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) Your Answer: the allowance of all substances to pass through a membrane without hindrance. Correct Answers: selective permeability. the allowance of only certain substances to pass through a membrane without hindrance. A membrane that allows all substances to pass through it without hindrance is freely permeable, not differentially permeable.
Passive transport includes which of the following characteristics? (Choose all answers that apply.) Your Answer: Simple diffusion Correct Answers: Facilitated diffusion Simple diffusion Osmosis Water moves freely through most membranes.
Refer to Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion). Which solute(s) did the 20 MWCO membrane exclude? (Choose all answers that apply.) Your Answer: Na+ Correct Answers: Na+ Urea
Glucose Albumin 4. Which solute(s) passed through the 100 MWCO membrane? (Choose all answers that apply. 5. Refer to Activity 1. Two ways that the rate of glucose transport could . 7. Which solute demonstrated the highest diffusion rate through the 100 MWCO? Your Answer: All substances diffused at the same rate. Refer to Activity 1.) Your Answer: Glucose Correct Answer: None could travel against their concentration gradient. Correct Answer: Na+ 6. Which solute(s) were able to travel against their concentration gradients? (Choose all answers that apply. Refer to passive versus active transport differences. Refer to Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion. Refer to Activity 2.) Your Answer: Glucose Correct Answers: Na+ Urea Refer to pore size and charge.
9. Which of the other solutes affected the rate of glucose diffusion? (Choose all answers that apply.) Your Answer: 20 MWCO Correct Answer: None of the membranes affected water transport. Refer to Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure.) Your Answer: Simple diffusion 10. Under which type of transport process is osmosis included? (Choose all answers that apply. . Which of the membranes excluded water movement through the membrane? (Choose all answers that apply. Refer to Activity 3.be increased are: Your Answer: Decrease the MWCO of the membrane Correct Answers: Increase the concentration of glucose Increase the number of glucose carriers 8. Refer to Activity 2.) Your Answer: Albumin Correct Answer: None of the solutes affected the diffusion rate of glucose.
14. Your Answer: decreased. increased 12. then osmotic pressure is __________. Which carrier proteins affect Na+ transport? (Choose all answers that apply. The simulated filtration membrane is representative of the filtration membrane of what structure in humans? Your Answer: Collecting tubules Correct Answer: Renal corpuscle 13. increased Correct Answer: increased. Refer to Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport. Refer to Activity 4. . Refer to Activity 4: Simulating Filtration.11. Refer to Activity 3.) Your Answer: Urea Correct Answer: None of the carrier proteins included in this active transport simulation affected Na+ transport. What characteristic of a solute determines whether or not it passes through a filtration membrane? Your Answer: Lipid solubility Correct Answer: Molecular size Review the criteria for filtration versus simple diffusion. When solute concentration is __________.
The dialysis membrane is permeable to all substances except albumin. The left beaker contains 4 mM NaCl. The right beaker contains 10 mM NaCl. The ratio of Na+ to K+ transport is ____ Na+ transported out of the cell for every ____ K+ transported into the cell. 1 Correct Answer: 3. 2 16. The right beaker contains 10 mM NaCl. 10 mM glucose and 40 mM albumin. 9 mM glucose and 10 mM albumin. 10 mM glucose and 40 mM albumin. The left beaker contains 4 mM NaCl.15. 9 mM glucose and 10 mM albumin. What characteristic(s) of the semipermeable membrane used in the simple diffusion and filtration experiments determines which substances pass through them? (Choose all that apply) Your Answer: Molecular size Correct Answers: Molecular weight Molecular size 17. . Refer to Activity 5. Your Answer: 2. In which direction will glucose move? Your Answer: To both beakers Correct Answer: To the left beaker 18. The dialysis membrane is permeable to all substances except albumin.
Glucose Which did not? Albumin Why? Because the molecular weight exceeded the highest MWCO membrane. ACTIVITY 2: Simulating Dialysis What happens to the urea concentration in the left beaker (the patient)? It is reduced to 50%. Urea. When food is pickled for human consumption. What determines whether a transport process is passive or active? Your Answer: Membrane permeability Correct Answer: Presence of ATP ACTIVITY 1: Simple Diffusion What is the molecular weight of Na?? 22. as much water as possible is removed from the food.In which direction will water move? Your Answer: Will not move Correct Answer: To the right beaker 19. 200 MWCO Which materials diffused from the left beaker to the right beaker? Na/Cl. travels to the right beaker and reaches equilibrium at 17 minutes.45 amu Which MWCO dialysis membranes allowed both of these ions through? 50. What method is used to achieve this dehydrating effect? Your Answer: Facilitated diffusion Correct Answer: Osmosis 20.99 amu What is the molecular weight of Cl?? 35. . thus being too large to pass through. 100.
