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5M-1994 with Introduction to Dimension Management / Engineering For
General Motors Technical Center, Bangalore, INDIA
About iSquare …
(InterOperability & InterChangeability Solutions) Pune, INDIA
Focus Areas …
CAD Data InterOperability : Consistent representation of 3D CAD data in variety of CAD/CAM/CAE applications and platforms. InterChangeability: Predicting Dimensional Variations, its impact and causes at the product and assembly level at early design stage.
InterOperability: – With International TechneGroup Incorporated, USA having more than 20 years of Experience in CAD Data InterOperability technology, solutions and services.
USA having more than 15 years of experience in Dimensional Control Techniques.. 3dcs@isquare-india.Relationships … • InterChangeability: • With Dimensional Control Systems Inc.com 5 i2 . Solutions and Services.
Data Migration. CAE.Our Offerings … •CAD Data InterOperability: •Focused & Customized Training Programs on: •CAD/CAM/CAE Data Exchange : Problems and Solutions from CAD. •CAD Model Quality Assessment : CAD Model Quality evaluation from downstream application perspective •Software Solutions For: •Effective Data exchange between heterogeneous CAD/CAM systems: Regardless of source. 6 i2 .CAD/IQ. CAM Perspective. Lower version to higher or vice-a-versa •‘Vendor – Supplier’ data integration : ensuring effective data exchange with minimal / NO rework at either ends. •Model Quality Assessment from Downstream application perspective •Quality Services for: •Data Exchange. IGES/Works. target application. standard and formats !! Solutions Include CADfix.
3DCS-SA. 3DCS-CAA V5 Designer. various approaches and real life problems from their application areas. GDM3D •Quality Services for: •Dimensional Engineering / Management : Base Line tolerance model creation.Our Offerings … •InterChangeability: •Focused & Customized Training Programs on: •Dimensional Management : Understanding and appreciation of computer aided tools for. Takes participants thru evolution. 7 i2 . •Software Solutions For: •Dimensional Management / Stack Analysis: Solutions embedded in CATIA V5 as Gold Partner and also Stand Alone solutions for data coming from other CAD platforms !! Solutions Include 1-DCS. assembly variation prediction against desired objectives. Full 3D simulations. Follow-on consulting •Per requirement. 3DCS-CAA V5 Analyst. includes 1D. DCS-DFC. 1D with GD&T. reporting with suggestions and recommendations. Piece – part variations.
Pune in the domain of Dimensional Variation Management Sr# 1 Course Title Fundamentals and Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) as per ASME Y14.Training Programs in Dimensional Management / Engineering Courses from iSquare. USA) Software Solutions.2-1978 and ISO-286 Standards Introduction to Digital Product Definition Data Practices (Solid Model Tolerancing) per ASME Y14.41:2003 32hrs (4 days) 24hrs (3 days) 8hrs (1 day) 24hrs (3 days) Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T 6 7 None 8 8 Basic knowledge of GD&T i2 .43:2003 Engineering Limits & Fits with introduction to ANSI B4.DCS-DFC and 3DCS-CAAV5 Analyst) Duration 24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days) Pre-requisite None 2 Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T 3 4 32hrs (4 days) Basic knowledge of GD&T preferred 5 GD&T and Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for an Automobile: A Practical Approach to Control and Calculate Dimensional Variations Introduction to Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles for Gages and Fixtures Based on ASME Y14. (Covers exposure to 1DCS.5M:1994 Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning and GD&T : A practical Approach to Solve Assembly Build Problems CATIA V5 Based GD&T/Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using DCS (Dimensional Control Systems Inc..5M:1994 Advanced Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T): Concepts & Applications as per ASME Y14.
That’s about iSquare 10 i2 .
3days Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each session Classroom exercises at the end of each session Homework Extended hours as necessary Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions 11 i2 .How is this course organized? Total 10 Sessions.
GD&T Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 61 i2 .
the parts are produced with some variation to accommodate process capabilities and interchangeability – called tolerances Generally. tolerances are specified in plus/minus Plus/minus system worked quite well and even today used in many applications.History In practice. 62 i2 .
Later. with round tolerance zone rather than traditional square tolerance zone introduced which later caught up and adopted by military standards and late became unified ANSI standard 63 i2 . the idea of locating round features such as pins/holes etc.
– Then along with nominal dimensions.Introduction to GD&T Simple part for own use… No need for drawings when designer. form. parts fit together with optimal clearances. Volume production?: – Impossible to make every part identical – Every manufacturing process has unavoidable variations that cause variations in manufactured parts. He conveys ideal size (nominal dimensions) and shapes to each manufacturer. 64 i2 . orientation and location. inspector and manufacturer are same! Designer often creates an assembly. – Designer. he must communicate magnitude of such variations or TOLERANCE each characteristics can have and still contribute to functional assembly.with due consideration must analyze how much variation may be allowed in size.
How to Communicate such Variation? Often words are inadequate. A note “Make this surface a real flat” only has meaning where all concerned parties can do following: – – – – Understand English Understand to which surface the note applies and extent of the surface Agree on what “Flat” means Agree on exactly how flat is “Real Flat”!! To overcome miscommunication. eg. throughout 20th century a specialized language based on graphical representations and math has evolved to improve communication. Such language is currently recognized as “Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)” 65 i2 .
It enhances co-ordinate system dimensioning and describes designers intent Designer’s requirements can be completely specified using GD&T symbols thus eliminating/reducing foot notes on drawings.So. definitions. approved by ANSI. It conveys both: ie. Nominal (or ideal) dimensions and variations (or tolerances allowed for that dimension. ASME and United States Department of Defense (DoD) GD&T Includes all symbols. what is GD&T? It’s a language for communicating Engineering Design Specifications. 66 i2 . mathematical formulae and application rules critical to embody a viable engineering language.
it can’t suggest how certain part surfaces should be controlled (methods …) It does not convey parts’ intended function. GD&T is a language that designers use to translate design requirements into measurable specifications. location and/or smoothness of bore based upon stress/fit considerations of design by designers’ experience. 67 i2 . Eg. Designer created a bore to function as hydraulic cylinder to withstand 15kg/cm2 pressure. form. however GD&T can’t convey the purpose (intended function) of part. To summarize. GD&T specifications can address size.What GD&T is NOT … Its not a creative design tool. Its incapable of specifying manufacturing processes to achieve desired tolerances/variations Its not a replacement to co-ordinate dimensioning system. orientation.
Where does GD&T come from? (references…)
GD&T vocabulary and grammatical rules are provided in:
ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals
To avoid confusion, hereafter we will call first standard as “Y14.5” and the later as “Math Standard” Later, we will see differences between other International Standard (more followed in Europe) “ISO GD&T” and the US dialect. ASME offers no .800. number for help on technical issues and interpretations. At times interpretation could be dispute, so users are advised to refer to text / reference books and your organization’s internal staff.
Why do we use GD&T?
•Designer specifies distance to holes’ ideal location •Manufacturer measures this distance and marks a “x” spot and drills a hole. •The Inspector then measures the actual distance to that hole. •ALL THREE PARTIES MUST BE IN PERFECT AGREEMENT ABOUT THREE THINGS: •From where to start the measurement? •What direction to go? •And where measurement ends?
When measurements are precise to two digits, the slightest difference in interpretation (origin / direction /end )can lead to a usable part or expensive paperweight!! Even if everyone agrees to measure to holes’ center, a egg shaped hole presents a variety of “centers” and each center is defensible based on different design considerations You may find claims that GD&T affords more tolerance for manufacturing, but by itself, it doesn't. GD&T affords however much or little tolerance the designer specifies. Just as a common claim that using GD&T saves money, but hardly such claims are accompanied with cost or ROI analyses.
Yet another example …
• Drawing of an Automobile Wheel Rotor • Has neat and uniform appearance •…. But leaves many features totally out of control!!
7 bore to be perpendicular to mounting face? What if it was critical that n 139.From Rotor Drawing.4 be on the same axis? Nothing on the drawing addresses it! Next slide shows the part that can be built and still meet specifications… however the part may not function in an assembly and therefore lead to assembly rejection… 72 i2 .7 bore and OD n279. What if it were important that the n 139.
60 279.24 139.78 20.The “no-sense” Wheel Rotor … dimensionally in spec! 68.94 178.79 152.59 78.08 20.80 Manufactured part that conforms to the drawing without GD&T 73 i2 .55 68.
