# G.

Rizzoni, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 1st Edition

Problem solutions, Chapter 3

Chapter 3: Resistive Network Analysis – Instructor Notes
Chapter 3 presents the principal topics in the analysis of resistive (DC) circuits. The presentation of node voltage and mesh current analysis is supported by several solved examples and drill exercises, with emphasis placed on developing consistent solution methods, and on reinforcing the use of a systematic approach. The aim of this style of presentation, which is perhaps more detailed than usual in a textbook written for a non-majors audience, is to develop good habits early on, with the hope that the orderly approach presented in Chapter 3 may facilitate the discussion of AC and transient analysis in Chapters 4 and 5. Make The Connection sidebars (pp. 65-67) introduce analogies between electrical and thermal circuit elements. These analogies are to be encountered again in Chapter 5. A brief discussion of the principle of superposition precedes the discussion of Thèvenin and Norton equivalent circuits. Again, the presentation is rich in examples and drill exercises, because the concept of equivalent circuits will be heavily exploited in the analysis of AC and transient circuits in later chapters. The Focus on Methodology boxes (p. 66 – Node Analysis; p. 76 – Mesh Analysis; pp. 93, 97, 101 – Equivalent Circuits) provide the student with a systematic approach to the solution of all basic network analysis problems. Following a brief discussion of maximum power transfer, the chapter closes with a section on nonlinear circuit elements and load-line analysis. This section can be easily skipped in a survey course, and may be picked up later, in conjunction with Chapter 9, if the instructor wishes to devote some attention to load-line analysis of diode circuits. Finally, those instructors who are used to introducing the op-amp as a circuit element, will find that sections 8.1 and 8.2 can be covered together with Chapter 3, and that a good complement of homework problems and exercises devoted to the analysis of the op-amp as a circuit element is provided in Chapter 8. Modularity is a recurrent feature of this book, and we shall draw attention to it throughout these Instructor Notes. The homework problems present a graded variety of circuit problems. Since the aim of this chapter is to teach solution techniques, there are relatively few problems devoted to applications. We should call the instructor's attention to the following end-of-chapter problems: 3.30 on the Wheatstone bridge; 3.33 and 3.34 on fuses; 3.353.37 on electrical power distribution systems; 3.76-83 on various nonlinear resistance devices. The chapter includes 83 problems, as well as 25 fully solved exercises. Learning Objectives for Chapter 3 1. Compute the solution of circuits containing linear resistors and independent and dependent sources using node analysis. 2. Compute the solution of circuits containing linear resistors and independent and dependent sources using mesh analysis. 3. Apply the principle of superposition to linear circuits containing independent sources. 4. Compute Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits for networks containing linear resistors and independent and dependent sources. 5. Use equivalent circuits ideas to compute the maximum power transfer between a source and a load. 6. Use the concept of equivalent circuit to determine voltage, current and power for nonlinear loads using load-line analysis and analytical methods.

3.1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

G. Rizzoni, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 1st Edition

Problem solutions, Chapter 3

Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4: Nodal and Mesh Analysis
Focus on Methodology: Node Voltage Analysis Method
1. 2. Select a reference node(usually ground). This node usually has most elements tied to it. All other nodes will be referenced to this node. Define the remaining n–1 node voltages as the independent or dependent variables. Each of the m voltage sources in the circuit will be associated with a dependent variable. If a node is not connected to a voltage source, then its voltage is treated as an independent variable. Apply KCL at each node labeled as an independent variable, expressing each current in terms of the adjacent node voltages. Solve the linear system of n–1–m unknowns. Define each mesh current consistently. Unknown mesh currents will be always defined in the clockwise direction; known mesh currents (i.e., when a current source is present) will always be defined in the direction of the current source. In a circuit with n meshes and m current sources, n–m independent equations will result. The unknown mesh currents are the n–m independent variables. Apply KVL to each mesh containing an unknown mesh current, expressing each voltage in terms of one or more mesh currents.. Solve the linear system of n–m unknowns.

3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

Focus on Methodology: Mesh Current Analysis Method

Problem 3.1
Solution:

4.

Note: the rightmost top resistor missing a value should be 1 Ω.

Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.1

Find:
Voltages and .

Analysis:
Applying KCL at each of the two nodes, we obtain the following equations:

Rearranging the equations,

Solving the equations, and

3.2
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

G. Rizzoni, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 1st Edition

Problem solutions, Chapter 3

Problem 3.2
Solution:
Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.2

Find:
Voltages and .

Analysis:
Applying KCL at each node, we obtain:

Rearranging the equations,

Solving the two equations, and

Problem 3.3
Note: ignore the “floating” arrow pointing up in the top mesh.

Solution:
Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.3

Find:
Voltages across the resistance.

Analysis:
At node 1:

At node 2:

At node 3:

Solving for v2, we find

and, therefore,

.

3.3
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G. Rizzoni, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 1st Edition

Problem solutions, Chapter 3

Problem 3.4
Solution:
Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.4

Find:
Current through the voltage source.

Analysis:
At node 1: (1) At node 2: (2) At node 3: (3) Further, we know that equations in three unknowns: (1) (2) (3) Solving the three equations we compute . Now we can eliminate either v2 or v3 from the equations, and be left with three

Problem 3.5
Solution:
Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.5 with mesh currents: I1 = 5 A, I2 = 3 A, I3 = 7 A.

