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Designing a Messaging Interface using Colour Design Guidelines
Master of Science Thesis in Computer Science SARA EGGERT MICHAEL RUBINSTEIN Department of Computer Science and Engineering Division of Computing Science CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden, 2006
User Interface Design for Colour Displays in Wireless Phones SARA EGGERT MICHAEL RUBINSTEIN The content of this report is copyrighted according to the Swedish law 1960:729, and must not be reproduced or distributed in any form without permission from the authors. The prohibition applies to the whole report as well as parts of it and includes storage on electronic and magnetic media, display on screens and tape recording. © SARA EGGERT & MICHAEL RUBINSTEIN, 2006. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chalmers University of Technology SE-412 96 Göteborg Sweden Telephone + 46 (0) 31-772 10 00
Cover: Ascom’s wireless handsets with the design proposal for Ascom’s messaging interface, see Final results for more information. Göteborg, Sweden 2006
Ascom’s two main customer segments. healthcare. Keywords: user interface design. hotels and retailing. design guidelines. voice and personal alarms are used and integrated with existing systems. colour conventions.User Interface Design for Colour Displays in Wireless Phones SARA EGGERT MICHAEL RUBINSTEIN Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chalmers University of Technology Abstract The company Ascom Wireless Solutions specialises in the development of customised wireless solutions for in-house business communication where text. By means of different theoretical and empirical methods we have produced a guideline document that contains a set of colour interface design principles. The project has also resulted in a design proposal that illustrates how the user interface for Ascom’s interactive messaging services can benefit from an appropriate use of colours in a handset display. We were given the task of studying how a user interface in a wireless handset could benefit from the use of colour. including industry. emergency alarms. correctional treatment. colour displays. 4 . Ascom’s Research and Development Department decided to investigate the use of colour displays in future wireless handset models. industry. healthcare. Finally a heuristic expert evaluation was conducted in order to assure that our design proposal was appropriate according to our design guidelines. Ascom Wireless Solutions. The customers are companies and institutions from a range of different areas. wireless handsets. we have added colour-codes and symbols for indicating priority levels with the purpose of improving the usability of the messaging interface. colour coding. Using our colour interface design guidelines. The design of the messaging interface was carefully evaluated through interviews and user tests with users from the industry and healthcare institutions.
5 . industri. färgkodning. Med hjälp av olika teoretiska och empiriska metoder har vi tagit fram ett dokument som innehåller en uppsättning riktlinjer gällande utformningen av användargränssnitt i färg. sjukvård. nödlarm. däribland industri. färgkonventioner. Nyckelord: användargränssnittsdesign. designriktlinjer. Ascoms två största kundsegment.och informationsteknik Chalmers Tekniska Högskola Sammanfattning Företaget Ascom Wireless Solutions är specialiserade inom utveckling av anpassade trådlösa lösningar för internkommunikation hos företag där text. trådlösa telefoner.och utvecklingsavdelning har beslutat att undersöka användningen av färgdisplayer i framtida bärbara telefonmodeller. Avslutningsvis genomfördes en heuristisk expertutvärdering med syftet att säkerställa att vårt designförslag är lämpligt enligt våra designriktlinjer. sjukvård. kriminalvård. Vi fick uppgiften att studera hur man kan dra nytta av färg i användargränssnitt för trådlösa telefoner. Ascom Wireless Solutions. färgdisplayer.Användargränssnittsdesign för färgdisplayer i trådlösa telefoner SARA EGGERT MICHAEL RUBINSTEIN Institutionen för data. tal och personlarm används och integreras med befintliga system. Kunderna är företag och institutioner från flera olika områden. Ascoms forsknings. Utformningen av gränssnittet för meddelandehantering har noga utvärderats genom intervjuer och användartest med slutanvändare från industri och sjukvård. Projektet har även resulterat i ett designförslag som illustrerar hur ett användargränssnitt för Ascoms interaktiva meddelandetjänster kan dra fördel av användningen av färg i en telefondisplay. Genom att använda våra designriktlinjer för färggränssnitt har vi lagt till färgkoder och symboler för indikering av prioritetsnivåer i syfte att förbättra användbarheten i meddelandegränssnittet. hotell och detaljhandel.
The work has been carried out in cooperation with the System Design section at Ascom Wireless Solution’s Research and Development Department in Göteborg. To Staffan Gustavsson. and the personnel at the Ascom production factory in Herrljunga for providing us with information about the use of handsets in an industrial environment. director of the radiology department at Örebro University Hospital. Anders Jutebrant-Ivarsson. 6 . manufacturing supervisor. and Torbjörn Nilsson.Acknowledgements This thesis describes a Master’s project that was carried out at the Chalmers University of Technology and at the IT-university in Göteborg. Thank you Dahn Jubell. for making the contacts needed for us to visit the hospitals in Göteborg and Örebro. We would also like to thank Dario Dzananovic. our supervisors at Chalmers University of Technology. marketing and sales manager at Ascom. Our gratitude also goes to our supervisors at Ascom Wireless Solutions. we are very grateful for your interesting thoughts and comments regarding the current and future use of handsets in the healthcare segment. We would like to thank assistant professor Fang Chen and doctoral student Anders Lindgren. Yaser Mohamed and Anna Pernefors. senior physician at the department of thorax radiology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
16 2...............................................................................................................1................................................................4...................................5 Colour interface design theory.........................................................2 Nurse call system ............. 23 3...........................................................................................................................................................................1 Ascom Wireless Solutions......................................................................5 Interviews ....................................................................................................... 19 3................... 21 3........ 17 2............3..................................................... 25 3.........4 Hierarchical Task Analysis .....................................................1 Colour theory ..................................................2 Colour in the graphical interface........................3....... 52 4...................................................................... 34 3..................3 Colour coding ...1 User-centred design .1................................................................. 13 1.. Background ........... 30 3.2 Colour deficiency .............................. 43 3....................... Method .............. 34 3...........................................4 Message priorities ....... 34 3.......................... Introduction.....................................................2 Goal and purpose ...................3 Human factors ...................................2.......Table of Contents 1............................................... 12 1......................................2......................................................................................................... 19 2.......................................................................................................................5..... 14 1.............................................................................6 User testing........................1... Theoretical framework ......................................................5.............2.1....................5........................1.................1................................................................................................ 31 3........................................3 Interactive messaging ........ 14 1.............1 Problem area .5.......................1...... 18 2............................................3................................2..7 Heuristic evaluation.............................................................................1 Interviews ............ 37 3.............1 Wireless handsets ........................... 14 1................................................................................................................4 Context of use .................. 40 3............................... 34 3................................................................................................................................. 30 3............................................................................4 Targeted readers..........................................................................2 Covert factors ..........................1 Interviews ........................................................................3 Personas .... 53 4............................................................. 31 3................................................ 21 3..................................................................1.............. 40 3................ 35 3.........1 Overt factors...........................................................4...............................................5 Prototyping.........................................................................................2 User-centred design methods.............................................................................2..........2 PACT-analysis ..............5.......................................................3 Dyslexia........ 49 4........................................................1 Requirements gathering ..................................................... 52 4............3 Limitations..........4 First iteration ................................................................... 16 2.........................................2............................... 32 3... 47 4..........................................................................................2.............................................................................................. 36 3.................................... 25 3......................................................................5 Examples of colour use.............................................................1 What is usability? ........................ 15 2............... 46 3..... 51 4................. 51 4.2........................................... 25 3....................5 Thesis overview ....................................1 Stress and cognitive workload ............4 Cultural User Interfaces..............................................................................2 PACT-analysis .................................. 41 3..................3 Personas ................................................................. 53 7 ..................2......................................................................................
...............1................1.......................................1.............2 Heuristic expert evaluation....................................................2 Signed message list ............... 86 5.............................5 Personas ................3...................2......1 Colour interface design guidelines ............................................................................................................... 63 5.......4 Normal priority message.....4 Third iteration .................................................................................................3 Interviews with two teleCARE experts at Ascom .....................4.....................3 Second iteration ....................................................... 55 4.....5 Colour deficiency tests.............................................4 Results from the PACT-analysis ........................2...............................................3..4 Colour deficiency test ..............2....................2 Prototyping....... 62 5.....................................2.................................................................................................4.......1 Redesign.......... 64 5..............2........................3 User tests with the industrial representatives... 88 5.................1........2 First iteration ... 93 6...........................................................................................2...................................1...............1 Requirements gathering .... 54 4............................................... 95 6..........1 Requirements gathering .................. 63 5.......................6 Colour association test....4..........6 Literature study of general colour interface design principles..................2.................................................... 67 5................................. 96 6........................................................ Discussion............................................................... 98 7...6 Observations at Örebro and Sahlgrenska University hospitals .................................................................................5 Observation at the Ascom factory in Herrljunga...............................1..........2 Prototyping................................... 59 4............................................................ 75 5........................................................1.............. 90 6............. 68 5...................3 Second iteration ... 56 4.................. 76 5....................................................................... 85 5............ 97 7.............2...........................................3.2.....................................4............................ 68 5...................2 Design proposal for the messaging user interface .................... 68 5....................2 Interviews with representatives of the healthcare segment............................................................. 60 4.........3.................................................................................................................................................... 56 4.............................................................................................1 Interview with Ascom Swedish sales representatives......................................................1 Interviews with representatives of the industrial segment........................................................... 82 5................................3......................4 Colour association test...............................................2...................... 63 5............................. 64 5.... 70 5....................1 Hierarchical Task Analysis .........1 Method discussion ...1 Message list .................3.......2................................. 99 7.........................................................................................1 Hierarchical Task Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................2 Interview with the industrial segment manager at Ascom..........1 Heuristic evaluation.................................................................................................................... 97 6.....3....... 99 8 .........................3........................7 Environmental observations............................... Final results ...................5 Method summary ................................................................................. 95 6........................ 77 5............................................................................. 98 7............. 58 4........................ 65 5........... 78 5........................................................................3 Low priority message .............................................................................. 73 5..............................5 High priority message ...................................2 First iteration ..........2.2.............4 Third iteration ...........3 User tests.........3... Results ......6 Alarm priority message..................................................................1.......................................... 77 5........ 93 6.... 93 6........................................................ 88 5....... 57 4..................... 96 6............. 55 4...........4 User tests with the healthcare representatives..............
.........3.................4 Ascom documents ............... 146 Appendix G..1 Books.............................1 Cultural profiles........... Test participants in the colour deficiency test......................... 114 Appendix B.................. 107 9................... 103 8.......3............................................................ Test participants in the user test ................. Personas..................................................................................................... 118 Appendix C........2 Standards and regulations .......... 107 9...................................................4 Third iteration ...................... 147 9 .....7.................................................................................. 103 7................................ 112 Appendix A.................................................................................................................................................................................................3 URL references.......................................... 112 Appendices..........................2 Suggested applications ................................... Test participants in the colour association test ............ 110 9.............................................2 Result discussion ...................................................................................................................................... 131 Appendix D..... 139 Appendix E....................... 105 9................................................................................................. articles and reports ..................................................................................................................... 100 7......................................3 Future work.......................................................................................................... Results from the hierarchical task analyses............ Glossary ........... 110 9..................1.. 101 7...............................1................... 144 Appendix F.... Conclusions ........................... 102 7...........3 Second iteration . Interview participants and questions ......... 103 7..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... References......................
............... Number of participants.................................. 39 Table 6.. .......................................... 81 Table 8................................... Message priority levels.......... ............................................... Priority symbols and colour coding scheme.......... Common western colour denotations ............. 38 Table 5................... 94 10 . Results from the colour deficiency test........... 37 Table 4.............. Cultural associations of colour......................... 36 Table 3........................ 19 Table 2...... 87 Table 9...............List of tables Table 1............. The flow of messages that was shown during the user tests.......... .................................................................... ..... Western hand gestures and their meaning in different cultures ..................... 62 Table 7.................................................. Overt and covert factors that contribute to a person’s cultural identity ................
....................... The wireless machine stoppage recovery process... Primary and secondary colours....................... ........ Icons that are often misunderstood by users from different countries. 59 Figure 14...................................... Summary of the colour association test......... 74 Figure 17. 39 Figure 11................................. Pictures that were shown to colour deficiency test participants........................................................................... Test users needed to identify a certain percentage of usability problems................................................ Nurse call and paging devices.... 97 11 ................................................ 79 Figure 22............. .. The interdependence of UCD activities...................... The graphical user interface of the Ascom 9d24.................. ........................... Prototypes of the messages that were shown for the test participants.. . How messages are presented to the user today...... Ascom’s wireless handsets. Industrial... List of signed messages........................ Sketches of the message scenario ... 75 Figure 18...................... Colour codes that were observed at the factory in Herrljunga................ Example of graphical HTA and list HTA....................................................................................... Normal priority message................................. High priority message................................. 95 Figure 27............... 71 Figure 16................... 9d24 & OfficeM handsets............ Working environment at the factory in Herrljunga............. 95 Figure 26..... 18 Figure 4...... 31 Figure 8........ Sketch of the Flash prototype........... healthcare and office environments.................... ... 76 Figure 19................. Alarm priority message ........................................ A more appropriate way of presenting the same information............................. List of messages ordered by priority....................................................... 77 Figure 20..................................... User performing a test using the Flash prototype.... Use of crosses and checks in a word processor......................... 28 Figure 7............. 54 Figure 13............................... Low priority message........... 96 Figure 28......................................... 71 Figure 15....................... ............................... 80 Figure 23......................... .................................................................................. 85 Figure 25................. . Interactive program displaying a flow of messages with priorities................ .... 38 Figure 10.... 23 Figure 6....... ........... ............ 79 Figure 21........... 50 Figure 12........................................ 82 Figure 24....... ......... 32 Figure 9..... User interfaces in Ascom’s 9d23............. 17 Figure 3.................................. Method overview.............................................................................................List of Figures Figure 1.. 17 Figure 2........ ..................... ................ 97 Figure 30............................... 18 Figure 5............ 96 Figure 29...................
A Master’s project was initiated in spring 2005 with the aim of studying the technical requirements needed to change the monochrome displays used today into displays with colour capabilities. Ascom Wireless Solutions has chosen to follow this trend and Ascom’s Research and Development Department in Göteborg has decided to investigate the use of colour displays in future portable handset models. Introduction During the last few years colour displays in mobile phones have become increasingly more common and nowadays it is hard to find a mobile phone in a store that has not been equipped with a colour display. wireless phones for home use have begun to undergo a similar shift and colour displays are becoming increasingly more common in other portable devices as well. 12 . Lately. Our design has also focused on users in the healthcare and industrial segments since Ascom’s messaging services are mainly used in these two areas. Ascom’s interactive messaging service is considered to be an important functionality in the company’s communication system and we were therefore asked to focus our design proposal on this particular feature. The purpose of our project was primarily to identify and define a set of guidelines for the development of user interfaces in colour displays. we were asked to commence another Master’s project concerning the user interface aspects of colour displays. in order to make communication even more efficient.1. The task was also to investigate how users could benefit from the use of colour in portable handset displays. In autumn 2005.
1999. Brown. there are a number of potential drawbacks of colour use in screen design. provided that colour is used properly. To begin with. Due to the higher complexity of colour display interfaces compared to black-andwhite. since the misuse of colour can cause the users visual confusion. the amount of time needed for a user to interpret information is often less if the information is presented in colour compared to using a black-and-white screen. colour can easily be misused and inappropriate use of colour is common in interface design (Brown. Marcus. specific elements on the screen can be either emphasised or deemphasised in order to affect the user’s visual focus. On the other hand. There are many additional aspects and principles that must be considered when designing for colour displays. raising the user efficiency by up to 200 % (Inuse. This is especially important in Ascom’s handsets. colour can be used to represent status. an incorrect colour scheme can be confusing because it has not been adapted to the cultural context of the target user group (Lee. 1995). Lee. 2004). such as afterimages and contrast effects. 1995. An improper and confusing use of colour will have negative effects on the usability of an interface by slowing down. consequently reducing the user efficiency by up to 50 % (Inuse. 2004). Assuming that colour is applied correctly. Another problem appears if the design does not accommodate users suffering from different colour deficiencies. confusing and irritating users. 1999). Furthermore. for instance by assisting in the identification of visual elements or the search for a particular type of information. Depending on which colours are used. changes and variations in colour are especially effective when used for drawing a user’s attention. Moreover. 1999. Moreover. For instance. 1999).1 Problem area Making the shift from monochrome to colour in a graphical user interface can have a significant beneficial effect on users’ productivity. such as time and progress (Marcus. 1995). Appropriately chosen colours can lead to displays with higher user satisfaction and a more rapid task performance. Because colour plays an important role in human visual perception.1. 13 . the use of colour in an interface has many benefits considering users’ ability to learn and comprehend information displayed on a screen. users can learn and memorise more information when it is presented in colour (Marcus. Colour also provides the ability to display realistic representations of natural objects and can increase the believability and appeal of an interface. since they are used in numerous different cultures and professions worldwide. A clearly defined colour coding scheme can be used to aid the user in categorising related data fields. incorrect colour combinations on a display can result in visual discomfort.
There is a clear need for guidelines that emphasise important aspects concerning the use of colour in interface design (Marcus.e. our final design proposal is intended primarily for Swedish users. Although the thesis provides guidance regarding the use of colour in different cultural contexts. We were asked to focus our work on the two largest segments. The purpose of the Master’s project is to give guidance for interface designers by providing guidelines for colour interface design and exemplifying the use of colour in graphical user interfaces. 1995).2 Goal and purpose The primary goal of the Master’s project is to facilitate the development of future graphical user interfaces in colour. 14 . 1. industry and healthcare and therefore our design proposal for Ascom’s messaging services concern these two segments in particular. The initial plan was to develop a separate set of guidelines for each segment. i.4 Targeted readers This Master’s thesis is mainly written for those who are interested in the use of colours in graphical user interfaces with focus on user-centred design and particularly those interested in colour coding of alarm messages. The main questions at issue of the Master’s project are: o What guidelines should be followed when designing a graphical user interface in colour? o How can colour be used to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces in Ascom’s portable handsets? 1. Other factors. due to the lack of standards concerning the use of colour in these work contexts. 2005). will not be covered. such as the physical design of the handset or the technology of the colour display. A careful study of displaydesign guidelines is therefore beneficial and each organisation should develop a local set of guidelines that are tailored to its specific needs (Shneiderman & Plaisant.3 Limitations The Master’s project only concerns the graphical user interface of the handsets. However a general set of guidelines was made instead. 1. resulting in an improved usability in Ascom’s wireless handsets. The project focuses on how the use of colour in displays can increase the usability of a graphical user interface and facilitate user’s work on a daily basis.
in Conclusion (see Chapter 8) we summarise the outcome of our project and present our final conclusions. We discuss what problems that were encountered during our work. We also discuss our choice of methods and suggest future research subjects. In Final results (see Chapter 6) we present our final design proposal for the alarm messaging user interface. described in the theoretical framework. In Discussion (see Chapter 7) we evaluate and discuss what was done during our project. We also present the result of our literature studies that form the basis of our guidelines for user interface design in colour displays. Finally.5 Thesis overview The Background (see Chapter 2) briefly describes the company Ascom Wireless Solutions and their different products and systems. were carried out. In this chapter the evaluation of the design proposals is also presented. In Method (see Chapter 4) we explain how the different methods. We also describe the changes to the design that were made using the results from the user tests that we carried out. 15 . The data gathered from the methods is summarised and presented in Results (see Chapter 5).1. what could have been done differently and why. The Theoretical framework (see Chapter 3) describes general terms regarding user-centred design and the methods used during our project.
500 employees worldwide (Ascom). We also describe Ascom’s end-user products such as the wireless handsets. Ascom Wireless Solutions is a division of Ascom that specialises in the development of customised wireless solutions for in-house business communications where text. hotels and retailing. voice and personal alarms are integrated in one system. correctional institutions. 16 .2. Sweden. The customers are companies and institutions from a range of different areas. In 1990 the company also started to develop wireless telephone systems and in 1998 the DECT telephone system Ascom9d was introduced. Each customer is provided with a tailor-made solution to fit its specific communication needs (Ascom). the nurse call system and the interactive messaging services. Background In this chapter we present information about the company Ascom Wireless Solutions. originally named Telekontroll. 2. Ascom has subsidiaries in 22 countries and a total of about 3.1 Ascom Wireless Solutions The company. Ascom Wireless Solutions’ Research and Development Departments are situated in Göteborg and in Alphen aan den Rijn in the Netherlands. The first products developed by the company were the teleCOURIER paging system and the operation surveillance system teleCONTAL. was founded in 1955 in Stockholm. healthcare. The design engineers are part of the whole development process and the products are manufactured at Ascom’s own factory in Herrljunga and by suppliers in China and Thailand (Ascom). including industry.
2. For instance. there are also differences in the physical design of the handset covers. There are different variations regarding the software capabilities of each handset model. The first handset with a colour display developed by Ascom will most likely be similar to the OfficeM handset and aimed towards use in an office environment. Ascom’s wireless handsets. the 9d24 Talker can only be used for normal calls. In some models. Figure 2. apart from the OfficeM handset that contains a display capable of showing a four-level greyscale. the 9d24 Messenger also has messaging capabilities and the 9d24 Protector has both messaging and alarm capabilities (Ascom 9d). Figure 1.1 Wireless handsets Ascom’s wireless handsets transfer voice and data using DECT technology or through WLAN. 9d24 and OfficeT/M. For example. In the next few years the follow-up models of 9d24 will presumably also have colour displays and the 9d24 model has been used as a reference handset during our project (Ascom internal documents).1. User interfaces in Ascom’s 9d23. The handsets that are currently being produced by Ascom are equipped with black-and-white displays where each pixel is either on or off. the colours of the handset covers vary depending on in what kind of environment the handsets are used. 17 . 9d24 & OfficeM handsets. There is a white handset cover (Medic) used mainly by personnel in healthcare institutions and a yellow handset cover (Ex) that denotes that the handset is explosion safe (Ascom 9d). The most common handset models are the 9d23.