Shortcomings of Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning … Coordinate Dimension Usage Application Overall Size of component Chamfers and Radii Locating Part Features Controlling angular relationships Defining the Form of part feature Correct / Incorrect Use Co-ordinate tolerancing is a dimensioning system where a part features are defined by means of rectangular dimensions with given tolerances. Such system has three shortcomings: × × × 74 Square or Rectangular Tolerance Zones Fixed Size Tolerance Zones Ambiguous instructions for Inspection i2 .
has been made flat within 0.Wheel Rotor in ‘Control’ with GD&T • Mounting face being important for the function of the rotor. 10 bolt holes and other round features can be derived/ located i2 .16 • The Dia 139 bore has been made Perpendicular to mounting face..) • Another critical face of Rotor has been made parallel to Datum A within 0. • Later Mounting face assigned as Datum A (foundation for drawing.1. Datum A) and labeled as Datum B 75 • Together Datum A and B form a sturdy reference from which dia. therefore directly controlled to our foundation (ie.
GD&T then. So. 76 i2 . Clear communication assures that manufactured parts will function and that those functional parts will not be rejected later due to misunderstanding / miscommunication.Contd … Datum features A and B provide a very uniform and well aligned framework from which a variety of relationships and fits can be precisely controlled. GD&T provides unique. fewer arguments … Less Scrap. unambiguous meaning for each control. This is fundamental reason for using GD&T. Thus. is simply means of controlling surfaces more precisely and unambiguously.
Hence. The co-ordinate system had square tolerance zone that rejected some good parts!! 77 i2 . GD&T … Adds clarity over co-ordinate system of dimensioning Eliminates notes on the drawings Depicts designers intent and inspection criteria Most significant difference between GD&T and co-ordinate dimensioning is location of round features.
Quality problems. product recall. corrective actions. Meetings. shimming of parts … often additional operation.Hidden costs that GD&T reduces (Quick ROI) Designers / Manufacturers / Inspectors wasting time to interpret drawings and questioning the designers Rework of manufactured parts due to misunderstanding Inspection deriving meaningless data from parts while failing to check critical relationships. YET UNACCOUNTED COST. reworking. BOTTOM LINE? USE GD&T BECAUSE ITS RIGHT THING TO DO. drawing changes and interdepartmental vendettas resulted from failure! ALL THE ADD UP TO AN ENORMOUS. loss of customer loyalty. IT’S ALL PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD UNDERSTAND AND IT SAVES MONEY 78 i2 . loss of market share. Customer complaints. failure analysis. filing. Assemblies failing to operate. Handling and documentation of functional parts that are rejected! Sorting. debates.
Today’s modern precision machine tools have accuracy / repeatability say upto 0. how many and in what sequence to produce a part. Probability. these provide clarification. Title Block. When do we use GD&T? In absence of GD&T specifications. GD&T Specifications should be spelled out rigorously . Further there is no way to predict what process may be used. Every industry has unwritten customary standards of product quality and most workers strive to achieve them. it is assumed that part dimensions should never vary more than that. But often they are very old and inadequate for modern high-precision tools. Sometimes. he will try to make bore straight and smooth if he suspects it’s a hydraulic cylinder. An example of a title block note is “All surfaces to be flat within 0. Where designer deems the high risk. Even without inadequate specifications. Further workmanship customs of precision aerospace machinists are rarely shared by ironworkers. But these standards are minimal requirements. Experienced manufactures develop fairly reliable sense as what the part is suppose to do. or contractual standards. a parts’ ability to satisfy design requirements depends largely upon four “laws” Workmanship Skills / Pride.005” All above “laws” carries obvious risk. therefore.0002mm. Common Sense.So. 79 i2 .
Identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurement. 80 i2 . Allow dynamic interaction between tolerances (simulating actual assembly possibilities) where appropriate to maximize tolerances. we alluded to goal of GD&T: To guide all parties towards reckoning part dimensions the same.Overview In previous slides. direction and destination for each measurement. 2. 4. including the origin.How Does GD&T Work? . Convey the nominal (ideal) distances and orientations from origin to other surfaces Establish boundaries and / or tolerance zone for specific attributes of each surface along with specific rules for conformance. 3. GD&T achieves this goal through four simple steps: 1.
Expressing Size Limits
Size Limits (Level 1 Control)
For every feature of size, the designer shall specify the largest and the smallest the feature can be. Previously we discussed the exact requirements these size limits impose on the feature. The standards provide three options for specifying size limits on the drawings.
Symbols for Limits and fits For example, n12.45LC5 or 30f7 (ANSI B4.1 (inch) or ANSI B4.2 (metric)) Limit dimensioning
φ12.45 − 12.49
Plus and Minus Tolerancing
φ 24.54+0.35 −0.25
11.65 ± 0.45
• When a dimension is less than one mm, zero must precede the decimal point ex. 0.4 NOT .4 • When a dimension is a whole number, neither a decimal point nor zero is used ex. 45 NOT 45.00 • When a dimension is a whole number and decimal, zero does not follow decimal number ex. 47.5 • A dimension does not use a comma or space ex 3450 NOT 3,450 or 3 450 • A tolerance for dimension can have more numbers of decimal places than dimension itself. ex. 47`0.34 ` • • When unilateral dimension is used, no sign be used with zero; ex. φ 450
φ 340 0.45 −
When a bilateral tolerance is used, both; the plus and minus tolerance must have identical number of decimal places ex.
φ 45+0.76 −0.45
φ 34+0.55 −0.4
• When a limit dimension is used, the decimal places must match. ex:
• Basic dimension can have any number of decimal places in Feature Control Frame. ex. 50 or 50.35 NOT 50.00
199… part is rejected .2 means 20.2 : -If part measures 80. 87 i2 . A dimension is considered to be followed by zeros after the last significant digit.0000… Interpreting 80.5 .80.If part measures 80.2000… 160 means 160.499… part is accepted All dimensional limits are absolute.Few Examples 20.
Exercise 1 88 i2 .
Part Features 89 i2 .
we used term Surfaces and Features loosely and almost interchangeably. To speak GD&T. 90 i2 .Part Features Up till now. part feature is a single surface (or a pair of opposed parallel plane surfaces) having uniform shape.5 Feature is the general term applied to physical portion of a part such as surfaces. hole or a slot. and apply GD&T controls to features only. tab. You can establish datums from. we should begin to use terms as defined in Y14. Those that have built-in dimension of “size” and those that don’t. Usually. There are two general types of features. pin.
It includes following: A nominally flat planer surface An irregular or ‘warped’ planer surface. generated by revolving a line about an axis.Non Size Features A nonsize feature is a surface having no unique intrinsic size (diameter or width) dimension to measure. A spherical radius – a portion of a spherical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. A revolute – a surface such as cone. A radius – a portion of cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. such as face of windshield or airfoil. 91 i2 .
Features of Size A feature of size is one cylindrical or spherical surface or a set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces. Holes are ‘internal’ features of size. To qualify as ‘opposed’. we will call this type of feature a width-type feature 92 i2 . we can make a meaningful measurements of size between them. associated with size dimension. Features of size are subject to principals of material condition modifiers (to be discussed later…) ‘Opposed parallel surfaces’ means the surfaces are designed to be parallel to each other. it must be possible to construct a perpendicular line intersecting both surfaces. From now on. Pins are ‘external’ features of size. Only then.
9 =?? 5. we’ll consider this type feature as bounded feature of non size 4.1 ` 95 5`0.2 ` This type of feature is neither a sphere.05 i2 .1 ` 20.2 ` The “D” hole for example is called “irregular feature of size” by some text books. 5`0.15 ` 12`0. its arguable whether feature is “associated with size dimension” For now.Bounded Features (Partial Size Features) 12`0.1 ` 5`0.1 4.2 5.15 ` 5`0.5’s own coverage for this type of feature is limited. yet has two opposed elements. cylinder.1 ` 20`0. Y14.2 ` 5`0. nor width type feature. Although feature has obvious MMC and LMC boundaries.95 11`0.
nature of a pizza is base with topping. In layman’s term. If you have exxxtraa topping. it will fit loosely regardless of its type. its’ material condition increases and pizza gets bigger and thicker. Material Condition is features size in the context of its intended function. The Nature of a cannon is that its void.Material Condition Material condition is yet another way of thinking about the size of an object considering object’s nature. 96 i2 . as erosion decreases its material condition. but when you know feature of size has less material. If a mating feature of size is as small as it can be. cannon gets bigger. For example. will it fit tighter or sloppier? We can’t answer until we know whether we’re talking of internal or external feature (hole / pin).