Find:
The branch currents through: a) R1, b) R2, c) R3.

Analysis:
a) Assume a direction for the current through (e.g., from node A to node B). Then summing currents at node A: KCL: 3.4
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

G. Rizzoni, Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, 1st Edition

Problem solutions, Chapter 3

This can also be done by inspection noting that the assumed direction of the current through R1 and the direction of I1 are the same. b) Assume a direction for the current through R2 (e.g., from node B to node A). Then summing currents at node B: KCL:

This can also be done by inspection noting that the assumed direction of the current through R2 and the direction of I3 are the same. c) Only one mesh current flows through R3. If the current through R3 is assumed to flow in the same direction, then: .

Problem 3.6
Solution:
Known quantities:
Circuit shown in Figure P3.5 with source and node voltages: .

Find:
The voltage across each of the five resistors.

Analysis:
Assume a polarity for the voltages across R1 and R2 (e.g., from ground to node A, and from node B to ground). R1 is connected between node A and ground; therefore, the voltage across R1 is equal to this node voltage. R2 is connected between node B and ground; therefore, the voltage across R2 is equal to the negative of this voltage.

The two node voltages are with respect to the ground which is given. Assume a polarity for the voltage across R3 (e.g., from node B to node A). Then: KVL:

Assume polarities for the voltages across R4 and R5 (e.g., from node A to ground , and from ground to node B): KVL: KVL:

3.5
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

G. 1st Edition Problem solutions. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. we find that: Then. Inc. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Analysis: At mesh (a): At mesh (b): At mesh (c): Solving. Chapter 3 Problem 3.7 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Analysis: At node 1: At node 2: Solving. If you are a student using this Manual. Find: The currents I1. Problem 3.7 with known source currents and resistances.6 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 3. . I2 using mesh analysis. we find that: Then. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission. I2 using node voltage analysis.8 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3.7 with known source currents and resistances. Rizzoni. . Find: The currents I1.

9 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. If you are a student using this Manual. through the voltage source using node voltage analysis.10 using node voltage analysis. Analysis: At node 1: At node 2: At node 3: For the voltage source we have: Solving the system. finally.G. Find: The three node voltages indicated in Figure P3. 3. . finally. Analysis: At node 1: At node 2: At node 3: For the voltage source we have: Solving the system. 1st Edition Problem solutions. . we obtain: . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. current and voltage source values. the voltage source value and the resistance values for the circuit shown in Figure P3. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.10. you are using it without permission.7 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and. . Rizzoni. Problem 3. we obtain: . Inc.9 with resistance values. and. . . Chapter 3 Problem 3. Find: The current.10 Solution: Known quantities: The current source value. i.

11 Solution: Known quantities: The voltage source value. 2) 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions.12.G.8 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. i. Therefore. 2 and by voltage divider: ( Eq. Analysis: KCL at node 1: Or KCL at node 2: ( Eq.12 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Inc. Find: The current. Problem 3. 1) Or substitute Eq. drawn from the independent voltage source using node voltage analysis. indicated in Figure P3. Chapter 3 Problem 3. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Find: Power delivered to the load resistance. Rizzoni. and the five resistance values. . If you are a student using this Manual. 3 V. you are using it without permission. 1 into Eq. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.11. we obtain: . Analysis: At node 1: At node 2: Solving the system.

14. Find: a) b) Voltages Write down the equations in matrix form. Find: Current and . Analysis: a) Using conductances. apply KCL at node 1: Then apply KCL at node 2: and at node 3: Rewriting in the form we have b) The result is identical to that obtained in part a).14 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3. If you are a student using this Manual. Rizzoni. Problem 3.13 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. . Inc. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. 3.13. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Analysis: For mesh #1: For mesh #2: Solving. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 1st Edition Problem solutions.G. you are using it without permission.9 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

2 and 3 are clockwise from the left For mesh #1: For mesh #2: For mesh #3: Solving. If you are a student using this Manual. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.16. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Rizzoni. you are using it without permission. 1st Edition Problem solutions. and and voltage across the resistance . Analysis: Problem 3.10 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.16 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3. and 3. Analysis: Meshes 1. Find: Current Mesh #1 Mesh #2 Therefore. and . .15.15 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3.G. Inc. Find: Voltage across the resistance. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

If you are a student using this Manual. 2 and 3 go from left to right.G.11 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Chapter 3 Problem 3.18 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Find: Voltage across the current source.333 A I2 = . . we can write From the current source: Solving the system of equations: I1 = .17 Note: the right-most mesh current should be labeled I3. Rizzoni.18.222 A I3 = 0. Analysis: Meshes 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission.778 A Problem 3.0. Solution: Mesh #1 (on the left-hand side) If we treat mesh #2 (middle) and mesh #3 (on the right-hand side) as a single loop containing the four resistors (but not the current source). © The McGraw-Hill Companies. For mesh #1: For meshes #2 and #3: For the current source: Solving. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.1. 1st Edition Problem solutions. and 3. Inc. not I2.

you are using it without permission.G. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. . Problem 3.12 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis: after source transformation. Chapter 3 Problem 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Rizzoni. Find: Mesh equation in matrix form.20 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3. We can write down the following matrix Solve the equation.20. If you are a student using this Manual.19 Solution: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Find: Mesh equation in matrix form and solve for currents. Analysis: a) b) same result as a). © The McGraw-Hill Companies.19. Inc. we can have 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. we can have the equivalent circuit shown in the right hand side.

