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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Background of the study Employee job satisfaction is an important attribute that organizations desire of their staff (Oshagbemi, 2003). Job satisfaction may be linked to performance, organizational productivity and other issues, including labour turnover. However, dissatisfied employees are prone to absenteeism and excessive turnover (Chen et al., 2006; Lee et al., 1999; Melamed et al., 1995; Sekoran & Jauch, 1978; Dickter et al., 1996). The impacts associated with job dissatisfaction may include training, recruiting, and learning curve inefficiencies, as well as reduction in the client base (Brown & Mitchell, 1993). On the contrary, employee satisfaction can improve productivity, reduce staff turnover and enhance creativity and commitment. Consequently, job satisfaction should not be ignored, but very few organizations seriously consider job satisfaction (Munhurrun et al., 2009).

Although most of the researches in employee satisfaction field have been related to profit making industrial and service organizations, there has been a growing interest in satisfaction of employees in education sector. The reason for this increasing interest is the reality that higher education institutions are labor intensive and their budgets are

2 predominantly devoted to personnel and their effectiveness is largely dependent on their staff. Consequently, satisfaction of the employees in higher education institutions is a very important issue (Ksk, 2003).

This paper examines the factors influencing job satisfaction in Jabatan Pendidikan Selangor, Shah Alam. According to the customer charter of Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Selangor (JPS), this education department of JPS gives full determination and commitment pledge and promise to devote their efforts in order to ensure that all complaints will be issued a letter of acknowledgement to the complainant within three working days from receipt of complaint. Moreover, this department also ensured that the support staff can exchange letters within 21 days from the date of the proposed change received. Besides, it will ensure that they will bring along the correct information, complete and comply it with all terms and conditions set.

Furthermore, to determine service quality, the researcher can focus on SERVQUAL which was designed to measure service quality as perceived by the customer. Parasuraman et al. (1985) identified basic dimensions that reflect service attributes used by consumers in evaluating the quality of service provided by service businesses. According to Parasuraman et al. (1985) also, he developed SERVQUAL to measure customers appraisal together with expectation of service quality. Furthermore, given the importance of understanding the determinant of job satisfaction, this study is great importance to both researcher and practitioners in government sectors. Therefore,

3 the purpose of this study is to measure job satisfaction among employees at Jabatan Pendidikan Selangor, Shah Alam using SERVQUAL.

Statement of the Problem

In the case of job satisfaction, although there is no universal definition of the concept of job satisfaction (Mumford, 2002) it can be conceived of as a multidimensional concept that includes a set of favorable feelings by which employees perceive their job (Davis & Newstrom, 2000). They are a direct link between employee satisfaction and motivation and a companys profit (Oakley, 2004). Complaints grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination can be reduced, and punctuality and employee morale can be improved through job satisfaction. Specifically, job satisfaction according to all the characteristics of the job itself and of the work environment in which employees may find rewards, fulfillment and satisfaction, or conversely, sentiments of frustration and/or dissatisfaction (Churchill, 2000). The job satisfaction can be achieved by treating employees with respect, providing regular employees recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefit and compensation, providing employees perks and company activities, and positive management with in success framework of goal, measurement and expectation (Susan, 2000). Organization cannot reach competitive level of quality, either at a product level or a customer service level, if their personnel do not feel satisfied (Stewart, 2006). Therefore, this study attempt to find out the factor that influence job satisfaction among employees in Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam.

Research objectives The objectives are: 1. To identify the factors that influence job satisfaction among employees at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam. 2. To determine the level of job satisfaction among employees at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam. 3. To investigate the most significant factor that influence job satisfaction at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam.

Research Questions The research questions are: 1. What are the factors that influence job satisfaction at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam? 2. What is the level of job satisfaction among employees at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam. 3. What is the most significant factor that influences job satisfaction at Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam ?

Significance of the Study

Researcher believed that the research on the identification of factors that influence the job satisfaction is very important for every person in an organization. This research also brings benefits and advantages to the people especially employees and the organization.The researcher is going to involves employees in the particular selected business to identify what factors that most significant that influences job satisfaction in the organization environment. The researcher viewed that this research is important to the employees because it increases the awareness among them towards environment in the organization for them to increases their level of job satisfaction in the organization.This study also provides an opportunity for students to practice what they have learned in the classroom. For example, the use of SPSS software was used to calculate or analyze data collected from the Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor, Shah Alam. Furthermore, this research can maximize organization awareness on the important of employees job satisfaction

towards the employees motivation in their job to make a contribution to the organization. Thus, it will then give the big impact on the organization profit.

Limitation of the Study

The study will only be only conducted amongst the government servants with multilevel management at Jabatan Pelajaran Shah Alam,Negeri Selangor between grades N17 to N27 for selected government sectors. The selected government sectors that had been chosen are: (1) Department of Education, (2) Human Resource Department (3) Department of Information Services at Jabatan Pelajaran Shah Alam,Negeri Selangor .They have similarity in duties, job areas and job specification. Thus, the survey will be given to the employees as they are one who is responsible to serve the customers of Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Selangor.

Definition of Terms

Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction can be defined as an employees affective reaction to a job, based on a comparison between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. Its generally

recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. It encompasses specific aspects of satisfaction related to pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, organizational practices and relationships with co-workers. (Mosadeghrad (2003)

Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor,Shah Alam Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor is government agencies that provide services such as plan coordinate and monitor programs related to school affairs, implement policies and manage the affairs of teachers,and also planning, coordinating and managing the daily affairs of the school.

SERVQUAL SERVQUAL is designed to measure service quality as perceived by the customer. Parasuraman et al. (1985) identified basic dimensions that reflect service attributes used by consumers in evaluating the quality of service provided by service businesses.

8 According to Parasuraman et al. (1985) also, he developed SERVQUAL to measure customers appraisal together with expectation of service quality. Specifically, they identified five distinct components of service quality: responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Tangible It refers to the physical facilities, equipments and appearance of the company's personnel. (Parasuraman, 1985) Reliability It refers to the capacity and ability to implement the promised service in a safe and reliable way. (Parasuraman, 1985) Responsiveness Responsiveness can be defined as the wilingness to help customer and provide prompt service. (Parasuraman, 1985) Assurance Assurance can be defined as employees' knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire credibility and trust - to assert that the service is safe and guaranteed. (Parasuraman, 1985) Empathy Empathy can be defined as the caring, individualized attention the organization provides to its customers. (Parasuraman, 1985) tangibles, reliability,