Least Material Condition (LMC l) is the condition in which feature of size contains minimum amount of material within stated limits of size. or where part weighs the most (everything else being same). 97 i2 . One can think of MMC as the condition where the most part material is present at the surface of feature. relative to specified size limits.MMC & LMC Maximum Material Condition (MMC m) is the condition in which a feature of size contains maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size. One can think of LMC as the condition where the least part material is present at the surface of feature. or where part weighs the least (everything else being same). relative to specified size limits. This translates to smallest allowable hole or the largest allowable pin. This translates to largest allowable hole or the smallest allowable pin.
Basic Dimensions Basic Dimension is a numerical value used to describe (1) the theoretically exact size. true profile. Basic dimensions are usually denoted by numerical value enclosed in a rectangle or by addition a general note such as “un-toleranced dimensions are basic” Basic dimensions must be accompanied by geometric tolerance to specify how much tolerance the part feature may have 99 i2 . it provides nominal location from which permissible variations are established by Geometric Tolerances. When a basic dimension is used to define part features. orientation or (2) a location of feature or a gage information (datum targets).
•Are theoretically exact (but gage makers’ tolerance do apply) 100 i2 .Basic Dimension Example Basic dimensions … •Can be used to define theoretically exact location. •That define part features must be accompanied by a geometric tolerance. •That define gage information do not have a tolerance shown on the drawing. orientation or true profile of part features or gage information.
Exercise 2 102 i2 .
GD&T Symbols 103 i2 .
•Any one can read write symbols •Symbols mean exactly same thing to everyone. •Symbols are compact and reduce clutter •Quicker to draw and CAD softwares can draw them automatically. instead use symbols. Compare this with GD&T’ed Drawing and find all positional callouts… !! 104 i2 .GD&T Symbols (An attempt to explain Wheel Rotor Drawing w/o GD&T Symbols) Tedious to Explain requirements. •They can be easily spotted visually. They are better.
Form and Proportions of GD&T Symbols h = size of letter 105 i2 .
Feature Control Frames (FCF) 106 i2 .
Feature Control Frame (FCF) Each geometric control for a feature is conveyed on a drawing by a rectangular box called feature control frame. A typical FCF is divided in compartments expressing following sequentially left to right. Geometric Characteristic Symbol Tolerance Modifying Symbol Geometric Tolerance Value Primary Datum Secondary Datum Datum Material Condition Modifiers Tertiary Datum 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Compartments •1st Compartment contains geometric characteristic symbol from 14 available symbols. 107 i2 .
6.1 6.4.General Characteristics (Type wise) and corresponding ASME sections Geometric Category Tolerance Type Description Straightness Flatness For Individual Features For Individual or Related Features Form Circularity Cylindricity Line Profile Profile Surface Profile Angularity Orientation Perpendicularity Parallelism For Related Features Position Location Concentricity Symmetry Circular Runout Runout 110 Total Runout Symbol u c e g k d a b f j r i h t ASME Section 6.5.4 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.3 5.4 6.2 5.2.2 6.2 6.2(b) 6.7.13 6.1 22.214.171.124.11.3 6.7.2 i2 .6.2(a) 6.
Modifying / Modifier Symbols 111 i2 .
113 i2 .Feature Control Frame Placement Place the frame below or attached to a leader-directed callout or dimension pertaining to the feature.
Feature Control Frame Placement Run a leader from the frame to the feature. 114 i2 .
Feature Control Frame Placement Attach either side or either end of frame to an extension line from the feature. 115 i2 . provided it is a plane surface.
116 i2 .Feature Control Frame Placement Attach either side or either end of the frame to an extension of the dimension line pertaining to a feature of size.
111) show equivalent English words to the left of each symbol. Then we just add the following English language preface for each compartment: 1st Compartment: “The …” 2nd Compartment: “… of this feature shall be within …” 3rd Compartment: “… to primary datum …” 4th Compartment: “… and to secondary datum …” 5th Compartment: “… and to tertiary datum …” With this. Previous tables (slide# 110. feature control frame shown above is reads as: “The Position of this feature shall be within cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 1 at maximum material condition to primary datum A and to secondary datum B at maximum material condition and to tertiary datum C at maximum material condition” Isn’t it Easy? 117 i2 .Reading Feature Control Frame … It is easy to translate FCF into English and read a loud from left to right.
Summarizing FCFs … FCF is specified to each feature or group of features FCF provides instructions form. FCF contain information for proper part orientation in relation to specified Datums 118 i2 . thus providing setup for mfg and inspection. orientation and position of features.
Four Fundamental Levels of Control for FOS 128 i2 .
however as we move up the level ladder. Thus a single feature may subject to many tolerance simultaneously! Level 1: Controls size and (for cylinders and spheres) circularity at each cross section only Level 2: Adds overall Form Control Level 3: Adds Orientation Control Level 4: Adds Location Control 129 i2 .Features of Size : Four fundamental Levels of Control Four different levels of GD&T control can apply to a feature of size. the lower level control remain in effect. Each higher level control adds a degree of constraint demanded by features functional requirement.
Level 1 : ‘Size’ Control 130 i2 .
•Spine •Take could be straight or wavy a imaginary steel ball whose diameter = small size limit of the cylindrical feature. Generating a Size Limit Boundary we take another spine and sweep another ball whose diameter = large size limit of the cylindrical feature •This generates second 3D boundary.Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries •Start •The with geometric element: Spine Spine for a cylindrical feature (such as pin / hole) is a simple non-self-intersecting curve in space. generates a “wormlike” 3D boundary for the features’ smallest size •Similarly. •Sweep •This balls’ center along the spine. this time for the features’ largest size. 132 i2 .
Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries This shows a cylindrical feature of size conforms to its size limits when its surface can contain the small boundary and be contained within larger boundary. Conformance to limits of size for a cylindrical feature Under Level 1 Control. the curvatures and relative locations of each spine may be adjusted as necessary to achieve the hierarchy of containments as above. except that the small size boundary shall be entirely contained within large size limit boundary 133 i2 .
Level 2 : ‘Form’ Control 140 i2 .
Level 2 Control: Overall Feature Form As shown in figure left.5 max pin will fit in a n20. internal and external is Straight.6 min hole if both are straight. the designer knows that n20. 141 i2 . features of size should achieve clearance fit in an assembly Designer calculates the size tolerances based on assumption that each feature. In this example.
20.5 If pin is banana shaped and hole is lazy “S” shaped.6 142 i2 . they can’t assure assemblability. Level 2 adds control of overall geometric shape or “form” of a feature of size by establishing a perfectly formed boundary beyond which feature’s surface(s) shall not encroach. because Level 1’s size limit boundaries can be curved. they usually won’t go together.Level 2 Control: Overall Feature Form (contd …) 20.
Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1) Y14. This invokes a boundary of perfect form at MMC (also called an envelope) Rule #1 does not require the LMC boundary to have a perfect form.5 established a default rule for perfect form based upon assumption that most features of size must achieve a clearance fit. Y14.5’s Rule #1 decrees that. This Rule #1 is also referred as ‘Taylor’s Envelope Principle’ 145 i2 . unless otherwise specified or overridden by another rule. a features MMC size limit spine shall be perfectly formed (straight or flat depending upon type).
Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1) The figure left shows how Rule #1 establishes a n. . Rule #1 mandates a n.502 envelope. Similarly.6 20.5 19. .502 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for the hole. 20.5 21.5 20. .501 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for pin. The figure also shows how matability is assured for any pin that can fit inside its n..6 146 i2 .501 envelope and any hole that can contain its n.4 20. This simple hierarchy of fits is called as the envelope principle.
Rule #1 Example (External FOS)
Part shall be always contained within MMC Envelope
Every Cross-sectional measurement must be within limits of Size
Rule #1 Example (Internal FOS)
Boundary of Perfect form MMC Envelope
Hole shall be always outside the MMC perfect form Envelope
Every crosssectional measurement must be within limits of size
Perfect Form at neither MMC nor LMC
Figure above is a drawing for electrical bus bar. Note that cross sectional dimensions have relatively close tolerances, not because bar fits closely inside anything, but rather needed to assure a minimum current carrying capacity without wasting expensive copper. Neither the MMC nor the LMC boundary needed perfectly straight.
However, if bus bar is custom rolled, or machined from a plate, it won’t automatically be exempted from Rule #1. In such a case, Rule #1 shall be explicitly nullified by adding a note as shown.