The node equations required to determine the node voltages. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.. The denominator matrix is the "conductance" matrix and has certain properties: a) The elements on the main diagonal [i(row) = j(column)] include all the conductance connected to node i=j. you are using it without permission. Analysis: a) Specify the nodes (e. source. Inc.21 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit of Figure P3. 1st Edition Problem solutions.. assume all unknown current flow out of the node. 3.e. This is true only because there are no controlled (dependent) sources in this circuit. If you are a student using this Manual. Note that this is possible here. 2. b. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. The denominators are the same for both solutions. Choose one node as the reference or ground node. i. The main diagonal of a matrix is the one that goes to the right and down.10. c) The off-diagonal elements are all symmetric. If possible. The direction of the current supplied by the current source is specified and must flow into node A.G. and B on the right corner).13 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.g.21 with voltage source. . KCL: KCL: b) Matrix solution: Notes: 1. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Rizzoni. A on the upper left corner of the circuit in Figure P3. 3. d) The off-diagonal elements include all the conductance connected between node i [row] and node j [column]. IS. b) The off-diagonal elements are all negative. and all resistances. the i j-th element = j i-th element. When using KCL. The matrix solution for each node voltage in terms of the known parameters. Chapter 3 Problem 3. ground one of the sources in the circuit. current Find: a.

In the terminal (or node) between the two voltage sources is made the ground (or reference) node. R3. Analysis: a) There are 3 meshes and 3 mesh currents requiring the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. using Ohm's Law. Choose one node as the ground node. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Inc. and across R2.14 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. VR1. This leaves only two unknown node voltages (the voltages across R1. If you are a student using this Manual. Prove your case. then three node voltages are known (the ground or reference voltage and the two source voltages). Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. the voltage across R3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Only one of these mesh currents is required to determine. using KVL. b. assume unknown currents flow out.G. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.22 Find: a. VR3. In KCL. A difficult choice. Specify the nodes. . b) KCL: KCL: KVL: 3. Rizzoni. The most efficient way to solve for the voltage across The voltage across R3. you are using it without permission.22 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. VR2). Choose node analysis due to the smaller number of unknowns. Chapter 3 Problem 3. the voltage across R3. Both these voltages are required to determine.

23 . which is given. The voltage across R3. C between R3 and R2) and polarities of voltages (VA from ground to A. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Find: The temperature. you are using it without permission. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. solve for VA: KCL: Now write KCL at node A and solve for VS2 and T: KCL: 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. indicates the temperature. and VR3 from C to A). Analysis: Specify nodes (A between R1 and R3. If you are a student using this Manual. . When using KCL.23 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. substitute for VC. Vc from ground to C. T. Rizzoni. assume unknown currents flow out. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Inc.G. KVL: Now write KCL at node C.15 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 1st Edition Problem solutions.

1st Edition Problem solutions. the current through the source and the controlling voltage (across R1) that is not a node voltage. a node analysis will have fewer unknowns (because one node is the ground or reference node) and will. we have: Notes: 1. This was because the wrong method was used. The dependent source will introduce two additional unknowns. In general. but was terribly long and arithmetically cumbersome. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.G. This solution was not difficult in terms of theory. There are only 2 mesh currents in the circuit. the sources were voltage sources.24 Find: The voltage across R4 using KCL and node voltage analysis. 3. 2. Therefore 5 equations are required: Substitute using Equation [5] into Equations [1]. . one of which is the voltage across R4. be preferable. Analysis: Node analysis is not a method of choice because the dependent source is [1] a voltage source and [2] a floating source. [2] and [3] and eliminate V2 (because it only appears twice in these equations). you are using it without permission.24 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. There are three unknown node voltages. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Both factors cause difficulties in a node analysis. Inc. in such cases. Rizzoni. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. therefore. A ground is specified. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Collect terms: Solving. a mesh analysis is the method of choice. If you are a student using this Manual.16 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

and .25 using mesh current analysis. Analysis: For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving. and . © The McGraw-Hill Companies.26. Find: The voltage across the current source using mesh current analysis. Find: The voltage across the resistor in the circuit of Figure P3. 3. If you are a student using this Manual.17 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . Inc. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Rizzoni. Therefore. 1st Edition Problem solutions.25 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors and of the voltage sources (see Figure P3.25). you are using it without permission. Analysis: For mesh (a): For meshes (b) and (c): For the current source: Solving. . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. of the voltage source and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3.G. Problem 3.26 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors. .

Rizzoni. . of the voltage source and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3. you are using it without permission. and . Therefore.28 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors.18 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9. . If you are a student using this Manual. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Find: The current through the voltage source using mesh current analysis. Analysis: For mesh (a): For the current source: For meshes (b) and (c): Solving.27 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors and of the voltage source in the circuit of Figure P3. Chapter 3 Problem 3.27. Problem 3. . and . . Inc. Analysis: For mesh (a): For meshes (b) and (c): For the current source: Solving. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Find: The current through the resistance mesh current analysis. 3. .G. Therefore.