2 Nurse call system The teleCARE nurse call system consists of patient handsets and switches that are all integrated with the Ascom 9d telephone system. By pressing a soft key the user activates the associated command (Ascom internal documents). there is a row of icons at the top of the screen. Sometimes a blue button is used for making emergency calls (teleCARE. a message is sent to the pager or the handset worn by the nurse who is dedicated to the patient. The name and bed Figure 4. 2. a list of options is displayed below.The user interfaces in today’s handsets are mainly text based. apart from a number of graphical icons and symbols used in menus and to indicate for example battery level and signal strength. 18 . The user can then choose between the soft key options or from a vertical list of options. In the main menu of the Ascom 9d24. interview with teleCARE experts). number of the patient are immediately displayed on the device. In the OfficeM and 9d24 handsets there is a navigation key that enables the user to move in four directions in the menus. The messages that have been received can also be viewed in a message list. which can be accessed from the main menu (Ascom internal documents). at the lower part of the display. In the 9d23 handset.1. Nurse call and paging devices. including Medic handsets and teleCOURIER pagers. The way of navigating in menus and responding to alarms differs in different models. two buttons with arrows are used to scroll up and down in the menus. A soft key is a physical button directly associated with a command shown immediately above the button. The graphical user interface of the Ascom 9d24. Figure 3. When the nurse arrives to the patient’s room the nurse can press a green button to cancel the call or a yellow button to make an assistance call. When a red button is pressed on a patient’s handset or switch. The 9d24 also has three so called soft keys below the display. When a text message is received by the 9d24 handset the message text is directly displayed in full screen. By selecting an icon using the navigation key on the handset.
(Interview with supervisor. Message priority levels. informing them about the error. When the priority level has been chosen and the message is sent. The technology is based on a flow of interactive text messages between handsets and it is used in many different ways. This 5-7 Normal priority selection of priority levels can currently not be done 8-9 Low priority when sending a message from a handset. The operator who has accepted the task can demand additional help from an expert by forwarding the message. 3. This type of priority classification could however be altered in the future. 1. Each priority tag holds a number from 1 to 9. Each operator can either accept or reject the message. received message. However. Below is an example that describes a message flow in an industrial environment (interview with industrial segment manager). The exact priority number is not presented to the receiving user. Ascom’s handsets can receive text messages that originate from different sources besides other handsets.4 Message priorities 1-2 Alarm In Ascom’s messaging service the sender can select the priority level of a message before sending it using 3-4 High priority for example Ascom’s PC-interface NetPage. When an operator decides to accept the message and take action. 5. If all operators choose to reject the message. Each number belongs to one out of the four priority classes shown in table 1. (Ascom internal documents) 2.1. the rest of the operators are notified that someone has accepted the task. In the current system the list of messages in the handset interface is ordered 19 .1. their manager is notified and the manager can then send out another message to all operators.2. 2 the next highest priority level and so on. 4. a priority tag is attached to the message indicating its level of importance. 2. NetPage). A machine error occurs and the machine sends out an automatically generated message to the handsets of three machine operators. the handsets can display the priority level of a Table 1.3 Interactive messaging Ascom has developed a technology called interactive messaging that facilitates the communication between users. but we have based our design on these four priority classes. only its priority class. a message automatically generated by a machine or sent from a PC interface such as Ascom’s NetPage. It could be an SMS message from a cell phone. where 1 signifies the highest priority level.
20 . Since the type of protocol is irrelevant to the user the protocol symbols could be replaced with other symbols that instead denote the priority class of each message (interview with supervisor). In future handset interfaces it will be possible to sort and list messages according to their priority.according to the time they were received by the handset. with the most important message at the top of the list. Beside each message in the message list there is a symbol that denotes the type of protocol used for that particular message.
2002.1 User-centred design “Easy-to-use software does not just happen. and checking at each step of the way with the users to be sure that they like it and are comfortable with the final design. UCD has been made into an ISO standard (ISO 13407) and provides guidance for and lists the main principles and essential activities for achieving usability in interactive systems. 2006) The User-Centred Design (UCD) approach has been derived from the science of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Preece describes the term as “designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working life” (Preece et al. We also present the result of our literature studies that form the basis of our guidelines for user interface design in colour displays. It requires focusing on the product’s potential users from the very beginning. 6). unlike software development which primarily focuses on the production of software solutions for given applications (Dix et al. 3. Theoretical framework In this chapter we describe general terms that concern user-centred design and the methods that were used during our project. 2004). User-Centred Design is an approach to user interface design and development that involves users throughout the design and development process.” (IBM. pp. 21 .3. It refers to finding ways to support people.
social science.The main principles: 1. Multidisciplinary design teams (Usability Net) The essential activities are: 1. 2002. The design team can contain people with experience in areas such as informatics. cognitive science. 22 . The active involvement of users 2. The User-Centred Design process The user-centred design process (see Figure 5) is iterative and begins with an early study of the users to provide the core input to the design. 2005). The results are then analysed and appropriate improvements are made to the design (Preece et al. 2002). Preece et al. Shneiderman & Plaisant. Evaluate designs with users against requirements (Usability Net) The three factors of usability. Specify the user and organisational requirements 3. An appropriate allocation of functions between user and system 3. Iteration of design solutions 4. graphic design. Understand and specify the context of use 2. efficiency. Prototypes of different fidelity (low fidelity in the beginning. high fidelity in the end) are made and evaluated by the users.1). social and physical) in which they will use the system. and satisfaction are essential in this process to measure and predict the results (see Chapter 3. The goal of the UCD approach is to ensure that the final product fulfils the users’ wishes and needs. psychology. effectiveness. designers and/or usability experts. The UCD design team ought to be multidisciplinary to ensure different design perspectives.1. Produce design solutions (prototypes) 4. UCD does not only focus on the understanding of the users of a computer system but also requires an understanding of the tasks that users will perform while using the system and also the environment (organisational. engineering. 2004. human factors and industrial design (Dix et al.
easy to use. 23 .… flow through the application fits user’s tasks . It is about bridging the gap between people and machines (Dix et al. 2002. The international standard.… functionality fits the user’s needs . UsabilityNet).Figure 5. and subjectively pleasing. provides guidance on usability and defines it as “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness. efficiency. 2005).1. ISO 9241-11. 3. The interdependence of UCD activities (ISO 13407. and satisfaction in a specified context of use”. 2004. The users can contribute with information about their wishes and needs early in the process and evaluate design proposals in later parts of the process. Shneiderman & Plaisant. error tolerant.1 What is usability? Usability refers to the “ease of use” of a product or a system and depends on a number of factors including how well the… . Adopting the approach prescribed by ISO 13407 ensures that the users’ perspectives form part of the HCI design and development process. In UCD it is important to have an early and continual focus on the users and to let them be involved in the design process.… response of the application fits user’s expectations (Usability First) Usability is the quality of a system that makes it easy to learn. easy to remember. which will positively influence the usability of the final product (Usability Net). Preece et al.
greater functionality does not mean improved usability! 24 . software with poor usability can reduce the productivity of the workforce to a level of performance worse than without the system (Preece et al. Given a choice. usability is important because it can mean the difference between the success and the failure of a system.g. from a user’s perspective. comfort. From a management point of view. in all cases. 2002. From the developer's perspective. the lack of usability. According to Usability Partners. because they have no bearing on whether users are able to use them or not. enjoying the process or being frustrated. cognitive workload)? o Satisfaction – how do the users feel about their interaction with the product (e. ACSD). people will tend to buy systems that are more user-friendly.g. According to Usability First. can cost time and effort and significantly determine the success or failure of a system. Usability ought not to be confused with the “functionalities” and “features” of a product. acceptability)? Why is usability important? Usability. is the difference between performing a task accurately and completely or not.The following three factors are used to describe usability (ISO 9241-11): o Effectiveness – can users achieve what they need by using the product/system? Is it accurate and has the user completed the task? o Efficiency – how much effort and/or resources are required in relation to goals achieved (e. time.
using technologies. but also as a telephone call. There are three different types of interviews: Structured interviews The interviewer asks the same questions in the same order to all the informants. Contexts and Technologies. The participants can talk openly and are not restricted to choose between a certain number of answers. Activities.2 PACT-analysis People undertake activities. The analysis provides the design team with an overview of 25 . concentration during the interviews and a thorough analysis of the results. The PACTanalysis has primarily been developed to be used as an analysis tool during the initial requirements gathering stage. Unstructured interviews Deep interviews contain a low structure level and are based on conversations where the participant and the informant discuss one or several topics.3. 3. their demands and the context of use. An interview can be carried out like a personal meeting face-to-face.2. The analysis is made to get a deeper understanding about the users.1 Interviews This is a method in which the designer asks questions to one user or a small group of users. in contexts. but it can also be used elsewhere in the design lifecycle as a tool to check that all aspects have been addressed.2.2 User-centred design methods The focus of this Master’s project is to facilitate the user’s work through increasing the usability of a graphical user interface. All methods used during the project were used from a user’s perspective and they are presented below. Benyon et al (2005) has developed a useful framework for analysing the design situation when designing an interactive system. Semi-structured interviews A couple of open questions that deal with the same theme are asked to all the participants. or using email. This type of interview requires a lot of planning. This technique makes the user relax and start to talk more freely (Patel. The framework is called the PACT-analysis and it is an acronym for People. The questions are structured and the interview reminds of a questionnaire. To conduct an interview. 2003). a letter. one can use the funnel technique which starts with open and wide questions and then gradually begin asking more specific questions. It is important for the designer to prepare the questions and fully understand the goal of the interviews. 3.
here are the most important features of the category (Benyon et al. People can have hearing impairments. For example. 2005). People Making an exact definition of people is very difficult. Physical differences People differ in physical characteristics such as height. The mental model of a situation often differs between people and it is important to form a correct and useful mental model of how the users work and what they do (Benyon et al. but it is blue (Code Blue) in the US.g. have clear directions and to be consistent. but in the UK a cross is interpreted as an acceptance. People are better at recognising things than they are at remembering things and people have trouble remembering long numbers or complicated instructions. 2005). a website. different personalities. whereas others find it difficult. injuries and/or age. 2005). 26 . When it comes to memory and attention. A human’s memory and attention factor can decrease if the person is tired or stressed. Other physical differences can be people in wheelchairs or those who have dexterity impairments involving the use of their fingers (Benyon et al. This means that they have difficulties distinguishing the difference between the colours red and green. people have different needs and abilities.the different aspects that must be considered in the design process and it is therefore important to do the analysis carefully (Benyon et al. Some have good spatial ability and can easily remember and navigate in e. The language is essential for understanding and the cultural aspects affect how people interpret things. 2005). be short. To summarise them. Psychological differences People differ psychologically in a variety of ways. 2005). e. You need to consider the different range of characteristics of people. particularly when they are placed next to each other (FAA Human Factors).4% of the female population suffer from some form of congenital colour vision deficiency due to genetic disorders. Another example is the different interpretations of a cross. cognitive skills and preferences.or longsighted and colour deficient. hearing. smell and taste – also have a huge affect on how people interpret a specific situation. The five senses – sight. about 8% of the male population and 0. It is important to design and provide good signage. age. the colour for medical emergency is red in Sweden. For example.g. touch. weight. a cross on a voting paper (Benyon et al. In the US a cross is interpreted as a rejection.
Cooperation If the activity needs cooperation between users. The designer carefully needs to consider the characteristics of the complexity. both when things are calm and when things are busy (Benyon et al. 2005). 2005). 2005).e. Time pressure.Usage differences There are different levels of user experience (novice. The expert user often knows every little detail of a product’s features or the functions of a system. Benyon et al refers to Alan Dix who asserts that a general rule is that people expect response within 100 milliseconds if it is a hand-eye coordination activity and about 1-2 seconds if it is a cause-effect activity such as clicking a button and getting feedback. meaning and length of the activity. Complexity If a task or activity is well defined. It gets more difficult and complex if the user has to browse around to search for different pieces of information (Benyon et al. 2005). intermediate and expert users) when it comes to handling a product/system. 2005). Interruption. i. it often has a step-by-step approach. whereas the novice user’s knowledge only stretches over the functions that are needed to complete a task. Make the user complete a full task and let the user know what is happening through feedback. 2005): Temporal aspects Frequent/infrequent use. Anything above 5 seconds will get the users frustrated and confused (Benyon et al. Benyon lists the ten most important characteristics of activities that designers need to consider. A summary of the list follows below (Benyon et al. but the users of a company’s intranet are often heterogeneous (Benyon et al. the design must encourage communication and issues of awareness of others (Benyon et al. Activities The overall focus is to find out what the purpose of the activity is. 27 . The user groups can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Make sure that the design works well throughout the work process. 2005). 2005). If the user gets interrupted the design must support the user in getting back on track without being confused (Benyon et al. the users of a website for advanced programming are often homogeneous. If an activity is made frequently it should not have complex design and if the activity is only made rarely the design should be easy to learn and to remember (Benyon et al. Response time. For example.
a large amount of alphabetic data requires a keyboard. For example. Physical environment The physical environment refers to the environment in which an activity takes place. in an office it may not be accepted to use loud phone signals when you work in an open-plan environment. due to the risk of affecting medical equipment. healthcare and office environments. What device is going to be used? For example. The term context has a very wide meaning and it is important to limit the range of the context and the environment influencing the design process (Benyon et al. 28 . a two-tone display of numeric data demands a very different design from a full motion multimedia display (Benyon et al. Figure 6. What does the data need? For example. 2005). The nature of the content One should consider the data that is required of the activity. but it is accepted if you work alone. social-. An activity always occurs in a context. Is it cold. Social context Depending on where you live in the world different social norms may dictate the acceptability of a certain design.Safety-critical It is very important to make a design that is easy to understand and interact with if the task or activity can result in injuries or serious damage if a mistake is made. 2005). 2005). noisy or is the sun shining? For example. quite. physical-. Context There are three different types of context and these are. and organisational context. It is vital for a designer to consider what will happen if a mistake or error is made and design for such circumstances (Benyon et al. Industrial. the sunlight may make the text on a handset display hard to read (Benyon et al. 2005). Another example is that you are not allowed to use a mobile telephone in a hospital. but sometimes it is useful to see the context as surrounding an activity. wet.
) is the most suited for a specific user. transmission and storage of large amounts of data (Benyon et al. Most technologies have a mixture of function and content. Input devices can be e. The communication between different devices involves issues such as compatibility. the designer has to make e. still photographs.g. Content It is important that the data in a system is accurate. Does the environment present you with supportive manuals. Benyon mentions four different categories that a designer should consider when designing an interactive system. touch screens. 2005). activity and context. video. everything from two-toned displays to displays that have the ability to stream video in millions of colours. bar codes. Feedback is needed for the communication between people and devices to enhance the success-factor when completing a task and to make the user aware of what is going on. Output There are a lot of different displays out on the market today. 2005). speech etc. A remote control often 29 . Other issues such as bandwidth and speed must be taken under consideration when deciding on what technology to use. there are technologies that focus on either one or the other. Organisational context According to Benyon et al (2005) one cannot give a justified answer to this subject. What the designer ought to consider is which output (text. A summary of the list follows below (Benyon et al. relevant and well presented. 2005). However. interviews with the workers to get the correct picture of the social context (Benyon et al. updated. Communication There are two different types of communication: communication between people and devices and between different devices. and keyboards (Benyon et al. 2005). speech input.Social context can also be the kind of social environment you are working in. 2005): Input The quality of the input content depends on how people enter data and instructions to an interactive system. For example. Technologies An interactive system is a mixture of hardware and software components.g. tuition or expert help if needed? To discover the social context. The organisational context is important when it comes to larger changes at the company. such as technology changes or change of work focus. instructions are better displayed as plain text (the user can read them over and over again) instead of an instructional video (Benyon.
but who has an interest in making the communication at the work place more efficient (Cooper. A secondary persona could be his manager who does not use the handset. observations. 1998). The HTA can either be presented in a graphical matrix or as a task list (see Figure 7) and may have an action plan to describe in what order the tasks are performed (Hackos & Redish. navigation. According to Goodwin (Cooper. According to Preece et al (2002) a task analysis is mainly used to investigate existing situations and not to envision new systems or devices. 1999). which often focuses on the content (Benyon et al. 3. 2005). work environment. but a narrative that describes the flow of someone’s work tasks. 2004). according to Dix et al (2004) the task analysis can contribute to the statement of requirements of new systems. attitudes. and a plan that describes in what order and under what conditions the subtasks are performed (Dix et al. There are two different types of persona. so it is not artificial. how they act and what they need in order to complete a task is also taken into consideration. 2002) and the output of the analysis is a hierarchy of tasks and subtasks.2. and goals. sees a persona as a rich picture of an imaginary person who represents the core user group (Cooper. The founder of the method. The primary persona represents the majority of the intended users. 3. During the design process. The most common task analysis is the Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) (Preece et al. as well as their skills. For example. indentations are used to denote the levels of the subtasks and they are also marked with an ascending number (Dix et al. The secondary persona represents users that are not included in the primary persona.4 Hierarchical Task Analysis The purpose of a task analysis is to analyse the way people perform their tasks. a design team can have several personas covering different types of intended users and different roles. 30 . primary and secondary persona. The persona is based on studies of actual users. However. a good persona description is not a list of tasks or duties. and ethnographical interviews.focuses on the function unlike a website. a primary persona could be a machinery service man who uses a handset to get information about different tasks. To accentuate the hierarchy. and visual design. 2001). 1999). interaction.3 Personas A persona is a user-centred design method where you create your user archetype to help guide decisions about product features.2. Alan Cooper. 2004). Aspects such as things they do. but who will have an influence on the design process.
quickly and with low or without functionality (such as paper sketches). The supervisor can also ask questions about different actions that the user makes while performing the tasks. In a typical user test. A user test should be conducted in the user’s everyday working environment. Low fidelity prototypes such as paper drawings. cheap and fast to do.6 User testing User testing is a technique for discovering how well a product functions in the real user work environment. Examples of a graphical HTA and a list HTA.5 Prototyping Prototyping is a method that is used frequently in design projects during the development to early get a view of how the final system/product is going to look like and how it is going to work. The test method is not about finding computer bugs. 2002). there is one test user. there are often technical or other obstacles in the way. 31 . User testing is about letting a user perform realistic tasks and letting the user identify eventual usability problems that could occur when using the product. while the prototypes in the end are more complex and cost more (Preece et al. one or more supervisors and the user can be asked to “think aloud” while performing the tasks of the test. i.2. 3.2. Prototypes can have different fidelities. 2002). However. High fidelity prototypes such as web pages and other PC-applications are used in the middle to the end of the development. 3. mock-ups and pictures are used in the early stages of the development. The early prototypes are easy.e. The first versions of a prototype can be made “quick and dirty”.Figure 7. but to get a good understanding of what usability problems that exist and using that information to develop a better product (Ottersten & Berndtsson.
A structured user test is when all the test participants get the same task to fulfil and conduct it one by one (Ottersten & Berndtsson, 2002). The opinions about the number of test participants that should be used when performing a user test are diverse. Some HCI experts claim that at least 10 users are needed to get statistic significance or otherwise testing is of no use (Lauesen, 2005). Others, like Jakob Nielsen, claim that 5 users will find 85 % of all the usability problems (see Figure 8). Nielsen also claims that if testing is conducted on multiple groups of disparate users you do not need as many as 5 users for the test. Nielsen recommends (Useit, 2000): - 3-4 users from each category if you test two groups of users. - 3 users from each category if you test three or more groups of users. According to Nielsen (Useit, 2000), you always need at least 3 users to ensure that you have covered the diversities of behaviour within the group.
Figure 8. Test users needed to identify a certain percentage of usability problems (Useit, 2000).
3.2.7 Heuristic evaluation
Prior to the Second World War the evaluation of human factors was only made by testing if a user is suitable for a machine using a trial and error approach. The user either could or could not use the machine. If the user could not, another user was selected until the right match was made (Charlton & O’Brian, 2002). A lot has happened since then.
Nowadays there are a lot of different techniques for finding usability problems. Usability testing is a method where potential users try out the user interface. Heuristic evaluation is another technique where one or several experts evaluate a system. The evaluation is performed using a predefined set of usability principles (known as heuristics) developed by Jakob Nielsen and Rolf Molich (Preece et al, 2002) to identify problems in the design. By conducting a usability test, the tester finds true problems (in that sense that at least one user encounters each problem) and with the heuristic evaluation the tester finds potential problems (in that sense that the evaluator suspects that something may be a problem to the users) (Lauesen, 2005). Although the heuristic evaluation just finds potential problem it is a good evaluation method when the users are not easily accessible or involving them would be too expensive. In these cases, it is appropriate to let an expert perform the evaluation to get feedback from the product/system (Preece et al, 2002). The standard heuristic evaluation list contains 10 main usability principles made by Nielsen and his colleagues and Preece et al (2002) list them in the book “Interaction design; beyond human-computer interaction”: 1. Visibility of the system status – always keep users informed about what is going on, through providing appropriate feedback within reasonable time. 2. Match between system and the real world – speak the users’ language using words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than systemoriented terms. 3. User control and freedom – provide ways of allowing users to easily escape from places they unexpectedly find themselves in by using clearly marked “emergency exits”. 4. Consistency and standards – avoid making users wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. 5. Help users recognise, diagnose, and recover from errors – use plain language to describe the nature of the problem and suggest a way of solving it. 6. Error perception – where possible prevent errors occurring in the first place. 7. Recognition rather than recall – make objects, actions, and options visible. 8. Flexibility and efficiency of use – provide accelerators that are invisible to novice users, but allow more experienced users to carry out tasks more quickly. 9. Aesthetic and minimalist design – avoid using information that is irrelevant or rarely needed. 10. Help and documentation – provide information that can be easily searched and that provides help in a set of concrete steps that can easily be followed.
A heuristic evaluation can also be set by the evaluators themselves to adjust the evaluation to the system’s context.
3.3 Human factors
According to Nemeth (2004, pp. 26) human factors is “the development and application of knowledge about human physiology and behaviour in the operational environment”. The different human factors that were taken into consideration during our design process are presented below.