Rule #1 Arguments …
Many experts argue that Rule #1 is actually the “exception” that fewer than half of all features of size need any boundary of perfect form. Which means, for majority of features of size, Rule #1’s perfect form at MMC requirement accomplishes nothing except to drive up costs!! The Solution is that Y14.5 prescribes the “perfect form not required” note and engineers simply fail to add it more often. Interestingly, ISO defaults to “perfect form not required” (sometimes called as independency principal) and requires special symbol to invoke the “envelope” of perfect form at MMC. This is one of the major differences between ISO and Y14.5
Every engineer should consider for every feature of size whether a boundary of perfect form is a necessity or a waste?
Why Rule #1? Ensures assembleability through InterChangeability Automatically separates bad parts that encroach envelope of perfect form at MMC For welded parts. rule #1 applies after welding operation is performed (since one or more parts when welded become single part) 154 i2 .
25 155 i2 . the tolerance applies on RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) basis. φ15 ± 0.25 φ15 ± 0.15 0.15 0. modifier s is no longer used.Rule #2 Rule #2 states that in absence of modifier (such as m or l) in tolerance or datum compartment. In short.
Boundaries: Virtual Condition (Fixed Size) Inner & Outer (Variable Size) Worst Case IB/OB (Fixed Size) 156 i2 .
Figure on left shows a slender pin that will mate with very flexible socket in a mating connector. where perfect form boundary is needed. Moreover. but at different size than MMC or LMC. its difficult to manufacture pins satisfying Rule #1’s boundary of perfect form at MMC and LMC. MMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature 157 i2 .Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form There are cases. Pin being slender. such near perfect straightness isn’t functionally necessary. since mating connector has flared lead in.
Here again. Rule #1 would be unnecessarily restrictive.Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form (Contd …) Another example shows a flat washer to be stamped out of a sheet. envelope is needed to prevent badly warped washers jamming in an automated assembly equipment MMC virtual condition of a width-type feature 158 i2 . for the tolerance and aspect ratio. Note that thickness has close tolerance because excessive variation may cause motor shaft misalignment. nevertheless.
Geometric Tolerances and Modifiers Virtual Condition Boundaries can be established for Internal and External Features of size. Virtual Condition Boundary is… Virtual Condition is NOT a Control It’s a condition of a feature established by collective efforts of Size.So. 161 i2 .
VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC 163 i2 .
1 0.4 0.15 0.1 0.VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC Hole Size 29.1 0.1 0.95 30 30.15 30.35 0.1 0.75 29.75 29.75 VCB = Hole Size – Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit – Geo Tol 164 i2 .25 0.1 Bonus Tol 0 0.25 0.1 0.85 (MMC) 29.25 (LMC) Position Tol 0.3 0.2 0.4 Total Tol 0.75 29.1 30.75 29.75 29.5 VCB 29.1 0.
VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC 165 i2 .
25 Total Tol 0.65 29.1 Bonus Tol 0 0.65 29.1 0.15 0.25 0.35 VCB 29.55 (MMC) 29.65 29.VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC Pin Size 29.05 0.35 29.15 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 (LMC) Position Tol 0.65 29.2 0.4 29.1 0.65 VCB = Pin Size + Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit + Geo Tol 166 i2 .5 29..1 0.
3 at MMC VCB = MMC .9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case) Tolerance Zone = n0.GTol VCB = 13.9 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case) In either case.3 = n12.VCB of Orientation (controlled at MMC) Tolerance Zone = n0.0.2 . controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs. VCBs lie in air space. 168 i2 .3 at MMC VCB = MMC + GTol VCB = 12.3 = n12.6 + 0.
the diameter of such virtual boundary equals to LMC size limit minus the straightness tolerance value: n19. the straightness tolerance modified to LMC supplants the boundary of perfect form at LMC.7n0. LMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature For OD For datum feature (external) A. Here. The tolerance establishes a virtual condition boundary embedded in a part material beyond which feature surface shall not encroach.3=n19.4 Note the difficulty of verifying conformance where the virtual condition boundary is embedded in part material and can’t be simulated with hard gages. 170 i2 .LMC Virtual Condition Example Figure at left shows a part where straightness of datum feature A is necessary to protect wall thickness.
i2 .3 .GTol VCB = 12. controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs.3 at LMC VCB = LMC + GTol VCB = 13.VCB of Orientation (controlled at LMC) Tolerance Zone = n0.0 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case) Tolerance Zone = n0.6 + 0.3 at LMC VCB = LMC . VCBs are embedded in material.0.3 = n13.9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case) 171 In either case.3 = n12.
the WCB can be Inner or Outer or Virtual Condition Boundary.5. Depending upon dimensioning method. 172 i2 .Inner & Outer Boundaries As per Y14. Outer Boundary is defined as: – A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the largest feature (LMC for Internal Feature and MMC for External feature) plus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features’ departure from its specified material condition. Inner Boundary is defined as: – A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the smallest feature (MMC for Internal Feature and LMC for External feature) minus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features’ departure from its specified material condition. Worst Case Boundary is defined as: – It is a general term to refer to the extreme boundary of a FOS that is the worst case for assembly.
45 n OB = n20.3) = n20.Inner & Outer Boundaries Example OB = n20.15 OB = (n20.86 173 i2 .15 IB = (20 .0.14)=19.15+0.
2 .9 OB = n12. the OBs and IBs are calculated as: IB = n13. there is no modifier such as m or l in tolerance portion of FCF.9 WCOB = MMC + GTol = n12.9 WCIB = MMC .GTol = n12.e.3 = n12. i.9 For External FOS: WCOB = MMC + Geometric Tolerance WCIB = LMC – Geometric Tolerance For Internal FOS: WCIB = MMC – Geometric Tolerance WCOB = LMC + Geometric Tolerance 174 i2 .RFS Case : Inner and Outer Boundaries •When Geometric tolerances are applied on RFS Basis.0.6 + 0.3 = n12.
Summarizing Boundary Calculations … Type of Control FOS Type Internal Formula to calculate WCB IB = MMC OB = MMC IB = MMC .GTol FOS with no GD&T FOS with GD&T at RFS FOS with GD&T at MMC External Internal External Internal External Internal FOS with GD&T at LMC External GTol = Geometric Tolerance 175 i2 .Bonus IB = MMC – GTol – Bonus OB = VCB = LMC + GTol OB = MMC + GTol + Bonus IB = VCB = LMC .GTol OB = MMC + GTol IB = VCB = MMC – GTol OB = LMC + GTol + Bonus OB = VCB = MMC + GTol IB = LMC – GTol .
Actual Mating Envelope/Size Bonus Tolerance Actual Minimum Material Envelope/Size 176 i2 .
which can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). or a pair of parallel plane surfaces. which can be circumscribed about the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). For example a largest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at maximum separation that just contact(s) the surface(s). or the orientation and location of an actual mating envelope shall be restrained to one or two datums (see next figure) 177 i2 .Actual Mating Envelope The Actual Mating envelope is a surface. For Internal Feature: A Similar perfect feature counterpart of largest size. of perfect form which correspond to a part feature of size as follows: For External Feature: A similar perfect feature counterpart of smallest size. For examples a smallest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at minimum separation that just contacts the surface(s). the orientation. In certain cases.
Whenever a geometric tolerance is applied to FOS and it contains an MMC (m) or LMC (l) modifier in the tolerance portion of FCF. a bonus tolerance is permissible When MMC modifier is used in tolerance portion of FCF. Thus this increase or extra tolerance is called as ‘Bonus Tolerance’ 181 i2 .Bonus Tolerance Bonus Tolerance is an additional tolerance for geometric control. it means the stated tolerance is applies when toleranced FOS is at its maximum material condition. an increase in the stated tolerance = amount of departure is permitted. When the actual mating size of feature departs from MMC (towards LMC).
3 Total Tol 0.5 (lmc) Specified Straightness Tol 0. • Bonus tolerance comes from the FOS tolerance •Bonus tolerance is the amount the actual mating size departs from MMC (or LMC) 182 Plate Thickness 3.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.7 3.8(mmc) 3.6 3.2 0.7 i2 .4 Bonus Tol 0 0.5 0.Bonus Tolerance Examples Wide gage (2 plates) • Bonus tolerance is an additional tolerance for a geometric control.4 0. • Bonus tolerance is only permissible when an MMC (or LMC) modifier is shown in the tolerance portion of a feature control frame.1 0.
In this case. Max bonus=0. Tolerance applied to non FOS m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible 183 i2 .2 No Bonus applicable. In this case.4 m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance.Bonus Tolerance Examples Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance. Max bonus=0.