?then ?equilibrium ?will? be ?established and osmotic ?pressure ?will ?not ?be? generated. Explain the relationship between solute concentration and osmotic pressure. with which membrane(s)? Yes. Why? Because no diffusion took place. because both glucose and NaCl are diffusible with a 200 MWCO membrane. would you be able to observe any diffusion? No Does being unable to observe diffusion necessarily mean that diffusion is not taking place? No ACTIVITY 4: Osmosis Did you observe any pressure changes during this experiment? If so. 50. Why or why not? If? you ?increased? (or ?doubled) ?the ?concentration ?of ?albumin. and with which membranes? In the L beaker with the 20 MWCO Membrane. Does diffusion allow osmotic pressure to be generated? If? solutes ?are ?able ?to ?diffuse. and 200 MWCO Why? Because diffusion took place. in which beaker(s). the albumin would generate the pressure.ACTIVITY 3: Facilitated Diffusion At a given glucose concentration. if the solute concentration increases the osmotic pressure will increase. Would pressure be generated if solute concentrations were equal on both sides of the membrane? Osmotic ?pressure ?would? be ?zero ?if? albumin ?concentration ?was ?the same? on ?both? sides ?of ?the? membrane. 100. which solution was generating the pressure? Yes. Would pressure be generated if you had 9 mM albumin on one side of a 200 MWCO membrane and 9 mM NaCl on the other side? If so. They are directly proportional. the pressure went up. ACTIVITY 5: Filtration What were the results of your initial membrane analysis? Solute Residue for all . how does the amount of time it takes to reach equilibrium change with the number of carriers used to ³build´ the membrane? The higher number of carriers the quicker it reaches equilibrium Does the diffusion rate of Na?/Cl? change with the number of receptors? No What is the mechanism of the Na?/Cl? transport? Plasma vesicles If you put the same amount of glucose in the right beaker as in the left. Would pressure be generated if you had 9 mM glucose on one side of a 200 MWCO membrane and 9 mM NaCl on the other side? If so. which solution was generating the pressure? No. because it does not diffuse.?osmotic? pressure ?will increase ?(or ?double). Did the Na?/Cl? diffuse from the left beaker to the right beaker? If so.
including events such as the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Both are equa.solutes (Na/Cl. Activity 3: Investigating Graded Muscle Response to Increased Stimulus . then stop before completed. use full sentences. Urea.l Does the membrane you ³built´ allow simple diffusion? No it does not Does the amount of ATP added make any difference? Yes Activity 2: Determining the Latent Period Questions: ?answer each question. Glucose. ask instructor if you need help 2-1: How long is the latent period? 2. As the run progresses. the concentrations of the solutes will change in the windows next to the two beakers. the faster the filtration Did all solutes pass through all the membranes? If not. includes all biochemical events beginning with acetylcholine binding to the sarcolemma through the beginning of cross-bridge binding. the larger the MWCO the faster the filtration Does the amount of pressure applied affect the filtration rate? Yes.78 msec 2-2: What occurs in the muscle during this apparent lack of activity? The muscle cell is biochemically preparing for contraction. the greater the pressure. Powdered charcoal) were present. powdered charcoal Why? The size of the powdered charcoal was too large How can the body selectively increase the filtration rate of a given organ or organ system? By increasing the pressure or using a larger sized porous membrane ACTIVITY 6: Active Transport At the end of this experimental run. Does the membrane MWCO affect filtration rate? Yes. which one(s) did not? No. and the movement of the chemicals of contraction within the cell. did the Na/Cl move from the left vessel to the right vessel? No Why? Because the ATP was used up in the first 3 min. The rate will slow down markedly. Why? The rate of Active Transport decreases Does the amount of NaCl/KCl transported change? Yes Does the amount of solute transported across the membrane change with an increase in carriers or pumps? Yes Is one solute more affected than the other? No.
5 volts (depends on the rapidity of clicking). Activity 6: Investigating Fusion Frequency/Tetanus Questions: .Intensity Questions: ?answer each question. the active force produced by subsequent stimuli slightly increases for the first few stimuli. use full sentences. use full sentences. Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport Questions: ?answer each question. do you think you will need to increase or decrease the voltage? Decrease voltage 5-4: At what voltage were you able to achieve Active Force=2gms? 7-2. ask instructor if you need help 3-1: What is the minimal. or threshold. sustained muscle contraction at Active Force = 2 gms. stimulus? 0.8 v 3-2: What is the maximal stimulus? 8.0 v 3-3: How can you explain the increase in force that you observe? As more voltage is delivered to the whole muscle. 5-3: In order to produce smooth. 5-5: How does the frequency of stimulation affect the amount of force generated by the muscle? The greater frequency of stimulatin results in a greater force generated. use full sentences. 5-2: Is the total force production even greater? The total force production is even greater when stimuli are delivered more rapidly. ask instructor if you need help 5-1: Is the peak force produced in the second contraction greater than that produced by the first stimulus? The peak force produced in the second contraction is greater than that produced by the first stimulus. Activity 4: Investigating Treppe Questions: ?answer each question. ask instructor if you need help 4-1: What happens to force production with each subsequent stimulus? As long as stimuli are delivered relatively close together. more muscle fibers are activated and total force produced by muscle is increased.
2 v and 120 stimuli/sec.6 v and 120 stimuli/sec. 6-3: From your graph. 120 Stimuli/sec 6-4: What stimulus intensity produced smooth force at Force = 2 gms? Smooth. estimate the stimulus rate above which there appears to be no significant increase in force. the active force produced by the muscle also increases.6-1: Describe the appearance of the tracing. Manipulating both allows the muscle to produce smooth force at any desired level. 6-6: Explain what must happen to the intensity and frequency of the stimulus to achieve smooth contraction at different force levels. Increasing the stimulation rate causes smoother force production. 6-2: How do the tracings change as the stimulus rate is increased? As the stimulus rate is increased. sustained force at 2 gms can be produced at approximately 1. 6-5: Which intensity produced smooth contraction at Force = 3 gms? Smooth. Report Abuse . The force rises and falls at 30 stimuli/sec. Lowering the voltage decreases the total force produced. sustained force at 3 gms can be produced at approximately 1.
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