3.3.1 Stress and cognitive workload
It is important to take stress into account when designing a system for use in workplaces where the daily work can be stressful. Stress can have emotional, physiological, cognitive and behavioural effects on a person and if someone is under stress it could impact how the user carries out a task (Eysenck, 1999). For instance, it has been shown that operators working under extreme stress experience tunnel vision. The tunnel vision results in a narrowing of the region from were one can take in information rapidly. When designing a real-time system, it is therefore important to consider how to attract the user’s attention. Since users are often occupied with other tasks, the signal used for attracting a user’s attention to an event must be clear enough to be perceived even if it is outside the user’s current area of focus. The signal should also indicate the event’s level of urgency and continue to remind the user that the event needs attention if the user chooses to ignore the signal. At the same time, the signal should not be irritating to the user (Ware, 2000).
3.3.2 Colour deficiency
About 8% of the male population and 0.4% of the female population have some form of congenital colour vision deficiency due to genetic disorders, injuries and/or age. (FAA Human Factors). However these numbers represent all types of colour deficiencies and some of these individuals have quite good colour vision that only differs slightly from the norm, while others have severe problems distinguishing between different colours (Travis, 1991). However, a total absence of colour vision is extremely rare. The two most common forms of colour vision deficiencies are protanopia and deuteranopia. People suffering from these deficiencies have difficulties in distinguishing between red and green. Protanopes also have a brightness deficiency and therefore colours appear in a reduced level of brightness. Moreover, red colours can appear black or dark grey to protanopes (Ware, 2000; Dix et al 2004; FAA Human Factors).
People suffering from dyslexia have difficulties in reading and writing. Since dyslexia is hard to discover it is difficult to measure exactly how many people who have this affliction. Research has however shown that there are approximately 6 % of the population are dyslectic and about 4 % have dyslectic
1993. 3. dyslexic persons use coloured overlays. character sets. The overt factors are tangible and straight forward and include date. Current internationalisation and localisation of software has mainly focused on modifications of the language/character sets. The covert factors deal with elements that are intangible and depend on “special knowledge” such as graphics. 1996). currency. Marcus. 1998). gender. These are sheets of translucent or transparent coloured plastic that can be placed over a page of a book so as to colour the text beneath without interfering with its clarity.info). and political persuasion there are other factors that contribute to a person’s cultural identity (Dix et al. religion. collating sequence. calendar. colours. work culture. overt and covert factors (see Table 2). telephone numbers. and translation. 2001). These factors can be divided into two groups.info). time. there are many more aspects that need to be addressed (Russo & Boor. Cultural differences are often used synonymously with national differences but they are too simplistic. normally by national culture. visual and auditory dyslexia. 35 . Auditory dyslectics also have a hard time sounding out words and often make spelling mistakes (Dyslexi. sounds.info). The creation or retrofitting of an interactive system for other countries or other cultural preferences requires attention to technical details that go beyond mere linguistic translation (Barber.tendencies. Massey et al (2001) refers to Hall & Hall (1995) and Triandis (1993) who claim that people learn patterns of thinking and acting from living within a defined social environment. weekends. There are two main groups of dyslexia. number and currency formats. To make the text on a computer screen more readable. date. Apart from factors like age. Individuals with visual dyslexia have difficulties in “seeing” the words and often change the order of letters and numbers. the dyslexic person can use tinted glasses or change the background colour in the web browser (Dyslexi. Culture partially pre-determines a person’s communication preferences and behaviour (Massey. To increase the readability of text printed on paper. address formats. metaphors and mental models (Yeo. 1993). 2004). in for example a web browser. time. However. There are generally more men than women that are dyslectic and it is often hereditary (Dyslexi. A person with auditory dyslexia has difficulties connecting sounds to symbols.4 Cultural User Interfaces According to Bødker and Pedersen (1991) a culture is conceptualised as a “system of meaning that underlies routine and behaviour in everyday working life”. functionality. day turnovers.
such as national level (defined by country). 2001). â. As a final step. The strategy starts with the identification of all the elements (which include all the overt and covert elements of the user interface) that need to be localised to a particular culture. Another aspect to consider is the character sets different languages require.g. countries in the Middle East you read a text from right to left. Concepts that are two words in English and can appear on two lines on a normal-size button. Text and language A book is read differently around the world. language and national level (e. in certain cultures. Yeo (1996) proposes a strategy for localising the software by creating a Cultural User Interface (CUI) for each of the targeted cultures.4.g. For instance. When designing for an international market. A cultural “expert” will then be addressed a target culture and investigate that area. Overt and covert factors that contribute to a person’s cultural identity (Yeo.g. 1996). e. e. one should consider the space needed for different languages. 2001). The second step is to break down the cultural targets into levels to set different cultural boundaries. 36 . ö. “email” is “couriere electronique” in French and “sort ascending” is “lajittele nousevassa järjestyksessä” in Finnish (Henning. “Product registration” is “Produktregistrierung” in German (Henning. French-speaking Swiss). Whereas people in Western countries read from left to right. å. may be only one word in other languages – e.1 Overt factors The overt factors that are taken into special consideration during this Master’s project are presented below.Table 2.g. ë. 1993). 1996). ç (Russo & Boor. For example. many European languages contain a variety of characters with diacriticals and accents. 3. usability testing should be conducted on every CUI (Yeo.
in hospitals in the U. 1993).2 Covert factors The covert factors that are taken into special consideration during this Master’s project are presented below.S. but in many other Western countries blue colour is used for the same purpose. The red colour is used in Scandinavian countries for emergency alarms at hospitals. the phrase “code blue” is used to indicate a life-threatening emergency (Russo & Boor.3. but represent “death” in Egypt and “danger” in the United States. For instance. For example.4. The following table shows a list of common interpretations of colours in western countries: Table 3. red represents “life” in India. 1993). 1995). Russo & Boor. The interpretation of a colour can sometimes have the opposite meaning from one country to another. such as red is “danger” and green is “go”. 2004. Common western colour denotations (Marcus. Colour Colour in interfaces often reflects to “universal” conventions. 37 . but the interpretation of colour varies significantly across cultures (Dix.
but symbolises “maternal death” in Eastern countries like Singapore (Russo & Boor.Table 4. it is common in the Western culture to use crosses and checks for “acceptance” and “disapproval”. However. using a picture of a stork is associated with “birth” in Western countries. 1998). When designing symbols. An American bank using a web site to promote services for French investors may want to avoid the use of green colour since some Frenchmen may associate green with criminality. For example. these interpretations are interchangeable and affected by the cultural context (Russo & Boor. 1993). Use of crosses and checks in a word processor. 1996). 38 . 1993). Images and symbols Images are the visual language of a culture and like words. The owl is considered to symbolise “knowledge” in the Unites States. What we recognise in our culture. but good luck in the UK (Yeo. it is important to consider the translation of different symbols during localisation. Cultural associations of colour (Russo. 1993). prosperity. For example. A black cat is considered bad luck in the US. However. may have little or no meaning in other cultures. and future for them (Barber. Figure 9. but in Central America the owl represents witchcraft and black magic. images do not always translate. if they want to attract Middle Eastern investors they may want to use green since it has positive connotations such as strength.
one should not take for granted that the user is familiar with abbreviations. 1993). specific terminologies or the Roman alphabet (Horton. A polite gesture in one culture can be impolite. you should show them holding. 39 . Horton (1994) advises that if you must show hands. Western hand gestures and their meaning in different cultures (Horton. 1993). 1994). A metaphor may not be consistent in two different countries and therefore icons are often misunderstood or not understood at all (Henning. rude or even obscene in another culture (see Table 5). or moving something. pressing. symbols or images. When designing icons. the American trash can icon may confuse British users because they associate the trash can with their postal boxes (Russo & Boor. Gestures Gestures differ vastly around the world. For instance. Figure 10. 2001). Icons that are often misunderstood by users from different countries (Russo & Boor. 1994). Table 5.Icons are picture metaphors used primarily for navigational purposes.
40 . we will start to go through a number of important terms used for describing light. An important factor that affects the readability of a display is the luminance contrast. The more detailed the graphical interface is. o Illuminance. . The luminance contrast can be affected by glare. to ensure that the luminance contrast is acceptable (FAA Human Factors). the larger luminance contrast is needed.The term luminous is used to describe a device that emits light which is generated by the device itself. one should have knowledge about the basic terms that are commonly used to describe the properties of colours. We will here present information about important principles that concern the use of colour in the design of a user interface. a handset display is luminous. A large luminance contrast results in a more legible display. The following terms are used to describe the different physical properties of light (FAA Human Factors.e.5 Colour interface design theory There are many aspects that are important to take into account when designing a user interface in colour. It is therefore recommended to test displays in the actual environment where the display is to be used. There are also two terms that are used to describe the human perception of light: o Brightness refers to the perceived amount of light coming from a luminous source.3. i. Ware. Properties of light Since each colour represents a wavelength of light. is a measurement of the amount of light that is reflected from an object that does not generate light itself. 2000): o Luminance is the amount of light emitted by a light source. such as a display. resulting in lesser luminance. 3. o Lightness refers to the perceived amount of reflected light.5. on the other hand.1 Colour theory In order to understand how a colour interface should be designed. reflections on the glass of a display. . For example.Colours that are isoluminant have an equal amount of luminance.
On a display. icons and text Our visual system has difficulties in discriminating details with short-wavelength colour. saturation and value are commonly used when specifying a certain colour. patterned or textured backgrounds are not appropriate since they make text on the display difficult to read (NASA. We will go through important recommendations that concern common parts of a graphical interface. white or grey. Therefore Marcus (1995) advises against the use of highly saturated blue for text and details such as thin lines. without being conscious of the appearance of the background. 1999. describes the amount of brightness in the hue.2 Colour in the graphical interface There are principles concerning what colours to use for different elements in a graphical user interface. o The value of a colour.5. Blue details are particularly hard to distinguish because they appear dim and are therefore difficult to focus. while a less saturated colour appears more muted and is closer to black. blue colours 41 . Therefore cool colours with low saturation are recommended when selecting a background colour for a colour interface. o Saturation. For example grey and blue are considered as appropriate background colours for displays (Lee. also called chroma. Background colour The background of a user interface should recede visually and not draw attention from the user. the higher its value. A good background colour allows users to concentrate on the task at hand. a light wave with a wavelength of 580 nm corresponds to yellow.Properties of colour The three colour components hue. 1995). which ranges from about 400 to 700 nanometres (nm). describes the purity of a specific hue. The brighter a colour is. Backgrounds with garish colours that come forward are therefore undesirable. Also. also called intensity. o A hue refers to a specific wavelength of light that represents a colour within the visible spectrum. Furthermore. 2002). especially when used on a dark background. For instance. the value of a point denotes the total amount of light emitted from that particular point. 3. A highly saturated hue has a vivid colour. or small shapes. These recommendations will form the basis of our resulting colour design guidelines. Marcus. Details.
The recommended colour for normal text is black (Inuse. This can be avoided using a light and a dark blue colour instead (Marcus. Another inappropriate colour combination is when two spectrally extreme (red/green. red/blue) and highly saturated colours are used simultaneously. Inuse. The icons in a graphical interface should be simple and clearly distinguishable. Adjacent elements on the screen should not have colours that differ only in the amount of blue colour. 1999). Therefore. using too strong colours in icons is tiresome for the user’s eyes and makes it difficult to interpret what each icon symbolises. 1995). Inuse. 2004. There are colour combinations that are especially difficult to read in displays and therefore should be avoided at all times.should only be used for large areas and not for critical information (Dix et al. 2004). Colour should be used in icons as an additional cue to enhance. 1995). 2000. Such combinations can cause the user visual discomfort. Though. An improper combination of colours can lead to a distracting interface that significantly lessens the efficiency of the user interface (Ware. The reason for these recommendations is that the blue sensitive colour receptors are the least numerous in the retina of the eye and especially infrequent in the fovea. This could lead to inappropriate contrast effects with background colours and confuse users due to the perceived colour similarities or dissimilarities of small coloured areas (Marcus 1992). from the icon's meaning. not detract. including white. When selecting colours for details in an interface. users should not be required to discriminate colours in small areas. the colour contrast affects the legibility of a display. the lens of the 42 . 2004). Although the eye is less sensitive to poor colour contrast compared to differences in luminance. the eye’s central focusing area (Marcus. The reason for this is that if two colours on opposite sides of the colour spectrum are used one on the other. you should also take into account that as colour areas decrease in size their perceived value and saturation can change. blue/yellow. Colour-coding of text should be avoided in most cases. Thorell et al. 1992). additional decorations of the icons should be “carefully weighted against the confusion they may cause the viewer” (Marcus. 1990. 2004). The difference in hue and saturation between a colour and its surroundings on a display is called colour contrast. According to Marcus (1992) it is reasonable to use five different colours at most. Colours contrast Colours affect each other and therefore the possible contrast effects resulting from adjacent and background colours should be taken into account when selecting colours for an interface. Furthermore. since this will cause blurry edges between the elements. Also. it can be appropriate for short and temporary text elements such as menu options (Maguire. black and/or grey when selecting icon colours.
By choosing colours that also differ in both saturation and value. value. if colours are too close spectrally. This will make the display more resilient to colour distortions caused by changes in ambient light (Marcus. and saturation. less convex to focus on the other colour. if the designer has no choice but to use these combinations the contrast effects can be reduced by adding a thin black or white border around a coloured item to separate it from the background colour (Ware. 3. Combining spectrally extreme colours such as red and blue can result in Chromostereopsis. brightness and typeface (Ware. it is vital that the colours used have large differences in hue so that a user can easily differentiate the colours. By providing the user with redundant coding. Lee. However. Another type of problem that can occur due to inappropriate use of colour is the McCullough effect. for example if yellow text is placed on a white background (Shneiderman & Plaisant. the 43 .eye has to become more convex to focus on one colour while at the same time. lines and shapes on light backgrounds are recommended. For light-viewing situations. 2004). the user will also have difficulties in comprehending text and symbols. 1992). 1999. The effect causes the user to see an after-image with “pink snow”. colours that appear highly saturated in a darkened room will appear less saturated when viewed under high ambient illumination. Ambient illumination Colours change appearance as ambient light levels change because of increased or decreased contrast and due to the shift in the sensitivity of the eye. 2005. For example. Elements on the display can also appear to be floating or vibrating due to the use of too highly saturated colours (Stevens. 1992. 1992) Therefore light-coloured text. a stereoscopic effect that puts a great deal of strain on the user’s eyes and makes reading difficult. there will be additional information available even if the colours on the display are perceived incorrectly. 2000). 2000. 1995). lines and shapes should be used on medium to dark backgrounds for dark viewing situations. 1990). Maguire. if the user has previously read green text. Selecting colours for colour coding If colour is used to categorise information in a visual interface. dark text. Marcus. (Marcus.3 Colour coding Colour coding can be effective for labelling objects and it is superior compared to other visual codes such as difference in shape. on the other hand. Thorell et al.5. FAA Human Factors. On the other hand. The change of ambient light can result in changes in perceived hue.
A random choice of colour may cause the screen to appear cluttered. If too many colours are used. 1996). cyan. The steps between colours should be approximately equal. it is recommended that a usable system should have “as few colours as possible to meet the need of the task” (Travis. yellow. without losing performance in the speed and accuracy of identifying any one of the colours (Healey. green. 1999). 1999). Travis. pink. Another motivation for using these particular colours is that they are far apart in colour space and therefore the risk of confusing them is small. 1991). seven is the maximum number of isoluminant colours that can be displayed at the same time. The following twelve colours are recommended for use in colour coding: red. black. orange. It is therefore important to limit the number of colours to avoid confusing the user (Maguire. The reason for this recommendation is partly because cross-cultural experiments have shown that these colours are given the same name by users with a high probability and therefore are considered as widely accepted (FAA Human Factors. Out of these twelve colours. 1991). 1995). 1991).user’s ability to differentiate colours can be improved even more (Marcus. Research has shown that due to the limitations of the human short-term memory. yellow. brown and purple. white. Red. 1999). A conservative use of colours is one of the most important factors when designing an effective colour display (Brown. 1992. because if two colours are too similar the user will think that they are related in some way. 44 . the more useful is the colour code (FAA Human Factors. grey. Amount of colours for colour coding Despite the fact that the human eye can detect differences between approximately 10 millions colours. Marcus. 1995). they will be closer in hue and harder to discriminate and an overuse of colours can result in a display that is more difficult to use than its monochromatic equivalent. green and blue are the easiest colours to remember and they are therefore good for use in colour-coding (Arbetsmiljöverket). According to Brown (1999) an overuse of colours can sometimes result in a display that is more difficult to use than its monochromatic equivalent. The easier it is for a user to identify a displayed colour. the first six of them should be used primarily. we can only remember and identify 6 to 12 colours on average due to our limited colour memory (FAA Human Factors). blue. hence reducing the user’s performance of identifying and interpreting different colour codes (Brown. Lee. 1999. A colour should be added only if it helps the user in performing a task (Brown. To avoid ending up with a cluttered display and ensuring that the user can discriminate between the colours displayed. Travis.
Stevens. This means that whenever a colour is used as an information carrier. If the display is to be used by people with colour deficiencies. 1995). it should be complemented with some other form of visual indication that mediates the same information. it is easier for the user to make associations with each one of the colours shown and to identify particular items on a display (Maguire. Lee. together with some form of redundant coding (Brown. FAA Human Factors. 45 . 1992. 1999). for example by adding a line on the bottom of the display that explains what every colour code is associated with. or text labels to carry the information. Maguire. Dix et al. which is normally the case. The use of redundant coding reduces the risk of miscomprehension by users. 1999. the information should not be conveyed only by colour. Colour coding consistency It is recommended that the same colour-coding scheme is kept consistent throughout all parts of a system to avoid confusing users (Dix et al. to about five colours is recommended. 1999. 2004. in particular those users suffering from colour vision deficiencies and users who originate from cultures with dissimilar colour conventions. 1992. 1995). icons. Marcus. Therefore. Brown (1999) recommends that the meaning of each colour should be clearly defined.By limiting the number of different colours. but it should be used as an additional aid to the user. without the use of colour. limiting the number of different colours even more. Furthermore. 2005. Displayed data should provide necessary information even when viewed by a user with defective colour vision. Colours can then be added as an additional cue that helps users recognise and discriminate between different graphical objects (Maguire. Marcus. An absence of redundant coding can result in the exclusion of many users due to colour vision deficiencies. 2004. 1992). 1992). Marcus. an interface should be designed for the least-capable display that could possibly be used (Brown. many more colours are required if the interface should present photorealistic images or to make it more aesthetically pleasing (Lee. 1992). A method for assuring that the interface is understandable is to begin by designing for a monochrome display (Shneiderman & Plaisant. Redundant coding The use of colour is an effective way for coding information on a display. a yellow warning message should also contain a symbol or text explaining that it is a warning message (FAA Human Factors). 1995). Maguire. 2004. This way the designer is forced to add visual objects such as symbols. For instance. since there may be some users whose displays don’t have colour capabilities. On the other hand. The use of redundant coding also makes a display more resilient to colour distortions caused by changes in ambient light (Marcus. Also.
Brown. users will think that the priorities of error messages are determined by colour. the user will be distracted and make associations to that colour anyway (Inuse. if colours are used inconsistently the advantages of colour coding will be lost (Brown. One way is to employ redundant coding. Stevens. which is to use complementary visual codes on top of colour coding. even if these colours aren’t directly associated according to any colour conventions.5. Since changes in colour are attention-getting. 2004. since inappropriate colour coding can result in the exclusion of many users with colour vision deficiencies (FAA Human Factors.4 Context of use There are also aspects that need to be taken into account in order to facilitate the use of a colour interface for users that perceive colours differently due to colourdeficiencies or age. this solution limits the range of possible hues significantly. Elder users also need higher 46 . Ware. 1999). it is important to have colour deficient users in mind. 3. If the designer has chosen a colour without any specific relevance to the user’s task. 2004). Elderly often have difficulties in discriminating blue colours in particular and adjacent blue colours will make edges appear indistinct. an inconsistent use of colours may confuse users and make them wonder why a particular colour has changed. This is especially important when several designers are involved in a user interface project. Another solution is to only choose colours from pre-defined colour palettes that only contain colours that can be perceived correctly by colour deficient individuals (Shneiderman & Plaisant. you should take into account that there are also colour vision deficiencies that are related to aging. Such problems can be reduced by the use of a predetermined colour style guide (Shneiderman & Plaisant. There are different techniques for adjusting an interface to suit people with colour deficiencies. 1991. This way colour deficient users can make associations with symbols. Colour deficient users When designing a colour interface. Shneiderman and Plaisant (2005) explains this problem using the following example: If some error messages are coloured red and some are yellow. Travis. users can learn to make associations. However. 2005). 2000). Elder users If the intended user group contains elder people. 1999). 2005). If colours are used consistently and have the same meaning everywhere in an interface. labels or shapes instead of distinguishing between different colours.1999. due to the inconsistent use of colour. On the other hand.
brightness levels to distinguish different colour from each other because all colours appear dimmer than they actually are (FAA Human Factors). The main reason for this is that the lens of the eye is yellowing with age, thus causing a reduction in the ability to see colours with short wavelength. Therefore colours with high saturation and brightness should be used for older viewers, to aid them in discriminating different colours (Marcus, 1995; Williams, 1994).
3.5.5 Examples of colour use
Below, we present a number of different examples that illustrate when the use of colour in graphical user interfaces can be especially effective.
Emphasising and de-emphasising Since variations in colour attract a user’s attention, colour can be used effectively to highlight critical information on a display (Brown, 1999; Marcus, 1995). Using colour for emphasising objects improves the user’s performance and is often applied in screen design. In order to achieve an effective colour emphasise, a high contrast in value and saturation between the colour of the emphasised object and the surrounding objects and background is advised (Marcus, 1995). Bright colours are appropriate when the interface should get the user’s attention and can be used to emphasise important elements on the screen, such as danger signals or reminders. If an element in the interface is emphasised using intense and saturated hues, it will draw the user’s attention (Marcus, 1995; Marcus, 1992).
Although the use of colour coding for emphasising certain objects or part of the screen can be useful, this type of emphasise can be distracting to the user if used improperly. As the number of emphasised items goes up, the effectiveness of the interface goes down. An overuse of colour emphasise will make the screen look garish, thus distracting the user. The hierarchy of emphasised, neutral and deemphasised elements on the screen should be carefully designed to maximise the simplicity and clarity of the interface (Marcus, 1992). Emphasise by colour should be used with caution and no more than two objects on the display should be emphasised simultaneously. Grey colours are appropriate for de-emphasising elements on the screen. Grey elements are perceived as 'greyed out' and associated with options or elements that are unavailable or elements that do not need critical attention from the user (Travis, 1991).