Level 3 : ‘Orientation’ Control 191 i2 .
Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation
For two mating features of size, Level 2 control “overall perfect form boundary” can only assure assemblability in absence of any orientation or location restraint between two features. Ie. Features are “free floating” to each other.
In the example at left, pin fitting into a hole. We added a large flange for each part. The requirement is the both flanges shall bolt together and make full contact. This introduces an orientation restraint between two mating features. When flange faces are bolter together tightly, the pin and the hole must be square to their respective flange faces. Though the pin and the hole might each respect their MMC boundaries of perfect form; nothing prevents from boundaries being badly skewed to each other. (see
fig on next page)
Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation
We can address the requirement by taking the envelope principle one step further to Level 3 Control. An orientation tolerance applied to a feature of size, modified to MMC ot LMC, establishes a virtual boundary beyond which surface(s) of features shall not encroach
In addition to Level 2 control of perfect form, this new boundary has perfect orientation in all applicable degrees of freedom (360deg) relative to any datum features we select. The shape and size of the virtual condition for orientation are governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2. Again, a single feature of size can subject to multiple levels of control, thus multiple virtual condition boundaries. In figure above, we’ve restrained virtual condition boundary perpendicular to flange face and shows how matability is assured for any part having a pin that can fit inside its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary and any part having a hole that can contain its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary.
Level 4 : ‘Position’ Control
Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location
For two mating features of size, Level 3’s virtual condition boundary for orientation can only assure assemblability in absence of any location restraint between two features, for example where no other mating features impede optimum location alignment between or pin and hole. In the figure left, we moved the pin and hole close to the edges of flange and added a large boss and bore mating interfaces at the center of the flanges.
When flange faces are tightened together with bots and the boss and bore are fitted together, the pin and the hole must each still be very square to their respective flange faces. However the parts can no longer slide freely to optimize the location alignment between the pins and the hole. This necessitates the additional restraint that the pins and holes must be accurately located relative to its respective boss or bore.
7 VCB n35 VCB In addition to perfect form and perfect orientation. the new boundary shall have perfect location in all applicable degrees of freedom relative to any datum features we select. A single feature of size may be subjected to multiple levels of control thus multiple virtual condition boundaries … one for each form. n20. modified to MMC or LMC.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …) A Positional tolerance applied to a feature of size. takes the virtual condition one step ahead: Level 4. location tolerance applied 196 i2 . The shape and size of virtual boundary for location is governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2 and for orientation at Level 3 with one addition. 50 For spherical feature. the tolerance is preceded by the ‘Sn’ symbol and specifies a virtual condition boundary that is sphere. orientation.
we identified two datums for each part and added dimensions and tolerances for our understanding of assembly.5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0. derived from flange face. The center boss has MMC size limit of n34. Since its external feature of size.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …) In the example above.5-n0.5=n35 Note that for each perpendicularity tolerance.5 at MMC. the datum feature is the flange face Each virtual condition boundary for orientation is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced datum.5+n0. The bore has an MMC limit of n35. Since its internal feature of size.5=n35. 197 i2 .5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0. its virtual condition is n34.5 at MMC. its virtual condition is n35.
derived from flange face. Since its internal feature of size.3 at MMC. The pin has MMC size limit of n20.7 The hole has an MMC size limit of n21 and a positional tolerance of n0.7 Any pin contained within its n20.7 boundary can assemble with any hole containing its n20. Since its external feature of size.3 at MMC.4 and a positional tolerance of n0.7 boundary. derived from boss or bore. Note that each location tolerance. its virtual condition is n20. the primary datum feature is the respective flange face and secondary datum feature is center boss or bore.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …) Next.4+n0.3=n20. Each boundary is additionally restrained perfectly located relative to its referenced secondary datum. The pin and hole combination requires MMC virtual condition boundaries with location restraint added. This restraint of both orientation and location on each part is crucial for perfect alignment between boundaries on both parts. Each virtual condition boundary for location is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced primary datum. its virtual condition is n21-n0.3=n20. thus assemblability. Try this without GD&T!! 198 i2 .
Derived Elements 210 i2 .
2.Derived Elements Many Geometric Elements can be derived from any feature. 4. Instead. Derived median line(from a cylindrical feature) Derived median plane (from a width type of feature) Feature center Point (from a spherical feature) Feature Axis (from a cylindrical feature) Feature center plane (from a width type feature) A Level2 (straightness or Flatness) tolerance nullifies Rule #1’s boundary of perfect form at MMC. A Geometric tolerance RFS applied to a feature of size controls’ one of the following: 1. 3. a separate tolerance controls overall feature form by constraining a derived median line or derived median plane (according to type of feature) 211 i2 . 5.
Tolerance zone for straightness control at RFS 213 i2 .Derived Elements (Contd…) As shown in figure left. within which the derived median line shall be contained. in absence of material condition modifier means that straightness tolerance applies RFS by default. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by a cylinder having a diameter equal to the tolerance value.
separated by a distance equal to tolerance value. As you will note. it’s a difficult deriving a median plane. the Straightness tolerance applies RFS by default.Derived Elements (Contd…) Tolerance zone for Straightness control at RFS In above figure. But where its’ necessary to control overall form within a tolerance that remains constant. 214 i2 . but neither the spine for the MMC size boundary nor the spine for LMC size boundary need to be perfectly formed. regardless of feature size. Both size limits are still in force. within which the entire derived median plane shall be contained. there is no simpler options.This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes.
When to Use MMC / LMC / RFS ? 215 i2 .
Use MMC for clearance fits… Use MMC for any feature of size that assembles with another feature of size on a mating part and foremost concern is that the two mating features clear (not interfere with) each other. Because clearance fits are so common and permits functional gaging. Where a screw thread must be controlled with GD&T or referred as datum. and the features controlled to it likewise make clearance fits. now its RFS). Use MMC on any datum reference were the datum feature of size itself makes a clearance fit.5 made it the default. many designers have wisely adopted MMC as a default (previously Y14. try to use MMC 217 i2 .
fluid passes etc to protect minimum wall thickness for strength. LMC applied to both datum features guarantee a minimal offset between the two parts regardless of how the loose the fit. This is a valuable technique for protecting other mating interfaces in the assembly. for example: – – – – – For a cast. We don’t often see LMC applied to datum features. but consider an assembly where datum features of size pilot two mating parts that must be well centered to each other. For a non mating bore. to protect minimum wall thickness for strength For a gaging features of a functional gage to assure the gage won’t clear a non conforming part ….. 218 i2 . For a non mating boss around a hole.Use LMC for Minimum stock protection Use LMC where you must guarantee a minimum ‘shell” of material all over a surface of any feature of size. forged or rough machined feature to assure stock for cleanup in a subsequent cleanup operation. LMC is an excellent choice for datum references on functional gages.
Certain geometric characteristics. RFS principal now apply by default in absence of any material condition modifier. this apparent limitation of RFS actually makes it an excellent choice for self centering mating interfaces where the mating features always fit together snugly and center on each other regardless of their actual mating size. shim. or elastic intermediate parts such as “O” rings An adjustable interface where an adjusting screw. such as run out and concentricity where MMC or LMC are so inappropriate that the rule prohibit material condition modifiers. usable parts are rejected and higher scarp and costs 219 i2 .Use RFS for Centering RFS is obsessed with a feature’s center to the point of ignorance of features’ actual size. RFS does not allow dynamic interaction between size and location or between size and orientation of feature. sleeve etc will be used on assembly to center a mating part. For example: – – – – Press fits Tapers such as Morse Tapers and countersinks for flat headed screws. However. Elastic parts. That means smaller tolerance. For these type of tolerances. In fact. RFS always applies. RFS is a poor choice for in clearance fit mating interfaces because it does not allow dynamic tolerance interaction.
Exercise 3 220 i2 .
Form Tolerances Straightness Flatness Circularity Cylindricity 221 i2 .
Straightness Tolerance for Line (Surface) Elements When straightness tolerance FCF is specified as shown in figure above. The FCF may only appear in a view where the controlled surfaces is represented by a straight line. Tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel lines separated by distance equal to tolerance value. Within the plane. the tolerance controls only line elements of that feature. As the tolerance zone plane sweeps the entire feature surface. 223 i2 . the surface’s intersection with plane shall anywhere be contained within the tolerance zone (between two lines). the location and orientation of tolerance zone may adjust continuously to part surface while sweeping.
