.
Severity Of Burns
Superficial Burns Moderate Burns Deep Burns
Seek Medical Assistance when
Large areas of the body are burned. There are deep burns Burns have occurred to the face, mouth, hands, genitals, throat and feet. Burns were caused by electricity or chemicals
Signs and Symptoms of burns
Redness of the skin associated with severe pain Swelling and numbness Blisters Charred skin Peeling of the skin and blisters.
Complications of burns
Shock Infection Breathing complications Swelling of the tissue Dehydration of the tissue due to the loss of skin
Shock, Unconsciousness and Fainting Shock is a condition where there is not enough Perfused blood flow to the tissues of the body. This means that the brain and other important organs are not receiving enough Oxygen. Shock is a very serious condition as it may lead to death if not treated correctly.
Causes of Shock
Severe Bleeding. Both internal and external bleeding will cause shock. Loss of body fluids from major burns. Dehydration due to burns, vomiting and diarrhea. Trauma to the spinal cord and attached nerves. Cardiac complications. Severe pain, fear and fright. NB!! Any injury or illness can cause some degree of shock. If shock is not treated, it will develop into severe shock.
There are ten well-known causes
Major loss of blood Depriving the brain of Oxygen Tumors and growths on the brain Infections such as meningitis, malaria Severe change in body core temperature Either very high blood sugar levels or blood sugar levels that are too low Epileptic seizures or convulsions Very high or very low blood pressure Excessive alcohol abuse Poisoning
Levels of consciousness
Conscious Person Semi-conscious Person Unconscious Person
Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness, caused by a temporary shortage of oxygenated blood flow to the brain. These casualties usually recover quickly and fully.
Causes of Fainting
The four most common ones are
Standing or sitting in one position for extremely long periods. Blood pools in the legs. Fatigue, hunger or lack of a well ventilated area. Fear, anxiety and emotional stress. Some people faint at the sight of blood. Illness, injury or severe pain.
Poisons, Bites and Stings
Poisons, Bites and Stings
Poisons can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin and may have a wide range of effects on different types of individuals. Those most at risk are children under the ages of 12 and adults over the age of 50 years
Signs and Symptoms
Nausea Vomiting Shock Confusion, restlessness, unconsciousness Swelling at the site of the injection Swelling around the airways Restlessness, weak and rapid pulse
Medico Legal Aspects Standards imposed by local custom Negligence Abandonment Consent