Grouping related elements Since objects of the same hue are perceived as being similar by the human eye, an effective way to group objects is to apply colour coding by using the same hue to
signify a relation among objects. An example where different hues are used for grouping is in pictures describing the human physiological systems in medical books. By, for example, colouring the blood arteries red, the blood veins blue and the nerves yellow the reader can easily make a distinction between the different systems (Travis, 1991; Marcus, 1995). User interface designers can make use of this principle by colouring objects or parts of the screen with the same hue. For example, a specific background colour can be used to group a number of related screens. This provides the user with additional information about the relationship of different parts of the system. It has been shown that our ability to remember objects is improved if they are grouped together into separate units. By colouring different areas of the screen, such as screen headings, tabs and status bars the relation between them is emphasised, which provides an additional help for the user in segmenting the screen. Colour is also useful for grouping different types of data in graphs, making the distinction between data sets effortless for the user (Travis, 1991; Marcus, 1995).
Searching for elements The use of colour coding results in the best performance when used in tasks concerning the searching for an item and the grouping of different items (Thorell & Smith, 1990). The main benefit of using colour coding for searching is that a search is completed faster if the targeted element has a different colour than the rest of the elements on the display. However, the user’s performance is negatively affected if the number of items with the same or similar colour to the targeted item increases, and if the user does not know the colour of the targeted item in advance (Brown, 1999). Displaying status and progress Colour can be used effectively to show the status of a certain parameter on a display. Different colours can be used to indicate if a certain parameter is within, close to or exceeds a safe range of values. For example, if a display should show the power level of a battery then green colour could be used to indicate that the battery level is ok, yellow colour that the battery will soon run out of power, and finally red colour to indicate that the power level has reached a critically low value (Brown, 1999).
There is a lot of knowledge regarding the development of graphical user interfaces, but only a limited amount of sources that concern the use of colour in user interfaces. With an explorative scientific approach to our research it may open up for an opportunity to gather more information of the problem area (Patel, 2003). “A method is a detailed description of a way to solve a certain problem” and the approach must be described (Andersen, 1994, pp. 102). The methods chose to use were aimed at simplifying and breaking down our problem. The work has been focused on user-centred design in user interfaces and that is why qualitative methods are used instead of quantitative methods. The data collection of these methods focuses on “soft” data such as; qualitative interviews, interpretive analysis and verbal analysis methods (Patel, 2003). To ensure the user-centred development and usability throughout the process, we have chosen a User-Centred Design approach. The design process began with a requirements gathering where a design guideline document was developed. The process was iterative and three iterations were performed. Each iteration consisted of the four phases called analysis, development, testing, and evaluation in order to follow Shneiderman’s design process (1998). Throughout the design process we had a continuous focus on the user and each iteration had a specific goal. The results from one iteration went into the next. In the first iteration, the goal was to gather information about the current use of colour codes and to get a deeper insight into future possibilities regarding applications for handsets with colour display. In the second iteration, the goal was to concentrate on the prototyping and testing of a specific application. The goal of the third and last iteration was to evaluate the design proposals and make the adjustments needed
to fulfil the users’ wishes and demands. Figure 11. Overview of the iterations and metods in the design process. An overview of our iterative design process is presented below. 50 .
1 Interviews In the early stage of our Master’s project. their tasks. First. The first one was to gain an understanding about the users.4. The aim was to establish a set of colour design guidelines that would form the theoretical basis of our project. and their work context to begin the user-centred design process. The results from the interviews. before meeting the real users. The purpose of the interview was to hear what their thoughts are about the use of colour displays in future Ascom handsets and to get information about customers that we could contact to reach the users of Ascom’s handsets. To gather information about colour design in user interfaces we studied literature concerning general principles for the design of colour user interfaces. The other focus was to gather information about the use of colour in the design of user interfaces. The interviews were semi-structured and more based on conversations than a structured list of questions. In order to facilitate the analysis of the interviews they were recorded and later fully transposed. we decided to interview Ascom employees with experience from the industrial and healthcare segments. We also posed questions about how colours are used in Ascom’s current products and interfaces.1. several interviews with key persons were conducted to gather information about the company’s solutions. and users. A complete list of the interview questions can be seen in Appendix C. The participants were asked about how the handsets are used today and by whom. together with Ascom’s internal documentation formed the basis of the PACT-analysis that was carried out to get a better overview and understanding of the users. segments. an interview with two representatives of the Swedish sales department at Ascom was conducted. there were two separate focuses. 4. In the next step. The aim of our initial work was to get a first insight in how Ascom’s products look like and how they are used and therefore we decided to conduct a couple of interviews with Ascom employees. We also asked if they had any ideas for future colour applications in handsets.1 Requirements gathering In this phase. a set of personas representing users from both the industrial and healthcare segment was developed using the results of the PACT-analysis. products. Two employees with extensive knowledge about Ascom’s healthcare products and the industrial segment manager at Ascom were interviewed about the future use of colour displays. 51 . The methods used in the requirements gathering phase are presented below. To get a deeper understanding of how and where Ascom’s products are used.
Despite Cooper’s advice (Cooper. to get an understanding about the user group and to have a document stating different user needs. notepad.1. or development. We used the basis of the Ascom personas and redesigned them. A sheet with the main interview questions. 4. context and technology. their tasks.1.The interview participants were five to the number and worked with sales. The persona document was then used as a verification document in different design stages. The purpose of the analysis is to get a correct understanding of the users. to fit our targeted users. Ascom’s internal personas and from interviews with employees with profound knowledge about the industrial and healthcare segments. The information was used as a complement to the internal documents for the development of the personas. 4. using the results from the PACT-analysis and the interviews. management. The participants represented the following departments of Ascom: Swedish sales (2 persons) Industrial segment (1 person) teleCARE experts (2 persons) Materials: For the interview leader: For the interview assistant: A sheet with the main interview questions. The material needed for this analysis has been given to us through Ascom’s internal documents. These persons have a deep knowledge in all aspects that concern the users of Ascom’s products.3 Personas We chose to use personas for two reasons. pencil and a sound recorder. 52 .2 PACT-analysis The PACT-analysis was used to gain information about the users of Ascom’s products. 1999) on how to create personas. We also interviewed representatives of the Swedish sales department and the manager for the Industry sales department at Ascom. we have based our personas on the results from the PACT-analysis.
4.2.4 First iteration
The goal of the first iteration was to investigate the current use of colour codes in each segment and to gather proposals concerning future applications for handsets with colour display. Interviews and a colour association tests were conducted with participants from the industrial- and healthcare segment. Environmental observations were also performed at their work places. The focus of the interviews was also to understand the users’ tasks and to gather opinions about the current user interface in Ascom’s handsets. The methods used in the first iteration are presented below.
The purpose of the interviews was to get an understanding of what the users thought of the existing handset user interface, what they used their handset for, what they thought about different future design proposals and how they interpreted different colour codes. The interviews were conducted at Ascom’s factory in Herrljunga (industrial segment), at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg (healthcare segment), and at Örebro University Hospital (healthcare segment). The participants were seven to the number and scattered as follows: Ascom Herrljunga: 5 participants Sahlgrenska University Hospital: 1 participant Örebro University Hospital: 1 participant The interviews were semi-structured and every question was asked in the same order to every test user. The sessions were held by two persons, of whom one person asked the questions and one took notes of the answers. The session began with a short description of our Master’s project and the interview agenda. The first questions that were posed were general questions about the user and the user’s work tasks. These questions were asked to make the test user feel relaxed and comfortable. The following questions concerned what the test user thought of the handset user interface of today, how the participant used the handset and opinions about future design proposals. Materials: For the interview leader:
A sheet with the interview questions and pictures of the colour application proposals. A sheet with the interview questions and a sound recorder. A notepad and pencil for making notes of the users’ answers, expressions and gestures.
For the interview assistant:
4.2.6 Colour association test
The purpose of the colour association test was to get the interpretation of specific colours used in the industry- and healthcare segment. When choosing colour for a colour coding scheme, Ware recommends (2000) using 12 specific colours (see Figure 12). Six of these should be used primarily and six secondarily, since these colours are widely accepted (see Chapter 3.4.3). We therefore chose to use these colours in our colour association test.
Figure 12. Primary and secondary colours. From left to right: yellow, green, red, blue, black, white, grey, purple, pink, turquoise, orange, and brown (Ware, 2000).
The colour association test was performed by ten participants; six who represented the industrial segment and four who represented the healthcare segment. Two of participants from the healthcare segment were Ascom employees from the Netherlands who work with the development of healthcare equipment for Germany, France, the US, Malaysia and Taiwan. The participants performed the test one at a time and the colour association test began with an introduction about why we were doing the test and how it was going to be conducted. The participant then got to see the first colour and started to talk about his or her interpretation of the colour on the basis of their work context. The whole colour association test was recorded, but a notepad and a pencil were also used as a backup. The result data was collected in to two matrices, one for the industrial segment (see Appendix D.1.3) and one for the healthcare segment (see Appendix D.1.4). The data was then analysed to evaluate the associations to different colour codes. Materials: For the test leader:
A sheet with the different colours and a blank sheet to cover the following colours. A sheet with the colours and a sound recorder. A notepad and pencil for making notes of the users’ answers, expressions and gestures.
For the test assistant:
4.2.7 Environmental observations
To gain information about which colours are used in specific areas or situations, an environmental observation was carried out. The purpose of the colour association test was to get an understanding of the different meanings of colour in different segments. There were three observation occasions and they took place at Ascom Herrljunga (industrial segment), Sahlgrenska University Hospital (healthcare segment), and Örebro University Hospital (healthcare segment). There were two observers present at all observations. The observation at Ascom Herrljunga was conducted using a notepad and a camera. Symbols, signs, and different types of colour coding were noted down on paper and photographed. During the observations at the healthcare institutions, only paper and pencil were used because of the privacy rules that prohibit photographing in hospitals. Using a notepad and a camera is an easy, cheap, and flexible way of conducting an observation (Preece et al, 2002). Materials: Observer, Nr. 1 Observer, Nr. 2
Notepad and a pencil Digital camera
4.3 Second iteration
The User-Centred Design process advocates an active involvement of the users and the development of prototypes with different fidelities for evaluation by the users (Preece et al, 2002). The purpose of the second iteration was to make a first evaluation of our prototypes. We wanted to see what users thought, in order to get constructive feedback and to see what could be improved. After analysing the results of our interviews from the first iteration, we decided to focus on developing a user interface for displaying message priorities. There were several reasons for this choice, one important reason was the positive response from the persons interviewed who thought that it would be a very useful feature to be able to distinguish between and sort messages of different priorities. On the basis of the personas and what our supervisors told us we understood that the interactive messaging functionality is an important feature in Ascom’s communication solutions. Furthermore, we were convinced that prioritised messages could benefit greatly from the use of colour. Based on the information gathered from our literature studies, interviews, and the hierarchical task analyses (see Chapter 4.3.1) a first version of low fidelity and highly detailed paper prototypes was created in Adobe Photoshop. An interactive
2 Prototyping Two different prototypes were developed in the second iteration.3. but the tasks require a lot of background knowledge surrounding the tasks. one screen representing a fictitious message of each priority class (low.Flash prototype was also developed to conduct user testing. 4. from discussions with our supervisors. 4. The purpose of the storyboard scenario was to illustrate and organise the flow of the Flash prototypes that we later developed and it was made using “quick and dirty”-prototyping.3. and a demonstration of the messaging system at Ascom in Göteborg. A storyboard scenario of the test flow was developed with graphical sketches with low fidelity. By combining the results of our colour association tests with the recommendations for colour-coding. 56 . in what order they are carried out. When the user receives a message in the handset. The symbols that were chosen for representing different priorities were inspired by icons from The Icon Book (Horton. A low fidelity paper prototype with a set of five pictures illustrating future user interface for the messaging system and an interactive high fidelity PC-application were made. and alarm) and a screen showing a list of messages of different priorities. The prototype contained five pictures.1 Hierarchical Task Analysis To get a deeper understanding of what the users’ tasks are. The information required to perform the HTA was gathered from Ascom’s internal documents about the messaging system (Ascom PQM Input). A HTA does not only investigate and present a task and its subtasks but also results in a plan that describes the order of the subtasks and under which conditions they are performed. and what equipment and information they require a Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) was performed. we created a colour-coding scheme for the four priority classes. there are few tasks involved in the physical interaction with the handset. The scenario was derived from the hierarchical task analysis made earlier in the design process. high. 1994). normal. Paper prototypes and storyboard scenarios The purpose of the paper prototype was to demonstrate the different priority classes and to evaluate the selected colour-codes. The methods used in the second iteration are presented below. The prototype was made in Adobe Photoshop with a high detail level.
The user evaluation of the Flash–prototype was performed with one participant at a time and it was conducted at the participants’ offices at their work places. A first version of the prototypes was made with “quick and dirty”-sketches on paper. tested the prototype with the healthcare theme and three participants. particularly on the choice of colours and symbols. The prototypes were made using the graphical computer applications Macromedia Flash and Adobe Photoshop. we asked them to try to think aloud (saying loud what you are thinking) while carrying out the test. The second version was a high fidelity prototype and that was clickable. who represented the healthcare segment. 4.3. A sound recorder. The main focus was not to design complex prototypes. A PC laptop with the Flash prototype. The purpose of the test was to see how the users felt about and reacted to the colour-coded messages when presented in a situation that resembled their real working situation. Afterwards.Flash prototypes The purpose of the Flash prototypes was to develop interactive prototypes for conducting user tests. tested the prototype with the industrial theme. the participants were asked questions on how they experienced the flow of messages and particularly how the colour-coding affected their comprehension of the different priority levels.3 User tests The user tests were carried out on participants from both the industrial and healthcare segments. representing the industrial segment. The course of events was steered in that sense that messages came in a predefined order. but to be able to display the different characteristics of alarm messages. The Flash prototype was evaluated by four participants. 57 . The paper prototypes were showed to the participants who were asked to comment on the prototypes. The participants were then asked to interact with the PCapplication described above where a flow of messages was shown together with instructions for the participant to follow. Since we wanted to get a good understanding of how the users reacted to the test. One participant. Materials: For the test leader: For the test assistant: For the participants: A notepad and a pencil.
The following four pictures contained our design proposals for the messaging interface and the participant was asked to tell us the name of each colour that was shown in the message. but if you have a colour deficiency you will see the number “2”. The test participants were first shown six different pictures and they were asked to tell the number or the colour of each picture. The participants were three to the number and all the participants are colour deficient with either deuteranopia or protanopia. Picture one shows the number “5”.4 Colour deficiency test The purpose of the colour deficiency test was to ensure that our design proposals are seen and understood by persons with colour deficiencies. The participants were all men in the ages between 23 and 29 years. The test focuses on the two most common colour deficiencies.4. Notepad and pencil 58 . The first two pictures contained coloured numbers. Picture two shows the number “45”. but if you have a colour deficiency you will either see ”spots” or you will not be able see anything in particular.3. protanopia and deuteranopia. The black numbers indicate in which order the pictures were displayed. The pictures shown for the test participants can be seen in Figure 13. If you have a colour deficiency you will not be able to see the correct numbers hidden in picture 1 and 2. Materials: For the test leader: The six different pictures.
4. the next phase was to perform a redesign and a heuristic expert evaluation to evaluate the final design proposal. During the heuristic evaluation the pictures were evaluated in order to ensure that our graphical user interface guidelines and user’s demands. After having performed the user tests with the Flash prototype and analysed the participants’ opinions about the way different priority messages were displayed. 59 . The final design proposals were developed as pictures displaying the different alarm messages. Pictures that were shown during the colour deficiency tests.4 Third iteration The fourth and final essential activity of the User-centred design process is to evaluate the design against the user requirements (ISO 13407). needs. During the user tests the participants had a few comments on the different symbols and colours. and wishes were fulfilled. These comments laid the foundation for a redesign.Figure 13.
rather than system-oriented terms. we went through each principle to identify possible design problems in our prototypes. all these principles could have been used. The set of principles that was tested were selected usability principles by Jacob Nielsen and the principles from our own design guidelines. but since we only tested a small number of interface views we chose the principles that were considered appropriate for our evaluation. The following principles from our own colour interface design guidelines were evaluated: 6. 3. 60 Use background colours with low saturation Avoid patterned or textured backgrounds Avoid highly saturated or bright colours for details Avoid the need for colour discrimination in small areas Use at most five different colours in icons Use black colour for normal text . 10. If we would have evaluated a complete system. 9.1 Heuristic evaluation Since the test users have not been easily accessible during this design process a heuristic evaluation of the design proposal was chosen as a final evaluation method. The following usability principles by Jacob Nielsen were evaluated: 1. To evaluate the usability of our design proposal. 2. or actions mean the same thing. 4. The purpose of the heuristic evaluation was to verify that our design proposal conformed to Nielsen’s “10 heuristics” and our own colour design principles. Consistency and standards – avoid making users wonder whether different words. Visibility of the system status – always keep users informed about what is going on. situations. phrases and concepts familiar to the user. User control and freedom – provide ways of allowing users to easily escape from places they unexpectedly find themselves in by using clearly marked “emergency exits”. through providing appropriate feedback within reasonable time. 7. The evaluation was performed by us taking on the expert role. Aesthetic and minimalist design – avoid using information that is irrelevant or rarely needed. 11. using words. Match between system and the real world – speak the users’ language.4. Any violations to the principles that occurred were discussed and the remarks that were made are presented in Results (see Chapter 5). 5. 8.4.
Primarily use red. Avoid colour coded text 13. Secondarily use pink. A list of the selected heuristic evaluation principles. cyan. yellow. Choose colours that have meaning to the user 26. Use bright and/or saturated colours to draw the user's attention to critical data 27. Inform the user about the meaning of each colour code 24. Avoid the use of adjacent colours that only differ in the amount of blue 17. Each colour should only represents one category of data 23. green. blue. Avoid emphasising more than two elements at the same time 29. Avoid the use of blue colour for critical information Materials: For the experts: The pictures of the design proposals. Avoid using more than five different colours codes 21. A notepad and pencil for writing down the usability problems down. Avoid combining colours with low colour contrast 16. black and white colour codes 19.12. Use grey colours to de-emphasise elements on the screen 28. 61 . orange. brown and violet colour codes 20. Avoid combining colours that are both highly saturated and spectrally extreme 14. Use colours that differ in both value and saturation 15. Use redundant coding in addition to colour codes 25. Use colour codes consistently throughout all parts of the system 22. Use colour codes that have large differences in hue 18. grey.
62 . the three participants who carried out the colour deficiency test did not represent a specific segment. Interviews (2nd iteration) Industrial segment Healthcare segment 5 Colour association tests 6 User tests 3 2 4 1 Table 6.4.5 Method summary A lot of different methods were used during the project. Here is a summary of all the methods and tests performed in the different design stages: Requirements gathering: o Interviews o PACTanalysis o Personas First iteration: o Interviews o Colour association tests o Environmental observations Second iteration: Third iteration o Hierarchical task o Heuristic analyses evaluation o Prototyping o User tests o Colour deficiency tests The methods were conducted with users from both segments. However. The number of participants from each segment that took part in the methods can be seen in the table below. Number of participants from the interviews and tests.
They also said that a change to colour displays does not have to result in drastic changes. They think that colour displays add a credit value to products because they appear more visually attractive and up-to-date compared to products with monochrome displays. but rather an enhancement of the features that already exist. Besides each alarm an icon could be used to indicate the type of alarm. The second idea was to show a more detailed overview of alarm messages in a pager or a handset. The sales representatives also presented two ideas of how colour could be used in future handheld devices.1 Interview with Ascom Swedish sales representatives The sales representatives told us that the general trends on the market indicate that colour displays should be used and that there is no good reason not to use them. 5. Results In this chapter we have summarised the results from the methods that were carried out during our project. DECT handsets and PDAs with colour displays in the long run.5. 63 . 5. They believe that it will not be possible to compete against other cell phones.1 Requirements gathering The purpose of the requirements gathering was to perform theoretical methods and interviews with Ascom personnel to get a deeper understanding of Ascom’s products and users. instead of getting each message separately.1. The first idea was to combine Ascom’s existing positioning system with a map on the handset display to make the localisation of personnel or patients in cases of emergency even more efficient.
He also said that once you start developing devices with colour displays their monochrome equivalents will feel very aged. and sometimes a pink colour code is used to indicate baby theft. a white button is used instead of the red one for nurse calls and in the UK they use orange nurse call buttons. Red buttons are used for calling a nurse.3 Interviews with two teleCARE experts at Ascom We learned that colours are already used extensively in the teleCARE system in handsets. Each patient handset and wall switch has a number of colour-coded buttons that are used for alarm purposes.1. Blue buttons are used for emergency calls in the US.2 Interview with the industrial segment manager at Ascom According to the segment manager colour displays are not an order requirement. but according to the teleCARE experts the colours of the buttons differ in different countries. The possibility of displaying medical surveillance data such as electrocardiograms was considered very interesting and they definitely see room for this type 64 . Each colour is associated with an action. Both teleCARE experts are positive to the use of colour in handsets for reinforcing the identification of different alarms and they think that it would be beneficial from a user point of view if you could mark important messages with a certain colour. o Localise personnel in cases of emergency using a simplified map in the handset instead of just a text saying for example “Block A. Since colour displays are standard in today’s cell phones. o Monitor machines etc. in a factory using video surveillance directly in the handset. 3rd floor”. green buttons for cancelling a call and yellow buttons for making an assistance call.5. In Europe. Ascom’s handsets could eventually be seen as outdated. Today the text messages shown in Ascom’s handsets can only be enhanced using sound and vibration and the segment manager is very positive towards the use of colour and icons in the messaging services as well. o Assistance in finding damaged parts of a machine using a simplified exploded view (all the machine parts are shown) in the handset. On the patient handsets and wall switches. large LCD displays etc. for example before a machine breaks down. Below is a short summary: o Display different types of graphs so that the user can see values over time and be able to respond in time. o Showing colours for alarms with different priorities in the handset. he responded with a variety of different proposals. When asked if he had any ideas on what features that would be of interest for use in the industry. There are a number of colours used for colour-coding in the teleCARE system.1. these button colours are more or less a standard. there are buttons with different colours. In Australia. 5. but it would be seen favourably when comparing different models.