Inc. For mesh #1. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Then. If you are a student using this Manual. Rizzoni. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is obvious that: For mesh #2: For mesh #3: Solving. Problem 3. you are using it without permission.30. Find: The current in the circuit of Figure P3. and 3. . Therefore.10. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.29 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Analysis: Since I is unknown. the problem will be solved in terms of this current. Chapter 3 Problem 3. .30 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors in the circuit of Figure P3.10 using mesh current analysis.G. Find: The current through the voltage source in the circuit of Figure P3.30 using mesh current analysis. Analysis: For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving.19 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and .

Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Find: The voltage gain. Inc. from which and 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.31 using mesh current analysis. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.G. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis: Note that For mesh #1: For mesh #2: For mesh #3: Solving.20 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. in the circuit of Figure P3.31. 1st Edition Problem solutions.31 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors of the circuit in Figure P3. . Chapter 3 Problem 3. you are using it without permission. . Rizzoni.

21 and the values of the voltage sources. Rizzoni. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.21 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis: Choose a ground/reference node.G. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. you are using it without permission. R2 and R3 using KCL and node analysis. . Specify polarity of voltages and direction of the currents. .32 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit in Figure P3. and the values of the 5 resistors: Find: The voltages across R1. 1st Edition Problem solutions. The node common to the two voltage sources is the best choice. KCL: KCL: Collect terms in terms of the unknown node voltages: Evaluate the coefficients of the unknown node voltages: KVL: 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

1st Edition Problem solutions. R2 and R3. Analysis: Specify polarity of voltages. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Rizzoni. If you are a student using this Manual. other loads. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies.22 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. KCL: KCL: Collect terms in unknown node voltages: KVL: KVL: Note the voltages are strongly dependent on the loads (R1. the result will be quite different. Inc. you are using it without permission. R2 and R3) connected at the time the fuse blows. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.33 with the values of the voltage sources. With 3. Chapter 3 Problem 3. The current through the fuse F1 is zero.33 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit in Figure P3. .G. and the values of the 5 resistors: Find: The new voltages across R1. in case F1 "blows" or opens using KCL and node analysis. The ground is already specified.

The current through the fuse F1 is zero. . Chapter 3 Problem 3. The ground is already specified. and F1 in case F1 "blows" or opens using KCL and node analysis.G.23 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the values of the 5 resistors: Find: The voltages across R1. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis: Specify polarity of voltages.33 and the values of the voltage sources. KCL: KCL: KVL: KVL: 3. Inc. R2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.34 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit in Figure P3. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. . 1st Edition Problem solutions. you are using it without permission. R3. Rizzoni.

On the other hand. b) A node analysis is the method of choice! Specify polarity of voltages and direction of currents. you are using it without permission.G. Rizzoni.35 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources. . The number of unknown node voltages and mesh currents. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.24 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Unknown node voltages. Chapter 3 Problem 3. there are two unknown mesh currents. and the series resistances are combined into single equivalent resistances. b.35: . and the values of the 6 resistors in the circuit of Figure Find: a. Analysis: a) If the node common to the three sources is chosen as the ground/reference node. the common node voltage. Analysis: KVL: OL: 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. values of the 6 resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. If you are a student using this Manual.36 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources. P3. KCL: KVL: Problem 3. . 1st Edition Problem solutions.and the Find: The current through and voltage across R1. there is only one unknown node voltage.35: . Inc.

P3. After like terms are collected: KVL: KVL: KCL: Plugging in the given parameters results in the following system of equations: Solving the system of equations gives: A A Hence. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure P3. you are using it without permission.38 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources. Analysis: KVL: KVL: Problem 3. and the values of the 6 resistors in the circuit of Figure Find: The mesh (or loop) equations and any additional equation required to determine the current through R 1 in the circuit shown in Figure P3. Voltages will be summed around the 2 loops that are meshes. 3.37 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources.35: .25 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Rizzoni. Inc. the assumed polarity of the second and third branch currents is actually reversed.24. Assume directions of the branch currents and the associated polarities of the voltages. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. using KVL and loop analysis. . and the values of the 6 resistors in the circuit of Find: The branch currents. 1st Edition Problem solutions. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis: Three equations are required.G.35: . and KCL at the common node between the resistances.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. (2). Inc.26 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Find: Using KVL and mesh analyze the voltage across under normal conditions. Rizzoni.39 Solution: Known quantities: The of Figure P3.33. (2). If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis: a) KVL: At node 1: At node 2: At node 3: Combine (1).The value of . (3). © The McGraw-Hill Companies. (3). Chapter 3 Problem 3. we have So the voltage across b)Mesh: Mesh 1(left up): Mesh 2(left down): Mesh 3(right): Combine (1). We have: So the voltage across the voltage across the voltage across is is is is 106.5-(-106.G. you are using it without permission. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. . . 1st Edition Problem solutions. 3.5) = 213 V.

. Rizzoni. KCL: OL: Problem 3.5: Superposition Problem 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Redraw the circuit. Inc. and the values of the 3 resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. Chapter 3 Section 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. you are using it without permission. Specify polarity of VR1. If you are a student using this Manual. of the voltage source and of the resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.40 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources.41 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the current source.40: Find: The current through R1 due only to the source VS2.27 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Suppress the voltage source by replacing it with a Suppress the current source by replacing it with an open circuit. Analysis: Suppress VS1. Choose ground. KCL: R.41: Find: The voltage across using superposition. 3. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. . Analysis: Specify a ground node and the polarity of the voltage across short circuit. Redraw the circuit.G.

