Review of Sneha Kalpana w.s.r.

to Recent Consequences
Dr. K. SHANAKAR RAO Associate Professor Dept. of Rasashastra & B.K. National Institute of Ayurveda Jaipur.

Ayurveda  Oldest medical system of the world serving  Sufferings & miseries of mankind Prolongs life span  maintains +health & cure diseases

Ayurvedic Medicaments
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Method/Ingredients Name of Kalpana Vati kalpana Avaleha Kalpana Asava-Arista Kalka Swaras kalpana Hima Kwath


Pill Semi solid Fermentation Paste Exp. Juice Cold infusion Decoction/Boiling

8. 9.

Oil Ghrita

Taila kalpana Ghrita kalpana

Contd.. Ayurveda  Taila Kalpana Ghrita Kalpana \ / Sneha Kalpana

Aim of Sneha Kalpana * The rationality behind taking an oil/Ghrita as a base is presumably To Extract or hold lipid soluble active fractions from the ingredients used. .

P & H. Genuine medicines *De forestation *Massive growth of population *Depend on industries OTC  demand N.Need of Review Ayurvedic physicians dispense medicines by their own hands *Rapid growth civil.M Essential oils *Un ethical products Phyto Pharmaceuticals of plants used  embarrassing Modern medicine Physicians & Patients To over come this enigma – Need to know Sneha kalpana .

: Fat / Fatty Material } : Pharma. Process }Sneha “Defined as a process. . Kalka.Nomenclature Sneha Kalpana Kal. Kwatha Ksheera and Gandha dravyas are employed for the preparation of Oleagenous medicaments (oil/Ghee)”. where various things like-Sneha.

Kalka Dravya (Drugs of Paste) ¼ part 3. Dravadravya (Decoc/Juice/Milk etc 4 part of sneha Gandha Dravya (Drugs of perfumers)1/8 or 1/16 with sneha.Requirements ______________________________________________________ Sl. 1. . Constituents Quantity ______________________________________________ Sneha dravya (Oil/Grhita) 1 part 2.

4. Parameters Oil Ghrita _______________________________________ Rancidity Period Quantity with _ Fresh 4 times _ Old 4timesto kalka .Sneha Dravya ______________________________________________________ Sl. 3. Pure + + 2.

Why Tila Taila is Best .

.Lignans – acts as anti cholesterol agents. .Vit. E supplies to the animals.Sesamin : protects Liver from the oxidative damage. . .Contd..

Kalka Pounding drug (s)  with(out) Juice/Liquid  into Soft bolus/ round lump Kalka Fresh Herbs  Grind      } Kalka Dry Drugs  add water/any liquid Grind .

Grinder 3. Mixer .Machinaries 1. Stone Mortar 4. Kharal 2.

Dadhi 1/8 6. Swarasa 1/8 4. Kwatha 1/6 3. Mamsa rasa & Takra 1/8 7. liquids Ratio of Kalka with sneha ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1.Ratio of Kalka ___________________________________________________ Pushpa kalka 1/8 8. General/ water ¼ 2. Ksheer 1/8 5. No information ¼ (Kwathdrugs) .

1 Part 06 Parts 1/6 Aschyotana 7. 1 Pala 24 Parts 1/8 Pana Kashaya 2. 1 Karsha 1/2 Parts ¼ Paneeya 4. 1 Part 03 Parts 1/12 Vrana-Prakshalana 6. 1 part 04 Parts 1/5 Gandoosha 3. 1 Part 08 Parts 1/3 Shodhana 9.No. 1 Part 04 Parts 1/8 Seka 5. 1 Part 06 Parts 1/7 Asthapana 10 1 Part 03 Parts ½ Vamana 11 1 Part 06 Parts 1/8 Virechana 12 1 Part 60 Parts ½ Snana 13 1 Part 64 Parts 1/8 Yavagu 14 1 Part 04 Parts ¼ Sneha Kshaya . 1 Part 08 Parts 1/9 Muka-Prakshalana 8. % of drug % water Reduction Kashaya name -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SNEHA KASHAYA S.