We also talked about the use of simplified maps in handsets for locating patients and we were told that there is already a PC application called Nurse Station Server (NSS) that is used for this particular purpose. intermediate and expert users and the time needed to perform different tasks differs. In the industrial and healthcare segments. Finnish. The NSS is only used in receptions and text messages are sent from the reception to the nurses’ handsets. Spanish. technicians. There are users that are colour deficient. one of the teleCARE experts said that it could be very useful for monitoring patients in elderly care or psychiatrical institutions. group leaders. 65 . laboratory assistants. The users differ psychologically in a variety of ways. Examples of people are: o Industrial segment: Managers. technicians. it could be tricky to show a NSS map in a handset display. The handsets are used all over a company and parameters such as computer skills. cognitive skills.4 Results from the PACT-analysis The results from the PACT-analysis are presented below. and security personnel. short. Regarding the ability of using video surveillance in the handset. and preferences differ from user to user. Italian. People Ascom’s handsets are used in many different work places and in different countries. and Polish. It is essential that the languages are translated perfectly so that no misunderstandings occur. Dutch. nurses. German. the handset is used by novice.or longsighted. When it comes to usage issues. receptionists. cleaning staff. o Healthcare segment: Physicians. while some use their phone frequently to receive urgent alarms and talk almost all the time. Some users make a couple of phone calls per day. It is important to consider how cultural aspects affect how people interpret things. Portuguese. personality. the users could be women or men from about 18 years of age up to retirement age. Ascom’s handsets are used in different segments and different countries and one can choose to set the language to English. and security personnel. an acoustical monitoring system is used today and video monitoring could perhaps be used instead or as a complement. bed transporters. In some psychiatrical hospitals. 5. or who have dyslexia. Because of the details needed. Norwegian. cleaning staff.1. French.of features. Swedish. educational background.
the noise level can be very high. repair a machine. A cooperative activity between users occurs when a person starts a conversational group call or when a “man-down” alarm has been activated.and night shifts occur. Context . The users work in both day. If help is needed. the environment is more like an office. and put together components. ask a colleague or the helpdesk. writing and reading text messages. Both day. Workers in the industry often wear working clothes of coarse fabric to protect themselves. o Healthcare segment: Receiving emergency alarms. Time pressure. in calm and quiet environments as well as in noisy and busy ones.Industrial segment The physical environment at industries can differ depending on what a person is working with. and following structured and un-structured work routines. The work is performed after strict routines. It is very important for the user to notice that a message with a high priority has been received. Time pressure. The handset must provide good feedback and information. If a person is working with administrative issues at the industry. 66 . The workers often use ear defenders and protection gloves. Both day. but the user is in contact with the industrial environment everyday when doing check-ups and meetings. Activities that are used more rarely are for example changing the sound volume and switching between different profile settings. no delays can occur or else the user will get confused. Need to use different kinds of medical equipments. because of the precise work. report statistics. answering calls. performing medical services. They sometimes need to do heavy lifting and carry medical equipment to an alarm. responding to alarms.Activities Frequently used activities are dialling phone numbers (manually or using the handset phonebook). the personnel look it up in manuals. Need to use different kinds of technical equipments. Examples of activities are: o Industrial segment: Supervise a machine. such as if someone else has accepted an alarm or that the correct choices are presented for each task.and night shifts. possible corroding substances and hazardous machines in the machine hall. The light can differ in intensity from place to place.and night shifts occur. If the person is working in a machine hall. Follow structured work routines. The information must be displayed at once.
21 years old. 52 years old. 5. A headset can be connected to the handset. from text messages from colleagues or auto-generated text messages from machines or information systems. high technical skills but low computer and mobile phone skills). The research resulted in nine different personas: Industrial segment o Group manager (man.Healthcare segment The physical environment in a hospital. the personnel often consult their colleagues or browse medical databases. however the OfficeM handset can show a four-level greyscale.1. At the same time. They were also used as a reference throughout the project when different design solutions were discussed. The handset can communicate with different ring. Each persona contains a personality description and a list of the person’s work tasks. the hospital offers nursing and caring for the patients. o Process operator (woman. Since the patients that arrive do not have an appointment to a doctor. The social context is highly professional and the healthcare personnel often work after strict rules and routines. 47 years old.Context . The input to the handset can come from the user manually. The organisational context is noticed by the personnel’s clothing. The output is shown on the display and the content is mainly text based with only a few icons shown in the user interface. medium technical skills). the difference between a nurse and a physician. low technical skills). If help is needed. One set representing healthcare personnel and the other representing industrial personnel. 67 . o Machinery service man (man. 45 years old. before we were able to meet face-to-face with the real users.g.5 Personas The information gathered in the PACT-analysis resulted in two sets of personas. The display is monochrome in all models. the rate of work and the noise volume is much lower. o Warehouse worker (man.and messaging tones and has a vibration feature. medium technical skills). Technology Ascom’s handset is used to transfer voice and data. Different professions have different working clothes to distinguish e. the patient rate differs over the day. especially in intensive care wards can often be very stressful and noisy. The personas served as a reference for us in the beginning of our project. At the nursing wards. Each persona also contains a list of needs associated with the use of the handset.
high technical skills). 34 years old. The guidelines have been divided into four main chapters. o Bed transporter (man. Each chapter contains a number of subcategories covering one specific aspect regarding colour interface design. The results from the colour association tests and the environmental observations are presented separately. low technical skills). “Colour coding”. 31 years old. text messages. Below these principles there is a text and pictures that explain why these principles should be followed. 18 years old. “Interface colour”.6 Literature study of general colour interface design principles Based on the colour design theory resulting from the literature studies. which can be seen in the theoretical framework chapter (see Chapter 3). a set of design guidelines was established. 20 years old. high technical skills). 54 years old. a colour association test and environmental observations. A section concerning basic colour terms was also added in the beginning of the document to facilitate the understanding of the guidelines. “Context of use” and “Examples of colours use”. 5. None of the participants had any colour deficiency. and also what problems that might occur if the principles are not followed. The interview questions can be seen in Appendix C. high technical skills). At the beginning of each subcategory. To get a better overview of the interview result. 5. o Assistance ward nurse (man.Healthcare segment o Physician (man. Due to confidential issues the final guideline document is not presented in this Master’s thesis. A more detailed description of the personas can be found in Appendix B.2 First iteration The methods used in the first iteration were interviews. o Theatres nurse (woman.2.1 Interviews with representatives of the industrial segment The participants were five to the number and were interviewed separately. a number of design principles have been listed. 5. has a colour deficiency. medium technical skills). requires reading-glasses. wears glasses and is an immigrant from Lebanon. and to 68 . o Qualified ward nurse (woman. Today the participants from the industrial segment use their handsets for telephone calls. the answers from the healthcare segment and the industrial segment have been divided.1.
The coloured lamps used are often white. All the suppliers of the machines used at the factory today use their own set of colours and icons. This inconsistency makes it very hard to know the status of a machine from a distance. The response time of a GSM telephone is much better. feels old and lies far behind the user interfaces of GSM telephones. A colour on one machine can mean “machine has stopped” and on another machine it can mean “machine ready to begin”. “good” 69 .get reminders from their synchronised calendar. All participants use the handset model DECT 9d24 and they own a private mobile telephone with colour display. Standardised colour conventions A scheme for marking different work moments and categorising articles in storage with colour has been created. One of the participants thought that a monochrome display can be used for simple functions such as SMS. It is common that the machines also use a blinking code. but the machines have different blink rates and it is very hard to know all the different blinking codes. ESD-protected areas are marked with yellow tape and approved goods are marked with a blue colour. The messaging function is very slow when you write a message yourself. They think that it would be better if a symbol and/or keywords like “stop” or “man-down” were used instead. orange and red. Current messaging user interface The participants feel that they have to glance through the whole message to get an understanding of the content and the importance of the message. “stop” Yellow = “warning”. but it has not yet been standardised at the company. The response time is high which makes it hard to correct simple mistakes easily. All the participants prefer an icon based menu system to a text based. For example. in comparison to the short response time of a modern mobile telephone where one can use “trial and error” more easily. Current handset user interface Almost all participants answered that the handset user interface design is slow. “attention” Green = “okay”. Three out of five participants consider the legibility of the handset display to be insufficient. but to present more complex information a colour display should be used. All the participants agree to the meaning of the following colours: Red = “alarm”. green.
They think that it would be good to get a message. The participants both own a private mobile telephone with colour display and neither of them have any colour deficiency.g. if e.g. A common opinion is that they think it would be good if information was automatically sent to the handset. That would provide more detailed information compared to a text message saying “Open window in section 12:15”. The participants told us that being able to see detailed sketches of a machine’s blue print on your handset is not a good idea. meaning that the status of a machine can only be seen if the machine is in sight.Future applications for colour displays The participants had many ideas regarding the use of colour in their wireless handsets. except for just being cool features. values. All participants are positive to the use of colours and symbols to indicate the priority of a message and the possibility to sort messages according to their priority in the message list. auto-generated status indications and reports.3). A graph could be used as an extra feature to present values. especially if you are moving around in a large area. Today the participants of the 70 . Being able to see the picture of contacts in a telephone book would be a good function if you are not certain about a person’s name but have met him/her. The participants want to be able to receive alarm messages from the machines. One participant said that “. Some participants do however think that it would be good to use video surveillance for monitoring different sections of the factory or machines.2 Interviews with representatives of the healthcare segment The participants were two to the number and they were interviewed separately. 5. The participants think that simplified maps together with text are good to display for e. The participants are also interested in receiving status information. They prefer to see detailed information on their PC and think that it would be better to display where the machine is located if you are working in a large machine hall. a tank level is beginning to get low.You only need to have a wall between yourself and the machine to be offline” (interview participant nr. The participants would rather see trends than detailed graphs. fire alarms. Some do not think that these types of functions would give something to the user. trends etc. Appendix C. using the handset. The participants are unanimous about the ability to use the handset for video communication and video surveillance. The function was considered as an extra feature and not especially necessary. with an indicating symbol or colour.2. synchronised calendar and reminders of meetings. “mandown”-alarms or where there is an open window/door. The maps have to be simplified or else they will be difficult to use. 4.
but there are also some who use the Office handset. The participant from Örebro University Hospital thinks the user interface is hard to use. because of the small sized text and buttons. Figure 15 (right). 621 212-3021. Need to take a blood sample on patient Margareta AnderssonNilsson. Figure 14 (left). but the participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital believes that their choice of colours and icons is more about company identification than good usability for the users. Need to take a blood sample on patient Marga reta Andersso n-Nilsson. but there is a problem concerning the breakage of rows. A more appropriate way of presenting the same information. 71 . The handset models used by the participants are the DECT 9d24 and the DECT Office dt412. causing the user an increased cognitive workload. low background lightening and the lack of legibility which makes the handset difficult to use. Örebro University Hospital does not have the messaging service integrated in their handsets at all.interviews and their colleagues primarily use their handset for normal phone calls. At Örebro University Hospital almost all personnel use Ascom’s pagers. 621212-3021. You can not predict where the text row in a text message is going to break. He did mention some technical factors such as insufficient contrast. Current messaging user interface The participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital thinks that the messaging service interface is acceptable. They have only seen the standards that different suppliers use. It is hard to read and call out names with many adjacent characters or a social security number (containing 10 digits) when the text row breaks in an illogical place. Standardised colour conventions None of the participants have come across a standard that concerns colour coding conventions. How messages are presented to the user today. The messaging service is only half-integrated at the department of radiology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital and one of the participants represents that department. Current handset user interface The participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital did not have any particular comments about the user interface.
There are many types of medical equipment that have a user interface in colour. When the patient is not able to communicate his/her name. according to the same participant. These different types of coding make it hard to hire extra personnel when the hospital has a high booking rate. The colours commonly used are. yellow. the traffic light colours: red. it is very common that only English is used in medical equipment.and icon coding. “normal value” In addition to these colours. all the suppliers have their own colour. Largest suppliers of medical equipment are Philips. General Electrics. different factors such as language should be adjusted to the user (AFS 1993:10). in machines and other technical devices. Siemens and Hewlett-Packard.According to the interview participants the use of traffic light colour codes is very common in the hospital environment. both in the display and on buttons and text. more or less. is under anaesthetics or does not speak any language known to the personnel. instead of having to go and get the information by themselves which often is the case today. what needs to be signed or emergency messages. 72 . “alarm” Yellow = “warning”. The participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital informed us that it takes about a week for new personnel to learn all the different types of coding. The participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital would like to get personal information and pictures of the patient to increase the security when identifying a patient. This could be information about what tasks are waiting to be done. When there is a suspicion of the patient having borrowed the social security number from someone else. such as “Anna Nilsson” or “Ahmed Mohammed”. However. and green. According to the participants these colours have the following meanings: Red = “attention”. as a result of severe injuries. “contagious” Green = “okay”. One participant explained that there is a Swedish regulation that states that. The patient identification could increase the security in the following scenarios: When several patients share the same name. Future applications for colour displays The participants want to get information directly into the handset.
g. they do mention that video surveillance may be useful for monitoring patients at psychiatric wards. 5. The participant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital thinks that it would be a good thing to see the patient chart and other activities associated with a patient. the participants told us that they would rather get a message if a value has passed a preset threshold. From that point. 73 . The participant from Örebro University Hospital told us that they have about 500 patients per day and that they print out the patient information on paper before entering the waiting room. 5. However. brain pressure and temperature. but they said that healthcare personnel that run on emergency alarms could perhaps benefit from such a feature. Today the message calls for the user’s attention using sound and vibration. They both told us that they are not part of the potential target group for this kind of features themselves. “. Appendix C3).Both the participants think that having colour-coded alarm messages is very useful. The colours that have a similar meaning to most users were used in our design proposal for the messaging services. None of the participants thought that the idea of using the handset for video surveillance or video communication appealed to their activities.The colour directly tells me if the message is important or if I can put the phone back and read it later” (interview participant nr. According to the participants the addition of colour to a message would be very helpful. As can be seen in the figure “green” is often used as to indicate something that is okay or good and “red” is often used to indicate an alarm or a failure.2. When showed a picture displaying handset with a coloured electrocardiogram on the screen. They also think that coloured symbols increase the legibility which makes you understand the importance of the alarms quicker. They have the same situation when it comes to patient identification security as Sahlgrenska University Hospital has. The electrocardiograms should be adjustable in order to fit the needs of different departments. Using maps for localising for example equipment and wheelchairs would be a good idea according to the healthcare representatives. an interesting feature would be to see additional information from the patient chart in the handset or to see different types of colour-coded medical values or graphs for e. children’s wards or in geriatric care. heart rate. He thinks that it is a great idea to get that information to the handset instead.4 Colour association test Figure 17 (see below) is shows the result from the colour association test performed by participants representing the industrial and healthcare segments.
Summary of the colour association test.Figure 16. 74 .
This is indicated using colours and/or blink signalling. It was explained to us that the reason for these inconsistencies is that the machines are made by different manufacturers who all use their own colour codes. Figure 17. but we were told that there was no clearly defined colour coding standard used at the factory. We noticed an inconsistent use of colours for indicating the status of machines in the production line. A certain colour or a blink indication on one machine does not necessarily indicate the same thing on the machine next to it. On top of each machine.5. there are a number of coloured lamps that are used to indicate if the machine is running. On some machines green and white lamps are used. An employee told us that these inconsistencies have a negative effect on their work environment since it is hard to decide the status of a machine at a distance and therefore one either does not bother about checking the status or one checks it too often. orange and red together with blink signalling. We were for example told that a blinking lamp could mean either that the machine will stop soon or that it has a serious problem depending on which machine it is. if it has stopped temporarily or if something is wrong. Colour codes that were observed at the factory in Herrljunga. 75 .2. others have green.5 Observation at the Ascom factory in Herrljunga Colour coding was used for many different purposes. The frequency of the blink signalling is also used to indicate machine status. We also saw blue and black lamps on one machine and strangely enough not even the employees working with that machine know the meaning of these colour codes.
This mixture of interfaces has resulted in an inconsistent use of colours and it was therefore hard for us to find any obvious colour codes. each one made by a separate manufacturer. 5. We were shown the computer interfaces that are used at the radiology departments for evaluating X-ray pictures. We also observed that red exclamation marks were used to indicate important information in a computer interface used by the radiology personnel.6 Observations at Örebro and Sahlgrenska University hospitals After conducting the interviews with the healthcare personnel at the radiology departments we were guided through their work places and we were able to take a closer look at the use of colours. Working environment at the factory in Herrljunga. 76 . At Sahlgrenska we observed that they use a computer program that contains four interfaces of various kinds.Figure 18.2. At the radiology department in Örebro we saw that they use wall switches with red buttons for triggering alarms and green buttons for resetting alarms.
Figure 19. This information was required to assure that the messaging flow in the coming paper.5.1 Hierarchical Task Analysis The purpose of creating a Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) was to clarify what the tasks are and what information and equipment that is required for the user in order to perform a task. The tasks 77 . the user test and the colour deficiency tests are presented below. The described process below (see Figure 19) shows the workflow when there is machine stoppage or any kind of equipment failure that needs immediate attention and also the personnel involved in this kind of events. The wireless machine stoppage recovery process (Ascom PQM Input). Discussions with our supervisors at Ascom and a demonstration of the Interactive Messaging system were made to assure that we got a correct understanding of the system. 5.3 Second iteration The results from the different theoretical methods that were carried out during the second iteration.3. From this information the HTA was derived and the analysis resulted in a HTA for the industrial segment and one for the healthcare segment. This type of failure is common in most of the industries that use Ascom’s messaging services (Ascom PQM Input).and Flash prototypes was created correctly to be as realistic as possible.
1994).2 Prototyping We started to create a message flow of realistic messages by discussing the different message views that were needed. An exclamation mark was chosen to represent the alarm priority level since exclamation marks are commonly associated with “important” and “caution” according to Horton (1994) and because we wanted the alarm priority symbol to stand out from the other symbols. According to Horton (1994) users tend to sort and arrange icons as an aid to figure out what they mean. normal and low priority. Each priority message was designed with a separate colour code and a priority icon.for the different segments were on the same level of importance and contained similar sub tasks. Because of space limitations smaller triangular arrows were used in the message list. The paper prototyping resulted in a number of screens showing messages of different priority levels and a view for the message list. A lot of time was spent on making the messages as realistic as possible. 78 . to the right and downwards were therefore chosen to indicate high. Since it is important for users to be able to distinguish different priority levels. since irregular shapes draw attention to their irregularity (Horton. Arrows pointing upwards. Simple and regular shapes. The scenario was derived from the hierarchical task analysis made earlier in the design process. 5. such as those used in road signs. are better than irregular shapes when it comes to representing abstract concepts. symbols that can be easily ordered were desirable. The task for the industrial segment was a machine failure alarm and the task for the healthcare segment was a cardiac arrest alarm (see Appendix E). The eight-edged road sign for “stop” is commonly known and associated with an important and immediate action and therefore we chose to use an eight-edged frame around the exclamation mark in the alarm priority messages to reinforce the indication of an important alarm message.3.
Sketches of the message scenario made with “Quick and dirty”-prototyping.Figure 20. 79 . A first version of the scenario was created and then the design was iterated and small changes were made. The final scenario was used for the development of the paper prototypes that were going to be shown for the user test participants and as a guideline for the development of the Flash prototype (see Figure 20). The following stage was to create scenarios showing the flow of the message views with simple sketches. Figure 21. Prototypes of the messages that were shown for the test participants.
The message flows for the two prototypes are as follows: 80 . When an alarm message arrives.The development of the Flash prototype was built on the basis of the scenarios created for the paper prototypes. perform the test in a calm pace. and in which order (see Figure 22). Figure 22. what messages should be displayed. the background picture (hospital or industry environment). the colour coded frame in the screen also blinks (red to white to red) to attract more attention. The message signal is a beeping sound and the alarm signal sounds like a siren. and the ambient background sound (hospital or industry ambient sounds). Sketch of the Flash prototype made with “Quick and dirty”-prototyping. The work resulted in two prototypes. where one was created for the healthcare segment and one was created for the industrial segment. The prototype starts with an introduction where the test participant is instructed to follow the instructions given in the prototype. The messaging flow is almost the same in both prototypes as well as the message signals. The difference between the two prototypes is the content of the messages. The messages that are demonstrated in the prototype are messages with different priorities and the test participant is instructed to give different answers to the messages. A storyboard was created to structure how the Flash prototype was going to work. and to “think aloud”. The purpose of the Flash prototype was to demonstrate the different message priorities and to see how well the user understands them.
Low priority message “Meeting reminder” . Normal priority message “Tank needs to be filled” . Low priority message “Meeting reminder”. Low priority message “Network is disconnected” .Choose to cancel the reminder .Choose to “snooze” . The flow of messages that was shown during the user tests.Feedback is given 6. . Normal priority message “Blood sample needed from patient” .Feedback is given . Normal priority message “Lab results are ready” . 81 . Low priority message “Changed date for meeting” .Choose to accept .Choose to cancel the message .Choose to see more information about the machine and its location 4.Choose to accept .Choose to cancel the reminder .Choose to accept . Alarm priority message “Cardiac arrest” .Feedback is given 5.Choose to accept .Choose to cancel the message 4.Choose to see more information . High priority message “Temperature rising” .Feedback is given 3.Choose to wait .Feedback is given 2.Message flow for the industrial segment START (introduction and instructions) 1.Feedback is given 2.Choose to see a photography of the patient .Feedback is given 7. High priority message “Low tank level” . Low priority message “Meeting reminder” .Feedback is given 3.Feedback is given Message flow for the healthcare segment START (introduction and instructions) 1.Feedback is given Table 7.Feedback is given 5.Choose to “snooze” . . Low priority message “Meeting reminder”.Choose to accept .Feedback is given 6.Choose to reject the message . Alarm priority message “Fire in section B12” .
during the user test sessions. he did however point out that it would be harder to distinguish orange from red and for that reason he could accept the use of yellow. some participants wanted the yellow colour to be more intense. yellow and green made the order of the priority colour codes obvious. However. Another comment that 82 . 5. Figure 23.A screen shot of the Flash prototype for the participants representing the industrial segment can be seen below. Interactive program displaying a flow of messages with different priorities.3 User tests with the industrial representatives Below is a summary of the comments made by the test participants that represent the industrial segment.3. The participants also considered the yellow colour to be an appropriate colour for high priority messages. Priority colours All test participants considered the red colour to be an appropriate colour for the alarm priority level and one participant also wanted the red colour to blink in order to draw more attention to the screen. One participant preferred orange instead. Several participants also told us that the traffic light analogy with red.