Rizzoni. Problem 3.28 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. It must be used when the sources in a circuit are AC sources with different frequencies. The voltage across R can easily be determined using a single KCL. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Suppress the voltage source by replacing it with a short circuit.G. Analysis: Specify the polarity of the voltage across Redraw the circuit. 3. Redraw the Note: Although superposition is necessary to solve some circuits. . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.42 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources and of the resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. Inc. Chapter 3 Note: Superposition essentially doubles the work required to solve this problem. be avoided. by replacing it with a short circuit. or where some sources are DC and others are AC. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.42: Find: The voltage across using superposition. if at all possible. This method should. If you are a student using this Manual. it is a very inefficient and very cumbersome way to solve a circuit. Suppress the voltage source circuit. you are using it without permission. 1st Edition KCL: Problem solutions.

Redraw the circuit.29 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.43: Find: The component of the current through that is due to VS2. If you are a student using this Manual. A solution using equivalent resistances looks reasonable. Analysis: Suppress VS1 by replacing it with a short circuit. Inc. you are using it without permission. and are in parallel: is in series with : OL: CD: 3.43 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources and of the resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.G. Rizzoni. 1st Edition Problem solutions. using superposition. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

G. using superposition. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. In the problem above a better method is: a. KCL: Note: Superposition should be used only for special conditions. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Redraw circuit. 1st Edition Problem solutions. b. mesh analysis using KVL (2 unknowns) node analysis using KCL (1 unknown but current must be obtained using OL). KCL: Suppress VS1 and VS2. Chapter 3 Problem 3. you are using it without permission.35: Find: The current through . If you are a student using this Manual.42. Rizzoni. . 3.30 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Redraw circuit.44 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage sources and of the resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. Suppress VS1 and VS3. Suppress VS2 and VS3. Redraw circuit. Analysis: Specify the direction of I1. as stated in the solution to Problem 3.

31 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.G.46 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors.45 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source V. Redraw the circuit. Problem 3. of the voltage source and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3. of the voltage source and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3. Redraw the circuit.9. 1st Edition Problem solutions. (2) Suppress current source I. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. . and Therefore. . . Rizzoni. and Therefore. Redraw the circuit. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source V. Therefore. Find: The current through the voltage source using superposition. Using the principle of superposition. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . Inc. Find: The current through the voltage source using superpoistion. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): Solving. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. and . . For mesh (a): For the current source: For meshes (b) and (c): Solving.6. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

Using the principle of superposition.G. . 1st Edition (2) Suppress current source I. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the five resistance values. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.32 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 3. Therefore. Redraw the circuit. we obtain: . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. .47 Solution: Known quantities: The voltage source value. indicated in Figure P3. i. drawn from the independent voltage source using superposition. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Redraw the circuit.11. Therefore. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source V. 3 V. you are using it without permission. Therefore. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving. . Problem solutions. and . Rizzoni. At node 1: At node 2: Solving the system. . Redraw the circuit. Find: The current. . At node 1: Solving. Using the principle of superposition. (2) Suppress current source I.

and . 3.G.48 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit in Figure P3. . indicates the temperature. (2) Suppress voltage source For mesh (a): . Rizzoni. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source For mesh (a): .23: The voltage across R3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Therefore. . For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. and . Using the principle of superposition. Find: The temperature. . . Redraw the circuit. Chapter 3 Problem 3. . . Therefore.33 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. °C. Redraw the circuit. For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving. Inc. which is given. T using superposition. If you are a student using this Manual. Therefore. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.

Using the principle of superposition.G.34 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Therefore. Redraw the circuit. and . . Find: The voltage across the resistor in the circuit of Figure P3. . . (2) Suppress voltage source For mesh (a): . 3. Redraw the circuit. you are using it without permission. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Therefore. . . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. If you are a student using this Manual. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving.49 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors and of the voltage sources (see Figure P3. .25). Chapter 3 Problem 3. For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving.14 using superposition. . and . Rizzoni.

. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Find: The voltage across the current source using superposition. For mesh (b): Solving. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Redraw the circuit. For mesh (a): For meshes (b) and (c): For the current source: Solving.26. For mesh (a): and . Rizzoni. (2) Suppress current source. and Therefore. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis: (1) Suppress voltage source. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies.35 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . . Inc. . you are using it without permission. Therefore. .G. 3.50 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the resistors. of the voltage source and of the current source in the circuit of Figure P3. Using the principle of superposition. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Redraw the circuit.