Straightness Control Applied to Line (Surface) Element When straightness control is applied to surface elements. No Datum reference required in FCF The control must be directed to surface elements The straightness control must be applied in the view where the controlled elements are shown as a line 224 i2 . – – – – – – – – – The tolerance zone applies to surface element The tolerance zone is two parallel lines Rule#1 applies The Outer/Inner Boundary is not affected No tolerance modifiers may be specified The straightness tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance.
Straightness Applied on MMC Basis 225 i2 .Straightness Tolerance Applied to a Cylindrical FOS A straightness tolerance control frame placed according to option a or d specified in slide #108 replaces Rule #1’s requirement of perfect form at MMC with a separate tolerance controlling the overall straightness of the cylindrical feature. Unmodified. it establishes a Level 2 virtual condition boundary as described earlier. Where the tolerance is modified to MMC or LMC. the tolerance applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features’ derived median line shall be contained.
Straightness Control Applied to a Cylindrical FOS When straightness control is applied to a FOS. the bonus tolerance applies The straightness tolerance value specified may be greater than the size tolerance. – – – – – – – – – – The tolerance zone applies to the axis or centerplane of the FOS Rule#1 is overridden The Virtual condition or Outer/Inner Boundary of the FOS is affected The MMC Modifiers may be specified in the tolerance portion of the control If tolerance modifiers are specified (MMC). No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be associated with a FOS dimension If applied to cylindrical FOS. a diameter symbol n should be specified in the tolerance portion of FCF 226 i2 . A fixed gage may be used to inspect straightness.
within which the entire feature surface shall be contained. For a width type of feature of size. The specified tolerance in the FCF is implied as RFS. Rule #1 automatically limits the flatness deviation of each surface. The flatness FCF may be applied only in a view where the element to be controlled is represented by a straight line. a separate flatness tolerance applied to either single surface must be less than the total size tolerance. MMC/LMC does not apply to flatness control because only surface area is controlled and area have no size 227 i2 . convex or stepped. just the maximum range between its highest and lowest undulations. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes separated by distance equal to the tolerance value. The orientation and location of tolerance zone may adjust to the part surface. the tolerance applies to single nominal flat feature. A flatness tolerance cannot control whether the surface is fundamentally concave. Thus to have any meaning.Flatness Tolerance Applied to a Planer Surface When a Flatness FCF is placed according to options b or c as in slide #78.
Flatness Control Applied to a Planar Surface When Flatness control is applied to Planar Surface: – – – – – No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to a planar surface No tolerance Modifiers can be specified in the FCF The tolerance value specified must be less than any other geometric controls that limit the flatness of the surface. Typical Flatness Control Application: – – – For a Gasket or a Seal To attach a mating part For better contact of datum feature with datum plane. The tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance. 228 i2 .
torus shapes. 230 i2 .Circularity Tolerance A circularity tolerance controls a features’ circularity (roundness) at individual cross section. rods. a circularity tolerance may be applied to any type of feature having uniformly circular cross sections. revolute (cones). cylinders. So. When applied to non-spherical feature. the tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing an annular tolerance zone (ring shaped) bounded by two concentric circles whose radii differ by an amount equal to tolerance value. tubular shapes. including sphere.
Between two circles). So. the spines orientation and curvature may be adjusted within aforesaid constraints. As the tolerance zone sweeps the entire feature surface. This effectively removes diametrical taper from circularity control. the tolerance zone may continually adjust in overall size. the surfaces’ intersection with the plane shall anywhere be contained within an annular tolerance zone (ie. but shall maintain the specified radial width. Additionally. At each point on the spine. It is preferred that circularity tolerance be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed deviations (egg shaped or tri-lobed). in addition this effectively removes straightness from circularity control A circularity tolerance greater than the total size tolerance has no effect.Circularity Tolerance (contd…) The tolerance zone plane shall be swept along a simple non-self-intersecting tangent continuous curve (spine). 231 i2 . the tolerance zone plane shall be perpendicular to the spine and tolerance zone centered on the spine. While sweeping.
Circularity Application When Circularity is applied to circular elements: – – – – – – – The diameter must be within its size tolerance The circularity control does not override Rule #1 The circularity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The circularity control does not affect the Boundaries of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to diametrical feature 232 i2 .
A cylindricity tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders whose radii differ by an amount equal to the tolerance value. As with the circularity tolerance. The entire feature surfaces shall be contained within the tolerance zone (between two cylinders). there is nothing to be gained by modifying either tolerances to MMC or LMC 233 i2 .Cylindricity Tolerance A Cylindricity tolerance is a composite control of form that includes circularity. provided their radial separation remains equal to the tolerance value . straightness. and taper of a cylindrical feature. The tolerance zone cylinders may adjust to any diameter. a cylindricity tolerance must be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed from deviations Since neither circularity nor a cylindricity tolerance can nullify size limits for a feature. This effectively removes feature size from cylindricity control.
draw a thick chain line adjacent to the surface. dimensioned for length and location as necessary.Cylindricity Tolerance over a Limited Length or Area Some designs require form control over a limited length or area of the surface. Form tolerance applies only within the limits as indicated by chain line. 234 i2 . In such cases. as shown above. rather than the entire surface.
Cylindricity Application When Cylindricity is applied to cylindrical surfaces: – – – – – – – The diameter must be within its size tolerance The cylindricity control does not override Rule #1 The Cylindricity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The Cylindricity control does not affect the OB of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to cylindrical feature 235 i2 .
A radius tolerance denoted by R. each arc shall be tangent to the adjacent part surfaces. establishes a zone bounded by a minimum radius arc and maximum radius arc. 238 i2 .Radius Tolerance A radius is a portion of a cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180o arc length. By default. within which the entire surface feature shall be contained.
The surface contour shall be fair curve without any reversals.Controlled Radius Tolerance Where a symbol CR is applied to a radius. 240 i2 . But there are additional requirements for the surface. the tolerance zone will be as described in previous slide #176. This means a tangent continuous curve that is everywhere convex or concave.
inspection. apply a form (only) tolerance to a non datum feature only where there is some risk that the surface will be manufactured with form deviations severe enough to cause problems in subsequent manufacturing operations. A roller bearing might be controlled with a cylindricity tolerance A conical bearing race might have both a straightness of surface element tolerance and a circularity tolerance 241 i2 .When Do We use a Form Tolerance? As a general rule. A flatness tolerance might be appropriate for a surface that seals with a gasket. assembly or function of the part. For example.
Surface? FOS? Use of m or l? Are boundaries affected? Overrides Rule#1? Datums referencing? c e g Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No May* No No No May* No No No May* No No No No No No * When applied to FOS 244 i2 ...Summarizing Form Tolerances Geometric Control Correct to apply to .
Exercise 4 246 i2 .
Datums 247 i2 .
A datum is an origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established.two or three datum references. axis or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature.What is Datum? A Datum is a theoretically exact point. 248 i2 . A datum feature is an actual feature of a part that is used to establish a datum. A feature control frame may have zero. It specifies a datum to which the tolerance zone or acceptance boundary is basically related. one. A datum reference is an alphabetic letter specified in a compartment following a Geometric tolerance in a feature control frame.
We shall refer to this figure often 249 i2 .Establishing Datum Reference Frames from Part Features “Datum feature” begets “True geometric counterpart” which begets a “datum” which is building block for “Datum Reference Frame”. which is the basis of establishing tolerance zone for other features.
where we said: The first step in GD&T is to “identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurements” Such a part surface is called as “datum feature” Builders understood the need for a consistent and uniform origin from which to base their measurements. what qualifications of CEO should we look for…? 250 i2 .Datum Feature Recall our session #1. For precision manufacturing. selecting one is bit like hiring a CEO who will provide strong moral center and direction for the entire organization. So. It was a patch of leveled ground once. it’s a flat surface or a straight and round diameter on a machine part. Although any type of part feature can be a datum feature.
A good datum feature is a surface that most strongly influences the origin and/or location of parts in its assembly. choose a datum feature that is always accessible for fixturing manufacturing. Rather than a being a slender and small. a good datum feature such as shown below. should have “broad shoulders” able to take on the weight of the part and provide overall stability. Just as you want your CEO highly visible. Avoid shaky and unfinished surfaces with high and low spots. or at various stages of inspection during stages of manufacturing 251 i2 .Datum Feature Selection The most important quality you want in CEO (datum feature) is leadership. We shall call it a functional datum feature.