Concerning the use of green colour for the normal priority level the participants understood the relation between green and normal. The same participant also told us that the frame of the low priority message should not be coloured at all. The comments made regarding the arrows used to indicate high. used to denote normal priority. One participant suggested that the size of the coloured frame surrounding the message ought to be directly related to priority level of the message. A majority of the participants regarded the arrows to be logical and thought that they increased the understanding of the differences in priority. but they did want one or a few of the last recently signed messages to be visible for some time. One suggestion was to use a specific colour for all signed messages or to grey them out. Priority symbols All participants considered the exclamation mark. Two participants told us that signed messages should be removed from the list since they are not relevant after being signed. However one participant associated the up and down arrows with positive and negative trends. List of messages According to all test participants that we met with the use of priority symbols in the message list is useful and highly desirable. which was used to denote the alarm priority level. Another suggestion was to use a cross symbol to indicate that a message had been signed. When asked about how they reacted to the messages in the test. They also told us that they wanted some form of indication to tell apart signed and unsigned messages. One participant wanted the exclamation mark to be larger to make it even more eye-catching. the participants told us that they first and foremost reacted to the colours of the messages. to be misleading and preferred a minus sign instead.was made about the yellow colour was that it felt like a temporary colour. Blue was considered as a calm colour and the participants thought that the blue colour was appropriate for low priority messages. normal and low priority were quite mixed. indicating that something is becoming better/worse and preferred the use of triangular shaped arrows instead. 83 . however two participants were unsure if messages with normal priority would need a colour code at all. Another participant considered the arrow pointing to the right. Another comment made was that the colour of the handset cover could possibly interfere with the priority colours. to be an appropriate symbol that clearly explains that a message is important and critical. though one participant pointed out the difficulty of distinguishing between blue and green in poor lighting conditions. to make low priority messages more discrete. that something was becoming red or green. Several participants noted that the list did not show if a message had been signed or not and they reasoned about if the signed messages should be displayed in the list at all.
He therefore preferred to have symbols for both low and normal priority messages to be able to tell them apart correctly. A test participant also reasoned about the need of a priority symbol for normal priority messages. 84 . the text in the time column should be “5 min” instead of “09:34”. if a machine has been down for 5 minutes. the low priority messages will appear to have a higher importance. One participant however added that there might be users that would prefer to see messages listed according to date and time. we were told that the clock symbol is unnecessary and that the sound signals for incoming messages should differ more clearly so that the higher priority the more powerful the sound signal. several participants suggested that the font size should be increased. Moreover. Furthermore. For example.The possibility to sort messages by priority was much appreciated and two participants pointed out that they would prefer to use this kind of sorting as a default. and that the sorting parameter should therefore be modifiable. Other opinions During the interviews the test participant also told us that “the combination of colour and symbol is optimal” and that it is appropriate to use a coloured frame instead of colouring the entire background of the messages. is that the low priority messages with blue symbols would attract more attention compared to the normal messages without symbols. While looking at the list of messages he said that if a symbol is used to signify low priority whereas no symbol is used for normal priority messages. there was one participant who preferred to see the exact age of a message instead of a timestamp. The reason for that. he said. Also.
Another participant told us that yellow colour is sometimes used to represent contagion in healthcare. User performing a test using the Flash prototype. but concluded that orange would not be appropriate to signify high priority since the orange colour would likely not be associated with critical information by healthcare personnel. He said that ”if I see a blinking red alarm I know that I have to act immediately” and “if I see a blue message I would think that it is something that I can look at later.3.4 User tests with the healthcare representatives Below is a summary of the comments made during the user test sessions. Priority colours The test participants representing the healthcare segment were generally satisfied with our choice of priority colours. Appendix C. during the coffee break for example” (test participant nr. 5. He also reasoned about the necessity of using a colour for low priority messages at all. by the test participants that represented the healthcare segment. 4. 3). 85 . One participant pointed out the advantage of being able to quickly look at the priority colour to see if the message is important or not without having to read the text.Figure 24. The participant then reasoned about using orange colour instead of yellow.
and even harder if the alarm signal sounds as well. One idea was to use a tick symbol to indicate a signed message. the test participants told us that it is hard to read a blinking message. 5. priority symbols was considered to be useful by the test participants. The participants also pointed out that there should be some form of indication that separates singed and unsigned messages. Furthermore. triangular arrows. A question was posed regarding the possibility to see different priority levels that belong to the same priority class. All the participants have got their colour deficiency confirmed during their military service. Another comment was that the arrow pointing to the right indicated some kind of motion.5 Colour deficiency tests The colour deficiency tests were conducted with three men in the ages between 23 and 29. one participant thought that they requested an action from the user or that they indicated that something was moving in a direction. the 23-year-old has dyslexia. according to a test participant. however they emphasised the need of being able to see and sort messages according to time. triangular symbol is sometimes used as a warning against radiation. The participants also would want to keep messages in the handset even after they had been signed. Other opinions Among other comments. The possibility of sorting messages according to their level of priority was much appreciated by the test participants.3. We were also told to use a larger font size for important messages by one participant. The test participants said that they noticed the priority colours during the test. though not necessarily in the same list. List of messages The list of messages. he quickly added that he preferred the smaller. 86 . The colour codes did however clarify the exact priority of each message.Priority symbols The meaning of the red exclamation mark was clear to the test participants. We were also told that the yellow. but that they considered the sound signals to be the most striking indicators. The tick symbol should however not replace the symbol indicating the priority of the message since that could confuse users. Regarding the arrows. When the same test participant was shown the picture of the priority list. who claimed that the most appropriate solution would be to use both symbols.
green. 3 Picture nr. white. Table 8. yellow. and white. green. 2 Picture nr. green. yellow. and grey. yellow. green. 87 . Results from the colour deficiency tests. The results from the colour deficiency test proved that our design proposals were understood by individuals with colour deficiencies and therefore we did not have to do any adjustments in our design (see Table 8). Correct answer 5 45 Green Yellow Red Red. white.Test person Type of colour deficiency Picture nr. yellow. and grey. and grey. 4 Picture nr. I can not see thin lines in green. 5 Picture nr. white. 1 Picture nr. I can not see the refraction of colours when red and green are shown together. 27 year old man protanopia 8 Can not tell Green Yellow Red Red. 6 Other comments: 23 year old man deuteranopia 2 or 8 Can not tell Green Yellow Red Red. white. 29 year old man protanopia 3 Can not tell Green Yellow Red Red.
88 . 5. since that was not clear to the participants. The colour association test showed that neither the healthcare users nor the industrial users had any particular associations to white colour. we made a number of changes in our prototypes according to the feedback that was given by the test participants. The results are presented below. Since users were not able to see which message that was currently selected in the message list. the number of messages shown in the message list was reduced to increase legibility. Green Green is commonly associated with “okay” according to Marcus (1995) and our colour association test confirmed this since all participants associated the green colour with “okay” and “good”. White The colour code for low priority messages was changed to white. We therefore chose to use green colour to indicate messages of normal priority. The clock symbol was removed.1 Redesign After the user tests. The purpose was to attract less attention from the user since several test participants told us that low priority messages did not need a colour. Since the test participants told us that the font size was too small. Therefore the white colour is used in the symbol that indicates a low priority message.4. Colour codes Below is a description of what colour codes that were chosen to denote different priorities and why. because users considered it to be unnecessary. a rectangular frame was added around the selected message. or that a task has been successfully completed. Below we describe the outcome of the redesign of our design prototypes. According to Russo and Boor (1993) and Marcus (1995) white is commonly associated with neutrality in western countries.5. General design modifications A symbol was added above the message list to indicate how the messages in the list are currently ordered.4 Third iteration The third iteration began with a redesign and then a heuristic expert evaluation was performed. The observations that were conducted also showed that the green colours are used to indicate values that are within acceptable limits.
Grey According to Travis (1991) grey colours are appropriate for de-emphasising elements on the screen since grey elements are perceived as 'greyed out' and associated with something that is unavailable or that does not need critical attention from the user. the yellow colour is often associated with “caution” according to Marcus (1995). According to (Marcus. During our observations we could see that they are used in both the industry and in healthcare institutions for indicating information of a high importance. However the participants representing the healthcare segment do not have any particular association to orange and therefore. The results from the interviews showed that signed messages are not considered to be as relevant as the messages that have not been signed yet. Red Red colour is commonly associated with “danger” in western countries according to Marcus (1995). Exclamation mark According to Horton (1994) exclamation marks (!) are commonly associated with “important” and “caution”. we chose to use the yellow colour to indicate high priority messages. To increase the difference between the colours used for high and alarm priority messages. Our results from the colour association tests showed that the red colour is associated with “alarm”. The colour association test showed that the grey colour does not have any particular meaning to the participants. A majority of the colour association test participants associate yellow colour with “warning” and “attention”. The red colour was therefore chosen to indicate messages with alarm priority. Grey colour was therefore selected for indicating signed messages.Yellow In western countries. All users considered that an exclamation mark undoubtedly indicates 89 . The results from the observations also clearly indicated the use of red colour for “alarm” and “emergency”. Priority symbols Below is a description of what symbols that were chosen to denote different priorities and why. 1995) the user’s ability to differentiate colours can be improved even more if colours differ in both saturation and value. According to the results from participants representing the industrial segment orange colour has the same meaning as yellow. yellow and red. and the green colour code we chose to use colours with a higher saturation for the two highest priority colours. “failure” and “crisis”. The user tests clearly showed that the exclamation mark was an appropriate symbol for denoting messages with the highest alarm priority.
The triangular arrow pointing upwards was given a thicker frame to increase the resemblance to the standardised symbol used for indicating caution (IEC 60601-1-8. The arrow pointing to the right was reversed. except if the user reads from right to left (Horton. 2003. 1994). are better than irregular shapes when it comes to representing abstract concepts. 5. According to Horton (1994) using a diagonal slash is an effective way of showing negation or denial and it is commonly used in road signs to indicate that something is no longer valid.that the message is important. SS-EN 980. we therefore added a slash symbol to reinforce the indication of a signed message. Principle 1 .4. normal priority (pointing to the left) and low priority (pointing downwards). However if it points the left the eye’s focus is instead directed to the interior of the icon. 2004). such as those used in road signs. Triangular arrows The arrows for indicating priority levels were changed to the same type as those in the message list view. According to Horton (1994) arrows pointing upwards can be used to indicate an increase and if shaped as a triangle the symbol is commonly associated with caution.Visibility of system status 90 . Diagonal slash In the interviews. since users preferred them and because they considered the original arrows to indicate trends or that the arrows requested an action from the user. the users told us that a signed message is considered inactive and of low interest to user. an eight-edged frame is therefore used around the exclamation mark in alarm priority messages. To reinforce the indication of an important alarm message. since irregular shapes draw attention to their irregularity. One of the users told us that he associated it with motion and according to Horton (1994) an arrow that points to the right implies motion. Below is a list of the remarks that were made during the evaluation. Horton (1994) also writes that it should be shown if there is metaphorical connection among objects. Triangular shaped arrows were therefore chosen to indicate high priority (pointing upwards). In addition to the grey colour code. The eight-edged road sign for “stop” is commonly known and associated with an important and immediate action. According to Horton (1994) simple and regular shapes. According to our user tests the meanings of the arrows were clear.2 Heuristic expert evaluation Each design principle was carefully evaluated and any signs of possible design problems were noted and discussed during the expert evaluation.
Principle 8 . Principle 9 .Consistency and standards The general design of the messages is consistent. However we believe that they are large enough for the user to be able to discriminate between the colours. There is also an indicator at the top of one of the columns that show how the list is sorted.Avoid highly saturated or bright colours for details We have used high saturation in details. orange. a frame shows which message in the list that is currently selected. but only when we want to attract the user’s attention to an alarm or high priority message. there is a soft key whose purpose is to enable the user to exit the current view. i. When the user is in the message list. brown and violet colour codes Grey colour is used to indicate signed messages. but we do not consider this factor to be relevant. Principle 3 . 91 .Avoid the need for colour discrimination in small areas The colour-coded symbols in the message list are small in size. The messages are fictitious and might not fully agree with the language used in real messages. grey. the priority of the received message is denoted using text. Principle 2 .e. In the same screen. colour and coloured symbols. according to which message parameter. The soft keys labels are consistent. the left key is always used for “positive” actions and the right key for “negative” actions. Principle 19 .Aesthetic and minimalist design We consider all the information presented in the messages and in the message list to be relevant and useful.In each screen. cyan. Principle 14 . Principle 5 . this is clearly displayed using the “Message list”-label at the top of the screen. The priority levels are consistent with the text information.Use colours that differ in both value and saturation The colours used for alarm and high priority messages are more intense.Match between system and the real world The time and date information is appropriate for Swedish users. The colours and symbols are consistently used in both the message views and in the message list.User control and freedom In each view.Secondarily use pink. Principle 4 . We discussed whether the soft key row should have another colour tone to more clearly separate it from the rest of the screen.
Avoid using more than five different colours codes We have used five different colour codes (yellow. 92 . Principle 27 . the priority level associated with the colour code is displayed in text.Choose colours that have meaning to the user The white and grey colours are considered as neutral or without any specific meaning. grey and white) Principle 23 .Inform the user about the meaning of each colour code In each message view.Use grey colours to de-emphasise elements on the screen Signed messages are less important therefore de-emphasised using a grey colour.Use redundant coding in addition to colour codes Each colour code is complemented with a symbol or a symbol and text. but we believe that the user will not be confused since a frame indicates which message that is selected. Principle 24 .Principle 20 . There were no remarks made during the evaluation of the principles that are not included in the list above. Principle 28 . green. Principle 25 . red. but since they are used for low priority and signed messages we believe that the use of neutral colours is appropriate.Avoid emphasising more than two elements at the same time Could occur in the message list.
Our work resulted in an interface design proposal for users in both the healthcare and the industrial segment.6. In “Colour theory” basic terms used for describing colour are explained. “Interface colour”. Final results In this chapter we describe the contents of our colour design guidelines and present our final design proposal for the messaging user interface. In the chapter titled “Colour coding” we present principles regarding what colours should be used for colour coding. 6. The guidelines cover a range of different aspects regarding the use of colours in a graphical user interface. Finally.1 Colour interface design guidelines Based on the results from the theoretical research a set of user interface guidelines has been developed for the design of colour interfaces in Ascom’s future wireless phones. in “Examples of colour use” we illustrate how a graphical interface can benefit from the use of colour by for instance emphasising certain objects to attract the user’s attention. and “Examples of colour use”.2 Design proposal for the messaging user interface Using our colour interface design guidelines and the user-centred methods we have made a design proposal for a colour interface to be used in Ascom’s interactive messaging interface. “Context of use”. The guideline document contains five chapters “Colour theory”. The 93 . “Context of use” deals with different aspects that affect the perception of colours such as colour vision deficiencies. Due to confidential issues the final guideline document is not presented in the Master’s thesis. “Colour coding”. 6. “Interface colour” contains more specific information about how the different elements in an interface should be coloured.
However. the use of soft keys is not a requirement and the messaging interface could easily be adapted to work with a handset that uses another type of navigation. 94 . An overview of the colours and symbols used can be seen in the table below. we have also designed a screen view for each priority level. based on the results from our theoretical and empirical methods. A screen view has been designed to illustrate a list of messages with different priority symbols.proposal contains a colour-coding scheme and priority symbols that have been chosen to represent different priority levels. Since the Ascom 9d24 model has been used as a reference handset during our project we have aimed our design proposal towards use in a handset with three soft keys below the display. Symbol Colour White Green Yellow Red Grey Meaning Low priority message Normal priority message High priority message Alarm priority message Signed message Table 9. To illustrate how a message is presented. Priority symbols and colour coding scheme. The views show fictitious messages along with colours and symbols that represent the priority level of each message.
They do however want to be able access signed messages. List of messages ordered by priority. Figure 25. A rectangular frame indicates which message in the list that is selected. 95 .2 Signed message list After a certain amount of time or when the number of signed messages reaches a predefined amount. The purpose of having a separate list is to limit the number of messages in the normal list. Messages that are signed by the user are placed at the bottom of the list. The list of signed messages is identical to the normal list. When a message has been signed. 6.2.2. either by priority or by the time of reception. except that all the priority symbols are greyed out since all messages have been signed.1 Message list Each row represents a message (see Figure 25). the colour of its priority symbol changes to light grey and a diagonal line is shown on top of the symbol. By pressing the soft key for “Open” (Öppna) the user will be able to read the whole message text of the selected message. The user can also press the soft key for “Back” (Tillbaka) to exit the message list. The third column shows at what time each message was received. the singed messages are moved to a separate list (see Figure 26). A line is shown at the top of a column to indicate how the messages are currently sorted. since the users are not primarily interested in signed messages. Using the soft key for “Sort” (Sortera) in the middle the user can choose how the messages should be sorted.6. Each symbol and colour represents the priority of a message. An alternative solution would be to display the amount of time passed since a message was received. List of signed messages. The first column shows a list of coloured symbols. The second column contains the initial part of each text message. Figure 26.
Figure 28. 96 . At the top right corner.6. Low priority message. The user can choose to “Accept” (Acceptera) the message and take on the task. At the top of the screen a text label shows when the message was received. At the top right corner.4 Normal priority message To indicate messages of normal priority. “Reject” (Neka) the message or close down the message by selecting “Exit” (Avsluta).3 Low priority message To indicate messages of low priority. “Reject” (Neka) the task or close down the message by selecting “Exit” (Avsluta). On the top and left margins. a white colour code is used in combination with a white arrow pointing downwards (see Figure 27). a green colour code is used in combination with an arrow pointing to the left (see Figure 28).2. Normal priority message.2. 6. a border in the same green colour is displayed. The user can choose to “Accept” (Acceptera) the message and take on the task. the priority symbol is shown together with a label describing the priority level. the green priority symbol is shown together with a label describing the priority level. Figure 27.
On the top and left margins. a yellow colour code is used in combination with an arrow pointing upwards (see Figure 29).2. At the top right corner. Figure 29. “Reject” (Neka) the task or close down the message by selecting “Exit” (Avsluta). The user can choose to “Accept” (Acceptera) the message and take on the task. a border in the same red colour is displayed. “Reject” (Neka) the task or close down the message by selecting “Exit” (Avsluta).6 Alarm priority message To indicate messages of alarm priority. the red priority symbol is shown together with red frame and a label describing the priority level. 6.6. Alarm priority message 97 . the yellow priority symbol is shown together with a label describing the priority level. a border in the same yellow colour is displayed.2.5 High priority message To indicate messages of high priority. The user can choose to “Accept” (Acceptera) the message and take on the task. High priority message. a red colour code is used in combination with an exclamation mark (see Figure 30). however only for a short period of time to avoid worsening the legibility of the display. Figure 30. At the top right corner. On the top and left margins. The red border blinks to emphasise the importance of the message even more.
but we were not able to use some of them0 due to different constraints.1 Method discussion When we first started our design process we used the Usability Lifecycle Engineering process. At the end of the design process. We discuss what problems that were encountered during our work. we encountered minor confusions regarding where to draw the line between the evaluation in one iteration and the analysis of another. The creation of the method overview (derived from the human-centred design process model) together with the method summary gave us a clearer view of our process and helped us structure the result and our method discussion.7. 98 . The use of the main principles and the essential activities of the UCD process provided us with guidance on how to positively influence the usability in the design process. We followed almost all the principles and activities in our design process. but at the same time have an overall focus on the user. We believe that the UCD process facilitated our work. We therefore chose the UserCentred Design process (UCD process). we could not follow the fourth main principle “multidisciplinary design teams” because it was only the two of us working on the Master’s project. For example. but soon felt that the process was not perfectly suited for our design context (because of its focus on system development). what could have been done differently and why. Discussion In this chapter. we evaluate and discuss what was done during our project. but still an iterative one. because of the process’ simplicity and flexibility to adapt to the specific context. We wanted a more flexible process. The iterative design process enabled us to have focus on different design issues in the three iterations. Finally we present suggestions on future research. 7.