Author Sushruta % of drugs 1 Part 1 Part 1 Tola 1 part Mridu 1 part Madhya1part Kathina1 part % of water 8 Parts 16 Parts 1 Drona 4 parts 4 parts 8 parts 16 parts Reduction Kashaya Name Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 Bhoja Sharangdhara Chakradutta 1 karsha 1 pala 1 pala 1 Kudava 1 prastha 1 khari 16 parts 8 parts 4 parts 1/4 1/4 1/4 Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya Sneha kashaya .

No specific liquid water . Dadhi Apply rule of milk 7. Milk (1)+ Liquids (3) 4 times 6. Milk (only) 4 times (water for samyak paka) 5.Ratio of Aqueous Media _________________________________________________ Sl. 5 or 1-4 4 times General 4 times 2. Media quantity with sneha _________________________________________________ 1. 5 or  5 equal 3.

Technology involved _________________________________________________ Sl. Drug Coarse 2. Parameters Remarks _________________________________________________ 1. Vessels Lid 4. Fire wood Non reactive Should not applied Mriduagni Specific . 3. 5.Pharma.

 1/6 or 1/8 part of oil  made into fine powder  mixed with oil When oil is leuke warm ..Kesara Dalchini etc. Drugs used. Chandana.Gandha Dravya For perfuming : Karpoora.

Ama Paka   Moderate Heat Till liquid portion evaporates Mridu paka Sapta Avartita (7 times) Madhyam paka Dasha Avartita(10 times) Khara paka Chaturdasha Avartita (14) Dagdha paka Ashtavimsha Avartita (28) Shatavartita Avartita (100) Shatamekottara Avartita (101) Sahasra Avartita (1000 times) ..Gen.Method of Sneha Paka Oil / Ghee  Mild Heat  Murchana Addition of kalka  Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc.

Ama Paka   Moderate Heat Till liquid portion evaporates Madhya paka Sneha paka .Jaipur Parampara Oil / Ghee  Murchana Barjana (fried) of kalka  Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc..

as longer the duration of preparation more absorption of fat soluble constituents of the drugs (ingredients) takes place. Thus.Duration of sneha Paka The preparation of medicated oils and Ghritas should not be completed within a day. the potency of the Taila / Ghrita is expected to be enhanced. .

2 days & for Mamsarasa . Aranala and Takra . Dugdha . For Kwatha. swarasa .1 day.3 days. .Contd… The duration of Paka period depends on the nature of the liquid substances added to sneha.5 days .

Fresh oil to be taken.Precautions (Before) The following precautions to be taken a) Before processing –  Snehas should be pure. clear and without slurry. .  In case of Ghrita preferably old ghee should be taken (Purana ghrita).

.  Care should be taken to determine the proper stages of sneha paka.Precautions (During) a) During the process  Maintain the intensity of fire throughout the operation in order to get desirable grade of temperature.  Gentle boiling of sneha is to be maintained continuously.  The mixture is stirred constantly and carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom of the vessel resulting into carbonization.

Preserving containers should be free from moisture. . perfuming drugs should be added gently with stirring when the oil is leuke warm. 2.Precautions (After) After Sneha paka process: 1. In order to obtain optimum quality of oil. the Kalka should be squeezed at hot stage.

 When prepared oil/ghee dropped on fire it should not produce any crackling sound. taste of the drug.  The oil/ghee should emerge color.Features of Completed Sneha At the time of completion following features seen A) Oil / Ghee  Oil should yield good amount of foam (oil). . smell.  Oil/ghee should be free from water. in ghee foam should disappears.

 Kalka becomes hard. sandy and disintegrates while preparing varti in Kharapaka. .. fails to form varti and sticks to fingers at Mridu paka stage. forms soft.  In Madhyama paka total absence of water is observed. A) Kalka  Kalka contains traces of water.Contd. smooth varti without sticking to fingers.

Dagdha 6. Name of Pakas ----------------------------------------------------------1.No. Khara or Khara chikkana 5. Mridu or Manda 3. Ama 2.Stages of Sneha paka S. Madhya or Chikkana 4. Vishoshi .

the fluids are at heterogeneous stage. Ama means the medicated Sneha has not sufficiently assimilated the medicinal properties due to short of heat treatment.Ama Paka Ama Paka . .This is the first stage of Snehapaka. the word Ama indicates reduced/decreased digestion capacity of Sneha. water can be seen in both Sneha and as well as in paste.