Cylinder Head and Rocker Arm cover. to which we bolt on the cylinder head to which in turn we bolt rocker arm cover. we intuitively rank the dependencies as: Engine block makes a foundation.Functional Hierarchy Its tough to judge leadership from void Spot it intuitively when you see how a prospect (parts and features) relates to each other In the assembly figure left for a car engine. consisting of three parts : Engine block. 252 i2 .
How to Identify Datum Features and Apply Symbols? 256 i2 .
BA through BZ etc) are used and compartment is stretched to fit. O. he needs to put a ‘badge’ to denote its’ authority. making it easier to spot on a drawing. instead of a star. When alphabets are exhausted.Identifying Datum Features Once the CEO (datum feature) has sworn in. So. The triangle may be solid filled. a leader line extending from the frame to datum feature and a terminating triangle. double letters (AA through AZ. The symbol consists of a capital letter enclosed in a square compartment. Each datum feature shall be identified with a different latter of alphabet (except I. 257 i2 . we use the ‘datum feature’ symbol as shown below. Q).
clearly separated from dimension line. extension line. dimension line. or on an extension line of feature outline. or feature control frame (FCF) as follows: (a) Placed on the outline of a feature surface. when the datum feature is surface itself. 259 i2 .Datum Feature Symbol Application A Datum feature symbol is applied to concerned feature surface outline.
Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…) (b) Placed on an extension of a dimension line of a feature of size when datum is an axis or center plane. If there is insufficient space for two arrows. one of the arrow may be replaced with datum feature triangle 260 i2 .
The triangle may be drawing tangent to the feature 261 i2 . when the datum is the axis.Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…) ( c ) Placed on the outline of a cylindrical feature surface. or the extension of the the feature outline. separated from the size dimension.
(e) Placed above or below and attached to the feature control frame when the feature (or a group of features controlled is the datum axis or datum center plane 262 i2 .Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…) (d) Placed on a dimension leader line to the feature size dimension. where no geometric tolerance and feature control frames are used.
Summarizing Datum Feature Symbol Application ( for FOS datum features) (a) Datum is axis (b) Datum is axis (c) Datum is common axis (e) Datum is centerplane 263 (d) Datum is center plane i2 .
Introduction to True Geometric Counterpart (TGC) 264 i2 .
Datum Features and their TGCs Go Slide 300 Go Slide 301 268 Go Slide 302 i2 .
Datum Reference Frame (DRF) 270 i2 .
nor it is obvious how to build DRF needed for a particular application.5 273 i2 . it takes two or three datums to build this complete DRF. Since each type if datum has different abilities. it is not vary obvious which one can be combined. Datum Reference Frame as Per ASME Y14.Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd…) Usually.
Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd…) 274 i2 .
Degree of Freedom (DOF) 279 i2 .
DRF Development Examples 294 i2 .
how ) much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg.DRF Development Example 1 With reference to this drawing. answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible . operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end? 295 i2 .
operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end? 296 i2 . how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg.DRF Development Example 2 With reference to this drawing. answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible .
answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible . how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg.DRF Development Example 3 With reference to this drawing. operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end? 297 i2 .
Comparison of Datum Precedence 299 i2 .
and perpendicular to datum feature simulator for B •Note that small holes’ axis is not perpendicular to datum feature B •No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. it decides orientation of part. •The axis of two small holes shall be parallel to datum A. an adjustable gage/fixture is required.Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case B • To simulate datum feature A. Ref Slide 268 300 i2 . Case b •Once datum feature A is simulated.
it decides orientation of part. •No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. Ref Slide 268 301 i2 . Case c •The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B •To simulate datum feature A.Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case C •Once datum feature B is simulated. an adjustable gage/fixture is required.
a fixed gage/fixture of dia 16. Such relative movement could cause the two small holes to shift more wrt to datum axis A Ref Slide 268 302 i2 .0 is required. •relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator.Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case D •The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B Case d •To simulate datum feature A.
TGC Types 303 i2 .
Also. adjustable size or fixed size depending upon type of datum feature and referenced material condition. Each TGC has either no size.TGC Types As we have already seen. TGC is either restrained or unrestrained depending on datum precedence 304 i2 . each type of datum feature has corresponding TGC.
Same as axis of chuck Stepped Shaft Example 310 i2 .Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS Adjustable Chuck to Simulate datum feature A Datum Axis A.
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS Expandable mandrel used to simulate datum feature B 311 i2 .
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS Adjustable Vice to Simulate datum feature C 312 i2 .
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS Expandable plates to Simulate datum feature D 313 i2 .
Adjustable Size TGC : Secondary Datum (Axis) at RFS + Tertiary Datum (Centerplane) at RFS Example Datum axis F Expandable mandrel to simulate datum feature F Expandable width to simulate datum feature G Surface plate to Simulate datum feature E Datum centerplane G 315 i2 .
Adjustable Size TGC : Datum Axis from Co-Axial diameters RFS Primary Example 317 i2 .
MMC and LMC virtual boundaries. and MMC and LMC profile boundaries.Fixed Size TGC For features of size and bounded features referenced as datums at MMC or LMC. 318 i2 . the TGCs include MMC and LMC boundaries of perfect form. Each of these TGCs have fixed size and/or fixed shape.
31 fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm m 324 i2 .Fixed Size TGC (contd…) Dia 89.
61(=VCB size of H) fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm m 325 i2 .Fixed Size TGC (contd…) Dia 89.
DRF Displacement Example 1 338 i2 .
. 339 i2 .Effect of Datum Shift on hole location . • Datum shift can result in an additional tolerance for a geometric control • Datum shift is only permissible when a modifier is shown in datum compartment of a feature control frame • Datum shift results when the AME of the datum feature departs from given material condition (in this case MMC • The maximum allowable datum shift is the difference between the gage size (for the datum feature) and LMC size of the datum feature.
datum shift may be possible when the datum feature is at MMC Datum Shift = Fixed gage size – AME of Datum feature 340 i2 .DRF Displacement Example 2 When a special-case FOS datum is referenced at MMC.
2 = 58. Center plane of G will align with datum axis F i2 .25) .73 .31 345 Both the simulators will be perpendicular to datum E.0.25) 0.DRF Displacement Example 6 : Datum Axis MMC Secondary.28 A gage block of width = VCB of datum feature G = MMC-GTol = (18. Datum Centerplane MMC Tertiary A gage pin of dia = VCB of datum feature F = MMCGTol = (58.0.2 = 18.0.76 .
15 346 i2 .5 – 0.DRF Displacement Example 7 : Datum Axis from a Pattern of Holes.15 = 18.2 = 10.3 – 0.3 1 Pin of dia = VCB of center hole = 18. A B 4 Pins of dia = VCB of one small hole = 10. MMC Secondary.
Orientation Tolerance Perpendicularity Angularity Parallelism 383 i2 .
Thus. an orientation tolerance is useful for relating one datum feature to another and for refining the orientation of a feature already controlled with a positional tolerance. An Orientation tolerance controls this relationship without meddling in location control.Orientation Tolerance (Level3 Control) Orientation is feature’s angular relationship to a DRF. 384 i2 .
How to apply Orientation Tolerance? An orientation tolerance is specified using a feature control frame one of the three orientation characteristic symbols. The feature control frame includes the orientation tolerance value followed by one or two datum references. 385 i2 . The only difference is that where angularity symbol is used. the basic angle is implied by the drawing view that shows parallel or perpendicular relationship. Where the parallelism or perpendicularity is used. The symbol used depends on the basic orientation angle as follows: 0o or 180o – “parallelism” symbol 90o or 270o – “Perpendicularity” Symbol Any other angle – “Angularity” Symbol All three symbols work exactly same. basic angle should be explicitly specified.
rotation it may be necessary to restrain rotation about third axis and in such case.Datums for Orientation Control Orientation control requires a DRF. secondary datum is needed to orient/locate tolerance zone plane for controlling elements of feature 386 i2 . However in some cases. A primary datum plane or axis always establishes rotation about two axes of the DRF and usually the only reference needed for orientation control.
orientation tolerance provides no additional form control beyond level2 In the figure at left. Unmodified. Where tolerance is modified to LMC/MMC. the center plane of the slot is held within the central parallel plane tolerance zone 388 i2 .Angularity Tolerance applied to a Width-Type FOS When an orientation tolerance FCF is placed as per options (a) or (d) in previous table (associated with a diameter or width dimension). Alternatively the “center method” discussed earlier may be applied to an orientation tolerance at MMC/LMC. the tolerance controls the orientation of the cylindrical or width type of feature. it establishes a level3 virtual condition boundary as described earlier. tolerance zone applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features axis or center plane shall be contained When applied to feature of size.
a generous positional tolerance can be teamed up with more restrictive orientation tolerance.Angularity Tolerance applied to a Cylindrical FOS Y14. Thus for a feature of size. A positional tolerance also controls orientation for a feature of size to the same degree as an equal orientation tolerance.5 also allows orientation of axis to be controlled within a parallel plane tolerance zone. This is more like a positional tolerance except the orientation zone is not basically located from the datums. In the figure left. an orientation tolerance equal to or greater than its positional tolerance is meaningless. when engineer needs to maximize positional tolerance while protecting orientation. such application usually accompanies a larger positional tolerance. Here the tolerance zone is bounded by a cylinder having dia. 389 i2 . Conversely. equal to tolerance value. however this would not prevent axis from revolving like a compass needle between two parallel planes. a “diameter” symbol precedes the orientation tolerance value.
