Job Design

Scientific Management
• First. Find, say, ten or fifteen different men (prefereably in as many separate establishments and parts of the country) who are especially skilful in doing the particular work to be analyzed. • Second. Study the exact series of elementary operations or motions which each of these men uses in doing the work which is being investigated, as well as the implements each man uses. • Third. Study with a stop-watch the time required to make each of these elementary movements and then select the quickest way of doing each element of the work. • Fourth. Eliminate all false movements, slow movements, and useless movements. • Fifth. After doing away with all unnecessary movements, collect into one series the quickest and best movements as well as the best implements. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911

The Job Characteristics Model .

he learns (knowledge of results) that 2.Job Characteristics Model: Psychological States • An individual experiences positive affect to the extent that: 1. he personally (experienced responsibility) has performed well on a task that 3. . he cares about (experienced meaningfulness).

and serves as an incentive for him to continue to try to perform well • When he does not perform well. and he may elect to try harder in the future . he does not experience an internally reinforcing state of affairs.Job Characteristics Model: Psychological States • This positive affect is reinforcing to the individual.

. and worthwhile • Experienced Responsibility for Work Outcomes: The degree to which the individual feels personally accountable and responsible for the results of the work he or she does • Knowledge of Results: The degree to which the individual knows and understands. how effectively he or she is performing the job. valuable. on a continuous basis.Psychological States: Definitions • Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work: The degree to which the individual experiences the job as one which is generally meaningful.

identifiable piece of work rather than simply a part Task significance (TS): the extent to which the job has an impact on other people. 2. 1976. 4. Skill variety (SV): the degree to which the job requires different skills Task identity (TI): the degree to which the job involves completing a whole. Hackman and Oldham (1975. inside or outside the organization Autonomy (AU): the extent to which the job allows jobholders to exercise choice and discretion in their work Feedback from the job (FB): the extent to which the job itself (as opposed to other people) provides jobholders with information on their performance 3. 1980) .The Job Characteristics Model: Job Dimensions 1. 5.

• MPS = [(SV + TI + TS)/3] x AU x FB Hackman and Oldham (1976) .Motivating Potential Score (MPS) • A way to combine the five core job characteristics to give a single index of the overall potential of a job to promote work motivation.

.Individual Growth Need Strength • Differences among people moderate how they react to their work • Prediction: People who have high need for personal growth and development will respond more positively to a job high in motivating potential than people with low growth need strength.

The Job Characteristics Model .

How Does The JDM Compare With • Transtheoretical Model – Decisional Balance – Stages – Process • SocioCognitive Model – Self-efficacy – Behavioral Capability – Expectancies. expectations .

Conceptual Issues • Importance of other dimensions of work • Importance of other outcomes besides job satisfaction • Important mechanisms • What about contingencies? .

Importance of other dimensions of work: • • • • • • Physical demands Physical context Social contact and social support Role ambiguity and role conflict Feedback from agents Group-level perceptions .

Importance of other outcomes besides job satisfaction • • • • Performance and productivity Health and safety Learning and development Outside work outcomes .

Important mechanisms • Motivation • Kelly’s twin track mechanisms • Quick fix mechanism – solving problems at source • Learning and development .

What About Contingencies? • Individual – Need for control – Tolerance of role ambiguity – Work values • Organizational – Technical interdependence – cooperation – Technical uncertainty – information processing and decision-making – Environmental uncertainty – stable vs. unstable markets .

Kelly’s Twin-Track Model of Job Redesign .

Methodological Issues • Perceptual Measures of Job Characteristics – Measures and artifact of the use of selfrating • Studies show convergence of objective and subjective • Manipulation of objective conditions leads to changes in perceptions • Perceptions not primarily driven by social cues • Limited Longitudinal Work .

Source: R.Karasek Demand-Control Model Psychological Job Demands Learning and motivation to develop new learning patterns Passive Work High Strain Decision Latitude (Control) Low Strain Active Work Risk of psychological strain and physical illness Figure 4.1 Demand-Control Model.A. Karasek (1979) .

Dynamic Demand-Control Model .

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