. you are using it without permission.51. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.G. Find νoc (3 Ω disconnected) KCL Node 1: KCL Nodes 2 & 3: Set all independent sources to zero 3.52. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Rizzoni. If you are a student using this Manual. Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit and the voltage across resistance Analysis: KVL: . Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit Analysis: Voltage divider gives KVL: Problem 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions.52 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Inc.36 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.51 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

Problem 3. Chapter 3 Problem 3. 3. Solving.53 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. 1st Edition Problem solutions.42A and the is count-clockwise. .54 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3.37 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.53. Find: Norton equivalent circuit Analysis: Using mesh analysis. Inc.G. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. It means the magnitude of direction of is 0. Find: Norton equivalent circuit Analysis: Using the mesh analysis approach Solving. . Rizzoni.54. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.

we assume . 3. Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit Analysis: To find RT.55 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3.56. zero) and apply nodal analysis. we zero the two sources by shorting the voltage source and opening the current source. Therefore. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.G. we can re-draw the circuit as shown: and combine the two parallel resistors to obtain: Thus. The resulting circuit is shown in the left: Therefore. Then. is positive side while the Problem 3. as reference (i. If you are a student using this Manual.56 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. is 0. as follows: Note that this circuit has only three nodes. is negative side. Inc. Rizzoni. To find . Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit Analysis: To find RT. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. we need to make the current source an open circuit and the voltage sources short circuits.38 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.e. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.55. It means that magnitude of . .01V. Thus.. Chapter 3 Problem 3.

. Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit Analysis: To find RT. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. or Therefore. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. Chapter 3 Problem 3.57 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Inc.57. To find vOC. Therefore.39 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. 1st Edition Problem solutions.G. nodal analysis can be applied. 3. Rizzoni. you are using it without permission. and it therefore does not affect vOC. Note that the 8 Ω resistor may be omitted because no current flows through it.

we short circuit the source Starting from the left side. Therefore. do not affect vOC.59.59 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. . Rizzoni. Problem 3. we obtain. . If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Find: Value of resistance Analysis: a) We have b) For . we have .58. Inc.58 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. Find: Thevenin equivalent circuit Analysis: To find RT. Chapter 3 Problem 3. we apply mesh analysis: Two resistors are omitted because no current flows through them and they. . Solving for i2. To find .G. 1st Edition Problem solutions.40 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. 3. therefore.

you are using it without permission. Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. So. Inc. Note: v1 and v2 do not source any current. But. Problem 3. Find: a) b) c) d) Thevenin equivalent resistance Power dissipated by Power dissipated by and Power dissipated by the bridge without the load resistor Analysis: To find RT. If you are a student using this Manual. short circuit vs.61. Then.60 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3. assume that the two voltage sources do not source any current. d) With no load resistor.61 Note: the dependent current source on the left should be labeled i1.G. Thus. 1st Edition Problem solutions.60. . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Analysis: Taking the bottom node as the reference. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Further. b) Using the circuit shown: c) Using the previous circuit. Rizzoni. Find: as an expression of and .41 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

the Thévenin (openis the load. Inc. leaving the load terminals open circuited. Redraw the circuit. (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Redraw the circuit.62 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. If you are a student using this Manual. Therefore. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving the system. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . 1st Edition Problem solutions. 3. leaving the load terminals open circuited. (2) Remove the load. Therefore. Redraw the circuit. and the voltage sources.42 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . For node #1: For node #2: Solving the system. Rizzoni. Chapter 3 Problem 3.G. you are using it without permission.5). circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when Analysis: (1) Remove the load.

Redraw the circuit. the Thévenin (open-circuit) voltage and the Norton (short- Analysis: (1) Remove the load. . Chapter 3 Problem 3. you are using it without permission. Inc.10). . . and the voltage sources.43 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 1st Edition Problem solutions. leaving the load terminals open circuited.63 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. (2) Remove the load. Therefore. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. For node #1: For node #2: For node #3: For the voltage source: Solving the system. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . and .G. 3. Redraw the circuit. Redraw the circuit. leaving the load terminals open circuited. If you are a student using this Manual. . and . Therefore. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Rizzoni. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor circuit) current when is the load. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving the system. . (3) Replace the load with a short circuit.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. and Therefore. leaving the load terminals open circuited.G. For node #1: For node #2: Solving the system. leaving the load terminals open circuited. . .23). Therefore. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Chapter 3 Problem 3. If you are a student using this Manual. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. Redraw the circuit. and the voltage sources. (2) Remove the load.44 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. 3.64 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. Redraw the circuit. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . Redraw the circuit. and . . Rizzoni. . For mesh (a): For meshes (b) and (c): For the current source: Solving the system. Analysis: (1) Remove the load. you are using it without permission. . the Thévenin (open-circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when is the load.

3.23). Redraw the circuit. Chapter 3 Problem 3. . and Therefore. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.65 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. Inc. leaving the load terminals open circuited.12. Redraw the circuit. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving the system. For node #1: For node #2: Solving the system. the Thévenin (open-circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when is the load. Therefore. If you are a student using this Manual. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Rizzoni. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . . you are using it without permission. we assume °C. and . . Redraw the circuit. (2) Remove the load. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. leaving the load terminals open circuited. and the voltage sources. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. so that . (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. . . Assumption: As in P3.G. Analysis: (1) Remove the load.45 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

25). . (2) Remove the load. and . Analysis: (1) Remove the load. If you are a student using this Manual. Redraw the circuit. you are using it without permission. . leaving the load terminals open circuited. (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. Chapter 3 Problem 3. leaving the load terminals open circuited. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . Redraw the circuit. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Therefore. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Therefore. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.66 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. the Thévenin (open-circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when is the load. Rizzoni. 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Redraw the circuit.46 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and the voltage sources. . Inc. . For node #1: For node #2: For node #3: For the 5-V voltage source: Solving the system. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving the system. . and .G. .