7. but not the overview of the healthcare segment that we had hoped for.7. This was however not possible because the information about cultural colour associations that we found during our literature studies was very limited. We wanted to meet with the healthcare manager as well to have representatives from the both segments. Instead we got to meet with two teleCARE experts and they gave us a good understanding of the products. but unfortunately time was not given to us.1 Requirements gathering Starting with an interview with the industrial segment manager gave us an insight into the industrial segment. We used the results from the interviews.1.2 First iteration We wanted to interview persons from different companies in the two different segments and also people who use Ascom’s interactive messaging services. However. The creation of the personas became a good reference document for verifying that the users’ needs and wishes were fulfilled during the design process. We therefore chose to focus on our design guidelines on general colour design principles and redefined the thesis. We wanted to spend the time on deeper user interviews and tests instead of creating our own personas. and complementary internal documents as a source of information when we performed the analysis. Since there was a lack of information from the healthcare segment and the internal documents had a sales approach may have lead to a slightly biased result.1. Our original plan was to create separate colour design guidelines aimed specifically for the industrial and healthcare segments. The initial theoretical information gathered from the literature studies provided us with a good picture in to the most important principles regarding the design of colour user interfaces. conducted with Swedish sales and the industrial segment manager. We did not find a source that entirely covered our area of interest and we therefore needed to conduct a broader research involving multiple literature sources. The interviews with the teleCARE experts also made us realise the importance of developing a colour scheme that is appropriate for the culture where it is to be used. Unfortunately we did not get to choose the companies ourselves. Due to time constraints during the design process we redesigned and adjusted existing personas. The PACT-analysis was a method that made us understand and focus on the actual users and their work environment. because Ascom 99 . to facilitate the design of colour interfaces for different cultures. We also wanted our guidelines to contain more information about the cultural aspects of colour. It was also used during the development of proposals for future applications for colour displays. we were unable to find any ISO-standards or other forms of regulations regarding the use of colours in these areas.
however we saw a clear trend from the results regarding strong opinions about the primary colours and not so strong regarding secondary colours. Since the two healthcare representatives who were interviewed were senior physicians at the radiology departments. they were not used to emergency alarms in the same way as for example physicians working at the intensive care departments.3 Second iteration The hierarchical task analysis provided an overview of how the interactive messaging is used. which elements that could be enhanced and clarified using colour. However. However. To get a fully reliable result from the colour association test. and where they work with a more direct kind of patient care. an advantage to our research was that the interview and user test participants were at ease with the role of communicating usability problems of the handset used today. We believe that the results from the environmental observations would have been more reliable if we had been able to visit a few other companies from the industrial segment.wanted a representative to come along and therefore the representative chose the companies. On the other hand. the hierarchical task analysis became a structured foundation to the sketches of the messaging scenarios. We believe that our results would have been more reliable if we had met with more representatives from the healthcare segment.1. We believe that the results from this method would be more valuable if the tasks were more complex. It would have been desirable to also visit other department at the hospitals such as intensive care departments where physicians and nurses are more acquainted with the use of medical emergency alarms. 7. and also which message views that could be used to illustrate this. The fact that two of the healthcare representatives who carried out the colour association test are Dutch could have affected the test results. The environmental observations at the hospitals were limited to the radiology departments and the personnel working there. This facilitated our work regarding what overall usability issues we ought to focus on. we would have needed more participants from each segment and preferably from different workplaces. they had a great insight in the technical needs and requirements of their departments and could communicate this very well. We were only given the possibility to meet with a very limited number of individuals representing the healthcare segment and most of the users that were interviewed had no or a very limited previous experience of interactive messaging. 100 . but we saw that their answers were not particularly deviant.
Another affecting factor in the user test was that the test participant’s focus was more on the instructions and we wanted it to be more directed towards the handset prototype. A problem that we discovered during the user tests was that the participants tried to press on the soft key labels on the prototype display instead of the soft keys below.4 Third iteration Before the evaluation of our design proposal. This problem would have been avoided if a more realistic prototype would have been used. The use of the heuristics made us look closer into the more general aspects of the user interface design. but the development of the first colour display handset at Ascom had not reached far enough. but we were mainly interested in how the users perceived and reacted to the information presented on the display. The result was then evaluated after Jakob Nielsen and his colleagues’ heuristics along with our own guidelines. We assume that more problems would have been found if the users would have been experienced in the use of interactive messaging. 101 . This could be avoided if we gave the test participants a case to read before performing the user test. This would only improve the haptic interaction. Therefore we developed a PC application prototype using Macromedia Flash that displayed both the handset and instructions for the test. while our own guidelines provided a good way of checking that our design conformed to our more specific colour principles. the outcome of the user tests was positive. It was a good way for communicating our design proposals to our interview participants. The users conducting the tests had no or very little previous experience of interactive messaging but they had no problems in understanding the interface. However. We consider this combination of principle sets to have been a valuable and constructive way of evaluation our interface design. we performed a redesign of our prototypes according to the participants’ opinions that were gathered during the user tests.1. and using a computer screen for presenting the output information. 7. Initially we had hoped to be able to conduct the user tests using a real handset with a colour display.Low fidelity paper prototypes were created using the messaging scenarios to illustrate the way the different message views would be shown. Another way of testing the prototype could have been to use a handset for input only. because the prototype demonstrated an interactive prototype instead of paper prototypes shown before. The paper prototypes left an open door for the interview participants to give their own opinions about the design. The users felt that the information was visualised in a logic way and that they understood the levels of priority of the different messages.
7. Since our final design proposals were understood by the test participants we could show that an application can be designed to work for users from both segments. the question regarding their view on the current user interfaces in Ascom’s handsets might be biased due to their unwillingness to criticise their own company. it might have been better to focus only on one segment instead. We therefore believe that the fact that they were Ascom 102 . Since these two segments cover a wide range of different professions. In order to attain unbiased and reliable results from the interviews.and industrial segment. we asked objective questions and we tried to interfere as little as possible during the user test sessions. Because of our limited user studies we also believe that more extensive user tests will be needed to assure that our design proposal is fully appropriate and increases the usability of Ascom’s interactive messaging. Due to a limited time given for meetings with users. Results from the colour deficiency tests show that our design proposals are interpreted correctly by people suffering from colour deficiencies. Due to lack of interest from the intended participants and time aspects we decided to design the priority symbols by ourselves and then let the participants in the interviews and user tests evaluate them. we chose to focus primarily on the use of colours. The design proposal has only been tested on Swedish users and therefore we can not guarantee that it is appropriate for use in other countries. we could however see that there were in fact several serious complaints made against “their own” products.2 Result discussion Ascom wanted us to focus our work on their two largest customer segments. the result of our research has shown that there are many similarities concerning how people in these segments associate to different colour codes. For example. Since the interviews with users representing the industrial segment were conducted at Ascom’s own production facility in Herrljunga. industry and healthcare. we feared that the answers from the Ascom employees were not going to be truly honest. After having evaluated their answers from the interviews. The purpose was to extend the creative brainstorm when designing the priority symbols and have people with different backgrounds working together. and students from the Master’s program in Human-computer interaction at Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg. The initial plan when designing the priority symbols was to conduct a creative workshop together with people representing the healthcare. However. Choosing symbols for denoting different priority levels was a difficult task and we believe that more research in this issue might have resulted in another set of symbols.
different ideas of future work were derived from the user’s ideas and wishes about the use of Ascom’s handset.3. 7. manufacturer. Not only defining the language of the handset.1 Cultural profiles Users working in different work segments do not have the same needs and interpretations of the world. These are areas that could be of interest for future research at Ascom regarding colour display applications.employees did not have any significant impact on the truthfulness of their answers. and thresholds. Important values. or statuses could come as a subscription to the handset and be presented in overview or using detailed graphs. such as name. A suggestion is to broaden our colour user interface guidelines with the aspect of culture. Suggestions on future work are presented below. but also adjusting colours and symbols to the user’s social and working culture. Information visualisation Getting the information that you have to look up yourself automatically to the handset is a great wish by the interview participants.2 Suggested applications As a result of our interviews we have also identified a number of possible future applications where handsets with colour displays could be used.3 Future work During this Master’s project. tank levels. trends. 103 . 7. 7. Trying to define different colour associations and developing colour-coding schemes would open up the possibility to have “cultural profiles” in the handset.3. An extra feature related to the messages that are auto-generated from machines is to get more information about the specific machine. Suggestions for the industrial segment The suggestions on future applications for colour display interfaces in the industrial segment are presented below.
To get relevant information sent from the patient medical chart to the handset would prepare the healthcare personnel if they are not close to the patient at that specific time. The security personnel could get an alarm about an open window and get the exact location instead of a text message such as “Hall B. disease. Photographs of patients for identification purposes To see a photograph of a patient in the handset together with the patient‘s information. The feature could also be used for new employees trying to find their way around the factory. would secure the identification of the patient. personnel and equipment An idea that the interview participants came up with was to put RFID-tags in the patient bracelet and on medical equipment for localisation purposes.Maps for localisation Displaying a simplified map could facilitate the work when trying to localise a person who has sent a “man-down”-alarm. Sometimes the patient is unable to communicate his or her name and person identification number (due to different circumstances such as injure. may help the physician in his/her work. This way the personnel would know where for example the patient or a wheelchair is located using a simplified map in the handset display. There are however some legal issues that need to be solved since the use of photos can be considered as an intrusion on personal integrity. or can not communicate in an understood language) and a photograph would then help the healthcare personnel during the identification. Maps for localising patients. but to get even more information about the patient is desirable from the interview participants. Visualisation of medical values It only takes a few meters or a wall between the healthcare personnel and the patient to be “offline”. To present different medical values in graphs such as an electrocardiogram. 104 . Suggestions for the healthcare segment Suggestions on future applications for colour display interfaces in the healthcare segment are presented below. floor 2”. sleeping. To get alarms when the values from a patient have reached a threshold has an enormous value for the healthcare personnel.
Conclusions We will here summarise the outcome of our Master’s project and our final conclusions. Our initial plan was to develop colour interface design guidelines with the focus on different interpretations between the healthcare and industrial segment.8. Through our research we have learned that the selection of colours has a significant effect on the user efficiency of an interface. Our Master’s project resulted in a colour interface design guideline document for general user interfaces and a design proposal that illustrates how a user interface with prioritised messages can benefit from an appropriate use of colour-coding and symbols. The proposal has also been evaluated by users from the healthcare and industrial segments with a very positive outcome. The resulting guideline document contains principles that cover several important aspects that affect the legibility of a colour display interface. We therefore chose to focus our design guidelines on general colour design principles regarding user interface design. we were unable to find any ISO-standards or other forms of regulations regarding the use of colours and the cultural aspects in these areas. due to the limited number of participants we believe that more extensive user testing will be needed to assure that our design proposal is fully appropriate to the user groups. 105 . However. as well as how different colour codes are perceived by users. The importance of making an appropriate choice of colours in an interface is one of the most important conclusions that we can draw from our work. The design proposal illustrates how colour can be used to enhance the efficiency of Ascom’s messaging service interface and it has been evaluated along a set of predetermined heuristics and by the colour interface guidelines developed during the Master’s project. However.
We believe that our work will aid Ascom in the design of future colour interfaces.We hope that Ascom will find use in our design guidelines and that our design proposal will serve as a source of inspiration for the development of future colour applications in Ascom’s handsets. eventually raising the user satisfaction and efficiency of their handsets. 106 .
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Test participants from the colour association test Appendix D.1 . the personas.9. Interview participants and questions Appendix C.1 .Ascom NetPage – Customised messaging Appendices The appendices contain a glossary.Interview questions for the participants representing Ascom Herrljunga. author Patric Högström) Brochures . Personas Appendix B.Healthcare segment representatives 112 .Industrial segment representatives Appendix D.1 .2 . Glossary Appendix B.Ascom 9d – Get the message across .teleCARE M – Improved patient care . and Örebro University Hospital Appendix D.Healthcare segment Appendix C.4 Ascom documents Ascom personas (internal document) Ascom PQM Input (internal document.teleCARE experts at Ascom Appendix C.Industrial segment Appendix B.3 . Appendix A.2 .Industrial segment manager at Ascom Appendix C. Sahlgrenska University Hospital. results from the colour association tests and the questions asked during our interviews.2 .
Colour association test results from the participants representing the industrial segment Appendix D. Results from the Hierarchical task analyses Appendix E. Test participants in the colour deficiency test 113 .3 . Test participants in the user test Appendix G.4 .Appendix D.2 – HTA made for the healthcare segment Appendix F.Colour association test results from the participants representing the healthcare segment Appendix E.1 – HTA made for the industrial segment Appendix E.
Set of different colours. Optically. Blues. Group of cells in the retina of the eye that receive visual stimuli. Brightness deficiency Colour coding scheme convention contrast cool emphasise memory overuse palette receptors scheme space spectrum warm vision deficiency Chroma Chromostereopsis Cultural context Set of colours that have specific meanings in an interface. Power of recalling colours learned through associative mechanisms. see Saturation see Stereoscopic effect Cultural conditions in which something exists or occurs. Optically. see Colour spectrum. Perceived amount of light coming from a luminous source. Reds. Deficiency that causes colours to appear brighter than they really are. Using too many colours in an interface. and purples are considered cool colours. which may result in a product. Glossary The table below presents a list with explanations of the terms used in this thesis. General agreement about colour principles. The difference in hue and saturation between a colour and its surroundings on a display. and yellows are considered warm colours. cool colours appear to recede and contract. warm colours appear to come forward. Using colour to highlight specific elements in an interface. Continuum of colour formed when a beam of white light is dispersed so that its component wavelengths are arranged in order. 114 . such as a display.Appendix A. greens. Set of colours used in an interface. Definition Activity Description Set of actions performed by one or more roles. Inability to distinguish certain colours. oranges.
Measurement of the amount of light that is reflected from an object that does not generate light itself.DECT Deuteranopia Dyslexia Effectiveness (usability) Efficiency (usability) Electrostatic discharge (ESD) Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications. Common colour vision deficiency resulting in difficulties in distinguishing between red and green. time. Visible part of a computer program based upon graphics rather than text that allows the user to interact with the application. Reading and writing disorder. ESD is a primary cause of integrated circuit damage. The attribute of colours that permits them to be classed as red. graphic illustrations. see Graphical user interface Equal amount of luminance. cognitive workload)? Sudden flow of electricity between two objects at different electrical potentials. Source of light that is significantly brighter than its surroundings and results in annoyance or reduction in visual ability. blue. Can the user achieve what they need by using the product/system? Is it accurate and has the user completed the task? How much effort and/or resources are required in relation to goals achieved (e. green. Indication or outline of policy or conduct. and interactivity. Authoring software developed by Macromedia. or an intermediate between any contiguous pair of these colours. Small area of the retina that affords acute vision.g. yellow. Used to create vector graphics-based animation programs with full-screen navigation interfaces. Flash Fovea Glare Graphical user interface (GUI) Guideline Hue Illuminance Interface Isoluminant 115 .
Involving or producing visual images in a single colour or in varying tones of a single colour such as grey. Narrative description of how a role accomplishes a goal. Representation of a design for the purpose of evaluation. Degree of difference from the grey having the same lightness. The emitted light from a source is generated by the source itself. Common colour vision deficiency resulting in a brightness deficiency and difficulties in distinguishing between red and green. Alarm that goes off when a handset is tilted more then 45° degrees for preset amount of time. see Saturation Duplicate visual information for clarifying information in an interface.g. Simple prototypes made with e. Sensory membrane that lines the eye and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve. Visual effect resulting from the simultaneous use of two spectrally extreme colours such as red and blue. Man-down alarm Mock-ups Monochrome Persona Protanopia Prototype Purity Redundant code Retina Satisfaction (usability) Saturation Scenario Stereoscopic effect 116 . paper. Persona characterises a role which represents a user group. Luminous intensity of a surface per unit of projected area. for example if the user falls. Subjective measure of how well user and business goals are achieved. The amount of light reflected from one surface or component compared to the amount of light reflected from its background.Lightness Luminance contrast Luminous The perceived amount of reflected light.
Style guide Set of mandatory requirements for layout and formatting. Set of users that share a common goal(s). efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Person who experiences the product or offering being designed. Testing prototypes with actual users or usability experts. Relative lightness or darkness of a colour. Usability User User group User testing User-Centred Design process (UCD process) Value 117 . Process that focuses on the design of offerings to meet user expectations. The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness.
The overall quality of the products . .The supply of parts .Delivery on time . He works as a group manager at the factory and he has a big office. His passion is golfing and every time he has a free hour.1 Industrial segment There are four personas representing the industrial segment are they presented below.The personnel . he goes to the driving range. He also has to do some travelling to visit distributors and costumers. His responsible is: . Needs: 118 . Every week he is collecting data and writes a “following report”.Assembly costs. Personas These personas describe the different kinds of user profiles from the healthcare and industrial segments. The group is assembling lawn mowers. He wears a suit and he does not want to get dirty. maintenance and new products. He spends a lot of time in his office.Orders of different models and options to different countries. Work description: Klas is working in a factory as a group leader. The personas are nine to the number. Unfortunately Klas tends to be very grumpy if the software isn’t working as he wishes. Appendix B. The personas were developed by Ascom and have been redesigned to fit our Master’s project. He has very low patience. He is planning: . Klas Tamm – Group manager Personality: Klas is a 47 years old man who lives with his wife and four children in Märsta.Appendix B. Klas has good skills in handling the Office-software like MS Word and MS Excel and he has got a mobile telephone. He works at a company that produces and sells lawn mowers.Assembling equipment in terms of investments. He is reporting to the manager every month. five personas are representing the healthcare segment and four are representing the industrial segment.
storage space available). He likes to use the loud speaking function. dates etc.g. He wants to charge the device in his office. (Requires back light of the keys when he is driving). He wants to use a swivel-type belt clip.) and the status for the storage room (e. 119 . He needs to be reachable when he is travelling.- He has to be reachable on handset everywhere. parts in stock. He wants to read his emails as soon as they arrive. including on the production floor. He needs to know when a production order has been completed. He wants information about production orders (progress.
The team has to do maintenance on some equipment .She is wearing ear protection since the environment is noisy. . .She wants to call divert to the desk phone when she is sitting in the control room. .She sometimes works alone on weekends. .She needs to receive technical alarms from the process.She and her team are setting up all the parameters of the process before every batch.She has to monitor some process parameters (like temperature) continuously. . She lives in a small flat outside Malmö and she has shared custody with her ex husband.Sometimes she wants to change to a different parameter when she is out on the chop floor. . which is running the process and she is responsible for the quality of the different products as a team leader. Work description: Majbritt is working in factory producing different kinds of chemicals. . Sometimes to several persons at the same time. 120 .She is preparing every batch according to the production planning . which requires intrinsically safe equipment.All equipment has to be EX classified.She needs safety equipment when she is working alone and especially the possibility to send alarms.Sometimes she has to enter the hazardous area separated from the normal process. . . Majbritt has basic computer skills and she uses her mobile phone approximately once a week.The noise makes headset compulsory. when different problems occur.Majbritt Ardén . On the weekends she likes to meet her friends living in the neighbourhood and she goes to the local pub.Process operator Personality: Majbritt is a 45 year old woman living in Malmö. She is divorced since 8 years and has two teenage boys.Wants to be able to talk to the rest of the team and a process engineer even when she is not in the control room.Sometimes she has to call for technical assistance. . even when she is out of the control room. . . Needs: . She is working in a team.During the production she is supervising all the parameters and sometimes she has to make adjustments. . .They are programming which raw materials they have to use for the next batch.
He works in a team of 15 people that repairs and maintains the machinery.He is often conferring with his colleagues when he has a problem. He takes care of almost any technical problem. . .Sometimes he receives emergency alarms.He has to be able to send an alarm whenever he is in danger or hurting himself. etc. . The company he works for manufactures engines and gearboxes and he works with machinery maintenance. . .The group leader assigns jobs to different team members. . generators.Conference calls via one button.Make a call without using his hands. After finishing high school Juri has worked for the same company all those years. power backup.Juri often works alone. but his family moved to Göteborg when he was 4 years old. . grease.The handset has to be robust and withstand different kinds of oils. Work description: The company Juri works for manufactures engines and gearboxes for the automobile industry. . At those times he may feel insecure since there is a risk of getting hurt by dangerous machines.He is reporting the job when it’s done.Needs ack/nack when he receives an alarm about important equipment .Diversion to voicemail . It could be alarms generated automatically like fire alarms or from his colleagues when some important equipment suddenly stops working. . Needs: . 121 .Most of the jobs are maintenance. Juri met his wife Lotta at the company and they have been married for almost 25 years. but some are really urgent.Juri Kupari – Machinery service man Personality: Juri is an alert 52 year old man who lives in Göteborg. . Juri has very high electronic skills but does not use computers or mobile telephones. .He needs protection when he is working alone. He was born in Helsinki.Be able to receive an alarm even though he is talking in the handset . Some of the work is done at their maintenance workshop separate from the manufacturing. (When he is busy with both hands in some equipment and need to call for help) . etc.He wears an overall.There is a short briefing from the group leader every morning.He is also doing scheduled maintenance on elevators.Needs a telephone. Finland. . .
. time trucks arrive with pallets. . but he has no clue of what he would like to work with in the future so he works at the warehouse meanwhile. Needs: .He signs the freight bill. .In the mean. 122 . .The factory has had two serious accidents over the five past years.He needs to know when a truck arrives to the warehouse. and he has to unload the gods and place it on the right place and in the right shelf.Jonas Karlsson .He has to get information from people on the production floor when they run out of parts. They live in Oskarshamn and Jonas is working at a local warehouse. In high school he majored in social science. He also accepts orders. . but is not very interested in the newest technology and in computers.He needs to get information about new orders. boxes etc.He is mostly driving a lift truck.He is receiving orders on a mobile terminal in the lifter.He has to let other people know when he has finished a delivery. .The lifter needs service once in a while. .He needs to operate hands free. He is living with his uncle and aunt since his parents unfortunately passed away after a car accident when he was younger. This is done with a barcode reader. . Jonas is working hard and very often because he is saving money to go backpacking in Asia with his friends next year. Jonas has his own mobile telephone. At the same time he registers the parts into the company’s computer. .He wants to store and charge the device in the changing-room. . . Sometimes it is very important that they get new parts quickly. Preferably without getting out of the lift truck.Warehouse worker Personality: Jonas is a cheerful young man in his twenties. trying to support the production floor with parts. .Some gods is stored outside the factory building.He has to be able to read barcodes located at pallets. . Work description: Jonas works in a warehouse and he is very satisfied with it.Sometimes the workers shout that they need parts because something is wrong in the system and they are running low on parts. . Next team replaces the battery pack before duty.
.He needs to talk (call and receive calls) with people and he is often on the move. . . 123 .He is a member of the crash team.Corresponds to patient letters. . His work takes up a lot of his time. .Writing operation reports. . .Lab results. .Every 3 weeks he is on duty on the emergency department.2 Healthcare segment There are five personas representing the healthcare segment are they presented below. During his work on the medicine department he is: .Performing surgery. .Updating the patient files. .Receives alarms and messages.Needs to read/write patient files. .Working a lot with administration: .Walking the round every day to meet the patient and following their recovery. Work description: Jonas is working part time as a doctor on a medicine department. Jonas has a big interest in hi-fi products and has his own entertainment system with a big flat screen TV and a recordable DVD. . Jonas Melin – Physician Personality: Jonas started working as a doctor in the medicine department three years ago. . .Prescribing medicine.Coding patients into the database due to their diagnosis by using a standardised coding method. . He is also teaching students.Appendix B. He has just turned 34 years old and last summer he got married to his fiancée Eva. so during the weekends he likes to relax and helping his wife to decorate their rather new house in Göteborg.Wants to look at X-rays.Examine and diagnosing new patients.Needs a lot of information Intranet/Internet/SMS/notes/fax. . Needs: . The rest of his time he is spending doing research on internal medicine in general and the liver in particular.Uses a Dictaphone.Responsible for 15 patients.