The Sneha collected at this stage is likely to contain less amount of fat.Mridu Paka Mridu Paka . and produces cracking sound when kept on fire. . Where the paste is sticky on touch due to the presence of traces of water.The second stage of sneha paka is called Mridu Paka.soluble active principles.

. Where the paste still remains soft and not sticky due to the complete disappearance of water.Madhya Paka Madhya Paka . The oil collected at this stage is likely to be rich in fat soluble contents.content. Kalka can be made into varti between the fingers and the oil is also free from water content.Third stage of sneha paka is called Madhyama Paka.

The fourth stage of sneha paka is called Khara Paka. . rough due to excess of heating. The oil collected at this stage is meant for external application. In this stage. Which comes after the stage of Madhyama paka. the paste becomes hard.Khara Paka Khara Paka .

Sesamin and Sesamolin (anti-oxidants) and levels of Ca. The observation of Pharmaceutical study suggests that one should be very careful regarding identification of the particular stage of paka. because the time between the different stages of paka is quite short. . In this paka.Dagdha Paka Dagdha Paka . the excessive heat treatment leads to loss in the concentration of Tochopherols. especially when the amount of preparation is small. Where probably the contents of the Sneha are burnt leaving it of no use for therapeutic purpose..This is the last stage of Sneha paka. etc.

Sam. ---------- Ama Not mentioned Not mentioned Mridu/ Manda Nasya Oral Madhya/Chikkana Oral and enemata Nasya/massage Khara/ Khara chikkana Massage Enemata otic drops Dgdha Not mentioned Not mentioned. Vishoshi Not mentioned Not mentioned .Clinical uses of stages Name of Pakas -------------------Cha. ----Su.

which however seems to have introduced some times later (B. In view of this in modern practice there is a difference of opinion amongst the Ayurvedic exponents whether murchana is necessity or not for preparing medicated Oil/Ghrita.R).Murchana It is interesting to note that in the ancient texts ( Brihat trayee & Laghu trayee) there were no suggestions about the preliminary treatment of Murchana. .

.S. of the opinion that murchana process for oils is beneficial for the human health. Tiwari et al..Contd. This process helps in decreasing the percentage of composition of saturated fatty acids and at the same time it found increased in the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acids. suggesting that murchana is not necessary for preparing medicated oils/Gritas but. et al. The previous workers H.C. Rao K.

90% alcohal and Sulphuric acid. Officinale. . Cinnamum. Gandhaka taila. Ex.Modern method of sneha paka Some authors mentioned the methods of preparation of Ayurvedic medicated oils in the light of modern technology. The formula Gandhaka taila prepared by using Tinctures of Z.

Hence. it is suggested to follow the classical procedure for the preparation of Sneha by keeping the recent consequences in the mind. .Modern On observation it is found that such type of preparations are seems to be highly acidic and corrosive in nature.

of Sneha Kashaya.Recent Consequences Oil/Grita used as base ? Keeping properties in mind Tila Taila & cow’s Ghee considered as best. Use of aqueous media is for Samyak Paka. Should not fry kalka in Sneha preparation as in Rajasthan. Kalka should be soft & bolus varti test fails. . Sneha kashaya method should adapted. Kwatha principles should apply while prep. Cook on mild temp. Must careful for stage detection.

* Changes brought about by the incorporation of fat soluble fractions from the drugs. * Oxidation changes due to open heating or due to presence of drugs during heating for a long time. * These changes are expected to be reflected as alterations in Physico-Chemical constants obtained for Oil/Ghee.Need of Standardization Since the Oil /Ghrita is heated with many drugs during the process of preparation in the Snehakalpana. . the analytical values of raw Oil/Ghrita are expected to undergo alterations due to one or more of the following reasons : * Heat induced changes due to protracted boiling. * Changes brought about by the mixing in of fats or oils other than ghee.

Why foam disappears Ghrita  Saturated acids  water +heat break down into  Saturated acids + Glycerols (on Hydrolysis)  evaporation of water  Foam does not appear .

O2 + Acids .Why foam appears Oil  unsaturated fatty acids  heat with water (oxidation) formation of oxides  releases foam  on vapour analysis Vapour.Co2.

THAN ‘Q’ .

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