26). For node #1: For node #2: Solving the system. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. and . Redraw the circuit. Analysis: (1) Remove the load. . leaving the load terminals open circuited. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.67 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. and Therefore. Redraw the circuit. .G. . Inc. . 1st Edition Problem solutions. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Therefore. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . For mesh (a): For meshes (b) and (c): For the current source: Solving the system. the Thévenin (open-circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when is the load. you are using it without permission.47 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (2) Remove the load. and the voltage sources. If you are a student using this Manual. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies. leaving the load terminals open circuited. 3. Rizzoni. Redraw the circuit.

Inc. Rizzoni. (3) Replace the load with a short circuit. . For node #1: Solving. Redraw the circuit. . Chapter 3 Problem 3. 3. and Therefore. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): Solving the system. Redraw the circuit. leaving the load terminals open circuited. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.68 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. you are using it without permission. leaving the load terminals open circuited. . the Thévenin (open-circuit) is the load.41). Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when . (2) Remove the load. Redraw the circuit.48 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis: (1) Remove the load. Therefore. .G. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and the voltage sources. .

circuit) voltage and the Norton (short-circuit) current when Analysis: (1) Remove the load. . leaving the load terminals open circuited. and the voltage sources. If you are a student using this Manual. 1st Edition Problem solutions. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies. For node #1: For node #2: Solving the system. (2) Remove the load.G. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Inc. . you are using it without permission. Find: The Thévenin equivalent resistance seen by resistor . Rizzoni.43). Redraw the circuit. Therefore. the Thévenin (openis the load. . . Redraw the circuit. For mesh (a): For mesh (b): For mesh (c): Solving the system. and Therefore. 3. leaving the load terminals open circuited. and . (3) Replace the load with a short circuit.49 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Chapter 3 Problem 3.69 Solution: Known quantities: The schematic of the circuit (see Figure P3. Redraw the circuit.

Specify directions of the currents and polarities of voltages. and the values of Find: The change in the voltage across the total load. when the customer connects the third load other two loads.G. Additional load reduces the voltage supplied to the customer because of the additional voltage dropped across the losses in the distribution system. If the node at the bottom is chosen as ground (which grounds one terminal of the ideal source). R3 in parallel with the Analysis: Choose a ground. the 4 resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. the voltage decreased by: Notes: 1.70 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage source. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. you are using it without permission. 2.50 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. . Rizzoni. "Load" to an EE usually means current rather than resistance. Without R3: KCL: OL: With R3: KCL: OL: Therefore. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 3. If you are a student using this Manual. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. the only unknown node voltage is the required voltage. 1st Edition Problem solutions.70: . Chapter 3 Problem 3.

72 Solution: Known quantities: The circuit shown in Figure P3. you are using it without permission. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.71 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage source. If you are a student using this Manual. and the value of the load resistor .72. .. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.e. Find: The change in the voltage across the total load. using the interaction of the source with an external load. the values of the terminal voltage.51 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Problem 3. it can be determined.70 for a detailed mathematical analysis. . The source resistance cannot be directly measured. . 1st Edition Problem solutions. Rizzoni. respectively and . no-load or open-circuit conditions. when the customer connects the third load R3 in parallel with the other two loads. Analysis: KVL: If If OL: Note that RS is an equivalent resistance. and the values of the 4 resistors in the circuit of Figure P3. VS is the voltage generated by some internal process. as was done above. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. however. i. before and after the application of the load. The source voltage can be measured directly by reducing the current supplied by the source to zero. Analysis: See Solution to Problem 3. Find: The internal resistance and the voltage of the ideal source. IT = 0: VT = 18 V: 3.71. representing the various internal losses of the source and is not physically a separate component. Inc.G.

For maximum power transfer: VD: Analysis: c. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. b. The value of . The power developed in . The power developed in .74 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage and of the resistor in the equivalent circuit of Figure P3.73 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage and of the resistor in the equivalent circuit of Figure P3. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. a. The efficiency of the circuit.73: Assumptions: Assume the conditions for maximum power transfer exist. you are using it without permission. c. For maximum power transfer: VD: Analysis: c. Find: a. If you are a student using this Manual. b.7: Maximum power transfer Problem 3.73: Assumptions: Assume the conditions for maximum power transfer exist. Rizzoni. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.G. Problem 3. The efficiency of the circuit. . that is the ratio of power absorbed by the load to power supplied by the source. 3. c. Chapter 3 Section 3. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Find: a. Inc.52 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. that is the ratio of power absorbed by the load to power supplied by the source. The value of . b. b. a.

G. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. analytically. Plot the power dissipated in the load as a function of the load resistance.1 0.75 Solution: Known quantities: The values of the voltage source. you are using it without permission.0 120. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. What can you conclude from your plot? b. Inc. Analysis: a.5 3. and of the resistance representing the internal losses of the source. I [A] 40 30 20 10 5 PR [W] 0. that your conclusion is valid in all cases. . 1st Edition Problem solutions.59. Prove. Find: a.9 2.0 90. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Chapter 3 Problem 3. .53 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 b. KVL: R [Ω] 0 0. .0 52.0 90. Rizzoni. If you are a student using this Manual.3 0. in the circuit of Figure P3.