Check live data status (possibly combined with “care at home” telemedicine) Read E-mail and fax. 124 . He needs to manage his schedule.- Be able to read “Medicine bible” like dosage. He needs to be reached even when he is travelling between the hospital and the university. (Loud speaking) Transfer his writing/voice to his own computer. Hands free in his office. He needs to access electronic medical records. Must be able to divert his messages/calls. Prescribe medicine.
who is 4 years old. .Wound care. . She has been short-sighted since she was six years old and needs to wear glasses all the time. . such as overhead projectors. urine etc. . (Might be medical equipment as well). She has some problems to handle technical equipment.She needs to send emergency alarms when she needs assistance.She also is doing some planning. .She needs to know when a patient is calling. etc. .Maison Reza .She gives the patients their medicine. . Maison and her family thought it was very hard to start up a new life in Malmö because of the cultural differences.She needs to notify the patient that she is coming. . .She might want to talk to the patient.She needs to notify when a test result is available and might want to receive the result in the pocket.Qualified ward nurse Personality: Maison is 29 year old and married since 7 years.She needs to have efficient equipment which is easy to use and hands free. . . . 125 . .She needs to divert the nurse call to next (nearest) nurse. . . where.She wants to know where the colleagues are. . (Blood. They now have a little son. Work description: Maison is working as nurse in a ward.Preparing patients before an operation.Taking tests. In the beginning.She needs to know where the empty beds are.She is also doing a lot of listening and consoling. She and her family fled from Lebanon to Malmö in 1989 because of the civil war. but now Maison likes it here. . and some problem understanding difficult Swedish words. why.She is administrating patient files. .).Registration of new patients.She needs to update the patient files. . She wants to know who. .She needs to handle and transmit a lot of short messages that have high urgency but only for a limited time.She needs to read the patient files. .She needs to order the meals from the kitchen. Maison started studying to become a nurse and works at a ward in the hospital of Malmö. . When she was 21 years old she met Rajid and he is the man of her dreams.Calling for a doctor or nurses in case of emergency.She needs to notify other nurses that she is accepting the nurse call or not. Needs: .
- She needs to locate equipment and patients She needs to be located. 126 .
Washing . . .He needs to notify other nurses that he is accepting the nurse call or not.He needs to order the meals from the kitchen. .He needs to notify when a test result is available and might want to receive the result in the pocket.He needs to read the patient files.Calling for a doctor or nurse in case of emergency. 127 .Assistance ward nurse Personality: Daniel has just graduated from high school and is now working as an assistance ward nurse in the hospital of Sollentuna. so he often falls asleep on the living room sofa. .Cleaning the rooms and the equipment. .Wound care.Feeding .He needs to notify the patient that he is coming.Preparing patients before an operation.Ordering and serving patients food. .He is also doing a lot of listening and consoling. etc. He has recently moved from his parents’ home to his own little apartment.He needs to divert the nurse call to next (nearest) nurse. . where. etc.He needs to update the patient files. why. .He needs to have efficient equipment which is easy to use and hands free. . . .He needs to send emergency alarms when he needs assistance. (Might be medical equipment as well).Their toilet needs .He needs to know when a patient is calling.Taking test (Blood.He is task oriented. . Daniel finds it a little hard to do all the housework. . .Making beds. . Work description: He is working as assistance nurse in a ward. . He wants to know who. such as doing the dishes and washing his clothes after a hard days work. urine.He might want to talk to the patient. . On the weekends Daniel’s friends come to visit him and they often play some multiplayer games on his Xbox or go out to party. . .He gives the patients their medicine. Daniel has a colour deficiency which makes it hard to see the colours green and red when they are next to each other. .Daniel Andersson . .Registration of new patients. .).He is serving and nursing the patient. Needs: .
during operation etc.Marie Svensson . .She also supports the operating team during the operation. 128 .She is sharing the handset with other nurses and they need to store it centralised in a charging rack when it is not used. . . . .She needs to be reached all the time and all over the hospital. .After the operation she is responsible together with the anaesthetist for the delivery of the patient to the intensive care.She needs to get feedback that a person is on his way when she asked him to come (it is sometimes urgent). she is sometimes running out to bring equipment or helping personal.She needs to read emails and receive messages. .She needs to contact (talk to) different persons fast.She is scheduling and rescheduling operations frequently. .She is a member of the crash team.She needs to register supplies.She is calling the operating team.She needs to be able to find equipment. .Sometimes she has to quickly arrange emergency operation.She is responsible for all the equipment needed for the operation. She is married and has two teenage daughters. hands free.Twice a month she is on duty in the emergency department. . possibly with barcode. . Marie works as a theatres nurse at a hospital in Göteborg and has worked there for almost 22 years. .During operation. Her husband also works in Göteborg city and they commute together in their family car.She needs to send messages to people. The family lives in Kungsbacka in the nearby of Göteborg. Needs: . She has rather good experience of the technical devices at the hospital and she uses her mobile telephone every day.She needs to communicate. Marie loves her work and is a very happy person. .She is planning the operation. . Marie needs to have glasses when she is reading. . . Work description: Marie works as a theatre nurse. . .Theatres nurse Personality: Marie is a 54 year old woman.She is organising theatre preparation. .She is handling the patient files. .She is sometimes sending emergency alarm to a group to bring a backup team by pressing a push button on the wall. . . .She needs to establish a group conversation.It must be easy to carry and must have hands free operating.
She needs to see a “live” short-term schedule. She needs to be reachable off duty for emergencies. 129 .- She needs mobile emergency alarm button with location.
He needs to be able to send an alarm if the patient he is currently moving gets urgently ill.He needs to be located. His interest is motorcycles and motor cross. . X-ray examination.Bed transporter Personality: Johnny is 18 years old and still in high school. etc.He has to sign/acknowledge a transport order.Sometimes he has to talk to people to ask questions or to reconfirm the transport order.Johnny Alm . The wheelchairs are sometimes very hard to find and he is often thinking about a technical solution to simplify the search. operation.He has to get the transport orders.He wants to know where the nearest wheelchair is so he does not have to run around looking for it. . .Nearest person to ask helps efficiency. . In the same way the nurses have to order a transport from the central. The planning is centralised and he reports to the planning central when he is ready for a new task. .He needs to be reached all over and in-between the buildings. . Needs: . He lives with his parents in Bergsåker and he has an older brother and a younger sister. .He needs to let other people know that he is done with the transportation and where he is for the moment.He wants some sort of personal alarm when he is walking around in the culverts alone. .He needs to tell the system when he is unavailable to do tasks. . Since his interest is very expensive he works as a bed transporter at the central hospital of Sundsvall every weekend. Work description: The hospital that Johnny is working at is quite big and he is transporting patients between wards. which he uses almost all the time and he likes to play Counter Strike against his friends on his computer. He has his own 3G mobile telephone. Sometimes Johnny has to find a wheelchair before he is able to transport the patient. . Also in the culverts. 130 .
Interview participants and questions The interview participants and interview questions from the first iteration are presented below.1 Interview questions for the industrial segment manager at Ascom Interview participant 1: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Göteborg Yrke/avdelning: Chef med ansvar för industrisegmentet (International marketing & sales manager) Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview questions for the interview participant nr. Finns det några standarder för färg och/eller gränssnitt gällande utformningen av andra produkter så som NetPage? 11. tyst? 9. Har ni undersökt om det finns något behov av färgdisplayer till era telefoner? 131 . mörkt.Appendix C. Vad finns för färgstandarder/konventioner inom industrin? 6. Skiljer sig färgstandarder mellan olika länder (geografiska områden?)? 7. Hur tar ni reda på vad kunderna behöver/vill ha? Hur arbetar ni? 2. Hur skiljer sig kraven/behoven mellan olika områden? Finns det några markanta skillnader? 3. utomhus. högljutt. I vilka länder används era system inom industrin? 4. 1: 1. Hur ser oftast arbetsmiljön ut? Ljust. Använda samma typ av företag samma standarder eller skiljer varje företag sig åt? 8. Hur skiljer sig kraven/behoven mellan olika länder? 5. Hur ser gränssnitten ut överlag på andra maskiner som används på arbetsplatsen? 10. Appendix C.
Finns det någon möjlighet att vi kan komma till något företag och intervjua/observera hur de arbetar? 132 . Hur tror ni att era kunder kommer att reagera på färggränssnitt? 15. Har era kunder uttryckt något behov om färgdisplayer? 13.12. Vilka företag använder sig av Ascoms system? 16. Hur upplever era kunder att använda era produkter? 14.
2 Interview questions for the teleCARE experts at Ascom Interview participant 2: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. What countries are the largest customers of the teleCARE system? 2. What devices are included in the teleCARE system? 3.System Design Segment: Sjukvård Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview questions for the interview participants: 1. Is the type of portable device used. Are the colours of the buttons always the same or are they specific for each country? 8. In what kind of environments is the teleCARE system used? 4. Alphen aan den Rijn (Holland) Yrke/avdelning: International Marketing .Appendix C. Alphen aan den Rijn (Holland) Yrke/avdelning: Technology/R&D . Do the icons used on the teleCARE products differ in different countries? 9. What colours are used on the teleCARE devices and what do they mean? (Showing list of colours) 7. pager or handset. Do you see any future trends regarding the use of paging versus the use of handsets? 6.Product & Quality Management – Solution Support Segment: Sjukvård Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 3: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. related to the type of institution? 5. Could the teleCARE system benefit from handsets with colour displays? 133 .
Display maps for localisation or evacuation 11. What is your comment on the following examples? (Showing pictures of handsets) Handset with medical surveillance interface (EKG graph) Handset with a video communication interface Handset with a video surveillance interface Handset with an NSS interface 134 . Do you think that colour can be used to Reinforce identification of different types of alarm messages Video surveillance of patients Video communication between personnel and patient Medical surveillance of patients.10. temperature/pulse rate etc.
3 Interview questions for the participants representing Ascom Herrljunga.Manufacturing Telephone Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 7: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. and Örebro University Hospital Interview participant 4: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: IT-chef: Production & Supply Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 5: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Grupptekniker: Production & Supply – Manufacturing Telephone Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: 135 . Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Gruppledare: Production & Supply .Appendix C. Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Produktverksamhetschef: Production & Supply Manufacturing Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 6: Kön: Kvinna Företag/stad: Ascom.
Använder du dig själv meddelandetjänster? hur? 136 .Interview participant 8: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. thoraxradiologin Segment: Sjukvård Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 10: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Universitetssjukhuset Örebro. Används meddelandetjänster på din arbetsplats? av vem och hur? 9. Vilka är dina huvudsakliga arbetsuppgifter? 2. Är du färgblind och/eller har du nedsatt syn? 3. Jämför användargränssnittet i DECT-telefonen med din privata mobiltelefon 7. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Ansvarig produktutvecklingschef: Production & Supply – Production Engineering Segment: Industri Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview participant 9: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset. radiologin Segment: Sjukvård Mobiltfn med Ja färgdisplay?: Interview questions for the interview participants: 1. Vilken telefonmodell använder du på jobbet? 5. Vilken mobiltelefon använder du privat? Har den färgskärm? 4. Göteborg Yrke/avdelning: Överläkare. Vad tycker du om det nuvarande användargränssnittet? 6. Var på din arbetsplats används Ascoms telefoner och av vem? 8. Örebro Yrke/avdelning: Klinikchef.
) varje dag? 14.10. Har du några konkreta förslag på nya användningsområden för färg i telefonen? 24.)? Videosamtal mellan patient och läk (el.. Om ja.)? Medicinsk övervakning av patient? Temperaturkurva. Finns det någon standard för färgkodning på din arbetsplats? 20. planerar ni att inför meddelandetjänster? 12. Hur tror du att en färgskärm i telefonen i så fall skulle påverka ert arbete? 19. motsv. Vad tycker du om det nuvarande användargränssnittet för meddelandetjänster? 15. Skulle något av dessa eller annan information kunna ”flyttas” så att de även visas telefonen? 18. Om ja. Ungefär hur många larmmeddelanden får en läkare eller sjuksköterska (el. Är det något som du tror du att man skulle kunna förbättra telefonens användargränssnitt? 16. mostv. Finns det redan system/utrustning på din arbetsplats som presenterar information i färg? 17. mostv. Vilken funktionalitet vill du då att de ska stödja? 13. puls etc. gäller den även andra arbetsplatser av samma typ? 21.... vad tycker du om det nuvarande användargränssnittet för meddelandetjänster? 11. Visa översiktskartor för lokalisering av person eller rum? . Frågor om förslag på framtida användningsområden – industri: 137 . Om nej. Finns det någon standard för symboler eller färger i er utrustning? 23. Fråga i samband med färgtest: Hur associerar du dessa färger med utrustning eller annat på arbetsplatsen? 22. Frågor om förslag på framtida användningsområden – sjukvård: Förtydliga identifieringen av olika typer av larmmeddelanden? Videoövervakning av patienter (el. Tror du att en färgskärm i telefonen skulle kunna användas för att: .
Frågor i samband med visning av prototyper Tror du att detta något som skulle kunna användas hos er? Är det någon information som är onödig eller något som saknas? Visas informationen på ett tillräckligt tydligt sätt? 26.- Förtydliga identifieringen av olika typer av larmmeddelanden? Videoövervakning av maskiner/lokaler? Videosamtal mellan personal? Visa översiktskartor för lokalisering av person eller rum? 25. Finns det andra användningsområden där ett färggränssnitt kan behövas? 27. Vilka av dessa funktioner skulle du förespråka om du fick vara med och designa en ny telefon med färgskärm? 138 .
Colour association test participant 1: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom.Manufacturing Telephone Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 4: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Grupptekniker: Production & Supply – Manufacturing Telephone Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej 139 . Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Produktverksamhetschef: Production & Supply Manufacturing Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 3: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. six representatives from the industrial segment and four representatives from the healthcare segment. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Gruppledare: Production & Supply . Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: IT-chef: Production & Supply Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 2: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Test participants in the colour association test The test participants of the colour association test were ten to the number.Appendix D.
Örebro Yrke/avdelning: Klinikchef. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Ansvarig produktutvecklingschef: Production & Supply – Production Engineering Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 7: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset. Alphen aan den Rijn (Holland) Yrke/avdelning: International Marketing . thoraxradiologin Segment: Sjukvård Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 8: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.Colour association test participant 5: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom.Product & Quality Management Solution Support Segment: Sjukvård Färgblind? Nej 140 . Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Ytmonterare: Production & Supply Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 6: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Göteborg Yrke/avdelning: Överläkare. radiologin Segment: Sjukvård Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 9: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom.
System Design Segment: Sjukvård Färgblind? Nej 141 .Colour association test participant 10: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Alphen aan den Rijn (Holland) Yrke/avdelning: Technology/R&D .
Vit Inget speciellt. Ej någon trivsam färg. Något befinner sig i väntläge. Förstadiet till röd. Grå Tråkig färg Inget speciellt Inget speciellt. ”Okej”. Standard färg för text. Inget speciellt. Haveri. Skulle ha svårt att förstå innebörden. ESD-lådorna är svarta=ej ledande. Ej någon tydlig färg. Varning.Appendix D. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Tidsaspekter. ”Explosionstopp” är gul. Tråkig färg. Testperson 2 Neutralt. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt som separat färg. Turkos Inget speciellt. Varning nivå 1 ”Okej” material Inget speciellt. Godkänt. Inget speciellt. Grön ”Okej”. ”Messagingtoppen” är svart. Testperson 4 5 S. Inget speciellt. Något har inträffat. Normalt läge. ”Okej”. Blå ”Protectortoppen” är blå Inget speciellt. 142 . Något är inom gränsvärdet. Nivå 1 Uppmärksamh et. Rött/ vitt=farliga kemikalier (standard). Bra färg för inramning. Vissa ESDlådor är rosa = ledande Neutralt Vissa ESDlådor är rosa = ledande Något man ej kan välja (datorprog. Lampa som lyser eller blinkar visar start. Rosa Inget speciellt. Orange Varning. Mellan gul och röd. Nivå 3. Avgränsat omr. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Fel. Bra i kombination med andra färger. 2. Konsulter/bes ökare på A i Herrljunga har vita rockar. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. ”Okej”. Inget speciellt. Används ej. Brun Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Något är fel.2 Colour association test results from the participants representing the industrial segment Färg Gul Testperson 1 Varning. Inget speciellt. Används ej. Röd Varning. Ej inträffat än. Inget speciellt. Gult/svart. Ascoms arbetskläder Testperson 5 Varning. Inget speciellt Inget speciellt. ”Godkänt”. Inget speciellt. Varning. Testperson 3 Märkningstext. Knappar på olika maskiner är bruna. Ej godkänt. Svart Text färg. Symbolfärg för varning. ”Failure”. Bra färg för konturer. Graf=neutral 3. Avskiljare. Varning /Mittemellan gul och röd. Testperson 6 1. Inom gränsvärdet. Nivå 2.eller väntläge.) Inget speciellt. Lila Neutralt. Inget speciellt. Alarm. Bakgrundsfärg. Ej någon trivsam färg. Organiserat material. ”Okej”. Inget speciellt. ”Bra”. Textfärg. Mildare gul är bra bakgrundsfärg. Godkänt. Annars inget speciellt. Ej trivsam färg. Bra med svart text o färgade ord. Allt är bra. Används ej.
Varning nivå 1 ”Okej” material Inget speciellt. Bra färg för konturer. Textfärg. ”Messagingtoppen” är svart. Ej inträffat än. Graf=neutral 3. Mellan gul och röd. Inget speciellt. Vissa ESDlådor är rosa = ledande Neutralt Vissa ESDlådor är rosa = ledande Något man ej kan välja (datorprog. ”Bra”. Inget speciellt. Knappar på olika maskiner är bruna. Annars inget speciellt. Organiserat material. Inget speciellt. Används ej. Används ej. Bra färg för inramning. ”Failure”.eller väntläge. Inget speciellt som separat färg. ”Explosionstopp” är gul. Inget speciellt. Grön ”Okej”. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt.3 Colour association test results from the participants representing the healthcare segment Färg Gul Testperson 1 Varning. 143 . Inget speciellt. Lila Neutralt. Tråkig färg. Inget speciellt. Ascoms arbetskläder Testperson 5 Varning. Tidsaspekter. Nivå 1 Uppmärksamh et. Varning. Gult/svart. Godkänt. Konsulter/bes ökare på A i Herrljunga har vita rockar. Inget speciellt. Blå ”Protectortoppen” är blå Inget speciellt. Skulle ha svårt att förstå innebörden. Ej godkänt. Godkänt. Förstadiet till röd. ”Okej”. Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Svart Text färg. Ej någon trivsam färg. Bra med svart text o färgade ord. Alarm. Nivå 3. ”Okej”. Något är inom gränsvärdet. Testperson 4 5 S.) Inget speciellt. Rött/ vitt=farliga kemi-kalier (standard). Avskiljare. Varning /Mittemellan gul och röd. Normalt läge. Grå Tråkig färg Inget speciellt Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Mildare gul är bra bakgrundsfärg. Avgränsat omr. Rosa Inget speciellt. Symbol-färg för varning. Inget speciellt.Appendix D. ”Godkänt”. ”Okej”. Något befinner sig i väntläge. Fel. Inget speciellt. Vit Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Något är fel. Brun Inget speciellt. Röd Varning. Inget speciellt Inget speciellt. Inget speciellt. Testperson 2 Neutralt. Standard färg för text. Ej trivsam färg. Ej någon tydlig färg. Nivå 2. 2. Bra i kombination med andra färger. Haveri. Turkos Inget speciellt. ”Okej”. Orange Varning. Varning. Testperson 6 1. Testperson 3 Märkningstext. Inget speciellt. Allt är bra. Något har inträffat. Används ej. ESD-lådorna är svarta=ej ledande. Lampa som lyser eller blinkar visar start. Bakgrundsfärg. Inom gränsvärdet. Ej någon trivsam färg.
3. 4. 1. 5. Plan: Do 1-3 Do 4 Do 5 Do 6 . Appendix E. In order to perform a machine failure task Receive a machine failure notification message to the handset 1. ask someone or try to find a map over the machine hall 144 .1 Noting that a message has arrived (through message-signal and vibration) Read the message Send an acceptance of the task 3. 6.Appendix E. Results from the hierarchical task analyses Separate analyses were made for the two different segments and the results are presented below.2 Get feedback that the message has been sent Get suitable tools Walk over to the machine Repair the machine 2.If you do not know where the machine is positioned.1 Press the ''Accept'' button on the handset 3.Get your tool box .1 HTA made for the industrial segment 0.
Appendix E. 6.If you do not know where the patient is located.1 Noting that a message has arrived (through message-signal and vibration) Read the message Send an acceptance of the task 3. ask someone or try to find a map over the ward 145 . 3. In order to respond to a cardiac arrest alarm Receive a cardiac arrest alarm message to the handset 1.2 HTA made for the healthcare segment 0. 5. 4. 1.Get defibrillator .1 Press the ''Accept'' button on the handset 3. Plan: Do 1-3 Do 4 Do 5 Do 6 .2 Get feedback that the message has been sent Get suitable equipment Walk over to the patient Perform medical treatment on patient 2.
Colour association test participant 1: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom.Test Team Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 4: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset. Göteborg Yrke/avdelning: Överläkare. three representatives from the industrial segment and one representative from the healthcare segment. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Production & Supply . thoraxradiologin Segment: Sjukvård Färgblind? Nej 146 .Production Engineering . Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: Produktverksamhetschef: Production & Supply Manufacturing Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 3: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom.Appendix F. Herrljunga Yrke/avdelning: IT-chef: Production & Supply Segment: Industri Färgblind? Nej Colour association test participant 2: Kön: Man Företag/stad: Ascom. Test participants in the user test The test participants of the user test were four to the number.
Appendix G. Colour deficiency test participant 1: Kön: Man Ålder: 23 Färgblindhetstyp: deuteranopia Colour deficiency test participant 2: Kön: Man Ålder: 29 Färgblindhetstyp: protanopia Colour deficiency test participant 3: Kön: Man Ålder: 27 Färgblindhetstyp: protanopia 147 . Test participants in the colour deficiency test The test participants of the colour deficiency test were three to the number and are all colour deficient.
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