Parallelism with Tangent Plane Modifier 396 i2 .
Concentricity Symmetry 457 i2 .
Therefore unless there is definite need to establish median points. The specified tolerance and datum references can apply on Irregularities in the form of a actual feature to be inspected may make it RFS basis only. For Concentricity tolerance requires the establishment example a nominally cylindrical surface of revolution may be bowed or out and verification of features’ median points of round in addition to being displaced from its datum axis. must lie within the cylindrical (pr spherical) tolerance zone.Concentricity Tolerance Concentricity is that condition where median points of all diametrically opposed elements of figure of revolution (or correspondingly located elements of two or more radially disposed features) are congruent with the axis (or center point) of a datum feature. difficult to establish the location of that features’ median point. in such cases finding median point may be very time consuming. 458 i2 . it is recommended to use position or runout tolerance. Concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical) tolerance zone whose axis (or center point) coincides with the axis (or center point) of datum feature(s) The median points of all correspondingly located feature(s) being controlled. regardless of feature size.
459 i2 .Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls Both parts are acceptable from coaxiality control inspection.
Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls This is the one part configuration acceptable under concentricity control. 460 i2 . While parts as shown in previous slide may get rejected when inspected from concentricity viewpoint. if their median points do not lie in 0.4 central tolerance zone cylinder. Note that there are no material modifiers specified for tolerance value as well as for datum feature reference.
The difference is that while concentricity is used on surface of revolution.Symmetry Tolerance 462 Symmetry control is same as Concentricity control. symmetry is used on planar feature of Size i2 .
Runout Tolerance Circular Runout Total Runout 464 i2 .
location and orientation control of permissible error in the desired part surface during a complete revolution of part around datum axis 465 i2 .Runout Tolerance Runout is the oldest and simplest concepts used in GD&T Runout is a composite form.
runout of ring groove diameters relative to pistons’ diameter may cause rings to squeeze unevenly around the piston or force the piston off center in its bore. There are two levels of runout : Circular Runout Total Runout 466 i2 .Runout Tolerance – Why we use it? In precision assemblies runout causes misalignment and/or alignment problems. A motor shaft that runs out relative to its bearing journals will cause motor to run out of balance shortening its working life. A designer can control such wobble by specifying runout control. As shown in figure at left.
This requires datum feature be long enough and its form be well controlled (by own size limits or separate form tolerance (level2 control)). Every runout tolerance shall reference a datum axis. In the figure above. During inspection for the part shown above. its important to select the functional feature to establish a datum axis. In addition datum feature should be accessible for fixturing and probing.Datums for Runout Control A runout tolerance controls surface elements of a round feature relative to a datum axis. since designer wish to control the runout of surface as directly as possible. 469 i2 . the datum feature might be placed on V block or fixtured in a precision spindle so that the part can be rotated about the axis of datum features’ TGC.
472 i2 .Circular Runout Tolerance Circular runout tolerance can also be applied to a face or a face groove that is perpendicular to datum axis.Here. each concentric to the datum axis and each evaluated separately from the others. the surface elements are circles of various diameters.
the indicators body shall be swept in a line perpendicular to the datum axis. the total runout FIM encompasses the highest and lowest of all readings obtained at all circles For a nominal cylindrical feature. the indicators body shall be swept parallel to the datum axis. Any conicity. covering entire breadth of controlled feature. covering the entire length of controlled feature. Rather than each circular element being evaluated separately. wobble in the controlled feature will increase FIM. Any taper or hourglass shape in the controlled feature will increase FIM For a nominally flat surface perpendicular to datum axis. The control imposed by this type of total runout control is identical to that of an equal perpendicularity tolerance with a RFS datum reference. Its tolerance applies to the FIM while the indicator sweeps over the entire controlled surface. as the part is rotated 360o about the datum axis. 473 i2 .Total Runout Tolerance Total runout is greater level of control.
Circularity + Concentricity = Circular Runout Cylindricity + Concentricity = Total Runout 474 i2 . circular runout tolerance applied to internal groove with internal bore as datum feature makes groove inaccessible for inspection! Following equations pertain to the controls imposed by circularity.When do we use a Runout Tolerance? Runout tolerance is especially suited for parts that revolve about a datum axis in an assembly. circular runout and total runout when applied to a revolute or cylindrical feature. cylindricity. Circular runout tolerance is often ideal for O ring grooves. where cylinder bore is datum. For example. and where alignments and dynamic balances are critical. concentricity. Remember that the datum feature and controlled feature should be accessible for fixturing/inspection as the case is.
Profile Tolerance 491 i2 .
curves. arcs. these elements or points need individual verification – – – 492 i2 . Such profile can contains straight lines. If the drawing specifies individual tolerances for elements or points of a profile.Profile Control What is Profile? – A profile is outline of an object in a given plane (2D figure) Profiles are formed by projecting a 3D figure onto a plane or by taking cross sections through the figure.
When an equally disposed bilateral tolerance is needed. its necessary to show only FCF with leader directed to surface. Where used as refinement of size. For an unequally disposed or unilateral tolerance.Profile Tolerancing The profile tolerance specifies a uniform boundary along the true profile within which the elements of surface must lie. orientation or location. phantom lines are drawn parallel to true profile to indicate tolerance zone boundary Phantom line should extend only a sufficient distance to make its application clear. the tolerance may be divided bilaterally to both sides of true profile or applied unilaterally to both sides of profile. the profile tolerance must be contained within the size limits. form. It is used to control form or combination of size. 493 i2 . Depending upon design requirements.
the symbol used to designate “all around” is placed on the leader from the FCF. 494 i2 .Profile Tolerancing Where a profile tolerance applies all around the profile of a part.
Profile Tolerancing Where segments of profile have different tolerances. If some segments of profile are controlled by a profile tolerance and other segments by individually toleranced dimensions. the extent of each profile tolerance may be indicated by the use of reference letters to identify the extreme positions or limits of each requirement. 495 i2 . the extend of profile tolerance must be indicated.
Line elements of the surface along the profile must lie within the profile tolerance zone and within a size limiting zone.Combining Profile Tolerance with other Controls In this case. 503 i2 . a part with profile of line tolerance where size is controlled by a separate tolerance.
As shown in figure at left. No datums are specified as in case of flatness as the considered surfaces themselves establishes a plane 505 i2 . A profile of a surface tolerance may be used where it is necessary to treat two or more surfaces as a single interrupted or noncontinuous surface. In this case.Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces Coplanarity is the condition of two or more surfaces having all elements in one plane. the profile of a surface tolerance establishes a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which considered surfaces must lie. the control provided is similar to that achieved by flatness tolerance applied to a single planar surface.
it may be desirable to identify specific surface(s) to be used as datum feature(s). The tolerance zone thus established applies to all coplanar surfaces including datum surfaces 506 i2 . Datum reference letters are added to the FCF for the features being controlled.Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces Where two or more surfaces are involved. Datum feature symbol is applied to these surfaces with appropriate tolerance for their relationship with each other.
Profile tolerance for Plane Surfaces Profile tolerance may be used to control form and orientation of plane surfaces. profile of surface is used to control a plane surface inclined to a datum feature. 507 i2 . In this case.
GD&T Reference Chart 519 i2 .
Dimensioning Habits (?) 520 i2 .
Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals Geometrics IIIm . Meadows Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications – Clyde M.Lowell W.5. Manufacturing. and Inspection .Suggested Readings & References … Credit is given and acknowledgement is made for certain references and definitions derived from the following: ASME Y14. Foster Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design. Creveling – CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar. Fundamentals of GD&T : Alex Krulikowski 521 i2 .James D.