76 Solution: Known quantities: The two nonlinear resistors.77 Solution: Known quantities: The characteristic I-V curve shown in Figure P3. and the values of the voltage. KVL: Solving for V and I. find the new operating point and the new incremental resistance. Problem 3. b.77. b.76. The second voltage value is physically impossible.G.8: Nonlinear circuit elements Problem 3. If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the node Problem 3. c.54 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. The operating point of the element that has the characteristic curve shown in Figure P3. Find: a. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. are characterized by: Find: The node voltage equations in terms of v1 and v2. Analysis: a. Therefore. . . If were increased to 20 V. 1st Edition Problem solutions.77. Inc. c. and of the resistance.78 Solution: Known quantities: 3.61. Rizzoni. in the circuit of Figure P3. you are using it without permission. But equations are and and . . The incremental resistance of the nonlinear element at the operating point of part a. Chapter 3 Section 3. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. in the circuit of Figure P3. At node 2. Analysis: At node 1.

Determine and plot the circuit I-V characteristic. and the values of the voltage. Find: The current through and the voltage across the nonlinear device.80 Solution: Known quantities: The I-V characteristic shown in Figure P3.e. Analysis: The I-V characteristic for the nonlinear device is given. Plotting the two intercepts above and connecting them with a straight line gives the DC load line.78. or "Q". The characteristic I-V curve shown in Figure P3. and the values of the voltage.79.G.79 Solution: Known quantities: The I-V characteristic shown in Figure P3. you are using it without permission. and of the resistance. in the circuit of Figure P3. . © The McGraw-Hill Companies. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. The solution for V and I is at the intersection of the device and circuit characteristics: . Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Plot the circuit I-V characteristic. . Analysis: The solution is at the intersection of the device and circuit characteristics.63. The solution is at the intersection of the device and circuit characteristics. in the circuit of Figure P3.. Chapter 3 .55 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.80 as a function of pressure. or "Quiescent".78. 3. KVL: The DC load line [circuit characteristic] is linear. Plotting the two intercepts above and connecting them with a straight line gives the DC load line. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 1st Edition Problem solutions. Problem 3. i. or "DC operating" point: . Problem 3. and of the resistance. the DC load line. Find: The current through and the voltage across the nonlinear device. Rizzoni. . The device I-V characteristic is given. KVL: The DC load line [circuit characteristic] is linear.

Use Equation [2] to compute a new VD.81: Find: An expression for the DC load line.18 0. you are using it without permission. 1st Edition Problem solutions.91 0. and the current through the nonlinear device when p = 30 psig. Chapter 3 Find: The DC load line.14 1.G. The voltage across and current through the nonlinear device. Analysis: Circuit characteristic [DC load line]: KVL: Iterative procedure: Initially guess . i.43 1. b. Problem 3. .: p [psig] 10 20 25 30 40 VD [V] 2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 3. Then: a. Rizzoni. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Solutions are at the intersections of the circuit with the device characteristics. Note this voltage must be between zero and the value of the source voltage.56 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. Plot the two intercepts and connect with a straight line to plot the DC load line.60 The function is nonlinear. Analysis: Circuit characteristic [DC load line]: KVL: The circuit characteristic is a linear relation. At p = 30 psig: . the voltage across the device as a function of pressure. If you are a student using this Manual.81 Solution: Known quantities: The I-V characteristic of the nonlinear device in the circuit shown in Figure P3.e. Use Equation [1] to compute a new ID.

Problem solutions. Rizzoni.95 11.57 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual.9 782.. i. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Find: The DC load line.G.82 as a function of pressure. go step a. you are using it without permission. Analysis: Circuit characteristic [DC load line]: KVL: The circuit characteristic is a linear relation that can be plotted by plotting the two intercepts and connecting them with a straight line.82 Solution: Known quantities: The I-V characteristic shown in Figure P3.5 11. Iterate. Chapter 3 VD [mV] 750 784. ID [mA] 12.93 11. Solutions are at the intersections of the circuit and device characteristics. and repeat. © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1st Edition c.1 782. .9 … . and the current through the nonlinear device when p = 40 psig.e. Inc. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering.95 … Problem 3. At p = 40 psig: 3.

Therefore we can calculate the voltage in the whole circuit.VT=12. The intersection of voltage circuit and the thevenin equivalent voltage shows the answer. They are close to the answer we got above. Analysis: a) For every voltage value for the diode.58 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.kTq=0. iD2=ISAT*(exp(VD1/kTq)-1). end if abs(VD2-VD1)<10E-6. else VD2=VD1. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. flag=0 end end iD1 VD1 3. If you are a student using this Manual. while flag iD1=(VT-VD1)/RT. Inc. we can calculate the corresponding current.clear. clc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.83 Solution: Known quantities: Circuit shown in Figure P3.close all. flag=1.0259.83 and the program flowchart Find: a) Graphical analysis of diode current and diode voltage. b) Run the attached Matlab code. if iD1>iD2 VD1=VD1+(VD2-VD1)/2. VD1=VD1/2. VD2=VT. we can have the following answer. . VD1=VT/2. ISAT=10e-12. 1st Edition Problem solutions. © The McGraw-Hill Companies.RT=22.G. you are using it without permission. Chapter 3 Problem 3. Rizzoni.