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STANDARD FIRST AID

INTRODUCTION TO FIRST AID

FIRST AID
y

Is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It can help prevent infection and serious loss of blood. It could even save a limb or a life.

ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician. Ensure safety of him / herself and that of the bystanders. Gain access to the victim. Determine any threats to patients life. Summon advanced medical care as needed. Provide needed care for the patient. Record all finding and care given to the patient.

OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID


To alleviate suffering. To prevent added / further injury or danger. To prolong life.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER Gentle Resourceful Observant Tactful Empathy Respectful

HINDRANCES IN GIVING FIRST AID


1.

Unfavorable Surrounding The presence of Crowds Pressure from the Victim or Relatives

2.

3.

TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE AND THE FIRST AIDERS


1. 2.

Direct Contact
When a person touches an infected persons body fluid.

Indirect Contact
When a person touches objects that have been contaminated by the blood or another body fluid of an infected person.

3.

Airborne
When a person inhales infected droplets that have become airborne as an infected person cough or sneeze.

4.

Bites
When an animal such as dog or an insect, such as tick transmits a pathogen into a body through a bite.

DISEASES THAT CAUSES CONCERN


Disease Sign & Symptoms Infective Material HERPES Meningitis Lesions, general ill feeling, sore throat Respiratory illness, sore throat nausea, vomiting Weight loss, night sweats, occasional fever, general ill feeling Flu-like jaundice
Fever, Night sweats, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, severe fatigue, shortness of breath, swollen lymph nodes, lesions

Broken skin, mucous membranes Food and Water, Mucus

Tuberculosis

Saliva,Airborne droplets

Hepatitis HIV / AIDS

Blood, Saliva, Semen, Feces, Food, Water Blood, semen, vaginal fluid

Body Substance Isolation (BSI) are precautions taken to isolate or prevent risk of exposure from any other type of bodily substance.

BASIC PRECAUTIONS and PRACTICES 1. Personal hygiene


2.

Protective equipment Equipment cleaning and disinfecting

3.

SAMPLE OF PPEs

FIRST AID EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES


 Basic Equipments Spine Board Short Board / Kendricks Extrication device Sets of splints Poles Blankets

Suggested First Aid Kit Contents (Basic)


Rubbing Alcohol Povidone Iodine Cotton Gauge pads Tongue depressor Penlight Band aid Gloves Scissors Forceps Bandage (Triangular) Elastic roller bandage Occlusive dressing Plaster

Clothe materials commonly used in First Aid


Safety Dressing any sterile cloth material used to cover the wound. Triangular Bandage any clean cloth material sterile or unsterile that is use to held the dressing in place.

GUIDELINES IN GIVING

EMERGENCY CARE

Getting Started
1. 2. 3.

Planning of Action Gathering of needed materials Remember the initial response as follows:

A Ask for help I Intervene D Do no further harm


4.

Instruction to helpers

EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES

Survey the scene


Is the scene safe? What happened? How many people are injured? Are there bystanders who can help? Identify yourself as a trained first aider. Get consent to give care.

 Primary Survey o Check responsiveness (if unresponsive, consent is implied). o Protect spine if necessary o Check for:

o A Airway o B Breathing o C Circulation

 Activate

Medical Assistance

Depending on the situation:


x Phone First or Phone Fast x Infant Care First , Phone Fast x Child Care First , Phone Fast x Adult Phone First , Care Fast x Somebody will be asked to arrange for transfer facility.

Information to be remembered in activating medical assistance:


x x x x x x What happened Location Number of persons injured Extent of injury and first aid given The telephone number from where you are calling Person who activated medical assistance must identify him/herself and must drop the phone last.

 Secondary

survey

Interview the victim


x Ask the victims name x Ask what happened x Assess the SAMPLE history
x x x x x x S - Signs & Symptoms A - Allergy M - Medication taken P - Past and Present Medical History L - Last meal taken E - Events prior to injury / accident/

Check the vital signs


x Determine Radial / Carotid Pulse (Pulse Rate) x Determine breathing (Respiration Rate) x Determine skin appearance x Look at the victims face and lips. x Record skin appearance, temperature, moisture and color

Do head-to-toe examination looking for DCAP-BTLS


x D - Deformity x C - Contusion x A - Abrasion x P - Puncture x B - Burn x T - Tenderness x L - Laceration x S - Swelling

PATIENT / CASUALTY HANDLING

 Emergency Rescue

- is a rapid movement of patient from

unsafe place to a place of safety. Indications for Emergency Rescue


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Danger of fire or explosion Danger of toxic gases or Asphyxia due to lack of oxygen. Serious traffic hazard Danger of electrocution Danger of collapsing walls

Methods of Rescue
1. 2. For immediate rescue without any assistance drag or pull the victim. Most of the one-man drags / carries and other transfer methods can be used as methods of rescue.

 Emergency Transfer - is moving a patient

from one place to another after giving first aid.


Factors to be considered in the selection or choosing the transfer method:
1. Nature and severity of the injury. 2. Size of the victim 3. Physical capabilities of the first aider 4. Number of personnel and equipment available. 5. Nature of evacuation route. 6. Distance to be covered 7. Sex of the victims (last consideration).

Pointers to be observed during transfer:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Victims airway must be maintained open. Hemorrhage is controlled. Victim is safely maintained in the correct position. Regular check if the victims condition is made. Supporting bandages and dressing remain effectively applied. The method of transfer is safe, comfortable an as speedy as circumstances permit. The patients body is moved as one unit. The taller first aider stay at the head side of the victim. First Aiders / bearers must observed ergonomics in lifting and moving of patient.

Methods of Transfer
1. One-man assist/carries/drags
x x x x x x x x x x x x x Assist to walk Carry in arms Pack strap carry Piggy back carry Firemans carry Armpit/shoulder drag Assist to walk Four-hand seat Hands as a litter Carry by extremities Firemans carry with assistance Bearers alongside (for narrow alleys) Hammock Carry (4-10 man carry)

2. Two-man assist/carries

3. Three-man assist/ carries